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Religion and or Science

Words: 1625 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4479455

eligion or Science?

Since the enaissance, there has been a vocal debate between religion and science. Galileo was imprisoned and sanctioned because of his views of the universe, the sun, and the way planets moved. As science progressed, this debate became even more heated. However, in the late 20th century, there has also been a mitigating discussion about the way that religion and science can actual coexist as explanations of the universe. In fact, as physicists look into the wondrous world of smaller and smaller particles, they find that the laws we through governed the universe do not really fit in with the abstract dimensions of time, space, quarks, and the study of the basic attributes of matter and the universe (Schroeder, 2010, p.xi ). On some level, the debate between science and religion is based on the notion of reason (the scientific method) versus faith. eason implies what can…… [Read More]

Russell, C 2002, 'The Conflict of Science and Religion,' in G. Ferngren, ed., Science

And Religion: Some Historical Perspectives, Baltimore, Johns Hopkins

Schroeder, G. (2001). The Hidden Face of God: How Science Reveals the Ultimate Truth. New York: The Free Press.
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Science Two Spires One Cathedral

Words: 1451 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 755480

Otherwise, one field risks becoming subordinate to the other; although it's likely that Coyne's theology is extraordinarily sophisticated, the brief excerpt of it that Bill Maher uses leads the viewer to suspect that if these precepts are followed to their logical conclusion, religion will always give way to science as John Paul II gave way to the certainty that organisms evolve over time.

If so, then efforts to restore faith to a more equal footing are naturally vulnerable to claims that they are reactionary attempts to usurp science's rightful and supreme interpretative role in modern life. It is easy to understand Richard Dawkins' profound revulsion over what he sees as resurgent religiosities surrounding Islamic fundamentalism on the one hand and Christian fundamentalisms on the other: These faith-oriented responses to world events pose an implicit challenge to his own conviction that all aspects of experience are the product of physical entities…… [Read More]

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Science and Religion Conflict Historical and Psychological

Words: 892 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 32434492

Science and Religion: Conflict

Historical and Psychological Reasons for the Conflict Between Science and Religion

There is obvious controversy on the tensions between science and religion. A growing number of well-known figures deny any logical conflict between science and religion. For example, Langdon Gilkey says the following:

[T]o say that evolution' excludes God' is [. . .] merely to say that it is a theory within natural science. It is not to say that this theory is essentially atheistic or represents atheism. It is because science is limited to a certain level of explanation that scientific and religious theories can exist side by side without excluding one another, that one person can hold both to the scientific accounts of origins and to a religious account, to the creation of all things by God [. . .].

Ian Barbour believes that science and religion are "complementary languages," complementary ways of analyzing…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Gould, Stephen Jay. Rocks of Ages: Science and Religion in the Fullness of Life (NY: Ballantine Books) 1999.

Holtzmann, Seth. Science and Relgion: The Categorial Conflct. International Journal For Philosophy of Religion. 2003, 54:77-99.
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Religion Has Been on the

Words: 1397 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 61192084

Glynn concludes that fundamentalists exist not only in the Creationism Camp, but in the Evolutionism camp as well, regretting the unfortunate irony that Evolutionism Fundamentalists are attempting to suffocate constructive dialogue in much the same way Catholic Priests did in the past.

e. Thomas Demere and Steve Walsh -- Creationism Should Not Be Taught In Public Schools

Demere and Walsh argue that teaching a non-disprovable theory like Creationism would further weaken the already lagging Scientific literacy of American students. Demere and Walsh state that for something to be considered Science, it must depend on rational evidence and observation of natural events. Demere and Walsh conclude that the theory of Creationism does not meet this standard because it is supported only by religious texts and cannot be disproved on its own terms.

Conclusion

Most Personally Appealing Position

Regarding the broader relationship between Science and Religion, I agree most with Ruse, who…… [Read More]

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Religion and Science & Religion

Words: 1911 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 36140675

There are exceptions, where legal ramifications are employed and individuals are held to account for their inaction. For most people, including myself the idea that faith is the only solution to medical concerns, and especially emergent ones is unfathomable. Medical care is congruent with faith, as even for the most ardent believer in God if God had not meant for children to be cured of preventable a treatable disease he would not have developed treatments to do so. For the broader population this is a reasonable tenet and most people report taking themselves and their children to a doctor or hospital when they feel it is necessary. It is also clear that modern people are even more involved in their own wellness and may even be able to treat some injuries and illnesses at home, without medical intervention. Furthermore most know when they need to seek care for themselves and…… [Read More]

References

Barnes L.L. & Sered, S.S. (2005). Religion and Healing in America. New York: Oxford University Press

Hamer, D. (2004).The God Gene: How Faith is Hardwired Into our Genes.

Koenig, H.G. (2005). Medicine, Religion, and Health: Where Science and Spirituality Meet. West Conshohocken, PA: Templeton Foundation Press.

Nord, W.A. (1999). Science, Religion and Education. Phi Delta Kappan, 81(1), 28.
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Science and Christianity Introduction Common

Words: 4044 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 96417918

This occurred in 330 BC, and Zoroaster's date would then be 588 BC, and this date we may take to refer to the initial success of his prophetic mission which consisted in the conversion of King Visht-spa when Zoroaster was forty years old. Since he is traditionally said to have lived seventy-seven years, we will not be far wrong in dating him at 628-551 BC. It seems also to be generally agreed that the Prophet's sphere of operation in which his message was proclaimed was ancient Chorasmia -- an area comprising, perhaps, what is now Persian Khorasan, estern Afghanistan, and the Turkmen Republic of the U.S.S.R. (Zaehner, R.C., 1961, 33)."

Ayala's science takes the mitochondrial Eve back even before what we know about Zoroastrianism, but we really have no accurate date of the monotheistic tradition as it arises out of Zoroastrianism, because there are no written artifacts that support its…… [Read More]

Works Cited

 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=29306390 

Blackwell, Richard J. 1999. Science, Religion and Authority: Lessons from the Galileo Affair. Milwaukee: Marquette University Press. Book online. Available from Questia,  http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=29306390.Internet . Accessed 3 November 2008.

Dembski, William and Charles Colson. 2004. The Design Revolution: Answering the Toughest Questions about Intelligent Design. Intervarsity Press, Downers Grove, Il.

Dembski, William and McDowell, Sean. 2008. Understanding Intelligent Design: Everything You Need to Know in Plain Langauge. Harvest House Publishers. Eugene, Oregon.  http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=103534752
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literature and religion annotated bibliography

Words: 852 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Annotated Bibliography Paper #: 20098938

Religion features prominently as a theme in literature. In fact, some of the earliest works of literature are rooted in their religious and cultural traditions, including the ancient literatures of the Middle East and Mesopotamia.

As the role of religion in society changed, so too did the role of religion in literature.

Modern literature, including work by Nathaniel Hawthorne, often offers scathing critiques of religion, whereas postmodern literature allows religion to play a more complex role in shaping individual identity.

Nathaniel Hawthorne's he Scarlett Letter heavily criticizes the role of religion in a patriarchal society, whereas Yann Martel's Life of Pi presents religion more as a subjective phenomenon, revealing an important cultural shift from religion to spirituality.

In Nathaniel Hawthorne's he Scarlett Letter, the author shows how religion becomes a tool of social oppression and political control.

A. Hawthorne shows that religious authorities are hypocritical, and especially fundamentalists, as the…… [Read More]

This article offers some interesting background information on Yann Martel as an author, showing that the author's secular background proves that Life of Pi is making a clear statement about the difference between religion and spirituality. Religion is an outmoded social institution, whereas spirituality remains central to the human experience. The character of Pi illustrates the similarities between faith in God and faith in one's own ability to succeed, and through the motif of the journey also shows that "a journey toward enlightenment" can be stripped of any religious or even cultural context (Stephens 41).

Stratton, Florence. "Hollow at the core": Deconstructing Yann Martel's Life of Pi" SCI/ELC, Vol, 29, No. 2, 2004. Retrieved online:  https://journals.lib.unb.ca/index.php/SCL/article/view/12746/13690 

This article critiques Yann Martel's novel by showing that the protagonist fails to actually show any growth, while also noting that the author takes a firm postmodern stance on the nature of truth or reality. The author points out that Life of Pi in part addresses the question of objective reality and whether a human being can even determine whether there is any objective reality, a core feature of postmodernism in general. This article offers a refreshing counterpoint to the other articles about Life of Pi.
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Religion Anselm Aquinas and Hume

Words: 2500 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 24187463



Thus, Sam argues that although the world often seems unjust (and is filled with innumerable instances of evil), yet P. is solved through the belief that every condition (good, in this case) necessitates an equal and opposite condition (evil, as it were.) However, Gretchen counters by asking whether those who behave in an evil way are ever punished for their transgressions, and whether there is any motivation for people to not simply act in their own best interests, whether or not this involves behaving in an immoral manner. Sam's rejoinder appeals to the afterlife as the site in which the importance of morality becomes manifest: "But the doctrine of an afterlife, in whatever form, says that this isn't the whole story" (47). However, Sam disregards the fact that God is purported to pardon many sinners, which would ostensibly mean that he regularly pardons instances of injustice.

