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Further, rather than "inviting" students to seek help, the systematic plan "requires" them to receive additional assistance until mastering the concepts.
For example, at an Illinois school, the collaborative team determined that every three weeks, each student receives a progress report. Within the first month of school, new students learn that if they are not doing well, they will receive a wide array of immediate interventions. First, the teacher, counselor, and faculty advisor separately talk with the student to resolve the problem. The school also notifies the parents about the concern. In addition, the school offers the student a pass from study hall to a school tutoring center to get additional help in the course, with an older student and/or advisor.
Counselors make weekly checks on any student who falls short at the end of six weeks. The student is assigned to a daily guided study hall with 10 or…
school reform. There is one reference used for this paper.
There are currently efforts being made to improve school quality. It is important to examine an article on this subject to gain a better understanding of this important social issue.
Studies are finding that many parents who are financially able to, will move to areas which they believe provide the best education for their children. The majority of these parents have never actually researched the schools, but instead rely on information provided by people in their social groups. "The assumed quality of the schools was directly associated with the status of the families they served (Holme, 2002)."
These parents believe "low-income students care little about education, and the values and conduct of high-income families are more conducive to a good education (Holme, 2002)."
Studies have also found that white parents are more likely to choose a school that is predominately…
Holme, Jennifer Jellison. (2002, Summer). Buying Homes, Buying Schools: School Choice and the Social Construction of School Quality. Harvard Educational Review, Vol. 72, No. 2.
A pp. 177-201.
nature of school reform. There is more of an emphasis, however, on political reform then there is on the reform of the teachers. The article discusses this by showing that the teaching community can work with those in the political area so that policies that they set can be adapted and used correctly. In the beginning of the article, the author discusses many of the different reform movements. These began with the Platoon School back in the 1970s. The article then moves on to some of the political standards that have been tried and utilized throughout the history of education. Often, many of these are used by both politicians and researchers when they are attempting to decide whether a particular school program is going to be a success or failure.
After a re-examination of these various standards, social issues that usually relate to school reform are also discussed. Many of…
Teachers Attitudes on School Reform
School reform has become a hot-button political issue in recent years, particularly given the enactment of the 'No Child Left Behind' legislation of the current Bush Administration. But what do teachers, the professionals 'in the field' think of such legislation? To qualitatively determine current teacher attitudes towards recent educational reforms, that is, to deploying narrative, open-ended and one might say subjective determinates of teacher attitude towards the recent legislation, an educational researcher must first determine what would a representative teacher sampling of teachers comprise? One way to create a representative sampling would be to select teachers of a variety of grades, socio-demographic groups, races, ethnicities, and genders. Also such a study would ideally be comprised of teachers of wide geographic range of school districts and from urban as well as rural areas.
Given that recent legislation largely affects the public school system, however, it might…
Standards and School eform
While standardized testing has been in use in U.S. education for decades, until recently, it was most often used for special purposes, such as college entrance: the SATs, and the GEs for graduate school and so on. IQ testing had been part of the educational landscape, also. However, it was only after 1983's government-backed report that found American children at educational risk that standards became the main tool for establishing educational goals and determining whether they had been met. Unfortunately, this thrust produced not better educated children, but rather greater insistence on more standards and more testing until, by the advent of No Child Left Behind, the standards left almost no leeway for teachers to educate children, but rather simply to prepare them to do well on lowest-common-denominator sorts of tests. Conceivably, adding a humanizing element, such as service teaching, can help mitigate some of the…
Berman, S.H. (2000) Service as systemic reform. School Administrator, 57(7): 20. Retrieved June 17, 2005 from www.questia.com.
Eisner, E.W. (1994) Do American schools need standards? School Administrator, 51(5): 8. Retrieved June 17, 2005 from www.questia.com.
Finn, C.E. Jr. (2002, Summer) Making school reform work. Public Interest: 85+. Retrieved June 17, 2005 from www.questia.com.
Foss, H.K. And P.G. LeMahieu. (1994) Standards at the base of school reform. School Administrator, 51(5): 16. Retrieved June 17, 2005 from www.questia.com.
As mentioned above, a mixed-methods research approach is used to conduct the study. Qualitative data will be collected from research report that concern topics such as official policy documents, institutional policy documents, research reports, as well as by means of approaching individuals and representatives of institutions by means of questionnaires and/or interviews. Schools and tertiary institutions will for example be approached to determine their approach to mitigating the transition of students from secondary to tertiary level, as well as to determine the general opinion regarding the appropriateness of current policies and procedures in this regard.
Specifically, students and teachers from various secondary and tertiary institutions will be interviewed and/or receive questionnaire with open-ended questions to collect qualitative data. The responses will then be compared to identify any similarities or significant differences among the various respondents.
Quantitative data will be collected by means of official state statistics regarding a…
Curtis, S.R.G. (2010). Individual Education Plans: The Last School Reform. Capella University.
Handel, S. And Montoya, J. (Dec 2008/Jan 2009). Leadership… Strengthening the Nation by Narrowing the Gap. Community College Journal, Vol. 79, No. 3.
Leskes, a. (2003, Winter). Ensuring Not Simply P-16 Alignment, but Truly Educated Students for the Twenty-First Century. Reality Check.
Schoenfeld, a. (2005). Review: From High School to College: Improving Opportunities for Success in Postsecondary Education by Michael W. Kist and Andrea Venezia (Eds), 2005.
, 2000). This increased responsibility has placed a tremendous amount of pressure on teachers, which in turn places a tremendous amount of pressure on the students as well.
However, even with the negative issues that have come with education reform, it has been shown that discarding certain traditional teaching methods may be a positive step for education especially in the math and science departments. Hands-on lab exercises have begun to dominate the landscape of science classes, replacing the traditional methods of passive-student lectures. True experimentation and exploration of scientific principles is encouraged and highlighted in many classrooms and seem to be much more effective than the traditional "recipe"-driven lab experiences. These interactive approaches have, so far, been proven to be far more effective teaching techniques than the traditional ones. However, even through these techniques the scoring on standardized tests are still disappointingly low in America especially in comparison to students…
Hake R.R. (1998) "Interactive-engagement vs. traditional methods: A six-thousand- student survey of mechanics test data for introductory physics courses." American Journal of Physics, 66 (1), 64-74.
National Committee on Science Education Standards and Assessment, National Research
Council (1996) National science education standards. Washington D.C.: National Academy Press.
Watters, J.J., Diezmann, C.M., Grieshaber, S.J., & Davis, J.M. (2000) Enhancing science education for young children: A contemporary initiative. Australian Journal of Early Childhood 26(2):pp. 1-7.
Granted, she was fortunate that Goldenberg is a noted school change advocate and author. However, if he had not been at the school, she may have been able to find someone else well versed in reform. The important element is collaboration with others who have a knowledge base.
The other important aspect of this article was the example of how the teachers were involved and the results that came from this change. Based on the increased scores of the students, it is easily recognized that there was a fundamental change in the teachers' instruction. Lastly, this article showed that not all changes end in "happy ever after" results. Unfortunately, the changes were not continued from one generation of teachers to the next.
There are a few elements that are missing in this article. The first is what happened to Sullivan and her involvement with this school change. Did she leave,…
Tinsley, R. (2006) Successful School Change. Catholic Education 10(1), 115-117
Throughout the nation the American public has clamored for school change and reform. One of the alternatives that has moved to the forefront of the arena is the ability of parents to choose the public school that their children will attend without geographic boundaries and mandates.
Experts continue to debate whether or not school choice ability will force the hand of the public school system to make the desired changes. Some believe that parents having the ability to move their children to the school of their choice will force all schools to improve to compete, while others think it will harm the economically disadvantaged schools with little benefit to the then overcrowded wealthy schools. This paper presents a research proposal that addresses the question of school choice. This might include the choice to choose a different public school, choose to home school, and choose private school or another…
CHESTER E. FINN, JR. & REBECCA L. GAU, New ways of education. Vol. no130, The Public Interest, 01-15-1998.
Gail Russell Chaddock, Staff writer of The Christian Science Monitor, Public schools enter a new world of competition., The Christian Science Monitor, 03-30-1999, pp FEATURES,.
Author not available, As home schooling rises, districts fail to meet needs., USA Today, 08-21-2002, pp 09A.
Author not available, What's so liberal about keeping children in dreadful schools?., The Washington Post, 02-23-2003, pp B08.
School Personnel Functions
Personnel functions and their relationship to moving an instructional agenda forward
Ultimately, a school's reputation lies in the hands of its teachers. Hiring, training, and retaining highly effective personnel to give instruction in the classroom must be the cornerstone of any effort to improve education at a school. Without good teachers to impart instruction, the best textbooks, goals, and procedures will not be meaningful. Teaching, however, is a skill as well as a gift, and the administration can strive to support teachers with specific programming efforts.
