Scientific Method Essays (Examples)

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Scientific Thinking in Personal Beliefs

Words: 633 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7108522

In one culture that may mean a single omnipotent consciousness that is aware of human thoughts and behavior and that responds to our wishes and prayers. In another culture, the concept of "God" may refer to something entirely different, such as a multitude of different Gods such as those of the Ancient Greeks. The only way for two individuals with different specific beliefs that are inconsistent with one another to determine who was right would be through scientific testing.

The Affirmative Burden of Logical Proof

Many types of beliefs (including beliefs in Gods) may be incapable of ever being tested empirically. Nevertheless, another more general aspect of scientific reasoning is highly useful in that regard. Namely, the beginning point for any 'scientific" discussion of ideas must be that nothing is true ab initio ("from the start") or a priori ("from the former"). In scientific reasoning, one must always begin any…… [Read More]

Reference

Feynman, M. (2005). Perfectly Reasonable Deviations: The Letters of Richard

Feynman. New York: Basic Books.
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Scientific Theory in Scientific Investigation

Words: 2513 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91974570

Once again, time is an indicator. When a significant amount of evidence for a theory is readily available, the theory tends to be older and concomitantly more accepted by the scientific community. If there are significant gaps in the evidence, the theory can benefit from further investigation.

The same is true of the complexity level of the theory is not very high. More components can then be added by further investigation.

A theory can also be evaluated according to its ability to serve as an indicator of future phenomena. This makes a theory applicable to further scientific investigation, and furthermore also allow for further development in the theory itself. If the theory is for example a consistently accurate predictor of future events or phenomena, it can be viewed as valid. If it however proves inaccurate in one or some of its predictions, further evidence and modifications will be necessary.

Furthermore,…… [Read More]

Sources

BBC. Science and Nature: What is psychology? Oct, 2008.  http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/humanbody/mind/articles/psychology/what_is_psychology.shtml 

Carter, J. Stein. The Scientific Method. Nov. 4, 2004. http://biology.clc.uc.edu/Courses/bio104/sci_meth.htm

Theory Evaluation. 2008.  http://arti.vub.ac.be/memos/AI-Memo-93-07/subsubsectionstar4_2_3.html 

Wilson, Jerry. Scientific Laws, Hypotheses, and Theories. 2007.  http://www.wilstar.com/theories.htm
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Scientific Approach to Knowledge Is Generally an

Words: 1263 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43602049

scientific approach to knowledge is generally an expansion on the common-sense everyday approach, by which individuals seek the truth. For example, both the scientific and the everyday approaches to knowledge entail successive and related stages of observation, reporting, concepts, instruments, measurement, and hypotheses. The scientific method is usually far more formal and rigid than the general, everyday approach to knowledge because of the necessary rigors of the sciences.

If an ordinary individual sees a flower she has never before seen, she will probably approach it for a closer look. A scientist would also approach the flower to examine it. Next, both scientist and layperson use as many senses as possible to observe the flower. Observation means not just watching with the eyes, but also listening, smelling, touching, and being aware of the surrounding environment. In the everyday approach, the person might ignore that which the scientist would observe, such as…… [Read More]

Works Cited

'Operational Definition." Wikipedia. 2005. Online at .
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Scientific Inquiry Into Extraterrestrial Life

Words: 2388 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83384088

Furthermore, he argues, a technological culture is not an inevitable feature of human evolution. If other cultures had achieved ascendancy, then science and technology would not have emerged as a reference point for measuring intelligence. SETI's requirement for an almost identical technology, although scientifically understandable, is based on an impoverished concept of intelligence.

According to Munevar, the development of a scientific culture, with access to radio communication, is highly contingent, requiring a number of lucky breaks from the environment and human natural and social history. In this context Munevar cites the development of mammalian intelligence. It is widely believed that the dinosaurs were wiped out by the immediate effects of an asteroid or cometary impact or possibly volcanic eruption. But mammals who survived the years of darkness caused by the dust of the impact or eruption then evolved to occupy the niche held by the dinosaurs. If the dinosaurs had…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Lamb, D. Discovery, Creativity and Problem Solving, Aldershot: Ashgate. 1991

Lamb, D. Crop patterns and the greening of Ufology, Explorations in Knowledge, XI, 2: 12-46. 1994