The dialogue between Sam…… [Read More]

References

Anselm. Proslogium. Trans. S.N. Deane. Internet History Sourcebook. Fordham University, Aug. 1998. 10 Sep. 2012. Retrieved from  http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/basis/anselm-intro.asp .

Aquinas, T. Summa of Theology. Trans. B.P. Copenhaver. Publisher Unknown, 2005.

Hopkins, J. A New Interpretation of Anselm's Monologion and Proslogion. Minneapolis: Arthur J. Banning Press, 1986.

Hume, D. Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion. Unknown Publisher, 1779.
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Religion and Science Are Often

Words: 2242 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 98794853

The question should also be specific enough that there would not be a large number of sub-questions that would have to be answered first or that might alter the value of the central question. At the same time, if the question were too narrow, then the researcher might find that it ruled out other possibilities that might emerge. The question also must generate data that tests the hypothesis, and a simple yes or no answer would be too simple for a good research question. The question cannot be such that it raises a question that cannot be quantified, for then the data would not lead to a useful answer or one that would be testable by others. The question must also be formulated so that it is clear to other researchers who may want to test the hypothesis as well or replicate the original research, and the question must be…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Eliade, Mircea. Myth and Reality (Religious Traditions of the World).

Waveland Press; Reprint edition, 1998.

McGrath, Alister E. Science & Religion: An Introduction. New York: Blackwell Publishers, 1998.
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Science and Religion the Debate

Words: 631 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8840703

By coming into contact with nature cultures such as the Native American tribes, religions in the Western world were no longer the same. eligious fundamentalism became the basis for many of the often violent interactions between the different cultures, religions, and ways of life. This was the basis for later violence against all who did not agree with the religious norm, for example in events such as the Salem Witch Trials.

Today, this same fundamentalism insists that every word in the Bible or other religious documents should be taken literally. According to this view, the story of creation simply could not agree with Darwinism. The long American history of using religion as a basis for many actions, both good an bad, plays an important role in this.

However, it is also true that there is an increasing trend within Christianity to return to the earlier point-of-view, accepting both Darwinism and…… [Read More]

Reference

McGrath, a.E. (1999) Science & Religion: An Introduction. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
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Religion Should Be Eliminated From

Words: 2379 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 55729778



Essentially, science utilizes the power of reason and logic in its search for the truth while religion depends almost wholly upon faith, being a belief in something without any evidence whatsoever to support it. In the realms of science, investigators seek to understand natural phenomena through direct observation and experimentation which makes it mandatory that all interpretations of the facts be provisional and testable. Statements made by any authority, revelation or appeal to the supernatural are not part of this process, due to the absence of supporting evidence.

Thus, in the eyes of religious scholars and authorities, all opposition to what science has uncovered is based on faith and mythological revelation which takes precedence over evidence. Also, the tenets of religion have not, for the most part, changed much over time and cannot be validated when subjected to the scientific method.

Like many others that study the natural world, scientists…… [Read More]

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Religions and Development it Is Popularly Believed

Words: 2215 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 6893573

Religions and Development

It is popularly believed that countries, where religion has major influence in governance, tend to develop slower than those where religious beliefs are not a main influence or consideration. This statement uses the cases of poor and traditionally colonized Christian countries in Southeast Asia, like the Philippines; Russia; and the African countries to support the claim.

The four major monotheistic religions in the world all tend to bar changes in one's life. Their faith or lifestyle does not involve material acquisition and is even hostile to it. They are bound to the wiles and stated will and preferences of an unseen Deity. Their happiness consists precisely in denying their own progress and contentment, the furthering of their blessings and potential. India is a supreme example of this. ut this blind adherence to brutal fate and faith is also taken advantage by some opportunists, such as in the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Baha'i International. 1999. Values, Norms and Poverty: A Consultation on the World Development Report 2000. South Africa

Bohlin, Sue. 2000. A Short Look at Six World Religions. Texas, USA:

Probe Ministries International

Hilton, Ronald. 2001. Religion and Poverty. (accessed 16:03:03). http://www.standford.edu/group/wais/religion_relandpoverty42501.html
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Religion & Politics The Impact

Words: 1503 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 90404369

Race factored in creates a shift in the view which can be correctly applied to that which affects voting and as well globalization has created its' own impact on voting choices made by the American individual.

ILIOGRAPHY

Campbell, David E. (2004). Acts of Faith: Churches and Political Engagement. Political ehavior, 26 (2), 155-180.

Clawson, Rosalee a. And Clark, John a. (2003). The Attitudinal Structure of African

American Women Party Activists: The Impact of Race, Gender, and Religion. Political Research Quarterly, 56(2), 211-221.

Clinton and Giuliani Seen as Not Highly Religious; Romney's Religion Raises Concerns (2007) the Pew Research Center for the People & the Press. 6 Sept. 2007. Online available at: http://people-press.org/report/353/clinton-and-giuliani-seen-as-not-highly-religious-romneys-religion-raises-concerns

Kelly, Nathan J. And Kelly, Jana Morgan. (2005). Religion and Latino Partisanship in the United States. Political Research Quarterly, 58 (1), 87-95.

McClurg, Scott D. (2006). The Electoral Relevance of Political Talk: Examining

Disagreement and Expertise Effects in…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Campbell, David E. (2004). Acts of Faith: Churches and Political Engagement. Political Behavior, 26 (2), 155-180.

Clawson, Rosalee a. And Clark, John a. (2003). The Attitudinal Structure of African

American Women Party Activists: The Impact of Race, Gender, and Religion. Political Research Quarterly, 56(2), 211-221.

Clinton and Giuliani Seen as Not Highly Religious; Romney's Religion Raises Concerns (2007) the Pew Research Center for the People & the Press. 6 Sept. 2007. Online available at:  http://people-press.org/report/353/clinton-and-giuliani-seen-as-not-highly-religious-romneys-religion-raises-concerns
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Religion as a Positive Force

Words: 445 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88404558



While art is certainly a part of culture, other cultural gifts to history mark religion as a positive force. Without the music, ceremony, poetry, and holy books of Muslim, Hindu, and Christian texts, the world would be without significant Beauty. In their own ways, each of these traditions shaped the cultures that would come after them in significant theological, intellectual, and cultural ways. Burhan writes that Islamic influence in the world has included charity, justice, and unity. Wade writes that even as Christianity is often vilified as a blight to mankind, it made great contributions to science, freedom, ethics and morality, medicine, etc. In conclusion, the ancient history of Eurasia would not have been the same without religion. While religious wars are certainly an important part of history, religion's contributions in the areas of art and culture suggest the positive role religion played in the shaping of contemporary society.

eferences…… [Read More]

References

Burhan, R. "Islam's Contribution and Influence on the World." Institute of Islam and Arabic Studies.n.d. 26 July 2009.
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Religion & Life Cycle Different Religious Visions

Words: 1447 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 49387521

Religion & Life Cycle

Different religious visions, different life cycles: The religious experience according to Rosenstock-Huessey and the Medicine Rite

Religion has always been the binding force that enabled humanity to create meaning in their lives and maintain unity among them. As a way of expressing spiritual reality, religion is instrumental in providing humanity a way of converting into concrete form (i.e., rituals and religious symbols) the different emotions associated to one's belief in a religion. Perhaps one of the most important functions that religion has for humanity is that it is able to depict humanity as the most important creature that the Supreme Being (or God) had created in the universe. That in our attempt to give meaning and purpose in life, we humans subsist to religion in order to validate that we, indeed, matter the most to God above anything else. This spiritual reality, despite its selfish nature,…… [Read More]

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Religion Israel L Jones Role of

Words: 2790 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 52405505

However, prior to the creation of Israel the numbers were much higher (currently approximately 300,000 Palestinian Christians live in the U.S. alone (2004). Interestingly, the Israeli Army does not differentiate between Arab Christians and Arab Muslims in their occupation activities. In fact, in many areas Palestinian Christians are particularly hit by civilian casualty occurrences (Halter, 2001). In fact, Palestinian Christians identify so strongly with the Palestinian cause that statements like, "The Arab Palestinian Christians are part and parcel of the Arab Palestinian nation. e have the same history, the same culture, the same habits and the same hopes..." coming from the Anglican Bishop of Jerusalem, the Reverend Riad Abu al-Assal, is typical of the community as a whole.