Hiring and assignments
The first step in creating a more effective educational environment is hiring new teachers that support the mission and values of the school. Given that teachers are likely to be a part of the educational environment for some time, it is essential that teachers are 'on board' with the principal's agenda. ecruiting top candidates from high-quality colleges and…
Crowther, F. (1997). Teachers as leaders - an exploratory framework. The International Journal
of Educational Management, 11(1), 6-13. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/229204018?accountid=10901
Gordon, R., Kane, T.J., & Staiger, D.O. (2006). Identifying effective teachers using performance on the job. The Hamilton Project Policy Brief no. 2006-01. Brookings Institution. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/62008957?accountid=10901 ;
Olsen, B., & Sexton, D. (2009). Threat rigidity, school reform, and how teachers view their work inside current education policy contexts. American Educational Research Journal, 46(1),
Conant challenged a very old standard with regard to education, as he identified that making decisions about who is given opportunity and who is excluded should be based on merit and ability rather than wealth, privilege and race. (235) His actions and ideals drive the continued utilization of federal student aide, even today, as well as the expansion of scholarship offering, both public and private as his work redefined the determination of who deserves education and who does not. (235-237) in a speech given by Conant he stressed that education in the past had fostered social stratification and in so doing created a potential situation of unrest among those who could not receive it. This Conant warned was the seed of revolution and the only manner in which to change this reality, he warned was through educational opportunity, "the chances of a nonrevolutionary development of our nation in the…
The case snowballed and grew until the nation viewed Zelmanv Simmons-Harris as the test case to try the legal boundary between church and state. It was also looked to for the purpose of redefining the meaning and scope of public education in America.
Enacted by the Ohio legislature in 1995, the Cleveland Scholarship and Tutoring Program allows 4,000 low-income children to attend private religious and secular schools with up to $2,250 in public support (Vitteritti, 2002). Participating schools must cap their tuition at $2,500 a year; the state pays up to 90% of whatever the school charges, depending on family income (Vitteritti, 2002). Following a high-profile legal battle, the program was upheld by the Ohio Supreme Court in 1999, prompting opponents to take their case into federal court (Vitteritti, 2002). On the day before school was to open that year, federal district court judge Solomon Oliver struck down the program,…
Text of U.S. Supreme Court decision: Zelman, superintendent of Public Instruction of Ohio, et al. v. Simmons-Harris et al. (Features). Journal of Church and State | Date: June 22, 2002 | More results for: Zelman vs. Simmons-Harris No. 00-1751 536 U.S. -- (2002) Argued February 20, 2002 Decided June 27, 2002
Vouchers on trail: will the U.S. Supreme Court's decision in Zelman end the voucher debate? (Feature).(Statistical Data Included) Education Next | Date: June 22, 2002 | Author: Viteritti, Joseph P. | More results for: Zelman vs. Simmons-Harris
Zelman: the court gets it right. (Opinion).(school voucher case)
First Things: A Monthly Journal of Religion and Public Life | Date: January 1, 2003 | Author: Uhlmann, Michael M. | More results for: Zelman vs. Simmons-Harris
Teaching at the university level and at the grade school level can be vastly different. Institutional differences account for the largest part of the disparities between these ostensibly similar careers, but methodological differences also exist. Teaching is considered the primary focus of the grade school teacher's career, whereas university professors are often academic scholars rather than educators and teaching for such people is far less important than academic research.
According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, one in four Americans are enrolled in educational institutions. Education is the largest industry in the country, accounting for nearly 12 million jobs. Most of these people teach at the grade school level. Teaching is considered a trade rather than a profession: teachers are usually unionized. Teaching positions constitute almost half of all educational services jobs and require at least a bachelor's degree. Most school districts give their employees incentives to pursue further education;…
Howard Gardner; Reflections on multiple intelligences: myths and messages. Phi Delta Kappan, Vol. 77, 1995 help students delve more deeply into subjects introduced in elementary school. Middle and secondary school teachers specialize in a specific academic subject, such as English, mathematics, or history, or a vocational area, such as automobile mechanics, business education, or computer repair. Some supervise extracurricular activities after school and help students deal with academic problems and choose courses, colleges, and careers.
Special education teachers work with students - from toddlers to those in their early 20s - who have a variety of learning and physical disabilities. Most special education teachers are found at the elementary school level. Using the general education curriculum, special education teachers modify instruction to meet a student's special needs. They also help special education students develop emotionally, be comfortable in social situations, and be aware of socially acceptable behavior.
Postsecondary teachers, or faculty as they are usually called, generally are organized into departments or divisions, based on subject or field. They teach and advise college students and perform a significant part of our Nation's research. They also consult with government, business, nonprofit, and community organizations. They prepare lectures, exercises, and laboratory experiments; grade exams and papers; and advise and work with students individually. Postsecondary teachers keep abreast of developments in their field by reading current literature, talking with colleagues and businesses, and participating in professional conferences. They also do their own research to expand knowledge in their field, often publishing their findings in scholarly journals, books, and electronic media..
Education leads to better economic opportunities and even if it is not the sole purpose of schooling, we must bear in mind that deeper understanding of the connection between education and economy can lead to formulation and implementation of positive result-oriented school reforms. The paper presents evidence to prove that there exists a deep and significant link between education and economic opportunities.
SCHOOLING AND ECONOMY: EVIDENCE
While most of us want to adorn ourselves with the best education available to us, we do so not exactly to broaden our intellectual horizons but to access better job opportunities once we enter the real world. This shows that schooling is closely connected with better lives or more opportunities. Does that also mean that better education would lead to better jobs in future and poor education would only add to poverty? Unfortunately yes, it does work that way. Education is indeed so intricately…
Florida's intellectual infrastructure: http://www.newcornerstoneonline.com/PDFs/FLCor_Brochure_Chap3.pdf
Sherman Dorn, "Schooling, Open Sponsorship and Political choices," 2002
School Choice Program
This study aimed to determine the impact of school choice through a comparative study of two private schools, which serve primarily, or exclusively African-American students, and a public school.
Data in student achievement in math and reading and data on student attendance were used to determine the impact of choosing a school. Qualitative data derived from interviews with administrators and faculty as well as classroom observation were used to provide additional insight regarding the intellectual climate of the two private schools and the public school.
The focus of this study was on mathematics and reading in middle school students in both public and private schools in Milwaukee, as well as the focus of reform in the state -- reading in Michigan, writing in Vermont and California. This approach enabled me to adequately address my research questions and prove or disprove my hypotheses.
To begin, I conducted structured…
Brown, Andrew (1995). Organizational Culture. London: Pitman Publishing.
Dianda, Marcella. Corwin, Ronald. (February 1993). What a Voucher Could Buy: A Survey of California's Private Schools. Far West Lab for Educational Research and Development, San Francisco, California and Southwest Regional Lab Survey Results.
Fuller, Bruce. (1995). Who Gains, Who Loses from School Choice: A Research Summary. ERIC Document Reproduction Services No. ED385928.
Greene, Jay. Peterson, Paul. Du, Jiangtao. (1997). Effectiveness of School Choice: The Milwaukee Experiment. Occasional Paper 97, Program in Education Policy and Governance Center for American Political Studies, Department of Government, Harvard University.
School Change Projects
A New Kind of PTA
Sometimes the most effective changes in a system come about through the simplest changes. Perhaps a better way to phrase this same idea is that sometimes the most effective changes in a system comes at the most basic level. This is the kind of change that I propose for my district, although it is not the same kind of back-to-basics plan that is still sweeping across the American educational landscape.
This suggestion does not touch on the issue of how basic the curriculum should be, although curricular reform is (of course) one of the central questions for every educational professional since the passage of the federal No Child Left Behind act. ather, the changes that I would like to see instituted in my district are a greater participation of parents and other family members in the students' educational lives. This is a…
Appleseed Network. (2010). http://appleseednetwork.org/bOurProjectsb/Education/ParentInvolvement/tabid/618/Default.aspx
It takes a parent. (2010).
Utilization of the data and collection of the data should be one of the main aims of the policy makers. The data can be used by the policymakers in order to develop the policies and implement these in order to make sure that improvement can be ensured (Basch, 2011, p. 9).
3. One of the main roles that can be played by the policy makers includes reviewing the policies that have already been designed for the schools. How these previous policies have played roles in an improvement of academics of the children, their environments and their health are important parts of the review by the policymakers. It is important that funding is collected for the issues that affect health and academics of children.
4. The policymakers should make sure that the importance of school-based health clinics that can play roles in looking after the needs of the students.
Basch, C. (2011). Executive Summary: Healthier Students Are Better Learners. Journal of School Health 81, pp. 4-107.
Bruzzese, J., Sheares, B.J., Vincent, E.J., Du, Y., Sadeghi, H., Levison, M.J., Mellins, B.R., and Evans, D. (2011). Effects of a School-based Intervention for Urban Adolescents with Asthma: A Controlled Trial. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. April 15, 2011 183, pp. 998-1006.
Gall, G., Pagano, M.E., Desmond, S., Perrin, J.M., and Murphy, J.M. (2000). Utility of Psychosocial Screening at a School-based Health Center. Journal of School Health 70, pages 292 -- 298.
Geierstanger, P.S., Amaral, G., Mansour, M., and Walters, R.S. (2004). School-Based Health Centers and Academic Performance: Research, Challenges, and Recommendations. Journal of School Health 74, pages 347 -- 352.