Munevar, G. Radical Knowledge, Aldershot: Avebury. 1981

Munevar, G. Extraterrestrial and human science, Explorations in Knowledge, VI, 2: 1-8. 2005
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Methods of Instruction and Intervention

Words: 1655 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56250778

proponents of evidence based instruction represent one end of the methods of teaching continuum where practices that have been tested empirically using rigorous research designs are considered to be the only valid method of instruction (Odom et al., 2005). On the other end of the spectrum are methods that may be have some basis for use such an intuition, theory, etc. But have not been subject to empirical scrutiny are considered valid to use. Evidence based instruction or scientific research-based instruction consists of instructional practices or programs for which empirical data have been collected to determine the effectiveness of the program (Odom et al., 2005). In these types of practices/programs rigorous research designs have been conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the practices. Such research designs can include randomized, controlled trials; quasi-experiments; single subject designs; correlational methods, and/or qualitative research. The most empirically sound designs, randomized controlled experiments, are used…… [Read More]

References

August, D., & Shanahan, T. (Eds.). (2006). Executive summary. Developing literacy in second- language learners: Report of the National Literacy Panel on Language-Minority Children and Youth. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Condelli, L., & Wrigley, H.S. (2004). Identifying promising interventions for adult ESL literacy students: A review of the literature. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences.

Foorman, B.R., & Torgesen, J. (2001). Critical elements of classroom and small-group instruction promote reading success in all children. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 16, 203 -- 213.

Odom, S.L., Brantlinger, E., Gersten, R., Homer, R.H., Thompson, B., & Harris, K.R. (2005). Research in special education: Scientific methods and evidence-based practices. Exceptional Children, 71, 137-149.
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Scientific Theory and Intelligent Design

Words: 377 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75324902

classmates are ordinary citizens interested in science education. You have been assembled into an advisory group. The Virginia State Education Commission is drafting policy that will affect all school boards in the state. You are being protected in a secluded hotel from ACLU lawyers and right-wing demonstration groups. Here is your question: Is Intelligent Design theory scientific? The Commission is paying you thousands of dollars for a simple yes or no answer to this question. Such an answer may be unrealistic but court battles will follow. You need to get as close to a yes or no answer as possible!

As a group you have three reference sources:

• The course Presentation entitled "Origins, ID and the Public School Classroom"

• Two expensive expert witnesses: Michael Behe, a Lehigh University biochemist and Eugenia Scott of the National Center for Science Education. Your two expert witnesses come to you from presentations…… [Read More]

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Scientific Knowledge

Words: 2208 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11338397

Scientific Knowledge

There lies question on whether scientific knowledge is able to answer all the questions that relate to physical reality. For many years, people have wondered what the earth is composed of, leaving them wondering if the nature's secrets will one day be revealed (Grant 64). However, it is notable that since Galileo discovered the moon in 1608, there has been a remarkable move by his fellow scientists.

A lot of studies in science including the origin of the solar system, sonata of the stars, how matter changes to energy, and detailed works of an atom, among others has not fully exposed the science knowledge. However, the human culture seems to change with science. orldview patterns prove that complex systems studies by working from their smallest constituents meaning from bottom up. These paradigms also confirm that the laws of nature pounce from deep symmetry writs in to the basics…… [Read More]

Works cited

Berlin, I. Concepts and Categories New York: Viking Press, 2006

Davis, P. Cosmin Jackpot: Why Our Universe is Just Right for Life California: Houghton Mifflin 2007

Grant, EA History of Natural Philosophy: From the Ancient World to the Nineteenth Century. London: Cambridge University Press, 2007 pp. 62 -- 67

Gleiser, M. The dancing Universe: Creation Myths to the Big Bang New York: Continuum 2001
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Scientific Approaches to Hookup Culture

Words: 3934 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22341787

Scientific Approaches to Hookup Culture

On a practically day-to-day basis we are swamped with tales about the collapse of the current star marital relationship-- and cheating is usually the source of those who choose to separate. Is it even possible for 2 individuals to remain together gladly over a prolonged time frame? Since early evolution day, we've been informed that sexual monogamy comes normally to our types. However it does not and never ever has (yan and Jetha, 2010).