It is for this reason that Palestinian Christians are particularly baffled by the pro-Israeli stance taken by many estern, non-Arab Christians (including, most notably, Jerry Fallwell, Ralph Reed, and Pat Robertson to…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Armstrong, Karen. (1997). "Jerusalem: One City, Three Faiths." Ballentine: New York.

Avalon. Yale Law School (Staff). (2003). "The Balfour Declaration." Web site. Retrieved on April 19, 2005, from,  http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/mideast/balfour.htm 

Halter, Kristel. (2004). "Arab-Christian Suffering in the Holy Land. (Waging Peace)." Washington Report on Middle East Affairs. 1 December.

Nasr, Seyyed Hossein. (2003). "Islam: Religion, History, and Civilization." Harper, San Francisco.
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Science in Spite of Its

Words: 982 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 64276502

Geneticists have been trying to unearth so-called founder mutations: one original genetic mutation that subsequently caused generations of people to carry and/or suffer from a serious illness like sickle cell anemia. Unlike many other mutations, founder mutations can be traced to one original ancestor. The discovery and study of founder mutations allows anthropologists to research the general patterns of human migration, providing a more complete understanding of history. Religion views genetic mutations in a different light. Many fundamentalist Christians, for example, might propose that disease is God-given. Yet if Mary Schweizer, an Evangelical Christian scientist, can unite religion with science then anyone can. Her devotion to fundamental Christian thought is not at odds with her scientific endeavors, according to Yeoman. In fact, Schweizer views science as a spiritual endeavor, as a means to discover the meaning of life, death, and seeming anomalies. Religion and science share common goals and objectives…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Atwood, Roger. "The Story of the Iraq Museum."

Davies, Paul. "That Mysterious Flow."

Drayna, Dennis. "Founder Mutations."

Stone, Richard. "Mystery Man of Stonehenge."
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Religion Is Jesus the Only Savoir Is

Words: 1909 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Book Review Paper #: 2051126

eligion

Is Jesus the Only Savoir? Is onald H. Nash's opportunity to develop a passionate and well-developed argument answering yes: yes, Jesus is the only Savoir. However, Nash does not rest on the reader's understanding or experience of faith to make his case. The author takes a different approach, using logic and reason to explain that at least to a believer in Christ, there can be no other paradigm other than Christian absolutism. According to Nash, pluralism by its very definition violates the tenets inherent in the New Testament. It is therefore impossible for a theologian, especially a Christian one, to be a pluralist.

Nash's scapegoat, for better or worse, is John Hick. Hick is a theologian who has succumbed to the temptation of thinking pluralistically and who attempts to show that Jesus is in fact not the only savior. Nash picks apart Hick's argument by revealing the logical fallacies…… [Read More]

References

Bible: New International Version (NIV)

Johnsey, Allen. "A Critique of Is Jesus the Only Savior?" Nov 5, 2006. Retrieved online: http://www.mainstreetmission.com/index.php?p=1_76_A-Critique-of-Is-Jesus-the-Only-Savior-

Johnson, Keith E. "John Hick's Pluralistic Hypothesis and the Problem of Conflicting Truth-Claims." Retrieved online:  http://www.leaderu.com/wri/articles/hick.html 

Nash, Ronald H. "Is Jesus the Only Savoir?" Christian Research Institute. Retrieved online:  http://www.equip.org/articles/is-jesus-the-only-savior/
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Religion Augustine Divine Grace and

Words: 6715 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 32713443

In Chapter 5, the great churchman informs us that Water is in fact an apt designation for the Divinity, better than any of the other elements.

Water possess the unique properties of being more moveable than earth (though less movable than air) while at the same time being essential to the creation and sustaining of life, as in the way water must be added to the soil in order for plants to grow.

This signification of matter first conveys its end, that is, that for the sake of which it was made; secondly, its formlessness; thirdly, its service and subjection to the Maker. Therefore, it is first called heaven and earth; for its sake matter was made. Secondly, the earth invisible and without form and darkness over the abyss, that is, the formlessness itself without the light, as a result of which the earth is said to be invisible. Thirdly,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=101597555 

Augustine. Augustine of Hippo, Selected Writings. Translated by Clark, Mary T. New York: Paulist Press, 1984.

Augustine. Confessions, Trans. Albert C. Outler, Ph.D, D.D. (1994, orig. pub. 1955).

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=101602917
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Religion Meaning Ethics Future Monotheism Means the

Words: 707 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 37019438

eligion

Meaning

Ethics

Future

Monotheism

Monotheism means the worship of one god.

Judaism, Christianity, and Islam are all monotheistic religions: God demands an exclusive relationship with His followers and an acknowledgement of His unique power.

All major monotheistic faiths have a concept of the 'end of days' or final judgment

Deism

God as the divine watchmaker.

God sent into motion the universe with His power but we are now able to use our own reason to govern our lives.

Enlightened reason and science is the best way to understand the future.

Naturalism

The natural world is the source of meaning.

Ethics can be found 'in nature.'

ather than formal religion, we must look to nature for guidance.

Nihilism

Life has no inherent meaning.

There is no system of morality inherent to the human condition beyond that which we construct.

We are adrift and not heading to a purposeful future.

Existentialism…… [Read More]

References

Exodus. (2012). Bible Gateway. Retrieved at:

 http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Exodus+20%3A5&version=NIV 

Zunjic, Bob. (2012). Jean Paul Sartre. Phil 358. University of Rhode Island. Retrieved at:

 http://www.uri.edu/personal/szunjic/philos/human2.htm
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Religion the New Human Potential

Words: 1267 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 14434348

In fact the aims of theosophy when it was founded was to "form the nucleus of a Universal Brotherhood of Humanity without distinction of race, creed, or color," and also "to promote the study of Aryan and other Eastern literature, religions, and sciences," and also "to investigate the hidden mysteries of nature." (Prothero 197). New Human Potential Movement members have written books but none have penned a book that is recognized as a sacred text or as a key piece of religious dogma.

As an eclectic faith, the New Human Potential Movement has a less rigid code of ethics than most other religions do. Like ceremonial magickal traditions, moral relativism and ambiguity is tolerated. However, there are a few beliefs that are cohesive enough for scholars to define the New Human Potential Movement as a religion rather than as a cult or a simple offshoot of New Ageism. One of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Neusner, Jacob. "Introduction." In Religion, Science, and Magic: In Concert and Conflict. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992.

Neusner, Jacob. "Introduction." In World Religions in America. 4th Edition. Westminster John Knox, 2009.

Prothero, Stephen. "From Spiritualism to Theosophy: 'Uplifting a Democratic Tradition." Religion and American Culture: A Journal of Interpretation

Vol. 3, No. 2 (Summer, 1993), pp. 197-216.
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Science and Religion One of

Words: 1299 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 24659261



This type of evolutionary thinking will challenge the initial creationist act as well. Many creationist currents, including the Christian one, believe that human life was also created through divine intervention, so any kind of such approach where life actually evolved to form the human being along the way takes away the special characteristics of human kind, as perceived by Christianity, for example. So, evolutionism virtually challenges the entire theological belief on the history of Earth and its inhabitants.

4. Logical positivism is based on general skepticism towards mythology, theology or metaphysics and on the idea that all true facts can and have to be verified in order to become veridical. In this sense, besides empiricism and materialism, verificationism is also one of the pillars on which logical positivism is based.

For a fact, proposition or idea to be cognitively meaningful, it has to be able to follow a particular path…… [Read More]

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Religion Theology Reaching Out to Communities

Words: 607 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 60707210

Religion / Theology

Reaching out to communities and cultures that have not embraced Christianity is what God wants Christians to do. On this page references that describe the people and history of the country of Tunisian -- with its Arab community described and evaluated in terms of political and cultural history -- will be presented as a preface to a plan on page 2. Thesis: Scripture calls for all Christian believers to "Go into all the world and preach the gospel to all creation" (Mark 16:15); hence it is our duty to take the ord of Christ to Tunisia, bringing Saving Grace to Tunisia.

Bilgin, Feridun. 2012. The Ottoman-Spanis Struggle for Sovereignty Over Tunisia (16th

Century). Electronic Journal of Social Sciences. 12 (inter): 181-201.