Schools in the 21st century are very different from the one-room schoolhouses that once dotted the American landscape. Today a single school can house thousands of students at various grade levels and many schools integrate the latest technologies into their curriculums. With this being understood, it will be interesting to see how school curriculum will change in the future. The purpose of this discussion is to examine how schools will change in the future as it pertains to technology. The discussion will also focus on the introduction of schools as social anchors, that are both moral and purposeful.
Schools of the future
Indeed technology will continue to play a large role in schools of the future. Educators will continue to incorporate technology into the curriculum. According to Caldwell and Hayward (1998) "schooling at the upper secondary level will become more complex and diverse, with multiple providers; combined with advances made…
Briefing paper on Emerging Issues and Best Practices -- Introduction. Retrieved April 19, 2005 from; http://www.arc.org/gripp/publicEducation/grippPublicEducPg06.html
Florida Virtual School: The Future of Learning? A Forum Brief -- October 18, 2002. American Youth Policy Forum. Retrieved April 19, 2005 from; http://www.aypf.org/forumbriefs/2002/fb101802.htm
Caldwell, B.J., & Hayward, D.K. (1998). The Future of Schools: Lessons from the Reform of Public Education. London: Falmer Press.
Huskey, B.L., & Wiley, R. (1993, August). Using Public Education Campaigns to Build Community Partnerships. Corrections Today, 55, 154+.
Schools and Education
Over the last several years, the field of education has been facing tremendous challenges. This is because of shifts in how they address a host of issues and there are changing demographics of students. These are all signs of broader social implications which are having an effect on individual performance and their ability to adapt with a variety of situations. (Rury, 2013)
Evidence of this can be seen with observations from Rury (2013) who said, "e live in a time of considerable social and political turmoil, marked by economic uncertainty that has directly touched the lives of millions of Americans. Deep divisions and critical problems, as a range of issues are debated fervently, extending from economic policy, to poverty and inequality. If there is anything everyone seems to agree upon it the growing importance of education for the future. ithout expanding our present knowledge and abilities, it…
Ballantine, Jeanne. 2012. Schools and Society. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Hendrix, L. (2013). Education and Society. (Educational Autobiography).
Morris, Edward. 2012. Learning the Hard Way. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
Rury, John. 2013. Education and Social Change. New York: Routledge.
These issues of professionalism and innovation seem to be a major problem in many public schools in America. In recent years these issues have come to light as teachers have been disciplined and even fired for their interactions with students that have been unprofessional and even criminal at times. Teachers have an ethical responsibility to act professionally and when they fell to do so the ability of students to excel academically is also compromised.
The aforementioned authors also mention the lack of innovation that often occurs as a result of using democratic methods. One of the reasons why school choice is even an issue is because the curriculums that have been implemented in public schools lack variety. Part of the reason for this lack of innovation has to do with bureaucracy and government mandates such as the No Child Left Behind Act. This particular act stifles innovation because many teachers…
Cullen, J.B. Brian A. Jacob and Steven D. Levitt (2005) The impact of school choice on student outcomes: an analysis of the Chicago Public Schools. Journal of Public Economics. 89 (5-6):729-760
Hastings, Justine S. Thomas J. Kane Douglas Staiger (2005) Parental Preferences and School Competition: Evidence from a Public School Choice Program .Yale Economic Applications and Policy Discussion Paper No. 10
Moe, Terry. 2001. Schools, Vouchers and the American Public. Washington: Brookings Institution Press
Sikkink, D., Emerson M.O. (2008) School choice and racial segregation in U.S. schools: The role of parents' education. Ethnic and Racial Studies 31(2): 267-293
Another common use is in the generation of written work. Students can learn to revise and edit using a computer word processing program. Again, this supports the use of computers to learn keyboarding just as we teach manuscript and cursive writing: the keyboard is merely a third way to record information and generate data. Students can also learn to use spreadsheets and databases (Fouts, 2000), which can give them the tools to use computers in another way: to organize information, present it in a new way, or even to generate new information. For instance, even first graders can use a simple spread sheet to count how many red, blue, green and yellow m & m's are in a package, combine the information, average them, and with one or two keystrokes, produce a bar chart. In this way, computers can make higher levels of information available to students.
CHANGES in EDUCATION…
Fouts, Jeffrey T. 2000. "Research on Computers and Education:
Past, Present and Future." Prepared for the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.
Selwyn, Neil. 2000. "Researching computers and education ®¢ glimpses of the wider picture." Computers & Education Vol. 3, pp. 93-101
The last century has seen an increase in the level of international purchases which has been supported by the developments in transportation and technology. Goods can move faster than before with developments in logistics. The negotiation and forming contracts for purchase with companies and communicate with potential suppliers in distant countries is also easier than in the past with the internet and tools such as video conferencing and emails. This facilitates the use of international suppliers. However, other firms may choose local suppliers believing strategy will best suit their needs. Local suppliers may be able to provide where there is an increase in the transparency of the supply chain, less exposure to risks such as interruption and exchange rate risks and proximity may allow closer collaborative relationships to develop. Both procurement strategies are viable, to assess the advantages associated with each approach the procurement from international and local suppliers can…
'Automotive and Auto Parts Industry in Turkey.' (2012). Turkish Ministry of Economy. [online] available: http://blog.tcp.gov.tr/?p=2632 .
"Automotive Industry Trends Affecting Component Suppliers.' (2005). International Labour Review, vol. 144, no. 1, pp. 130-133.
Borrus, M., Ernst, D. & Haggard, S. (2001). International Production Networks in Asia: Rivalry or Riches. London: Routledge.
Burton, S., & Steane, P. (2004). Surviving Your Thesis. New York: Routledge.
High School Dual Programs
Current social, political, and cultural concerns have hastened the call for high school reform and have intensified an interest in producing high school graduates that are college ready (Kuo, 2010). Competition from up-and-coming economies such as China and India have challenged traditional American economic world dominance and are forcing policy makers to be concerned about making substantive changes in the educational system (Kuo, 2010). However, when positive attempts are made to reform high schools, they often are not sustained due to the fact that the people who initiated the changes moved on and the system reverted back to the way it was prior to the reform effort (Hamann, 2005). Thus, there is the need for wider-ranging changes in education.
Twenty-first century educational reform efforts will need to address three emerging issues related to the American educational system: globalization, the continuity of the system, and the wasted…
Cohen, J.S., & Smerdon, B.A. (2009). Tightening the dropout tourniquet: Easing the transition from middle to high school. Washington D.C: New America Foundation.
Cooper, M.A. (2009). Dreams deferred? The relationship between early and later postsecondary educational aspirations among racial/ethnic groups. Educational Policy, 23, 615-649.
Domina, T. & Ruzek, E (2010). Paving the way: K-16 partnerships for higher education diversity and high school reform. Educational Policy, 26(2), 243-267.
Hamann, E.T. (2005). Systemic high school reform in two states: The serendipity of state-level action. The High School Journal, 89(1), 1-17.
school reform, also known as comprehensive school reform, has been proposed as an effective and promising means to helping even the most marginalized students succeed and thrive (McChesney, 1998). The tenets of whole school reform take into account every aspect of a school including its role in the community, its budgets and spending, its resource allocation, its infrastructure, facilities, curricula, and teachers. According to the whole school reform model, piecemeal methods fail because they do not address the underlying structural and functional issues in education. While whole school reform seems promising in theory, it fails to manifest meaningful changes in practice due to the largely privatized model that it has been built on, especially with regards to the New American Schools (NAS) system. Moreover, the whole school reform model takes years to implement properly, and fails to provide effectively for interim solutions to the most pressing and immediate problems (Fullan,…
Berends, M., Bodilly, S. & Kirby, S.N. (2002). Looking back over a decade. Phi Delta Kappan 84(2), 168-175.
Fullan, M. (2001). Whole school reform: problems and promises. Retrieved online:
McChesney, J. (1998). Whole school reform. Retrieved online: http://www.ericdigests.org /1999-4/reform.htm
Internet and K-12 Schools
The history and effects of internet
The History and Effects of the Internet on Instruction in K-12 Schools
The History and Effects of the Internet on Instruction in K-12 Schools
History of the Internet in K-12 Schools
Interactive Websites and Games as Computer-Aided Instruction
The History and Effects of the Internet on Instruction in K-12 Schools
Creating and sustaining a literate nation capable of democracy, self-government and continuous improvement of quality of life has been a dominant and critical aspect of public education throughout America's history (Ferguson & Huebner, 1996). The amount of information available to students has grown exponentially in recent years. The Internet is a broad and vast territory of information that many children are not equipped to navigate. Now more than ever students need the skills to wade through the waters of information. The current essay is aimed at exploring the history and…
Chapman, C. (2009). The history of the Internet in a nutshell. Retrieved from http://sixrevisions.com/resources/the-history-of-the-internet-in-a-nutshell/
Chapman, G. (2000). Federal support for technology in K -- 12 education. Brookings Papers on Education Policy, pp. 307 -- 343. Retrieved from http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/brookings_papers_on_education_policy/v2000/2000.1chapman.html
Koster, R. (2005). A theory of fun for game design. Scottsdale, AZ: Paraglyph Press.
Moore, R. (2006). Cybercrime: Investigation high-technology computer crime. Cincinnati, OH: Anderson.
attitudes and values of high school students. eforms to the high school system in the United States are also explained. Additionally, the reason why students need not be involved in the planning of reforms is elucidated.