Mainstream science-- in addition to spiritual and cultural establishments-- has long propagated the belief that males and females progressed in nuclear households where a guy's possessions and defense were exchanged for a female's fertility and fidelity. However this story is breaking down; now more so than before. Less and less couples are marrying and divorce rates keep climbing up while adultery and flagging sexual libido drag down even relatively strong marital…… [Read More]

References

Abbey, A., Ross, L.T., McDuffie, D., & McAuslan, P. (1996). Alcohol and dating risk factors for sexual assault among college women. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 20, 147 -- 169.

Armstrong, E.A., England, P., & Fogarty, A.C.K. (2009). Orgasm in college hookups and relationships. In B.J. Risman (Ed.), Families as they really are (pp. 362 -- 377). New York, NY: Norton.

Backstrom, L., Armstrong, E.A., & Puentes, J. (2012). Women's negotiations of cunnilingus in college hookups and relationships. Journal of Sex Research, 49,1 -- 12.

Bisson, M.A., & Levine, T.R. (2009). Negotiating a friends with benefits relationship. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 38, 66 -- 73.
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Scientific Progress Scientific Responsibility Nuclear

Words: 996 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94001606

In fact:

In the months following the accident, although questions were raised about possible adverse effects from radiation on human, animal, and plant life in the TMI area, none could be directly correlated to the accident. Thousands of environmental samples of air, water, milk, vegetation, soil, and foodstuffs were collected by various groups monitoring the area. Very low levels of radionuclides could be attributed to releases from the accident. However, comprehensive investigations and assessments by several well-respected organizations have concluded that in spite of serious damage to the reactor, most of the radiation was contained and that the actual release had negligible effects on the physical health of individuals or the environment. (United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission).

hile the Three Mile Island incident did not cause the same type of damage as Chernobyl and the destruction from Chernobyl was less than people initially believed it would be, it is clear…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Kinley, D, Ed. Chernobyl's Legacy: Health, Environmental, and Socio-Economic Impacts and Recommendations to the Governments of Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine.

Chernobyl Forum: Vienna, 2006.

TXU Energy. "Nuclear FAQS." TXUCorp.com. 2008. TXU Energy. 8 June 2008 http://www.txucorp.com/power/faqs.aspx.

United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. "Fact Sheet on the Three Mile Island Accident."
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Scientific Theory in Psychology the

Words: 936 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86305141

So, just as the concept of Right has to have Wrong as its counterpart to be a truth, so does theory need evidence. Science is a method of understanding, it is an understanding of what exists, what we can determine that we know about these things, and the method by which we go about achieving that understanding. Thus, without evidence on either side of the theory, there can be no support for the theory therefore making that theory non-scientific.

The evaluation of a theory is the identification of the type of theory it is. Much like theories themselves that set out a parameter of evaluation of a measurable prediction about a particular behavior or set of behaviors, theory evaluation is the determination of the validity, structure, and use of the theory itself. Theories have two dimensions: parasitical (its reliance on other theories) and operationalizable (interpretations of the theory). The less…… [Read More]

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Scientific Report of Tufted Capuchin Monkeys San Diego Zoo

Words: 1265 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21763837

Scientific eport of Tufted Capuchin Monkeys in SanDiego Zoo

Behavioral Differences Between Male and Female Capuchin Monkeys in an Artificial Habitat

Studies have shown that the activity and energy of an animal can be determined through the collection of data and presentation as an activity budget (Altmann 1974, Tacha 1985). An activity budget collects specific behavior data over a predetermined time for an animal or population for analysis in the evaluation of a hypothesis. This study reports the differences in activity between males and females for a population of tufted capuchin primates living in an outdoor artificial habitat within a North American zoo. The hypothesis that there are differences in activity levels between male and females for this population is confirmed for the duration of observation in this study. More study would be required to determine the effects of weather, seasonal variation, and daytime verses nocturnal behavior.

Introduction

The tufted…… [Read More]

References

Altmann, J. 1974. Observational study of behavior: sampling methods.Behaviour 49:227-267.

Bobick, J. 2004. The Handy Biology Answer Book New York, Visible Ink Press 141.