Bishku, Michael B. 2013. "Is It An Arab Spring or Business as Usual? Recent Changes in the Arab orld in Historical Context." Journal of Third orld…… [Read More]

Women's rights have been part of the basis for the Arab uprisings against authority, and although the Holy Bible (in particular the Old Testament) makes women second-class citizens, and issues decrees against women teaching or speaking in church, in Tunisia (Megahed, et al., 2011) an upgrading of the status of women is part of the agenda for change, and modern Christians fully accept and promote the concept of gender-educational equality (Megahed, 57). To wit, women in Tunisia reportedly have "the highest rate of female literary… in the Arab world" (Maddy-Weitzman, 2011).

Maddy-Weitzman also points out that the multitude of demonstrators in Tunisia in 2011 demanded the separation of "mosque and state"; in other words, the government should not be imposing religious laws on people.

To date there are approximately 1,500 Christians in Tunisia and according to a post on Faithlafayette.org, Christians will appear on Tunisian television; we pray there will not be any persecution of those bringing missionary messages to Tunisians. There is historical evidence of a Muslim prince, Ibn al-Lihyani, who "…seized control of Tunis in a bloodless coup in 1311" and later he converted to Christianity; this precedent opens the door for missionaries (Lower, 2009).
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Religion and Education Religious Development in Children

Words: 1177 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 33295296

eligion and Education

eligious development in children and adults alike have been research areas that have historically been of interest to those involved in the developmental psychology arenas such as theorists of religious development, religious educators, and designers of religious education curricula in various settings. However, religious development did not receive a great deal of consideration during the early phases of growth in the psychology or the schools of human behavior and development. Even though the work of Sigmund Freud has been extremely influential in education and psychoanalysis, there are many other eminent psychologists who have made greater strides for humankind by trying to understand the planning and teaching aspects of religious education. This paper, therefore, aims to discuss three such prominent individuals: Jean Piaget, Erik Erikson and Jerome Bruner.

Ironically, behaviorism and psychoanalysis entail some aspects of atheistic presuppositions and therefore create many psychologists who are leaning more towards…… [Read More]

References

Eminent Psychologists of the 20th Century. (2004). 100 Eminent Psychologists. Retrieved on November 8, 2004, from  http://www.coe.uga.edu/echd/counpsy/eminentpsychologists_new.htm#piaget
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Sci Fi Art Analysis & Examples

Words: 1557 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55702756

Sci-Fi Art Analysis

The class text makes two passing references to Star Trek. ith that in mind, the author of this report will focus on the show Star Trek: The Next Generation. Although rather dated, much of the material and imagery used in the show is very good even by today's standards. The show ran from 1987 to 1994, seven seasons in total. The show was a brilliant piece of art both in terms of the subject matter they covered as well as the manner in which it was presented in terms of color, presentation, concepts and ideas. The show is rated a very high 8.7 on the International Movie Database (IMDb) website (IMDb). This brief report shall cover some aspects of the show, what made the show so good and the adeptness in which they blended the script, the imagery and the characters into a cohesive storyline. hile Star…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Claremont. "The Politics of Star Trek." Claremont.org. N.p., 2016. Web. 15 Feb. 2016.

IMDb. "Star Trek: The Next Generation (TV Series 1987-1994)." IMDb. N.p., 2016. Web. 15 Feb. 2016.

IMDb. "The Day the Earth Stood Still (1951)." IMDb. N.p., 2016. Web. 15 Feb. 2016.

Schneider, Bernd. "Ex Astris Scientia - Space Art in Star Trek: The Next Generation." Ex-astris-scientia.org. N.p., 2016. Web. 15 Feb. 2016.
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Japan Religion

Words: 1955 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5506612

Confucianism the Major Religion of Japan?

Religion is a cultural phenomenon and institution that involves specific behaviors and practices. Religion has been present for a great deal of human history. Religion is concerned with beliefs. Belief is a powerful tool in a person's life. People live their lives in conjunction with and in support of their beliefs. There are ways to interpret and pinpoint the ways in which religion and beliefs manifest in a culture. This paper will contemplate Japan and religion. The paper will consider what religions are present in Japanese history. With specific focus on Confucianism, the paper will ask if Confucianism is the major religion of Japan; whether it is or not, the paper will render an understanding as to why.

Confucius, an important figure in Chinese history, created Confucianism. Confucius was a political figure, educator, and founder of the Ru school of Chinese thought (Stanford: 2006).…… [Read More]

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Science Has Played on Religion

Words: 892 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Annotated Bibliography Paper #: 84131556



Einstein, A. "Religion and Science." Retrieved August 19, 2013, from http://www.sacred-texts.com/aor/einstein/einsci.htm

This article is intriguing because it was written by one of history's most renowned scientists with the purpose of clearing the mystery concerning the conflict between religion and science. Einstein was a convinced scientists, but this did not prevent him from acknowledging situations when religion had assisted the world of science and from realizing that religion was in many cases responsible for influencing people to come up with logical explanations to particular events.

Ferngren, G.B. (2002). Science and Religion: A Historical Introduction. JHU Press.

This book presents a typical account concerning the relationship between science and religion. The fact that it uses thirty scholarly essays with the purpose to document the history of the topic while also introducing strong opinions supporting each of the two sides shows that the debate is still alive and that it is very difficult…… [Read More]

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Science and Religion

Words: 633 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 74169140

Science and religion: An introduction by Alister E. McGrath. Specifically it will discuss Newton's case of scientific discovery and the rise of Deism. Newton's case of geometry and physics illustrates the non-confrontational model of science and religion, and in fact, that model has its roots in the Deism that Newton's work helped create.

Deism believes that God did create the world, but that he is no longer in control of it, and it rose out of Newton's discoveries of gravity and other scientific methods that indicated the world was interconnected and dependent on details to continue to function. This relates to the non-confrontational model of science and religion, which believes that the two sides of the argument do not have to argue with one another, they can peacefully coexist, because all work, even the work of scientists who might not believe in religion, is God's work, and he oversees all,…… [Read More]

References

McGrath, A.E. (1999). Science and religion: An introduction. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, Ltd.
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Religion in Our Age The Writer Takes

Words: 1690 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 49337304

religion in our age. The writer takes the reader on an exploratory journey through the current stresses of the world and the ways that religion helps us deal with that stress. It also explores our need to believe there is more after we leave this life. There were three sources used to complete this paper.

The Critical Importance of eligion in Our Age

Throughout history religion has played an important role in the lives of its followers. Whether it was the era in which the church had a hand in every aspect of the parishioners' lives, or in more modern times when the religious faith serves as a blueprint for how people live their lives, spiritual faith has remained strong. eligion remains an important aspect of this age as well. The world is faced with terrorist threats, worldwide famine, and snipers picking off innocent women and children. These things are…… [Read More]

References

July 14 -20, 2002

http://uwadmnweb.uwyo.edu/RelStds/RT%20Jul%2014%202002.htm

The Pledge of Allegiance

Paul V.M. Flesher
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Religion in the God Part

Words: 655 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 77450263



The Humanistic Faith proposes neither a concept of deity nor a concept of Evil. We allow each individual practitioner to conceive of God in whatever way best suits their personality or cultural environment with the one caveat: that God never suggests that one person or group of people are superior or inferior to any other. Sexism and other social biases will not be tolerated by the Humanistic Faith.

Our rituals are simple but are constructed from a variety of worldwide sources. Influenced by Buddhism, we suggest that our practitioners examine the concept of the Four Noble Truths: the life is suffering, and that all suffering is caused by desire. To understand that pain is an integral part of life is, we believe, the doorway to genuine religious understanding. All living creatures suffer at some point and going through suffering with open eyes and a willing heart can help eliminate many…… [Read More]

References

Alper, Matthew. The 'God' Part of the Brain. Rogue, 2001.
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Religion and British Literature

Words: 1614 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 90394972

role of religion in the history of European society is a tumultuous one. Christianity, from its obscure beginnings in the classical age, eventually took the reins as the centerpiece of philosophical, literary, and scientific thought. It is true that religion, often, tends to justify actions that might objectively be perceived as incongruous to the established faith. It has historically been the case that when traditional forms of worship become threatened, morally questionable methods are undertaken to strengthen the order. This is certainly the case with Christianity. Since the birth of the Catholic Church in the Roman Empire, Church officials have actively attempted to make their privileged positions in society impervious to assault -- this process has progressed for centuries and, indeed, tens of centuries. For many years this single faith dominated nearly every aspect of European society and was a strong force in maintaining the status quo. However, the many…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

1. Haney, David P. "Christianity and Literature." Malibu, Winter Vol. 54, Iss. 2, 2005.

2. Mill, John Stuart. "Utilitarianism." Reason and Responsibility. New York: Wadsworth Publishing, 1999. Pages 571-77.

3. Shelley, Mary. "Frankenstein." The Norton Anthology of English Literature: Seventh Edition, Volume 2. New York W.W. Norton and Company, 2000. Pages 905-1033.