High School Students: their Attitudes and Values
Of a crucial age, climbing a milestone, conscious to their fullest with no fear of prospects, high school students have interested researchers and policy makers for centuries. They have quite a few common traits -- they behave as individuals of their own age group in a rather full-fledged way. They are go-getting to achieve their independence, they are show-offs, impressionable persons desiring to be their best (something to be learned) and to suit the times they live in. Their self-esteem is fragile and they are pretty sensitive to criticism, attention, and dilemmas, for instance, within their families.
Students from different socioeconomic backgrounds behave differently as has been…
Barber, A. (1997. March). Rough language plagues schools, educators say. USA Today, pp 06D.
Committee for increasing high school students' engagement and motivation to learn. National Academies. Internet. http://www4.nas.edu/cp.nsf/Projects+_by+_PIN/BCYF-I-01-01-A?OpenDocument.Available on August 25, 2003.
Doyle, M. Failing to connect: Schools face increased pressure when students flunk classes. The Columbian, March 16, 2003, pp Front Page.
Educational reforms and students at risk: A review of the current state of the art. (1994. January). Internet. http://www.ed.gov/pubs/EdReformStudies/EdReforms/.Available on August 25, 2003.
This system is stated to be flawed as "The school board members have a vested interest in the success of the existing local school system and are reluctant to introduce a competitor into the marketplace, said charter school supporters." (O'Donoghue, 2010)
Summary and Conclusion
It is very likely that laws will be changed and policy reformed relating to charter schools in the state of Virginia as to do otherwise means to miss the $350 million in funding opportunity for Virginia's school system and it appears highly unlikely that in the present state of the economy that Virginia will be willing to shun this much in educational funding.
Charter Schools, When Explained, Get Support (2009) Augusta Press. 16 Dec 2009. Online available at: http://augustafreepress.com/2009/12/16/charter-schools-when-explained-get-support/
Schaeffer, Adam . (2006) No, Virginia, There is No such thing as School Choice. 29 Oct 2006. CATO Institute. Online available at: http://www.cato.org/pub_display.php?pub_id=6756
raunlich, Christian (2009)…
Charter Schools, When Explained, Get Support (2009) Augusta Press. 16 Dec 2009. Online available at: http://augustafreepress.com/2009/12/16/charter-schools-when-explained-get-support/
Schaeffer, Adam B. (2006) No, Virginia, There is No such thing as School Choice. 29 Oct 2006. CATO Institute. Online available at: http://www.cato.org/pub_display.php?pub_id=6756
Braunlich, Christian (2009) Virginia Needs More Public Schools. Bacon's Rebellion. 18 Jan 2009. Online available at: http://baconsrebellion.com/2009/01/18/virginia-needs-more-charter-schools/
Grimes, Cathy (2010) Virginia Seeks $350 Million in Federal Race to the Top Education Funds. Daily Press.21 Jan 2010. Online available at http://www.dailypress.com/news/dp-local_racetothetop_0122jan22,0,5686858.story
Leadeship Skills Impact Intenational Education
CHALLENGES OF INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION
Pactical Cicumstances of Intenational schools
THE IMPORTANCE OF LEADERSHIP IN EDUCATION
What is Effective Leadeship fo Today's Schools?
Challenges of Intecultual Communication
Challenges of Diffeing Cultual Values
Impotance of the Team
Cuent Leadeship Reseach
APPLYING LEADERSHIP IN AN INTERNATIONAL SETTING
Wagne's "Buy-in" vs. Owneship
Undestanding the Ugent Need fo Change
Reseach confims what teaches, students, paents and supeintendents have long known: the individual school is the key unit fo educational impovement, and within the school the pincipal has a stong influence upon the natue of the school, the conditions unde which students lean, and upon what and how much they lean. Despite this ageement about the cental ole of the pincipal, thee is little eseach concening the chaacteistics of pincipals associated with effective leadeship and with pupil accomplishment, and even less insight…
Allen, K.E., Bordas, J., Robinson Hickman, G., Matusek, L.R., & Whitmire, K.J. (1998). Leadership in the twenty-first century. Rethinking Leadership Working Papers. Academy of Leadership Press. http://www.academy.umd.edu/scholarship/casl/klspdocs/21stcen.html
Bennis, W.G. (1997). "The secrets of great groups." Leader to Leader, No.3. The Peter F. Drucker Foundation for Nonprofit Management. http://www.pfdf.org/leaderbooks/L2L/winter97/bennis.html
Crowther, F., Kaagan, S., et. al. (2002). Developing Teacher Leaders. Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press.
... Only one in 100 high school seniors could write a coherent response of more than one paragraph to an essay question; and only 7% of high school seniors could read at advanced level." (Hanushek)
In the light of this vast body of very forceful evidence, we cannot but agree that our public education system has deteriorated to the extent that we can no longer expect our public schools to produce quality students. Most of our public school students lack even basic knowledge of scientific facts and mathematical concepts and their communication skills leave a lot to be desired. With such students we cannot hope to compete on a global level, not at least in the long run. This explains why more professionally qualified people from other parts of the world are so rapidly taking over American job market.
The National Commission on Excellence in Education, a Nation at…
The National Commission on Excellence in Education, a Nation at Risk: The Imperative for Educational Reform (1983)
Eric a. Hanushek, "When School Finance Reform May Not Be Good Policy. Symposium, Investing in Our Children's Future: School Finance Reform in the 1990s," Harvard Journal on Legislation 28 (Summer 1991), 423.
U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement, National Center for Education Statistics (1993).
Cited in Susan Chira, "The Big Test: How to Translate the Talk About School Reform into Action," New York Times (March 24, 1991), Sec. 4, at 1.
Apex Middle School, part of the wake county public school system in aleigh, NC has implemented a rigorous curriculum for grades 6, 7 and 8. The curriculum for Apex Middle School includes the following: Language Arts, Math, Science, Social Studies, Computer Education, Health and Physical Education (Wake, 2003). The objectives of each of these programs are stated below. The Apex Middle School curriculum and objectives outlined in this paper are similar to the curriculum and objectives for most public middle schools in NC. How does this differ from the middle school curriculum typically seen in New York middle schools?
According to the New York State Education Department, the objective or mission of educators is "That all students will meet or exceed high learning standards at the elementary, middle, secondary and continuing education levels" (NYSED, 2003). Major reform is currently occurring in New York. These reforms will have the potential…
Wake County Public Schools/Middle School Curriculum/Raleigh, NC/
New York State Education
Brandt (2003) offers ten ways to determine if a school indeed meets the criteria of a learning organization. The first characteristic of a learning organization is that it encourages adaptive behavior in response to differing circumstances. The second is that the learning organization has challenging, but achievable objectives and goals. The third is that members of the organization can accurately identify the organizations' stages of development (Brandt, 2003).
The learning organization can collect, process, and act upon information that fits their purposes (Brandt, 2003). Learning organizations have the knowledge base for creating new ideas. The learning organization has the ability to grow and adapt. They are dynamic and in a constant process of evolution. Learning organizations frequently exchange information with external sources (Brandt, 2003). This happens in educational workshops, in-services, and conferences.
Another feature of the learning organization is that is seeks feedback on their products and services (Brandt, 2003).…
Anderson, J. (2008). Principals' Role and Public Primary Schools' Effectiveness in Four Latin American Cities. The Elementary School Journal. 109 (1): 36-60.
Beasley, E. (2008). New leadership model for business fits schools too. Statesman Journal. August 26, 2008. Retrieved October 18, 2008 at http://www.statesmanjournal.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20080826/Business01/808260315/1040/Business
Berenstein, L. (2006). Team Teaching with Academic Core Curricula Teachers: Using Aviation Concepts. Department of Aviation Technologies. Southern Illinois University. 43 (2): 1- 19. Retrieved October 19, 2008 at http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/ejournals/JITE/v43n2/pdf/berentsen.pdf
Brandt, R. (2003). Is this school a learning organization? 10 ways to tell. Journal of Staff Development. Winter 2003. 24 (1). Retrieved October 19, 2008 at http://www.nsdc.org/library/publications/jsd/brandt241.cfm
In other, more charter-friendly states, there are multiple authorizers -- universities, state boards, even specially created bodies with expertise in charter school creation. The new bill before the state House and Senate will give the Board of Education an advising role on charter school applications prior to going before the local school board.
Patrick Henry School of Science and Arts opened Aug. 11, 2010 making it the 10th charter school to open in the state of Virginia since charter schools were allowed to open in 1998. However, if history repeats itself, Patrick Henry will have a bumpy road ahead. Including Patrick Henry only three charter schools are operating currently in the state of Virginia and Patrick Henry is the only one operating in the city of ichmond. At one time there were nine charter schools in Virginia, but most of them closed due to financial reasons. (citation)
According to the…
Lawrence F. Garrison, & Mitchell Holifield. (2005). ARE CHARTER SCHOOLS EFFECTIVE? Planning and Changing, 36(1/2), 90-103. Retrieved December 17, 2010, from Research Library. (Document ID: 877541691).