Bohn, K. 2012. Photography Credit, copyright San Diego Zoo

Di Bitetti, M.S. Janson, C.H. (2001) Social foraging and the finder's share in capuchin monkeys, (Cebus apella), Animal Behavior 62, 1, 47-56
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Scientific Approaches to Learning Behavior

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15172684

The idea of cross-species language remains somewhat controversial. On one side, proponents say that certain hominids and cetaceans have been able to learn sign or verbal language; on the other hand, skeptics say these individual examples are mimicry. Cetacean experts believe that there is a unique and verifiable language that whales, dolphins, etc. use to communicate emotion with one another; certain insects use chemicals to communicate, as well as motion (think of a bee hive, the dance telling the hive where a new set of flowers is located). However, the perception of language as communication is one thing -- yes, animals communicate, emotionally pets seem to know when we are happy or sad, or needy. There is evidence that chimpanzees who are taught sign language can come up with independent thoughts (weaving of disparate signs into something new). However, the jury is still out scientifically regarding actually learning of human…… [Read More]

3. Creative thinking is one of the ways in which human beings are able to separate themselves from other animals and to actualize. Animals can be curious, but whether that curiosity has memory, or deeper implications of "what if," in the future, or synthesizing disparate materials into something new is still debatable. There is a wonderful book series by Roger Von Oech that asks us to continue to develop creative thinking within our daily lives in order to keep our brains functioning well and robust (Von Oech, 1973, 1986). There are several questions about innate human nature that are personally fascinating: 1) Why do myths and legends seem to resonate throughout the ages? 2) What is about certain music, art or literature that seems to transcend human emotions and make us feel actualized? 3) Is there a neurochemical relationship to emotions, and if so, how did it develop within the human psyche?

4. The idea of cross-species language remains somewhat controversial. On one side, proponents say that certain hominids and cetaceans have been able to learn sign or verbal language; on the other hand, skeptics say these individual examples are mimicry. Cetacean experts believe that there is a unique and verifiable language that whales, dolphins, etc. use to communicate emotion with one another; certain insects use chemicals to communicate, as well as motion (think of a bee hive, the dance telling the hive where a new set of flowers is located). However, the perception of language as communication is one thing -- yes, animals communicate, emotionally pets seem to know when we are happy or sad, or needy. There is evidence that chimpanzees who are taught sign language can come up with independent thoughts (weaving of disparate signs into something new). However, the jury is still out scientifically regarding actually learning of human language -- but the question may also be -- can humans learn to communicate with animals in their language? (Rumbaugh and Washburn, 2003).

5. Argument by anecdote is a method of proving one's point by using stories that may be personal recollections, hearsay, or other popular myth. One of the problems with using this format is that each person may have a different anecdote. Stories, we know, can be entertaining, but can also perpetuate like a rumor, once through the crowd, it has changed and become something more than it ever was. One popular example of argument by anecdote is in some of the dubious claims from the non-regulated
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Scientific Thinking and Scientific Skepticism

Words: 1936 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92833628

Scientific Thinking and Scientific Skepticism

It isn't easy to define psychology. Nonetheless, the general understanding of psychology is that it a scientific study of behavior, the mind and the brain. As a discipline, it spans several levels of analysis. A thorough understanding of psychology cannot be achieved by looking at just a single level of analysis since every level has a different set of knowledge and view point (Lillienfied, Lynn, Namy & Woolf, 2011).

Lilienfield, Lynn, Namy and Woolf (2011) are of the opinion that scientific thinking gives us skills to overcome our prejudices and biases which can distort our perception and make us ignore evidence that go against our line of thinking. Six scientific principles of thinking are particularly vital when one wants to study psychology. The first one is "Extraordinary Claims" which was proposed by David Hume, a Scottish Philosopher who lived in the 18th century. David Hume…… [Read More]

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Criminal Science Applying the Scientific

Words: 1382 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30620261

At the same time, there is a different element introduced in the pursuit of forensic science that is not dealt with in other branches of scientific inquiry. As the question of justice is also central to any forensic proceeding, the suspect's account of events and/or hypothesized explanations for observations must also be taken account (Young 2009). In this way, both verification and falsification can be used during experimentation.