4. Wilde, Oscar. Literary Criticism of Oscar Wilde. Lincoln: Bison Books, 1968. Page, 233.
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Religion Shaped AMERICAN& 8230 How Religion

Words: 2067 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 68756801

evisionist historian often seek to find non-Christian association among the lives of the founding fathers, such as the Freemasons, and Humanism, yet it is clear that these organizations were not dominant to religion and that a strong Protestant ethic still reigned supreme, especially in the language of the foundational documents of the nation.

Fundamentalism

Fundamentalism has in fact created a more recent expression in modern America as churches attempt to "go back to the word" and support the idea that the scripture of the church is divine and unfailing. Though interpretations are varied in this group in general they espouse and return to "family values" via some "golden era" ideals regarding the past.

At its base, fundamentalism was compatible with the religiosity of the people, for both assumed the reality of supernatural power and the prevalence of supernatural forces at work in the world. By stressing such theological notions as…… [Read More]

References

Domke, D., & Coe, K. (2007). The God Strategy: The Rise of Religious Politics in America. Journal of Ecumenical Studies, 42(1), 53.

Harries, R. (2003). After the Evil: Christianity and Judaism in the Shadow of the Holocaust. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Lippy, C.H. (1994). Being Religious, American Style: A History of Popular Religiosity in the United States. Westport, CT: Praeger.

McDermott, R.A. (1993). The Spiritual Mission of America. Re-vision, 16(1), 15-25.
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Religion Used to Support Royal

Words: 2045 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 43907872

One god unites the nation, strengthens rulers authority much more than many different small gods who are popular in some local territories but not in the whole country.

Though religion was an important kind of rulers support, but it was not that important as strong army which was the main fulcrum of king's power in the country. Ruler was a commander in chief of all armed forces of a state and hardly ever allowed very close and reliable people to head the army.

To sum up the written essay I'd like to admit that Mesopotamia was a very developed and progressive country of the Close East and whole world. Its achievements were assimilated by many nations and even now we use those sciences which had appeared and developed in Mesopotamia. Mesopotamian civilization influenced all nations of ancient world, especially Persians, Egyptians, Jews, Greeks and even Arabic state of 8th century…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Moore, C. Balit, C. Ishtar and Tammuz: A Legend of Ancient Babylon Frances Lincoln Ltd.; (October 3, 1996)

Woodrow, R. Babylon Mystery Religion: Ancient & Modern Ralph Woodrow; (June 1, 1981)

Luckenbill, D.D. Ancient Records of Assyria and Babylon (Ancient Records) Histories & Mysteries of Man; Reprint edition (June 1, 1989)

Herodotus
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Religion In Frederick Streng's Discussion

Words: 845 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 49387875

Learning that we all believe in one force, yet a force that is represented with different entities and faith demonstrated through various traditions and practices, I have learned to reconcile these differences by just believing in a force, without any subsistence to religious names and labels and traditions.

As what I have discussed earlier, what used to be my religion was the belief I was exposed to since birth. However, as I grew up and became exposed to different forms of religions and beliefs in my society, I have learned to adapt to the diversity of religious philosophies extant by creating my personal philosophy. This personal philosophy is one that believes in a 'general force,' which is formless and not bound with the traditional practices. This force enables me to confide with an entity without any fear or limitations on what I can say or ask of it. It has…… [Read More]

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Religion and Religious Belief Modern

Words: 1717 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4630685

"

(Einstein, 1954)

The other universal concept shared among so many human religions relates to the fate of the individual (or of the individuals spirit or "soul"). Judeo-Christian religious traditions generally teach that a soul survives physical death and the eternal fate of that soul is substantially determined by the behaviors and choices of the individual in life (agan, 1997). Eastern religious traditions generally reflect a more general belief in the cycles of life and in multiple successive lives sharing a fundamental kernel of identity even if not exactly in the same form of soul as described in Western religions (Armstrong, 1993). Contemporary objective moralists would (again) suggest that any energies or thought in life about perpetual existence in another spiritual form of any afterlife is a waste of time.

ources Consulted

Armstrong K. (1993). A History of God. London: Heinemann.

Egner RE and Denonn LE. (1992). The Basic Writings…… [Read More]

Sources Consulted

Armstrong K. (1993). A History of God. London: Heinemann.

Egner RE and Denonn LE. (1992). The Basic Writings of Bertrand Russell. London:

Routledge.

Einstein a. (1954). Ideas and Opinions. New York: Crown
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Religion Sacred Music and Literature

Words: 2103 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 49985005

...social conditioning was effected in such a way, that any thing that was considered primal, pagan, or unchristian, was frowned upon... [leading to] persecution of the Druids, Witches, Gypsy, and Jewish cultures that still continues today." Curiously, it may be that very historical hostility towards the primal which has corroded the power of Catholic sacred music and turned new catholics and protestants alike against it.

In the Jewish ritual, music of all sorts has long played an important part. The majority of each service is sung. The Jewish Encyclopedia described the history of this tradition and describes the way that (in antiquity) the singers-of-songs were slowly absorbed into the priesthood because of the importance of their role. From the ancient days cantors (those who sing the Torah scriptures) have received tunes from their ancestors and embellished them to fit the present eras. Thus one can see in such Jewish rituals…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Brown, Karen McCarthy. "Drum Is the Ear of God: Africa's Inner World of Music." Harvet Moon. http://www.harvestmoon.net/Vodou/Articles/Women/women.html

Hull, Arthur. "RHYTHMACULTURE: The Birthing of American Rhythmaculture," Percussion Source Magazine, Spring 1997.  http://www.drumcircle.com/arthurian/rhythmaculture.html 

Jewish Encyclopedia (1901). archived at  http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/index.jsp 

Schiller, Benjie-Ellen. "Some notes on the future of Jewish sacred music." Union for Reform Judaism.  http://urj.org/worship/letuslearn/s9sacredmusic/
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Religion Comparing and Contrasting Vodou

Words: 2523 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 49455140

10).

oth religions are not technically held to be systems of belief by their adherents, but rather as systems of service or patronage to higher powers. The idea was present in African feudalism, but seems to be enhanced and highlighted in Creole religions by the slave experience. Seeking for a path away from the rule of cruel Europeans, African slaves turned to the rule of benevolent and helpful Orishas and Loas. Practitioners serve the demi-gods, and the demi-gods in turn serve the practitioners. The relationship between god and man is mainly business, although love and respect are also required. However, no true worship -- as a westerner would understand it -- is required; instead the Orishas and Loas are propitiated by sacrifices, and communicate their assistance mainly by oracles. In both Vodou and Santeria each Orisha or Loa is associated with a certain constellation of symbols, fetishes, sacrifices, and drum-rhythms…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. Olmos, Margarite Fernandez and Lizabeth Paravisini-Gebert Creole Religions of the Caribbean: An Introduction from Vodou and Santeria to Obeah and Espiritismo. New York: New York University Press. 2003. Print.

2. Filan, Kenaz The Haitian Vodou Handbook: Protocols for Riding with the Lwa. Vermont: Destiny Books. 2007. Print

3. Murphy, Joseph M. Santeria: African Spirits in America. Massachussets: Beacon Press. 1993, Print.

4. Stevens-Arroyo, Anthony M. "The Contribution of Catholic Orthodoxy to Caribbean Syncretism: The Case of La Virgen de la Caridad del Cobre in Cuba." Archives de Sciences Sociales des Religions 117 (2002): p.37-58. WesScholar. Web. 10 April 2010
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Science of Happiness 2007 the

Words: 606 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23691359

Ever since this time, many in psychological and social science arenas have taken for granted that people go back to a relatively stable happiness set point, even after experiencing apparently life-changing dealings.

There have been a rising number of researchers who are questioning whether that set point really exists. Some have recommended that in spite of people's resiliency, they do not inevitably go back to a specific level of happiness. Others have suggested that psychologists also need to take into account environmental impacts on happiness. In either case, people may be able to make a mindful choice to advance their well-being.

The long-term joy of happiness is often thought to be a set point of cognition. People who want to become happier should think about centering on altering their circumstances instead of their frames of mind. There is a certain irony because the other facets of happiness that are not…… [Read More]

References

Lamber, Craig. (2007). The Science of Happiness. Harvard Magazine, 26(30), p. 94.