CHARTER SCHOOLS: LESSONS in SCHOOL REFORM [review of the Charter Schools: Lessons in School Reform. (2005). Harvard Educational Review, 75(3), 341-343. Retrieved December 17, 2010, from Research Library. (Document ID: 920579091).
Victoria Benning. (1998, October 15). Fairfax Studies Charter School Plan; Measure's Guidelines Allow Only Special-Need Applications: [FINAL Edition]. The Washington Post, p. B05. Retrieved December 17, 2010, from ProQuest National Newspapers Premier. (Document ID: 35117762).
Kraft, M. & Furlong, S. (2007). Public Policy: Politics, Analysis, and Alternatives.
(Stasz, and Bodilly, 2004)
In the press release by Mike Bowler and David Thomas (2005), High School Students Using Dual Enrollment Programs to Earn College Credits, New eports Say. According to this report, the federal budget proposes to increase access to "dual enrollment" programs for at-risk students. Out of the approximately 2,050 institutions with dual enrollment programs, almost 110 institutions, or 5% (about 2% of all institutions) offered dual enrollment programs specifically aimed toward high school students "at risk" for failing academically. Two new reports by the U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Education Statistics also confirm that high school students currently take advantage of programs to earn college credits. The High School Initiative, designed to help prepare high school students to graduate with skills needed to succeed, permits states and districts to utilize funding for:
individual performance plans, dropout prevention efforts, demanding vocational and technical courses, college awareness…
References www.eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&_urlType=action&newSearch=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=au&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=%22Ahola+Sakari%22Ahola, Sakari & www.eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&_urlType=action&newSearch=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=au&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=%22Kivela+Suvi%22Kivela, Suvi. (2007). "Education Is Important, but..." Young People outside o Schooling and the Finnish Policy of "Education Guarantee." Routledge. Retrieved March 5, 2008, at http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&eric_viewStyle=listERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=high+school+vocational+courses&searchtype=basic & RICExtSearch_SearchType_0=kw&pageSize=10&eric_displayNtriever=false&eric_dis ayStartCount=11&_pageLabel=RecordDetails&objectId=0900019b801cf28f&accno=EJ 73348&_nfls=false
Bowler, Mike & Thomas. David. (2005). "High School Students Using Dual Enrollment Programs to Earn College Credits, New Reports Say." Retrieved March 5, 2008, at http://www.ed.gov/news/pressreleases/2005/04/04062005a.html www.eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&_urlType=action&newSearch=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=au&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=%22Cavanagh+Sean%22Cavanagh, Sean. (2006). Perkins Bill is Approved by Congress; Editorial Projects in Education. RetrievedMarch 5, 2008, from: http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&eric_viewStylelist&EICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=high+school+vocational+courses&searchtype=bas & ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=kw&pageSize=10&eric_displayNtriever=false&eric_ isplayStartCount=11&_pageLabel=RecordDetails&objectId=0900019b8015ea43&accn =EJ748517&_nfls=false www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5020969480
Chang, E.S., Chen, C., Greenberger, E., Dooley, D., & Heckhausen, J. (2006). What Do They Want in Life?: The Life Goals of a Multi-Ethnic, Multi-Generational Sample of High School Seniors. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 35(3), 321+. Retrieved March 5, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5020969480 www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5024401870
Christle, C.A., Jolivette, K., & Michael, N.C. (2007). School Characteristics Related to High School Dropout Rates. Remedial and Special Education, 28(6), 325+. Retrieved March 5, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5024401870 www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5023042611
Dymond, S.K., Renzaglia, a., & Chun, E. (2007). Elements of Effective High School Service Learning Programs That Include Students with and without Disabilities. Remedial and Special Education, 28(4), 227+. Retrieved March 5, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5023042611 www.eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&_urlType=action&newSearch=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=au&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=%22Gentry+Marcia%22Gentry, Marcia; www.eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&_urlType=action&newSearch=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=au&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=%22Peters+Scott+J.%22Peters, Scott J.; www.eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&_urlType=action&newSearch=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=au&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=%22Mann+Rebecca+L.%22Mann, Rebecca L. (2007). Differences between General and Talented Students' Perceptions of Their Career and Technical Education Experiences Compared to Their Traditional High School Experiences. Prufrock Press Inc. Retrieved March 5, 2008, at http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=high+school+vocational+courses&searchtype=keyword&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=kw&_pageLabel=RecordDetails&objectId=0900019b801cbe46&accno=EJ773183&_nfls=false www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002014218
Meat has been considered to be a risk factor for the development of heart conditions due to its large concentration of saturated fats. This study also found there to be a significant relationship between the consumption of meats and the development of heart issues with the risk increasing as the amount of meat consumed increased. These findings did vary across types of meat with red meat being twice as likely to lead to an acute coronary syndrome as white meat.
Blisson, .M. (2010). Eat smart for a healthy heart. Agricultural esearch, 58(6), 12-14.
Bowden, J. (2010). Cholesterol: The real heart of the matter. Better Nutrition, 72(8), 36.
Eshak, E., Iso, H., Date, C., Kikuchi, S., Watanabe, Y., Wada, Y., Wakai, K., & Tamakoshi, A. (2010). Dietary Fiber Intake Is Associated with educed isk of Mortality from Cardiovascular Disease among Japanese Men and Women. The Journal of Nutrition, 140(8), 1445-1453.…
Blisson, R.M. (2010). Eat smart for a healthy heart. Agricultural Research, 58(6), 12-14.
Bowden, J. (2010). Cholesterol: The real heart of the matter. Better Nutrition, 72(8), 36.
Eshak, E., Iso, H., Date, C., Kikuchi, S., Watanabe, Y., Wada, Y., Wakai, K., & Tamakoshi, A. (2010). Dietary Fiber Intake Is Associated with Reduced Risk of Mortality from Cardiovascular Disease among Japanese Men and Women. The Journal of Nutrition, 140(8), 1445-1453.
Jenkins, D.A., Srichaikul, K., Wong, J.M., Kendell, C.W., Bashyam, B., Vidgen, E., Lamarche, B., Roa, A.V., Jones, P.J. Josse, R.G., Jackson, C.C., Ng, V., Leong, T., & Leiter, L.A. (2010). Supplemental barley protein and casein similarily affect serum lipids in hypercholesterolemia women and men. The Journal of Nutrition, 140(9), 1633-1637.
One of the top performers, Singapore, boasts a very different approach towards mathematics education: "hile a single lesson in a U.S. textbook might span two pages and take one class period to go through, a lesson in a Singapore textbook might use five to ten pages and take several days to complete. The Singapore texts contain no narrative explanation of how a procedure or concept works; instead, there are problems and questions accompanied by pictures that provide hints about what is going on" (Garelick 2006: 1). However, an attempt to adapt such an approach in one Montgomery, Alabama school suburban district was abandoned, as it was feared that introducing new methods of teaching math within districts might make it difficult for students to meet state standards on standardized tests at the end of the year.
True, many Asian nations such as Korea also have national science and math educations and…
Adams, Cecil. (1999). "What exactly was the 'new math'?" The Straight Dope. Retrieved 28 Jul 2007 at http://www.straightdope.com/mailbag/mnewmath.html
Blosser, Patricia E. (1989). "The Impact of Educational Reform on Science Education."
ERIC/SMEAC Science Education Digest. No. 4. Retrieved 28 Jul 2007 at http://www.ericdigests.org /pre-9215/impact.htm
Garelick, Barry. (Fall2006). "Miracle math: a successful program from Singapore tests the limits of school reform in the suburbs." Education Next. Retrieved 28 Jul 2007 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0MJG/is_4_6/ai_n16832469
Adrian Duncan, a night manager at the Y, suggests friendly competitions, such as spelling bees or basketball tournaments, pitting school teams against YMCA teams. The YMCA teams would provide an opportunity for students from different schools and different backgrounds to come together as one.
In challenging economic times, organizations that serve youth and work with volunteers can find sustainable funding difficult. LIVA in particular finds it difficult; the YMCA, with greater name recognition and presumably greater economic resources, did not express that finances are a particular concern.
The current economic climate has been challenging not only for Long Island's non-profits, like LIVA and the YMCA, but for its public school system as well. Long Island property taxes are among the highest in the nation, largely because of the costs of funding public education (umsey, 2010). The schools, under the umbrella of the Education Working Group, are collaborating with the Long…
DiCocco, P. (2011, January). [Interview with Tracy Murtagh, Youth Education Coordinator,
Long Island Volunteer Association].
DiCocco, P. (2011, January). [Interview with Adrian Duncan, Night Manager, Cross Island
Moseley, chair of the Coalition advisory board and president and CEO of the Academy for Educational Development. "It is not a luxury that can be addressed at some point in the future, but rather it provides people with the tools to survive and improve their lives" (Basic Education Coalition 2004). There is no one magical, quick fix solution to Bermuda's dropout problem. The problem is complex and requires a complex array of solutions. It is the intent of this paper to study the scope of this hidden crisis, the poor dropout and graduation rates of Bermuda's Public High School System, by reviewing the most recent and accurate data on graduation and dropout rates, exploring the reasons that young people drop out of school, and presenting the most promising models for helping high school students graduate with their peers.