Before these experiments take place, however, the predictions must lay out a way to clearly identify the expectations of the experiments, as well as a way the methods by which they should be conducted. Several predictions can usually be made rather quickly after the hypothesis that are fully testable and easily determined. Based on hairs found at the crime scene, for instance, it could be predicted that skin found under the victim's fingernails was of the same DNA as the on-matching hairs…… [Read More]

References

Palmer, G. (1998). "Forensic Analysis in the Digital World." Accessed 16 November 2009. http://74.125.155.132/search?q=cache:mSArrV3VjMQJ:www.utica.edu/academic/institutes/ecii/publications/articles/9C4E938F-E3BE-8D16-45D0BAD68CDBE77.doc+forensics+scientific+method&cd=7&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us&client=safari

Shodor. (2009). Forensic Science. Accessed 16 November 2009.  http://www.shodor.org/workshops/forensic/ 

Vogt, W. (2009). "Forensic investigation." Paradigm. Accessed 16 November 2009.  http://www.paradigmconsultants.com/content.asp?secnum=60&pid=73 

Young, T. (2009). "Forensic Science and the Scientific Method." Heartland Forensic Pathology. Accessed 16 November 2009.  http://www.heartlandforensic.com/writing/forensic-science-and-the-scientific-method
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Intelligence the Role of Scientific

Words: 2772 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38343941

More and more deep analysis can clarify the internal dynamics of the matter being studied, and in the long run to prediction, known as estimation. The reason for intelligence analysis is to make known to a precise decision maker the necessary significance of selected target information. Analysts should start with established facts, apply specialist knowledge in order to produce plausible but less certain findings, and even predict when the forecast is appropriately qualified. Analysts should not, however, engage in fortune telling that has no foundation in fact (Heuer, 1999). Not only is it poor science to claim absolute truth, but it also leads to the kind of destructive and distrustful debate we've had in last decade about global warming. The history of science and technology suggests that such absolutism on both sides of a scientific debate doesn't often lead to practical solutions (Botkin, 2011).

In the arrangement of science there…… [Read More]

References

A Compendium of Analytic Tradecraft Notes. (1997). Retrieved from http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/cia/tradecraft_notes/contents.htm

Botkin, D.B. (2011). Absolute Certainty Is Not Scientific. Retreived from  http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052970204630904577058111041127168.html 

Clauser, J. (2008). An introduction to intelligence research and analysis. Lanham, Maryland:

The Scarecrow Press.
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Mixed Methods Primary and Secondary

Words: 1738 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31406654

Quantitative research uses survey, and questionnaires to collect data. Through quantitative analysis, a researcher is able to correlate mass data to the research findings. Despite the benefits identified in both quantitative and qualitative research, the paper identifies some shortcomings in both research methods. To address these shortcomings, the paper proposes mixed methods that involve combining both quantitative and qualitative research.

eferences

Bryman, A. (1984). The Debate about Quantitative and Qualitative esearch: A Question of Method or Epistemology? The British Journal of Sociology, 35,(1): 75-92.

Burney, S.M.A (2008). Inductive and Deductive esearch Approach. Department of Computer Science. University of Karachi.

Hanson, J.L. (2011). Qualitative esearch Methods for Medical Educators. Academic Pediatric Association.11(5):375 -- 38.

Henderson, J. (2011). Primary and secondary sources, IthaCha College Library.

Firestone, W.A. (1987).Meaning in Method: The hetoric Quantitative and Qualitative esearch. Educational esearcher.19(7):16-21.

Goodwin, W.L. Goodwin, L.D. (1996). Understanding qualitative & quantitative research in early childhood education.…… [Read More]

References

Bryman, A. (1984). The Debate about Quantitative and Qualitative Research: A Question of Method or Epistemology? The British Journal of Sociology, 35,(1): 75-92.

Burney, S.M.A (2008). Inductive and Deductive Research Approach. Department of Computer Science. University of Karachi.

Hanson, J.L. (2011). Qualitative Research Methods for Medical Educators. Academic Pediatric Association.11(5):375 -- 38.

Henderson, J. (2011). Primary and secondary sources, IthaCha College Library.
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Science What Are the Steps of Scientific

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12724373

Science

What are the steps of scientific method? What good is it? Does it prove anything? What's a variable? What a control vs. An experimental factor? What makes a good experiment?

Steps of scientific method:

Ask a question

Do background research

Construct a hypothesis

Test your hypothesis

Analyze your data

f. Communicate your results

The scientific method is good because it allows other scientists to repeat your experiment and all researchers to use the same method of investigation.

A variable is the thing in an experiment which varies from subject to subject.