Stambor, Zak. (2007). Is Our Happiness Set in Stone? Monitor on Psychology, 7, p. 37-38.
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Religion Culture and Politics

Words: 4336 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 7089373

Evans-Pritchard was the founder and first president of the Association of Social Anthropologists. His seminal work on indigenous, African tribes has preserved a unique perspective of primitive societies or societies that retain their aboriginal features even in modern times -- their mental processes more than the social constructs. This essay will present a societal perspective of the Azande tribes of southern Sudan. This research was conducted at a time when every Zande (singular for Azande) paid abeyance to either the British or the Arabs, whichever happened to wield influence at the time. The thesis of this essay: "The Azande society (as a whole) and each individual was driven by a quest to avoid the ill effects of witchcraft." The significance of witchcraft is necessitated by a unique context and definition. This entire essay is about defining societal ramifications of witchcraft among the Azande, which will make the meaning of witchcraft…… [Read More]

Morris, B. (1987) Anthropological Studies of Religion, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

SalemWeb (1992) The Salem Witch Trials 1692 December 17, 2002 at http://www.salemweb.com/memorial/default.htm

Tacitus (1877) The Agricola and Germania, Macmillan, London.
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Religion and the Crisis of the Self

Words: 767 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28402220

Secularization: The crisis as I see it

According to Kirwan (2012) the essential crisis in modern spirituality is the secular nature of modern political life, which demands a split between religious and civic existence. This is evident both on the right and on the left, although this is often framed as a liberal versus conservative issue. From a current sociological point-of-view, there seems to be increasing polarization both in politics and in religion. Conservatives complain about the need to provide birth control as part of company healthcare plans; inclusive concepts of marriage; and the teaching of evolution in schools. Liberal believers decry what they see as too much emphasis on material versus spiritual values in modern culture and policy. Despite the separation between church and state within the Constitution's Establishment Clause, people do not compartmentalize their religion away from their civic souls when entering the ballot box. ut Kirwan sees…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Kirwan, M. 2012. "Spirituality in politics." In The Bloomsbury Guide to Christian Spirituality.

Woods, Richard & Tyler, Peter (eds). Bloomsbury Press, London, pp.187-199.

Sweeney, James. 2008. "Revising secularization theory." The New Visibility of Religion: Studies

in Religion and Cultural Hermeneutics. Hoelzl, Michael and Ward, Graham (eds.) London: Continuum, pp. 5-29
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Science vs The Bible

Words: 697 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Book Report Paper #: 46070555

Bible & Depression

Depression is something that a lot of people suffer with in modern times and there is very much a tug-of-war between "modern science" and the Bible in terms of depression, how it should be dealt with and what actually makes things worse. The same can be said of the broader medical field as some people rely on faith alone rather than the "poison" and such of modern medicine. As with most things, neither extreme is wise and a middle ground that recognizes both science and faith should emerge. While it is possible to read too much into certain clips and phrases in the Bible, there are certainly portions and passages where depression certainly was pointed to or that almost certainly existed with or without mention.

Analysis

The passages about Adam and Eve are a good starting point when it comes to depression and negative feelings. Indeed, Adam…… [Read More]

References

Mayo. (2015, January 8). Depression (major depressive disorder). Retrieved January 8,

2015, from  http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/depression/basics/definition/con-20032977 

The Holy Bible: New international version, containing the Old Testament and the New

Testament. (1978). Grand Rapids: Zondervan Bible.
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Religion vs Medical Care

Words: 1118 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 79209275

Ethical Frameworks

The author of this report has been asked to assess the options and mandates that exist when it comes to a six-year-old child has apparent contracted a case of meningitis. The mother is a Christian Scientist that refuses medical care while the father seeks treatment along with an independent consult. The course of action that should be taken is to be derived from that. As part of this situation, there are a couple of deliverables that will be given. First, the ethical dilemma in question will be identified. Second, the decision-making model that is to be used will be identified. Third, how the dilemma would be resolved will be identified. Fourth and finally, the dialog that would exist with the parents would be explained and detailed. While the biological mother generally has the right to raise her child as she sees fit, her decision to withhold medical care…… [Read More]

References

Fox, M. (2015). Doctor to Legislators: Refusing Medical Care Isn't Religious Freedom. NBC News. Retrieved 4 June 2015, from  http://www.nbcnews.com/health/kids-health/doctor-legislators-refusing-medical-care-isnt-religious-freedom-n320031 

Hall, H. (2013). Faith Healing: Religious Freedom vs. Child Protection. Science-Based Medicine. Retrieved 4 June 2015, from  https://www.sciencebasedmedicine.org/faith-healing-religious-freedom-vs.-child-protection/ 

Law Info,. (2015). Health Insurance Resources: When Can a Parent Deny Medical Treatment to a Minor Child? - LawInfo. Resources.lawinfo.com. Retrieved 4 June 2015, from  http://resources.lawinfo.com/insurance/health-insurance/when-can-a-parent-deny-medical-treatment-to-a.html 

NIH,. (2015). Parental refusals of medical treatment: the harm principle as threshold for state intervention. - PubMed - NCBI. Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 4 June 2015, from  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15637945
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an explanation of the definition of'science

Words: 610 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56269917

Science is a “way of knowing,” meaning that it is one way of ascertaining the truth about the world. Although it is not the only way of knowing, it is the most reliable way of knowing the physical universe because it is based on systematic, rigorous methods of testing, experimentation, and calculated observations. According to the Union of Concerned Scientists (2017), science yields “unbiased and verifiable information to make important decisions,” (p. 1). The scientific method is used to acquire and analyze information. Using the scientific method, it is possible to test hypotheses again and again, to come up with verifiable and repeatable experiments that can yield factual and provable data.

The most important elements of the scientific method include observation, identification, description, investigation, and explanation. Observation is often the genesis of scientific inquiry. Observing an interesting, important, unique, or unusual phenomenon might lead to a hypothesis about why that…… [Read More]

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The Problems With Religion Analysis

Words: 2028 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Other (not listed above) Paper #: 14859022

eligion as a Social Phenomenon

eligion serves both a personal and a political function. As a personal phenomenon, religion can provide psychological and emotional sustenance, mitigate grief, and provide solace in the midst of existential crises. Similarly, religion can help people to resolve complex questions related to the nature of transcendental experiences ranging from love and sexuality to the sublimity of nature. We all have a sense of "wonder" that religion helps address in its own unique language, using rituals, exercises, or symbols (Palmquist). However, the personal dimensions of religion are completely distinct from the social and political dimensions of religion.

As a social phenomenon, religion serves some core purposes including creating and maintaining a community. People who are members of a specific religious community have access to the services and camaraderie of other members of that community. Moreover, religion provides a sense of identity -- not only personal but…… [Read More]

Religion is definitely about the search for meaning. Even the non-deity religions like Buddhism encourage meditation in order to realize the deeper meaning of life. Moreover, all religions do have some ethical or moral component to the teachings. Yet it is apparent that religion is not necessary for moral maturity. Even Socrates understood that religion was an inferior means of gaining understanding and truth, which is why he was poisoned. Plato wrote about the death of Socrates partly as a warning against fundamentalism. The current trend of radical, militant Islam is a frightening one. It seems anachronistic to have so many people committed to a deadly movement like ISIL and any other terrorist group. Killing in the name of religion seems hypocritical to most people in the world, but to the believers, killing is believed to be their "duty" in serving God.

4. Lauren

It is true, there is no such thing as a "pure" religion, which is why it is ridiculous to try and devise the "correct" interpretation of any religious text. Christianity has gone through many divisions, ideological battles, and schisms in its 2000 years of history. The same is obviously true for Islam. If there is to be any value in religion, it must come from a genuine humanistic outlook. A humanistic outlook would allow all religious views to coexist. Differences in belief should not cloud over the fact that most people want the same basic things: health, safety, and prosperity. Living together with 9 billion people on the planet means we need to be able to coexist peacefully and work together, but religion seems like a used to divide people. It is preferable to think critically and rationally than it is to fear the repercussions of not "believing" in someone else's ideology.
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Analyzing Religion and World History

Words: 1886 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93013865

eligion, World History

ise of China

It would not seem likely for the previous thousand years that not Europeans, but Indians and Chinese would take over the world by 2000 and that the Chinese would settle Australia and America rather than the people of Britain; except for the time of oman Empire, China was richer, more cosmopolitan and advanced than any other European place. For example, Hangzhou had a population of a million when it was the capital of China in the twelfth century and facts state that Guangzhou had more than two million foreign inhabitants that included Turks, Africans, Indians, Malays, Persians and Arabs. In comparison, Paris, which was the largest city in Europe in the 1400s, had a little more than a million inhabitants. China at that time cared about filial piety, religion, ancestors, education, arts, culture, honor and prestige, and money was not on top of the…… [Read More]

References

Ajami, F. (n.d.). The Other 1492: Jews and Muslims in Columbus's Spain. pp. 174-177.

