Schizophrenia Does Not Really Have Just One Term Paper

Length: 7 pages Sources: 7 Subject: Psychology Type: Term Paper Paper: #47020634 Related Topics: Music Therapy, Neuropsychology, Therapeutic Communication, Chronic Kidney Disease
Excerpt from Term Paper :

Schizophrenia does not really have just one single cause. It is a possibility that this disorder could be inherited but not all doctors are sure. A lot of experts suppose that schizophrenia does run in the family. Individuals that may have a close family member with the disease are more likely to advance the disorder than persons who have no kinsfolks with the disease. A lot think that might have some relation to a chemical unbalance of the brain. Some have the notion that neurotransmitters are responsible of the growth of schizophrenia. It is a probable select, even though there is no evidence yet that glutamate and Dopamine disproportions are the cause of schizophrenia. Is schizophrenia produced by a real carnal irregularity in the mind? Numerous studies of individuals with schizophrenia have established irregularities in brain construction for instance enlarged ventricles that are in the brain, and reduced brain scopes in convinced areas. With that said, this paper will compare and contrast three therapeutic interventions used to treat schizophrenia which is Cognitive-behavioral therapy, electroconvulsive therapy and music therapy.

Cognitive Behavior Therapy

Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in schizophrenia was initially established to bring more treatment for remaining indications, drawing on the values and intervention approaches previously developed for nervousness and depression. This therapy was probably considered to be more effective than electroconvulsive therapy and music therapy (Turkington, Kingdon, & Weiden, 2006). During the 1950s, Aaron Beck1 had previously treated a patient that was psychotic with a cognitive approach, nonetheless afterward the investigation in this exact area lay latent for periods. Simply after cognitive therapy had been resolutely recognized for depression and nervousness, during 1990s, did the investigation into psychological actions for psychotic circumstances collect force of course, with Beck in the front position.


Unlike electroconvulsive therapy and music therapy, the therapeutic methods which are utilized used for patients that have schizophrenia are founded on the overall standards of CBT (Turkington, Kingdon, & Weiden, 2006). Associations are documented between things for instance thoughts, feelings, and actions that are in an obliging and cooperative setting which is contradictory of music and electroconvulsive therapy. Programs are set and utilized but are generally more compliantly industrialized than in customary CBT (Reisner, 2003). The period of therapy differs rendering to the person's need, usually around 12 and 20 meetings, but frequently with a choice of continuing booster meetings which neither music or electroconvulsive therapy participate in. CBT for psychosis typically ensues by means of the following phases.


Unlike electroconvulsive therapy and music therapy, the assessment basically starts by permitting the patient to be able to express their own thoughts about what they experiences whereas the therapist attends vigorously (Sienaert, 2011). The usage of rating balances which are both exact and general is normally heartened to look at the progress, and the outcomes are united with the patient. Written material and diagrams can be most useful, particularly for patients that have disordered existences (Turkington, Kingdon, & Weiden, 2006). The preparation of symptom connection and upkeep is also jointed with the patient and changes during the course of the therapy as new info is taken into consideration.

Electroconvulsive therapy

ECT, or electroconvulsive therapy, is a form of mental health management which is really most operative for things such as depression and bipolar illness.

Doctors say that it is extremely uncommon for patients with schizophrenia to be given ECT. However with music therapy and Cognitive-behavioral therapy it is not uncommonly used. These two therapies are used more than electroconvulsive therapy. Even though ECT was established as a schizophrenia treatment, it turns out that ECT is meaningfully more operative in being able to treat other mental illnesses than music therapy and Cognitive-behavioral therapy. Doctors explain that ECT has the most effect on individuals who are seriously depressed, or who are going through manic or catatonic episode.

On the other hand, individuals that are dealing with schizophrenia who also undergo from depression and mood indications can be given ECT to treat these other indicators. Some doctors believe of ECT that it just does not have much of an impact on psychotic symptoms as electroconvulsive therapy and Cognitive-behavioral therapy (Rose, 2003). One exclusion to this is individuals that have the disease early on, if other medications are really not functioning properly" Even though its usage in schizophrenia is uncommon, ECT usually is to aid individuals with schizophrenia who are going through simultaneous mood disorder, or people that are really insensitive to antipsychotic type of drugs.