A control in an experiment is the thing that remains the same. Experimental factors are the factors that are being tested and are changing.

e. Good data and accurate experimentation make a good experiment.

How does evolution explain the diversity of life we see today? What is natural selection and how does it work? What do we mean…… [Read More]

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Mixed Method Qualitative Quantitative Mixed Methodologies Quantitative

Words: 728 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50233499

Mixed Method

Qualitative, quantitative, mixed methodologies

Quantitative, qualitative and mixed methodology research

Quantitative methodologies tend to be data-driven in nature. The presumption of the correct 'way of knowing' in quantitative research is positivistic in nature. It is assumed there is an objective, concrete truth that can be learned through empirical observation and the careful construction of an experiment. Quantitative methods of research often use the scientific method or quasi-scientific methods of study design. The researcher has a clear idea of the phenomenon he or she is attempting to study. The researcher's primary tools include questionnaires, objective measurements and other methods of gathering statistical results. Often there is a control group to see if the results are statistically significant in nature. The study is carefully designed before the research takes place to isolate specific variables of inquiry and its focus of study is narrow, rather than broad. The types of knowledge…… [Read More]

References

Neill, James. (2007). Qualitative vs. quantitative research. Retrieved:

http://www.wilderdom.com/research/QualitativeVersusQuantitativeResearch.html

The qualitative vs. quantitative debate. (2012). Writing at CSU. Retrieved:

 http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/research/gentrans/pop2f.cfm
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Taylorism Scientific Call Centre Management

Words: 3958 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19006947

Taylorism' / 'Scientific management.'

Introduction to the Evolvement of Management Theory during the 19th and 20th Century

With the coming of the Industrial age at the turn of the Century, and a new era, came the need for more efficient management techniques. Several Classical Theories evolved during the early years of this discipline. Fordism arose from a synthesis of the other earlier theories. Fayolism philosophy included close communication between bosses and workers. Taylorism developed a theory known as "Scientific Management" to study and set appropriate work quotas based on research. Lillian Gilbreth believed that workers were motivated by both direct and indirect motives. Arthur Gantt developed a task chart to help monitor and plan projects more efficiently.

After the Classical theorists, the Human Relations Movement began to take into account the reasons for individual responses. The first of these theorists was George Elton Mayo who conducted experiments at the General…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Website information for citation:

Accel-Team.Com, (2000) Scientific Management: Frederick Winslow Taylor [online]. Available at http://www.accel-team.com/scientific/scientific_02.html [Accessed 23rd November 2001].

Bibby, A. (2001) Organising in Financial Call Centres [online]. Available at  http://www.eclipse.co.uk/pens/bibby/ofcc4.html . Or  http://www.eclipse.co.uk/pens/bibby/hw-aa.html  [Accessed 12th June 2002].

Cantu, J. (1999) Taylorism viewed in its historical content [online]. Available at  http://www.stanford.edu/~cantu/FW.html  [Accessed 23rd November 2001].
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History of Human Civilization the Scientific Revolution

Words: 2161 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52464720

history of human civilization, the Scientific evolution emerged during the 17th century, which happened right after the enaissance Period. The Scientific evolution is the period in history wherein scientific methods and results where arrived at using experimentation and the use of scientific instruments such as the telescope, microscope, and thermometer (Microsoft Encarta 2002). The Scientific evolution is attributed to Galileo Galilei, who proposed that the universe and its elements can be explained mathematically, while subsisting to the fact the Sun is the center of the solar system. During the enaissance Period, Nicolaus Copernicus had declared that the Sun is the center of the solar system, but his declaration is only descriptive, while Galileo's declaration is verified through experimentation and the scientific method. This important distinction is the main reason why Galileo's time was considered the Scientific evolution, primarily because it uses the scientific method of research and experimentation.

Studies and…… [Read More]

References

Baber, Z. "Canada Research Chair in Science, Technology, and Social Change." 6 February 2003. University of Saskatchewan Web site. 16 April 2003 http://www.usask.ca/crc/profiles/baber.php.

History of Astronomy." Microsoft Encarta Reference Library 2002. Microsoft Inc. 1998.

Kaiser, T. "French Revolution." Microsoft Encarta Reference Library 2002. Microsoft Inc. 1998.