Atkins, C. (2003). The Shrine of Islam's Tragic Divisions. History Today. November 2003. pp. 116-117.

Goodstein, L. (2006). Zoroastrians Keep the Faith, and keep Dwindling. The New York Times. pp. 122-123.

King, K.L. (1998). Women in Ancient Christianity - The New Discoveries. pp. 128-131.
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Islam Select a Religion Is Considered to

Words: 2127 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 594931

Islam

Select a eligion

eligion is considered to be belief and acts of worship, which concentrates on worshiping a deity and gives a detailed and comprehensive outline for the way of living. It teaches the difference between good and evil, right and wrong and morality and immorality. This paper has selected Islam as the religion to be discussed.

Analysis of Christianity

Analysis of Christianity

Analysis of Islam

eligion plays an essential role in providing spiritual, moral and ethical guidelines to individuals in order to apply it into their daily lives (Fisher, 2005). eligion is considered to be belief and acts of worship, which concentrates on worshiping a deity and gives a detailed and comprehensive outline for the way of living. It teaches the difference between good and evil, right and wrong and morality and immorality. There are several religions in the world, which includes Islam, Christianity, Buddhism, Hinduism and Taoism.…… [Read More]

References:

Fisher, M.P. (2005). Living religions (6th ed.). New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.

McInerney, W. (2003). Instructor's manual with tests: Living religions (5th ed.). New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.

Religion of Islam.(2009). Minnesota State University. Retrieved from http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/cultural/religion/islam/beliefs.html
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Relevance of Religion in Our

Words: 1518 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 33462969

If all people followed these teachings, many of the social evils in the society such as stealing from each other, killing, mugging, rape, revenge, jealousy, etc. Molloy, 2009.

Therefore, religion is extremely important since it guides our day-to-day lives. eligion is also an important source of law as evidenced in sharia law and Canon law which is commonly used in the determination of cases and also in development of Public law.

One important thing that should be kept in mind is that every person is different and that they give varying relevance to religion. The importance of religion can be evaluated in how a person lives their life. As always, the actions of the individual should be evaluated and not their words. As the old English adage goes, "actions speak louder than words."

eferences

Flood, G. (2012). The Importance of eligion: Meaning and Action in Our Strange World. New York,…… [Read More]

References

Flood, G. (2012). The Importance of Religion: Meaning and Action in Our Strange World. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.

Hyman, C., & Handal, P.J. (2006). Definitions and Evaluation of Religion and Spirituality Items by Religious Professionals: A Pilot Study. Journal of Religion and Health, 45(2), 264-282.

Iii, N.J.D. (2002). A Sinner among the Saints: Confessions of a Sociologist of Culture and Religion. Sociological Forum, 17(1), 1-19.

Marks, L. (2006). Religion and Family Relational Health: An Overview and Conceptual Model. Journal of Religion and Health, 45(4), 603-618.
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Catholic Religion Over the Last

Words: 1112 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 1961606

Of course, since these views are ased on those who are high-ranking memers of the church, Hennesey's narrative is somewhat iased, yet it does provide an excellent overview of many important topics related to American Catholicism.

Hurley, M. (2002). The unholy ghost: Anti-catholicism in the american experience.

Huntington, IN: Sunday Visitor Press.

In this carefully-documented study of prejudice against Catholics in the United States, Bishop Mark Hurley examines the entire history of prejudice from the 1700's and up to the present day. There are three sections to this work, eing 1776 to Vatican II, post-Vatican II and a final section which focuses upon the issue of aortion and how American Catholics feel aout this very controversial topic.

McAvoy, T.T. (1942). The catholic church in the United States etween two wars. Review of Politics, 4(4), 409-431.

Although somewhat dated, this essay examines in great detail and with much insight how the…… [Read More]

bibliography.

Redmont, J. (2002). Generous lives: American catholic women today. Liguori, MO:

Triumph Books.

In this excellent study of American Catholic women, Jane Redmont explores through a number of detailed chapters first-person accounts by women of all ages, nationalities, economic backgrounds and social standing related to their own personal experiences with the Catholic Church, some dating back to the early 20th century, and with reminiscences by both secular and members of the Church, especially nuns.

Thomas, J.D. (1987). A century of american catholic history. U.S. Catholic Historian,
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Is Einstein's Theory of Relativity Jewish Science

Words: 1025 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28950784

Einstein's Theory of Relativity Jewish Science?

This study examines the work of Gimbel (2012) entitled "Einstein's Jewish Science: Physics at the Intersection of Politics and Religion" and specifically pages 112-217 and seeks to answer the question of how the categorization of Einstein and others functions from a sociological perspective. This study seeks to answer as to if Einstein as a second-class Jewish citizen also resounded in the Jewish community itself and particularly among the Jewish intelligentsia and how important this is for understanding the nature of religion? This study will answer as to whether there are Jewish aspects to liberal universalism and if so what was found in the reading of Gimbel. Finally, this study will answer as to what was found to be most interesting and most insightful and what was found to be contentious in Gimbel's work.

Gimbel: Categorization of Einstein and Function from Sociological Perspective

Gimbel conducts…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Gimbel, S. (2012). Einstein's Jewish Science: Physics at the Intersection of Politics and Religion, Pages 112-217

Weinstein, D. And Zakai, A. (nd) Exile and Interpretation: Reinventing European Intellectual History in the Age of German Tyranny and Barbarism. (Or "How German-Speaking Jewish Intellectual Exiles -- Hans Baron, Karl Popper, Leo Strauss, Erich Auerbach -- Transformed Modern Intellectual History"). Retrieved from:  http://college.wfu.edu/politics/exileandinterpretation/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/Exile-and-Interpretation-manuscript2.pdf 

Zeve, Rosenkranz (2013) Steven Gimbel, Einstein's Jewish Science: Physics at the Intersection of Politics and Religion. The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science, Vol. 3, No. 1 (Spring 2013), pp. 160-164. Retrieved from:  http://www.einstein.caltech.edu/images/news/Rosenkranz%20review%20of%20Gimbel,%20Einstein 's%20Jewish%20Science.pdf
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Sociology -- Sociology of Religion

Words: 1771 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99126995

Finally, the rise of science and technology due to industrialization militated against institutionalized religion (Bruce, 2002, p. 18). As people became more educated and reliant on science and technology in their everyday lives and work lives, religious disagreements with science and led people to abandon institutional religions as unscientific and backward. People knew that science and technology worked; therefore, religious arguments against science and technology tended to be rejected. In sum, the religious and secular teachings of the Protestant Reformation caused people to move toward greater secularization for religious, economic, social and intellectual reasons.

3. Conclusion

The Protestant Reformation significantly contributed to both Capitalism and Secularization in the est. By eliminating or reducing the Roman Catholic Church's underpinnings, including the Sacraments and obedience to Church authorities for salvation, the Reformation caused individuals to search here on earth for signs that they were saved and to rely on themselves rather than…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bruce, S. (2002). God is dead: Secularization in the west - (Religion and spirituality in the modern world). Malden, MA: Blackstone Publishing, Ltd.

Stepan, a.C. (October 2000). Religion, democracy, and the "twin tolerations." Journal of Democracy, 11(4), 37-57.

Weber, M.A. (2003). The Protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, Inc.
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Role of Religion What Is

Words: 2595 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 20493195

The ruling stated that, since the moment of silence was for the purpose of advancing religion, it was unconstitutional. This was evidently a case-specific ruling however, and the fact is that the Court has not ruled that this moment of silence may always be unconstitutional. There are multiple court rulings in other jurisdictions that have ruled the moment of silence allowable if it passes the test of not advancing religion.

Can a student say a prayer at a school graduation ceremony? The Supreme Court has not ruled that student-led non-sectarian prayer is not allowed at public school graduation ceremonies.

The question remains open and has been decided on a case-by-case basis. It cannot be encouraged by school officials, and prayers delivered by clergy have been ruled unconstitutional.