For the people with schizophrenia who are meeting these exemptions, there is a lot to reflect in regards to ECT. As...


Neither music therapy nor Cognitive-behavioral therapy deal with electricity in their treatment. The seizure will usually go on for about 30 seconds (Reisner, 2003). The seizure then has an effect on the brain action, but scientists are not all that sure how or why this functions to be able to control the indications of mental illness (Sienaert, 2011).

Throughout an ECT session, clinicians will normally use a common anesthesia in order to render patient unconscious; you will be unaware of what is going on around you and the person will most likely not feel any of the pain. music therapy and Cognitive-behavioral therapy does not involve any physical pain as well in their treatment. Muscle-relaxing type of drugs and mouth safeguards that will be able to protect against self- injury done by accident throughout the seizure (Thaut, 2005). Heart and brain monitors aid clinicians in making sure that everything goes easily and some individuals will more than likely use an oxygen mask.

The electricity goes into the person's brain by means of poker chip-sized conductor pads that the doctor attributes to their head with some type of glue. When the seizure is over, the patient then is escorted to a recovery room where staff can screen the person's disorder as the anesthesia and muscle relaxants slowly wear off.

Schizophrenia Treatment: When the ECT Procedure is over

Memory loss, headaches, and confusion, are the most shared side effects that patients go through as they come up from being under the anesthesia. The period of these effects differ depending on the person, going on from a few minutes to around a few hours. Of course Cognitive-behavioral therapy and music therapy require no side effects in their treatments that are physical.

A lot of individuals are provided ECT every two to five days for an entire amount of 6 to 12 meetings. After the periods are over, a course of medication can help maintain remission of symptoms.

ECT is significantly much safer than it was when it was first established during1930s. On the other hand, there are risks essential to any medical process. Common anesthesia is now done in all ECT procedures whereas with music therapy and Cognitive-behavioral therapy no medicine is implemented. Despite the fact anesthesia is typically not an issue for otherwise healthy individuals, it can be very dangerous for individuals with pre-current circumstances like diabetes, kidney disease, heart or lung disease, and definite allergies. ECT encourages seizures, which can be hazardous for persons with pre-existing heart or nervous system situations.

It is likewise significant to be able to reflect the position of the clinic or hospital where the ECT will be accomplished. As with some medical process, competent staff can mean the alteration that goes on among a monotonous procedure and also a dangerous one.

Music Therapy

When brought on as extra to standard care, music therapy proves to really help individuals with schizophrenia to improve their global state, mental state and social functioning in some cases more than electroconvulsive therapy and Cognitive-behavioral therapy (Thaut, 2005). Utilizing musical involvements and the relations that develop through them can be a sparkling power for change. Ever since the 1950s psychotherapists have been making the claims that this means of communication and expression can aid persons with grim mental illness to start developing relationships and then also address subjects they can't manage with using words alone.

Client gratification is really important when it comes to representing demand for services, emerging real and well-organized services, and boosting client devotion to treatment (Thaut, 2005). The organization of research that is on this subject shows music therapy has steadily been well established by persons with schizophrenia than electroconvulsive therapy and Cognitive-behavioral therapy. Pavlicevic, Trevarthen, and Duncan (1994) discovered clients with schizophrenia who took part in music therapy described better confidence, better-quality concentration, and that they also discovered that music therapy enjoyable and engrossing much more than those that took electroconvulsive therapy or Cognitive-behavioral therapy.

Reker (1991) also led a subjective assessment and assessment of music therapy by patients that…

Sources Used in Documents:

Works Cited

Aiello, R. (1994). Music and language: Parallels and contrasts. New York: Oxford University Press.

Gaston, E. & . (2005). The function of music in LSD therapy for alcoholic. Journal of Music Therapy, 23-45.

Reisner, A.D. (2003). The electroconvulsive therapy controversy: Evidence and ethics. Neuropsychology Review, 17(3), 18-23.

Rose, D.W. (2003). Patients' perspectives on electroconvulsive therapy: Systematic review. British Medical Journal, 17(3), 1363-1363.

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