Shaffer, B. "Chaos in Space." 7 February 2003. LewRockwell Web site. 16 April 2003  http://www.lewrockwell.com .
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Human Resource Management Methods

Words: 991 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35517254

Human esource Management Methods

Traditional Annual Evaluation Method of Performance Appraisals vs. eal-Time Feedback Coaching Format

Performance appraisals take into account the assessment and evaluation of a person's performance in a methodical manner. It is a progressive technique employed for comprehensive development of the personnel and the organization as a whole. This performance is measured against various elements like quality and quantity of the output, job competence, leadership capabilities, supervision and versatility. Once such evaluations are made, employees can be trained and coached on what to be undertaken. On the other hand, real-time feedback coaching format takes into account the provision of opinion and response in an instantaneous way and therefore the coaching takes place immediately (Deb, 2009).

Comparison

There are aspects of similarity between these two methods of appraisal. To begin with, both methods are purposed to and give rise to change and coaching. Subsequent to the evaluation of…… [Read More]

References

Bell, R. L. (2011). Teaching present-day employees the value of scientific management. Supervision, 72(6), 5-8. Retrieved from https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=61927805&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Brooks, C. (2015). Forget Performance Reviews! This Works Better. Business News Daily. Retrieved from:  http://www.businessnewsdaily.com/7974-better-performance-reviews.html 

Deb, T. (2009). Performance Appraisal and Management. Excel Books India.

Impraise. (2016). Real-Time Feedback! Because Your Employees Hate the Annual Performance Review. Retrieved from: impraise.com/360-feedback/real-time-feedback-because-your-employees-hate-the-annual-performance-review
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Mixed Methods

Words: 573 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71583064

Prediction and Theory

There are several important components to a research study. First, a hypothesis examines a question or an idea before beginning a study. Next, a prediction suggests an outcome for a study. Finally, after the study has been carefully examined and has been tested multiple times using a wide variety of hypotheses, the results can be defined as a theory.

According to Cozby (2009), a hypothesis is "a type of idea or question: it makes a statement about something that may be true" (17). A hypothesis can be described as a speculative idea or query about why certain behaviors or situations occur. This question can then be either proven or disproven by collecting scientific evidence. Formulating a hypothesis is one of the first steps in developing a research study.

Prediction

Before beginning an experiment or conducting a study, a researcher will generate a prediction that suggests the most…… [Read More]

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Socratic Method of Questioning in Inherit the

Words: 764 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6894093

Socratic Method of Questioning in "Inherit the ind."

It is a truism, repeated in many crime shows as well as by many lawyers, that a good lawyer never asks a question unless he or she knows the answer to the question, much like the famous Greek teacher and philosopher Socrates. The method of Socratic questioning is thus one in which the lawyer or the instructor professes ignorance of the topic under discussion in order to elicit an engaged dialogue with students or witnesses, with a directed answer or rhetorical destination in mind. The questioning person feigns ignorance about a given subject in order to elicit another person's fullest possible knowledge of the topic under scrutiny -- or lack of knowledge, in the case of the play "Inherit the ind."

In the play "Inherit the ind," the defense attorney Drummond seems to engage in an apparently risky tactic. Drummond calls the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Lawrence, Jerome and Robert E. Lee. "Inherit the Wind." 1955.

"What is Socratic Questioning?" Science Education Resource Center at Carleton College. 2003.  http://serc.carleton.edu/introgeo/socratic/second.html  [1 June 2005]
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Proposing and Justifying a Research Method and Design

Words: 1766 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33133730

gender discrepancies in regards to African-American education. There has been a noticeable, growing increase of the presence of African-American women in undergraduate and graduate education while the gap between African-American males and females has widened. The dissertation will use a mixed methods, grounded theory perspective to determine why this is the case. The overall theoretical perspective of the work will be rooted in critical race theory and poststructuralist concepts.

Quantitatively assessed questionnaires and coded qualitative interviews will attempt to answer the question of why African-American male participation in higher education lags behind that of African-American females. These trends will be contextualized in the overall, larger trend of increased female participation as a whole on the undergraduate and graduate levels, to the point that women are now graduating in greater numbers than their male colleagues.