CHAPTER TO: LITERATURE REVIE
This chapter provides a review of the…
Winters, K.C.; Rubenstein, M.; and Winters, R.A. An Investigation of Education Options for Youth-at-Risk, Ages 9 to 15: Demographics, Legislation, and Model Programs. Research Report No. 88-10. Washington, DC: National Commission for Employment Policy (DOL), May 1988.
Wood, G.D., & Ellis, R.C. (2003). Risk management practices of leading UK cost consultants. Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, 10(4), 254-62.
Wood, L.A. "An Unitended Impact of One Grading Practice." Urban Education 29/2 (1994): 188-201.
No Child Left ehind
Letter of Transmittal
Impact of NCL on Maryland School Systems
Request for specified action
Federal and State Restructuring Options
Maryland State School Improvement Grant udget Application,
Allowable and Non-Allowable Expenditures
No Child Left ehind (NCL) is the re-embodiment of President Lyndon Johnson's Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (ESEA). The primary purpose was to raise the standard of education and bridge educational boundaries. NEA certainly supports these aims and works solely in order to provide children equally standardized public schools.
The paper discuses impact of NCL on Maryland schools and what effect the state takeover had on the schools present in the district. Several recommendations and strategies are discussed in order to improve the management of the schools and a detailed request to Mr. Delaney has also been made in the paper to further improve and implement the strategies for the improvement of the schools.…
Dee, T.D., Jacob, B., Hoxby, C., & Ladd, H. (2013). The Impact of No Child Left Behind on Students, Teachers and Schools. U.S.: Brookings Institution Press. Retrieved from: http://faculty.smu.edu/millimet/classes/eco4361/readings/dee%20et%20al%202010.pdf
Editorial Projects in Education Research Center. (2011, Septmber 19). Retrieved from Education Week: http://www.edweek.org/ew/issues/no-child-left-behind/
Ellis, C.R. (2007). No Child Left Behind -- A Critical Analysis. Excelsior. Retrieved from: http://eds.b.ebscohost.com.vlib.excelsior.edu/eds/detail/detail?sid=13942473-32f0-4108-a965-c3a784d24d3d%40sessionmgr112&vid=0&hid=102&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmUmc2NvcGU9c2l0ZQ%3d%3d
Issues and Actions: No Child Left Behind Act. (2011). Retrieved from National Education Association: http://www.nea.org/home/NoChildLeftBehindAct.html
School Cultural Theory
Any environments where human beings reside, there is an existing culture. The total time that the community members, teachers, and students spend in school environments develop cultural elements have a direct influence on how they act and function in their respective positions.
Developing a system of cultural awareness in schools is critical in activating teachers and school stakeholders to engage in growth promoting activities. Teachers in school settings make up the main components of a school organizational network. It is important noting that schools are forms of organizations that uphold a shared culture. Milner and Browitt (2013) in their study of organizational cultures argue that any organization strives to find a meaningful purpose together as a group that has a shared goal. They further discussed the organizational systems develop individual structures and behavioral patterns with actual means of accomplishing the processes. Organizations create the necessary tools for…
Agger, B. (2014). Cultural Studies as Critical Theory. Routledge.
Hudson, K., Ben-Ary, G., Lawson, M., & Hodgetts, S. (2013). The Dynamics of Collaborative Resistance: Negotiating the Methodological Incongruities of Art, Cultural Theory, Science and Design. Proceedings of the 19th International Symposium on Electronic Art, ISEA2013, Sydney.
Milner, A., & Browitt, J. (2013). Contemporary Cultural Theory: An Introduction. Routledge.
American schools failing- RAVITCH
In the last two decades, there had been a growing opinion among those in the public policy landscape on the public educational system. They believe that public education has suffered a sharp drop in its rankings and is now just ordinary. According to them, the schools are "broken". The teachers and principals are seen as the major causes of this decline due to their low levels of sternness as well as expectations from their students. This challenge can only be solved if the educational institutions are properly monitored with no room allowed for excuses (Kozol, 2013).
The pressure was raised a notch higher in 2002 when the federal testing law; No Child Left ehind, was signed and this law mandated a number of highly important and standard examinations which were aimed at ensuring all students were proficient come 2014. With time, it became clear that this…
Kozol, J. (2013, 09 26). This Is Only a Test. Retrieved from NY Times: http://www.nytimes.com/2013/09/29/books/review/reign-of-error-by-diane-ravitch.html
Ravitch, D. (2011, 09 29). School 'Reform': A Failing Grade. Retrieved from The New York Review of books: http://www.nybooks.com/articles/2011/09/29/school-reform-failing-grade/
Ravitch, D. (2013). Reign of Error: The Hoax of the Privatization Movement and the Danger to America's Public Schools. New York City: Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group.
According to the California Department of Education, the CASHEE "is aligned to the California academic content standards in English-language arts and mathematics adopted by the State Board of Education" ("California," 2011).
Aptitude or Achievement?
The CASHEE is an achievement test because it measures what students have learned, as opposed to what their potential for learning is. Although it is designed to help prepare high school students to do well in college in the sense that it ensures that they have the basic skills they need before they graduate high school, it does not test or attempt to predict how well they will do in college.
Is it a Standardized Test?
It is a standardized test because it is designed to meet state content standards, and also because it is graded electronically and objectively. In other words, there is no subjective assessment involved such as how well the student writes an…
"California High School Exit Exam (CAHSEE) Apportionment," (2011) California Department of Education, Retrieved from http://www.cde.ca.gov/fg/fo/profile.asp?id=939
Cooper, B.S., Fusarelli, L.D., & Randall, E.V. (2004). Better policies, better schools: theories and application. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Heneg, J.R. (2001) the color of school reform: race, politics, and the challenge of urban education, Princeton University Press
school's reforms stay intact after a leader leaves requires that others have been developed within that system to fulfill the void left by the leader. It becomes obvious the importance of professional development, mentoring and solid leadership. The legacy of a leader may be kept going if the values and ethics resonate with the remaining leaders within the school. To ensure this happens leaders need to continually reinforce their ideals on a regular basis in order for it to truly take hold and make a lasting and impressive change that can continue well into the future.
The current beliefs about school improvement within my current environment suggests that there is a great tendency to drag their collective feet when confronted with change. In many cases the need for change is obvious, and many complaints are discussed, but when it comes down to actually improving, the situation, procrastination tends to sink…
This work intends to address the situation of budgeting problems within the context of a fictitious school for purposes of this work, which will be called Highbridge Day Care. This is a school that receives State allocations for funding in part as well as allocations from other sources. The school budget is set and fixed prior to budget submission to the board each year.
Too many times waste in the school budget can be traced back to abstract and poorly defined expenditures allocated to poorly defined functions of administration. However, the realization of this has some district resolving the problem.
Resolution of School udget:
Streamlining administration / support-service expense.
The school principal is ethically as well as administratively responsible to oversee budgetary concerns, not only in preparation, but as well in the carrying out of those allocations approved by the governing committee for the school. The…
"Priority on Learning: Efficient Use of Resource's (2004) ERIC Digest 100 [Online] available at: http://eric.uoregon.edu/publications/digests/digest100.html
Prager, Karen (1993) 'Collegial Process vs. Curricular Focus: Dilemma for Principal Leadership: Brief to Principals 'No. 5 ERIC Digest ED356550 [Online] available at: http://22.214.171.124:86/search/o?SEARCH=ED356550
"A Practical Look at School Leadership" (2003) Center on Reinventing Public Education (2003 Sept 13) located [Online] at: http://126.96.36.199/search?q=cache:ocx-wPj5gFUJ:www.crpe.org/pubs/pdf/MakingSensePortin_brief.pdf+school+principal+tasks+budget+resources& ; hl=en& ie=UTF-8
"Priority on Learning: Efficient Use of Resource's (2004) ERIC Digest 100
ace to the Top-District fa Analysis
School Grant Programs
On May 22, 2012, the Secretary of Education made public the U.S. Department of Education's (ED) intention to build upon recent achievements in education through the ace to the Top-State programs (ED, 2012a) by offering an additional $383 million in grant funding to local school districts in 2012 (ED, 2012b). The goal of the ace to the Top District (TT-D) Competition is to continue advancing bold innovation and educational standards made possible through state ace to the Top grants. This essay examines the requirements and criteria that must be met in order to apply to the TT-D program.
Eligibility for applying to the TT-D is limited to Local Education Agencies (LEAs) or a consortium of LEAs (ED, 2012c). Based on Title IX, Section 9101, subsection 26, an LEA is defined as a public board of education or other public…
ED. (2012a). Applications for new awards; Race to the Top -- District. Federal Register, 77(159), 49654-49677. Retrieved 5 Nov. 2012 from http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-08-16/pdf/2012-20037.pdf .
ED. (2012b). Race to the Top District Competition draft. ED.gov. Retrieved 4 Nov. 2012 from http://www.ed.gov/race-top/district-competition .
ED. (2012c). Race to the Top -- District Competition: Final requirements and criteria. ED.gov. Retrieved 4 Nov. 2012 from http://www2.ed.gov/programs/racetothetop-district/2012-fast-facts.pdf .
ED. (2012d). Race to the Top -- District guidance and frequently asked questions. ED.gov. Retrieved 4 Nov. 2012 from http://www2.ed.gov/programs/racetothetop-district/faqs-add-1.pdf .