However, prayers at public school baccalaureate services are constitutional as long as the ceremony is distinct and separated from the graduation ceremony and…… [Read More]

Bibliography

ADL. (2009). Religion in public schools: Evolution vs. creationism. Retrieved November 17, 2009, from Anti-defamation league (ADL):  http://www.adl.org/religion_ps_2004/evolution.asp 

Boston, R. (2009, November). Prayers, preaching and public schools. Retrieved November 17, 2009, from Americans united for separation of church and state:  http://www.au.org/media/church-and-state/archives/2009/11/prayers-preaching-public.html 

Calefati, J. (2009, January 22). Religion in schools debate heats up. Retrieved November 16, 2009, from U.S. News and World Report: http://www.usnews.com/blogs/on-education/2009/01/22/religion-in-schools-debate-heats-up.html

Facing history and ourselves: Religion. (2009). Retrieved November 16, 2009, from facinghistory.org:  http://www.facinghistory.org/resources/facingtoday/43?tid=26&tid_1=2
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Christian Science Many of the Most Famous

Words: 711 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92983829

Christian Science

Many of the most famous scientists in world history also happened to believe in God: including Copernicus, Bacon, Kepler, Gallileo, and Newton ("Famous Scientists Who Believed in God," n.d.). These great scientists had no trouble reconciling their faith with their practice; their Christian beliefs with their research and investigations into the known universe. Yet science has morphed from an integrated realm of study to one that excludes religion from its ranks. It has become anathema to be a practicing Christian and a practicing scientist. It does not have to be; in fact, science and religion comfortably coexist and each can benefit the other.

One of the arguments against Christians being able to be good scientists is that they are too prone to personal bias. Sure, some Christians are prone to bias, but so is any scientist. Scientists are biased by their personal beliefs no matter where those beliefs…… [Read More]

References

Boyce, K.A. (2001). Do science and Christianity coexist? Bede's Library. Retrieved online:  http://bede.org.uk/boyce.htm 

"Famous Scientists Who Believed in God," (n.d.). Retrieved online:  http://www.godandscience.org/apologetics/sciencefaith.html 

Lloyd, R. (2008). God and evolution can co-exist, scientist says. Live Science. Retrieved online:  http://www.livescience.com/5195-god-evolution-exist-scientist.html 

Samuel, S. (2011). Can science, creationism coexist? Christian Post. June 19, 2011. Retrieved online:  http://www.christianpost.com/news/can-science-and-creationism-coexist-one-christian-author-says-yes-51315/
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Functionalist Perspective on Religion Stresses

Words: 374 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 94170640

them mentality' provoking social intolerance and social or potentially violent military conflict with a religious society's differently believing neighbors. At best religion stifles individual creativity within a society, as people become afraid to espouse alternative points-of-view. The development of the Christian religion that coincided with a rise in anti-Semitism, as Christians reacted with intolerance against a smaller, minority religion is one example, as might be the lack of dissent advocated with excessively homogeneous neighborhoods in the racially polarized South of the 1950's. Thus the conflict perspective stresses the ability of dearly held, intransient beliefs to create negative forms of conflict and to stifle positive forms of dissent and creative perspectives upon life that differ with the hegemonic view. Because religious worldviews cannot be questioned by logic, they become entrenched, and create more negative societal views and conflict with others who believe differently.

orks Cited

Curry, Tim; Jiobu, Robert; and Schwirian,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Curry, Tim; Jiobu, Robert; and Schwirian, Kent (2004). Sociology for the Twenty-first Century. Fourth Edition. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

See Curry et al.2002, p.384

See Curry et al. 2002 p. 381.
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History of Science

Words: 331 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 63316418

History Of Science

Islam has made enormous contributions to modern science. However, in the article "Science and Civilization in Islam," Seyyed Hossein Nasr discusses not necessarily how Islam impacted modern science, but rather, shows how science was viewed in the ancient Islamic world. The author talks about both religion and science in context and illustrates how spiritual beliefs affect the worldview of a culture. Because of Islam's rich tradition of scientific investigation, the article is important in understanding the entire history of science.

The history of science must include cultural and religious references like those presented in Nasr's article. Until fairly recently in human history, religion guided scientific thought. Politics have also played a major role in determining the role of science in a society. Even today, science is not exempt from religious and political influences. Therefore, Nasr's article and its main points offer valuable insight into the ways modern…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Nasr, Seyyed Hossein. "Science and Civilization in Islam." Online at .
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Islam Is a Religion of War and

Words: 719 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 31241930

Islam is a religion of war and hatred.

Islam

One cannot highlight too much the difference amid Islam, which is plain and Islam, with a fundamentalist version. Islam is the religion of approximately one billion people, as well as is a quickly increasing faith, predominantly in Africa but also elsewhere in the globe. The United States, for instance, boasts, approximately, a million converts to Islam (in addition, an even superior number of Muslim settlers).

Islam's believers find their faith hugely appealing, for the religion possesses an internal power that is quite astonishing. As a primary figure in the Islamic Republic of Iran maintains that any Westerner who really understands Islam will desire the lives of Muslims. Far from feeling embarrassed in relation to it's being temporally the last of the three major Middle Eastern monotheisms, Muslims considered that their faith progresses on the earlier ones. In their interpretation, Judaism, as…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Annemarie Schimmel. Islam An Introduction. State University of New York Press, 1992.

Islam is a religion of war and hatred
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What the Bible Says About Science and How the Utilitarians Would Have Viewed the Biblical View

Words: 1052 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 93850570

Biblical Views of Science, Technology, And Business

One of the more difficult aspects of trying to live a biblically-inspired life is that the Bible is, in many ways, a historical document. It was written thousands of years ago and describes events that are, in many ways, very unlike the challenges faced by modern human beings. This is particularly true in the 21st century, when modern science, technology, and business advances seem to be, at times, in direct opposition to the Bible or biblical teachings. That view ignores the basic underlying premise of the Bible, which is that it is both a historical document and a living document. As a living document, it has the ability to grow with the advances of mankind. In fact, it does not actually grow with mankind; on the contrary, as man's understanding expands to encompass more of the universe, as reflected in advances in science,…… [Read More]

References

Crampton, W.G. 1997. The biblical view of science. Retrieved September 2, 2014 from The

Trinity Foundation website:  http://www.trinityfoundation.org/journal.php?id=163 

Fooshee, G. 2014. 10 financial principles that are biblical. Retrieved September 2, 2014 from Back to the Bible website:  http://www.backtothebible.org/10-financial-principles-that-are-biblical.html 

Hibberd, P. Unk. To what extent is utilitarianism compatible with Christian theology? Discuss
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Philosophy Philosophy of Organized Religion

Words: 1332 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54043828

Smith's view seems to play out in the comparison of a state such as Iran, which imposes Muslim religious beliefs on its citizens, and that is extremely rigid and zealous in those beliefs, which impose strict religious control over households and especially women. Compare that with a country like the United States, which is more moderate and reasonable, and open to new religious beliefs.

Some experts believe that diversity is another reason religion plays a role in moderate, reasonable societies. Author Barro continues, "A greater diversity of religions available in a country or region is thought to promote greater competition, hence a better quality religion product, and therefore higher religious participation and beliefs" (Barro). In a country with only one supported religion, tolerance and quality are not part of the equation, adherence and rules are the most important, and that does not give any tolerance for any diversity or competition…… [Read More]

References

Barro, Robert J. "Spirit of Capitalism: Religion and Economic Development." Harvard International Review 25.4 (2004): 64+.

Cimino, Richard, and Don Lattin. Shopping for Faith: American Religion in the New Millennium. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2002.

McCleary, Rachel M. "Religion and Economic Development." Policy Review (2008): 45+.

Rossi, Phillip. "Kant's Philosophy of Religion." Stanford University. 2005. 8 May 2009.
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History of Religion Historians of

Words: 1185 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 46681579

As Tapper (1995) points out, the three major approaches of Western social theory are each "flawed by their commitment to positivism, objectivity, and scientific detachment," (p. 186). Some may wonder how it could be possible to study religion with scientific detachment, since scientific detachment is partly defined by the absence of religious sentiment. If a historian is too detached, he or she cannot come to terms with the language best used to understand any given tradition: for example the "body" of Muhammad and the Prophet's tribe. Denying relevance of mystical experiences, subversive or minority views, or even non-linear representations of history would be doing a disservice to the history of religion. A scholar doesn't necessarily have to spend time in a monastery to understand Zen but it wouldn't hurt. Encounters with terms and ideologies add the missing semantic value that can make a history of religion whole and truly meaningful.…… [Read More]

References

Tapper, R. (1995). 'Islamic anthropology' and the 'Anthropology of Islam'. Anthropological Quarterly. 68(3): 185-193.

Varisco, D.M. (1995). Metaphors and sacred history: the geneaology of Muhammad and the Arab 'Tribe'. Anthropological Quarterly. 68(3): 139-156.