As well as research questions specific to the dissertation, the relative merits of qualitative and quantitative…… [Read More]

References

Charmaz, Kathy. (2003). Grounded theory. The SAGE Encyclopedia of Social Science Research Methods. Sage. Retrieved from:

 http://guides.temple.edu/groundedtheory 

The gender gap. (2012). Journal of Blacks in Higher Education. Retrieved from:

 http://www.jbhe.com/2012/03/the-gender-gap-in-african-american-degree-attainments/
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Business Research Methods Key Terms

Words: 615 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7395499



Q7. The survey should be demographically balanced: in other words, it should be representative of the consumers whose behavior the survey was designed to assess in terms of gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. The questions should be clear and simple, and free from misleading wording that could influence the results. The survey questions should be internally consistent -- in other words, responses that indicate wildly different views in the responses of the same individual raise questions about internal validity. There should be controls to prevent respondents from presenting themselves in an overly positive light. The survey should not draw overly broad conclusions, based upon what respondents were asked.

5a. The city should take public responsibility for its actions, stating that although it was trying to act in the best interests of the city, it crossed the line when it hired a private investigator to infiltrate the boating organization. Avoiding litigation…… [Read More]

References

Basic vs. applied research. (2009). Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

Retrieved January 12, 2009 at  http://www.lbl.gov/Education/ELSI/research-main.html 

ROI. (2009). Investopedia. Retrieved January 12, 2009 at  http://www.investopedia.com/terms/r/returnoninvestment.asp 

Trochim, William. (2006). Variables. Social Research Methods.
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psychology phenomenology descriptive qualitative methods

Words: 746 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33441726

Assignment 1
Phenomenological psychology focuses on the subjective experiences of individuals. The “founder” of phenomenology, Edmund Husserl presented a cohesive methodology and philosophical framework that laid the foundation for phenomenological psychology. One of the greatest challenges of phenomenological psychology is differentiating between the unique subjective experiences and perceptions of individuals and the need to discern an objective, shared reality. Phenomenological psychology is almost easier to define by what it is not: it is not about using the scientific method to study human behavior, and it is not about studying personality or psychoses. Rather, phenomenological psychology is about understanding the nature of reality itself, through an evaluation of both individual and collective human psychological experience. Husserl set forth principles for ontology in psychology as well as epistemology, which can be especially useful when studying the divergent experiences of those with psychotic disorders like schizophrenia, whose sense of reality is radically different…… [Read More]

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Social Sciences Quantitative Qualitative and Mixed Methods

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17281787

social sciences: quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods. However, there is another classification of research -- evaluation research -- frequently deployed in organizations. Evaluation research may make use of all of these different methodologies, even though it has a different goal than academic research. "The generic goal of most evaluations is to provide 'useful feedback' to a variety of audiences including sponsors, donors, client-groups, administrators, staff, and other relevant constituencies" (Trochim 2006).

In contrast to the use of the scientific method as in quantitative research, evaluation research is more intent upon offering practical data that can be used to maximize organizational resources and is specifically devoted to program evaluation. Some evaluation research does use standard qualitative methods in the tradition of the scientific method. However, an equally common approach is that of "management-oriented systems models. Two of the most common of these are PET, the Program Evaluation and eview Technique, and…… [Read More]

References

Trochim, W. (2006). Evaluation research. Social Science Research Methods. Retrieved:

 http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/intreval.php 

First Response:

The correlation between evaluation research and research methods are they are applications for research and they are also purposes of research (Laureate Education, Inc., 2009). Evaluation research and research methods are distinct in the manner that they specify a specific purpose. The correlation when using the research is that they all correlate together to distinguish a common reason, intent, goal, or idea which is used in acquiring knowledge (Laureate Education Inc., 2009).
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Scientific Observation That Distinguish it From Our

Words: 2109 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83022137

scientific observation that distinguish it from our everyday observation are that scientific observation is conducted using precisely defined observational conditions; by performing the observations systematically and objectively; and through keeping careful and accurate records.

Scientific observation, as opposed to everyday observations, must take place within certain well-defined parameters, whether in naturalistic or laboratory settings. Furthermore, the scientist does not choose the parameters arbitrarily but rather relies on such methods as sampling to conduct the observations and experiments in a way that renders them valid. For example, if a researcher wanted to examine the effects of watching violent video games on a child's behavior, he or she would first have to determine which video games would be deemed violent, and what specific behavioral affects to look for. An everyday observation of the same phenomenon would be far less precise.

Also, everyday observation can be passive and filtered through the individual's biases…… [Read More]