This changed in 1833 when crowds of people, called 'abolitionists', joined the American Anti-Slavery Society en masse, with William Garrison drafting the society's "Declaration of Sentiments" that, drawing on the American Constitution, demanded immediate emancipation for slaves, condemned slavery as a sin, and recommended that its repeal be brought about through moral persuasion rather than through violent acts. The American Anti-Slavery Society set about disseminating themselves in every city, town, and hamlet, circulating pamphlets and broadsheets in order to publicize their opinions. Their activities were largely helped by evangelical ministers and churches, and it was in this way that activists such as Frederick Douglas became aware of the movement and active on its account. Southerners attempted to hinder the movement, but it continued unabated.
Two categories of anti-slavery activities may be made. There were moderate antislavery individuals (such as Garrison) who attempted a gradual approach to cessation of slavery by…
ather than forming the one, who happens to live in America, into a citizen of this nation, the objective of the 21st century is to make him a citizen of the world. And it is arguable, too, whether the focus is on knowledge as power as it was in Mann's days; focus may have changed to knowledge of technology and business as per power as evidenced by the increasing number of dropouts and increasing stress of corporations and need to make money. Individualism was rubbed into conformism in the attempt to make one patriotic American citizen. It is thought that today we are more individualistic, but the reality may be that Adam Smith may merely have taken center place today, and contemporary conformism centers around money.
Other differences include the shift from nation to individual. In Mann's days the individual existed for the purpose of a common end, and, accordingly,…
Spring, J. The American School
Although further education teachers employed prior to this date are not required to attain this credentialing, they are being encouraged to do so in order to ensure their status as professional educators (Clancy 2007).
There is a push to increase the rigor of the credentialing process for further education teachers as well. In this regard, Thompson recently observed that, "Further education lecturers are already allowed to teach post-16 and post-14 pupils in schools in Great Britain. Further education teachers with Qualified Teacher Learning and Skills (QTLS) should first gain Qualified Teacher Status (QTS) before they will be allowed to teach in schools" (2010:3). This recommendation is based in large part on the fact that the QTLS is "not a test but really a personal narrative that each applicant presents to provide evidence of his/her professional practice and status" (Education: The Training Game 2009:10). The chief executive for the Institute for…
Black's Law Dictionary. 1999 St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Company.
Braid, M. 2007, September 23 "Teach students the bare necessities." Sunday Times of London 9.
Chenery, K. 2002, July 18 "Education Letter: FE teachers undervalued." Independent -- London
Define the Problem
The defined and existing problem is going to vary in scope and definition depending on who is doing the defining. However, there are some clear and obvious problems with the “three strikes” law. The policy itself was meant to address a problem. However, that policy has created a new set of problems. Indeed, there are situations where three-time violent felons are justifiably put away for twenty-five years to life. However, the major problem with the policy are the human and budgetary costs that are created by people being thrown in jail for life for minor offenses (“Ewing v. California”, 2017). There is also the concern that some people are being thrown in jail even though they will soon “age out” of criminal behavior. Indeed, men in their 60’s are not able to crawl through windows, run and jump fences like someone in their 20’s or 30’s (Besemer,…
Student isolation and teacher autonomy have been perpetuated, where there is a basic lack of collaboration in the learning process.
Although student collaboration in the teaching process is not necessarily a novel idea, integrating teachers in this process is. In all learning and teaching models, the role of the teacher has always been one of superiority in terms of knowledge. Students are regarded as subordinate, deferring to the teacher for their learning process. In Carroll's model, teachers truly become collaborators with students, working together to gain new knowledge, making an enriching experience for everyone involved. Central to this model is the sense of community.
On major challenge here is that Carroll's proposed model is so radically different from all education models developed thus far, that it is likely to meet significant resistance in educational circles. At the heart of this resistance is not necessarily only the pride of leaders and…
Caine, R.N. And Caine, G. Understanding why Education Must Change. New Horizons for Learning. Retrieved from: http://home.avvanta.com/~building/trans/caine_change.htm
Carroll, T.G. If we didn't have schools today, would we create the schools we have today?
Kokinos, P. (2010). Changing the Schools can Change the World. Retrieved from: http://changetheschools.com/
health management systems designed to serve public needs during disasters and emergencies, two are discussed here: Emergency rescription Assistance rogram (EA) and state social media platforms. Each system addresses a different aspect of health management during disasters and emergencies. The EA is a highly formalized system -- as it must be since it deals with prescription drugs and equipment -- yet, the rigidity of the system may limit its effectiveness or, minimally, its responsiveness early in an emergency or disaster. The state's social media platforms have limited utility if electrical supplies are interrupted during a disaster. Even though the systems may depend on servers that are located out of harms way, the individuals who are impacted by a disaster may not be able to access the state's social media sites.
The two approaches to emergency management discussed in this paper address two very different aspects of emergency preparedness and…
Planning. In 2006, the United States Army took planning steps to move away from a de facto demand-driven process of force generation that left the forces, in the words of Army Chief of Staff General George Casey, "out of balance" ("Stand To!," 2010). The demand for forces in the protracted conflicts in Afghanistan and Iran was met without conscription -- a first time circumstance for military campaigns of such length. Forces were readied and supplied rapidly, but with great fiscal, organizational, and personal cost, stress, and inefficiencies. This new force generation plan that was designed to address these dynamics and problems is called Army Force Generation (ARFOGEN).
ARFOGEN is the model and the process used to achieve the progressive levels of readiness with recurring periods of availability as both active and reserve component units progress through three distinct force pools: RESET: Train/Ready; and Available."
Leading. Army leadership is defined by the privilege to command which "is exercised by virtue of office and the special assignment of members of the United Sates Armed Forces holding military grade who are eligible to exercise command" ("Army Command Policy," 2010, p. 1). Responsibility and authority are the key elements of command. Further, "formal authority for command is derived from the policies, procedures, and precedents presented in chapters 1 through 3" ("Army Command Policy," 2010, p. 1). The regulations of
These facts do not even address the personal bias that may exist among employers who are more likely to hire welfare recipients than ex-offenders (Western, 2003).
The problems ex-offenders face do not stop with employment. Male ex-offenders unable to hold steady or appealing jobs are often less appealing to potential partners as they are perceived as unable to "Contribute economically" and many carry a stigma associated with a past conviction (Western, 54).
All of these facts support the need for better rehabilitation programs to prevent increased recidivism among ex-offenders (Western, 2003). May have likened parole to law enforcement processes than social work, suggesting that parole officers are more surveillance oriented than supportive in their roles toward ex-offenders (Western, 2003).
Many groups that do support the needs of ex-offenders including nonprofit agencies often lack the resources necessary to help ex-offenders (Western, 2003).
Significance of the Study
Every year more than 600,000…
Etters, K. (2002 - Dec). "Job-readiness training program at the Wayne County Jail prepares offenders for success." Corrections Today, 64(7): 112.
Fischer, M., Geiger, B. & Toch, H. (1991). "Reform through community: Resocializing offenders in the Kibbutz." New York: Greenwood Press.
Lattimore, P. & Witte, A.D. (1985). "Programs to aid ex-offenders: We don't know nothing works." Monthly Labor Review, 108(4): 46.
Lemieux, C.M. (2002). "Social support among offenders with substance abuse problems:
SCHOOL ADVISORY PROGRAMS: Annotated Bibliography
Van Ryzin, M. (2010). Secondary school advisors as mentors and secondary attachment figures. Journal of Community Psychology, 38(2), 131-154.
his study assessed if students in two tiny secondary schools would actually nominate their advisor as part of their attachment hierarchy. he forty percent which nominated their advisor to be a secondary figure of attachment testified even more involvement in school and showed better gains in terms of adjustment and achievement in than those that did not. In accordance to the author, this particular finding could help in the development and refining of new theories regarding the factors which contribute to the success of mentoring relationships, together with the processes that aid in the growth and development of these relationships.
Johnson, B. (2013.) Linchpins or lost time: Creating effective advisories. Horace, 25 (2-3)
his study tested the theory that secondary school advisories are somewhat insidious around…
This article investigates the effect of a universal social-emotional program of learning, the Fast Track PATHS (Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies) program and teacher consultation, incorporated within the Fast Track selective prevention model. Measures examined educator and peer reports of violence, hyperactive-disruptive conducts, as well as social skills. Starting in the first grade and all through three consecutive years, teachers acquired training and support, and incorporated the PATHS program in their classrooms. The study investigated the major impacts of intervention and ways in which the child's traits and the environment in the school influenced results. The study concluded that properly-implemented multiyear social-emotional programs of learning could actually have important preventive impacts on the population-level aggression rates, social competency, as well as academic involvement in the elementary school years.
10. Durlak, J.A., Weissberg, R.P., Dymnicki, A.B., Taylor, R.D. & Schellinger, K.B. (2011). The impact of enhancing students' social and emotional learning: a meta-analysis of school-based universal interventions. Child Dev. 82(1): 405-32. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2010.01564.x.
This particular article presents results from a meta-analysis of 213 school-based, worldwide social and economic learning (SEL) programs entailing 270,034 kindergartens through high school learners. In comparison to controls, social and economic learning participants illustrated considerably better social and emotional skills, outlooks, manners, as well as academic performance which reflected an eleven percent point gain in success. School teaching personnel successfully carried out SEL programs. The utilization of four suggested practices for developing skills together with the presence of execution issues moderated the outcomes of the program. The findings of this study actually add to the growing experimental evidence-based outcome on the positive impact of social and emotional learning programs. Teachers, policy makers, and the general public are capable of contributing to healthy development of kids by encouraging the integration of evidence-based social and economic learning (SEL) programming into the standard educational practice.
revolutionary book, Wagner et al. (2012) have provided a highly effective reasoning for creating an innovation-driven economic system. They have examined what parents, instructors, and companies must do to create the capabilities of the youth to become innovators. The concept of social and economic transformation of schools as spearheaded by all stakeholders is largely evident in this book. Perhaps, this informed by the inherent problems facing many American schools where reforms are rarely being implemented while obsolesce carry the day. In this book, I have appreciated the importance of various invaluable diagnostic tools that stakeholders can use in detecting the needs of the schools in terms of organizational transformation. This evident from the experiences and examples from the individuals used. Wagner et al. (2012) recognized a trend: a childhood innovative play result in deep-seated passions, which in adolescence and maturity flourish into a further reason for career and life objectives.…
Wagner, T., et al. (2012). Change Leadership: A Practical Guide to Transforming Our Schools. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Property tax relief is a subject that arises when the elderly or poor struggle to meet their property tax burdens. If they are long-term residents, they can be caught up when their neighborhood sees a dramatic increase in property values. There are sometimes mechanisms that governments use in order to provide relief.
Both tax credits and rebates can be used to help return some of the money paid or that is owing from eligible property owners, in order to help relieve from of the burden. This method is direct, and puts the money back into the hands of those who need it. However, this method relies on being able to determine who needs relief. People often have control over their financial situation so an inability to pay does not necessarily reflect somebody with a lack of opportunity to pay. It can be hard to qualify people for relief because of…
TLC. (2006). State roles in financing public school facilities. TLC Research Division. Retrieved November 29, 2012 from http://www.tlc.state.tx.us/pubspol/OnlineFinancePubSch.pdf
Pennsylvania Department of Education. (2012). Property tax reduction allocations. Retrieved November 29, 2012 from http://www.portal.state.pa.us/portal/server.pt/community/property_tax_relief/7452/property_tax_reduction_allocations/510335
Nineteenth Century Reform
The nineteenth century, particularly between 1825 and the outbreak of the civil war in 1861, the United States was in a state of reform. There were five key reform movements that made themselves present in America in the nineteenth century. There was the Utopianism/
Communitarian Movement, which established an ideal society separate from present politics. Educational reforms were important in the creation of taxes to support the public school system, higher education for adults, as well as mandatory education and attendance. The Temperance Movement urged abstinence from alcohol and the oman's Rights Movement was vital in the improvement of the life of women politically, socially, and economically. It also included the battle forged for women's suffrage rights. Humanitarianism was improving the lives of those less fortunate.
Reform in the nineteenth century was generated by secular communities, which arose in the mid 1800s. The primary goal of these…
Emerson, Ralph Waldo. The Transendentalist. 1842. http://www.emersoncentral.com/transcendentalist.htm
Fitzhugh, George. Sociology for the South or The Failure of Free Society. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1998.
Sumner, William Graham. What Social Classes Owe to Each Other. Caldwell, ID: Caxton Press, 2003.
U.S. Constitution. http: www.usconstitution.com/const.html.
business save New York schools?, Mike France describes New York City Michael R. Bloomberg's recent attempts to improve New York's public schools by applying business principles to public education. Bloomberg's reforms are sweeping, and focus on accountability, centralized control, revamping the culture of education, training principals, and keeping a tight rein on expenses. Among Bloomberg's reforms include a standardized curriculum, which may result in poorer education for students with special needs. Similarly, the application of business principles to education brings up some important philosophical considerations.
Bloomberg's reforms are "the most systematic effort ever to force capitalistic thinking into the insular kingdom of public education," according to education historian Michael Katz. Notes Katz, "Professional educators have been incredibly successful at fending off outside influences" (cited in France, 2003).
hile the application of business principles is not an entirely novel phenomenon, it is one of a number of progressive trends in education.…
France, Mike. 2003. Can business save New York schools? Business Week, June 9, 2003, 106- 108.
Data collection tools that will prove especially useful in the research will include online electronic database search features and both online and hardcopy items published as a matter of public record by the City of Richmond. Analysis of the data retrieved will take place on a qualitative basis, with specific policy features correlated to institutional changes based on past evidence as well as ongoing scholarship and hypotheses.
ryamn, A.; ell, E. & Teevan, J. (2009). Social research methods. New York: Oxford University Press.
Cohen, L.; Manion, L. & Morrison, K. (2007). Research methods in education. New York: Routledge.
Yin, R. (2009). Case study research: design and methods.…
Bryamn, A.; Bell, E. & Teevan, J. (2009). Social research methods. New York: Oxford University Press.
Cohen, L.; Manion, L. & Morrison, K. (2007). Research methods in education. New York: Routledge.
Yin, R. (2009). Case study research: design and methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Classical vs. Positivist School of Criminology:
Two Clashing Views of the Human, Criminal Animal
Although 18th century classical views of criminology should not be conflated with later, modern notions of classical psychological conditioning like Pavlov's dog being trained to salivate at the sound of a bell, there are certain similarities between the two schools of thought and even some of the methods used in classical criminology to reorient criminals back into society. First and foremost, later forms of classical conditioning and the early classical school of criminality both stressed the ability, through repeated positive reinforcement of socially desirable traits and negative enforcement regarding antisocial traits deemed criminal by society. (Adler, et. al, 2004) For instance, Jeremy Bentham's vision of a 'panopticon' like prison in classical criminology suggested a prison in which individuals were constantly watched, and thus were forced to monitor and reform their behavior accordingly. Eventually, the reinforcement of…
Adler, Freda, et al. (2004) Criminology and the Criminal Justice System. Fifth Edition. New York: Allyn & Bacon.
Barak, Gregg. Integrating Criminologies. Prepared by Paul Leighton Boston: Allyn & Bacon, 1997.
Bentham, Jeremy. (1861). Utilitarianism.
Foucault, Michel. (1977) Discipline and Punishment. New York: Vintage Books.
unemployment and tax reform on our social structure including theoretical framework on functionalism, social conflict and symbolic framework and so on and so forth. The orks Cited eight sources in MLA format.
Unemployment has long been the cause of ruin of the American society as well as the global social structure. Persistence in unemployment and the related tax reforms have done much harm than have benefited the mankind on this face of earth. There have been several effects of unemployment and tax reforms on our social structure. The passages below of our research paper will look into not only these effects but will also include theoretical framework on functionalism and social conflict. Before we begin our discussion on the effects of unemployment on the social structure as well as on the effects of tax reforms, it is essential that the readers have a look at the precise yet comprehensive…
Social Structure." Encyclopedia Britannica. 2003. Encyclopedia Britannica Premium Service. Retrieved 10 Jul, 2003 at http://www.britannica.com/eb/article?eu=117544 .
Functionalism, Conflict Theory and Symbolic Interactionism. Retrieved 10 Jul, 2003 at http://www.*****/free_essays/4/sociology/functionalism-confict-theory-and-symbolic-interaction.shtml
Social and psychological effects of unemployment. Retrieved July 10, 2003 at http://www.e-resaneh.com/English/Social/Social%20and%20Psychological%20Effects%20of%20Unemployment.html
Saunders P. Direct and indirect effects of unemployment. Paper presented at the Australian National University in the F.H. Gruen Lecture Series on Welfare and the Labor Market: The New Frontier for Reform.
Students in these kinds of schools do not attend school longer, but they do not have a summer break that is longer than any of the other breaks that they take during the school year.
esearch done by McMillen (2001) indicated that there were 106 schools in the state of North Carolina that operated on the year-round school calendar for third through eighth grades during the 1997-1998 school year. McMillen (2001) then conducted an analysis of the academic achievements of these students and compared them to the academic achievements of students in the same grades that attended schools where the traditional calendar was still used.
Data for the study came from a database of statewide testing in which 95% of the public schools in the state participate. In order to determine the academic achievements of the students, McMillen (2001) looked at achievement test scores and demographic information that was collected…
References. Retrieved April 17, 2008, at http://www.ericdigests.org
Painesville City School District. (2008). Year Round Education. Retrieved February 20, 2008, at http://www.painevillecityschools.org
Polite, V.C. (1999). Combating educational neglect in suburbia: African-American males and mathematics. In V.C. Polite & J.E. Davis (Eds.), African-American males in school and society: Practices and policies for effective education (pp. 97-107). New York: Teachers College Press.
Poplin, M., & Weeres, J. (1992). Voices from the inside: A report on schooling from inside the classroom. Claremont, CA: Claremont Graduate School, Institute for Education in Transformation.
Pothering, S.L. (1998). The decision-making processes of higher education undergraduate academic program development in a public liberal arts institution. (Doctoral Dissertation, University of South Caroline, 1998). UMI Dissertation Services.