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Scenario 1: You come home after a long day at work and you flip on the light switch and nothing happens; light does not come on. Now what?
Miriam ebster's dictionary defines the scientific method as all of the "principles and procedures for the systematic pursuit of knowledge involving the recognition and formulation of a problem, the collection of data through observation and experiment, and the formulation and testing of hypotheses."
Ask a Question
Asking questions is an extremely important part of the scientific method and of scientific experimenting. It is actually perhaps the most important part of scientific research because everything else that is done is based on the question that is asked at the beginning of an investigation. All of the other components of the project will be to answer the question posed. Scientists have stated that "almost all scientific inquiry begins with an observation that…
Harris, W. (2012). How the scientific method works. Retrieved from http://science.howstuffworks.com/innovation/scientific-experiments/scientific-method.htm
Helmenstine, A. (2012). Scientific method steps: learn the steps of the scientific method.
Merriam-Webster, W. (2011). Merriam-webster. Retrieved from http://www.merriam-
cientific Method and Climate Change
One of the predominant changes occurring in the late 20th and early 21st centuries has been the manner in which economic, political and cultural movements have evolved to bring the world closer. This paradigm, globalism, tells us that a number of actions in modern life are connected, regardless of the political unit or geographic location of a country. Globalism shows us, however, that there have been a number of trends occurring over the last century, at least, that involve the manner in which industrial activities in one region have a negative effect on other regions -- sometimes globally (peth, ed., 2003).
How is it, though, that we can formulate both an argument or a way to validate claims made about global environmental issues? Of course, all research actions begin with a question since research is the process of answering unknowns. For research to be valid…
Brahic, C. (October 12, 2007). "Al Gore's An Inconvenient Truth: unscientific?" The
New Scientist. Cited in: http://www.newscientist.com/blog/environment/2007/10/al-gores-inconvenient-truth.html
Burroughs, William (2007), Climate Change: A Multidisciplinary Approach,
New York: Cambridge University Press.
Scientific method is a procedure that was developed over centuries to organize the steps in the procedures of scientific investigations. These steps were designed so that the results gathered by scientists would be considered to be verifiable and repeatable, and therefore correct. By using the scientific method, scientists use observations and hypothesis, in order to predict the outcome of an experiment, then conduct that experiment and draw conclusions from the observations of the experiment. ("Understanding and Using the Scientific Method") In other words, the scientific method observes something and formulates a problem associated with it, hypothesizes about it, tests that hypothesis through study and experimentation, observes the results of the experiment, and analyzes and draws conclusions from those experimental results. ("Gould, 2002, p. 52") The scientific method is not only useful for scientists and laboratories but something that can be applied to everyday situations.
In a situation where I arrive…
"Coronary Heart Disease" U.S. National Library of Medicine. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0004449/
Gould, Jay. (2002). Concise Handbook of Experimental Methods for the Behavior and Biological Sciences. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. Print.
"News About Cars, Oil, and our Environment." Retrieved from http://www.hybridcars.com/oil-environment
Rosenstiel, Tom, et.al. (2007). We Interrupt This Newscast New York: Cambridge UP.
Scientific method is a systematic method of testing hypotheses in research. The four steps are as follows: Step 1: "Observation and description of a phenomenon or group of phenomena" (Introduction to the scientific method, 2012, University of ochester). The scientific method begins with existing research, and builds upon the research of other individuals in the field and/or observation of a particular phenomenon. Step 2: " formulation of a hypothesis to explain the phenomena" (Introduction to the scientific method, 2012, University of ochester). The hypothesis is what is tested over the course of the experiment. It is specific, and not merely descriptive and is limited enough so that other variables that could cause the phenomenon can be eliminated. Step 3: "use of the hypothesis to predict the existence of other phenomena, or to predict quantitatively the results of new observations" (Introduction to the scientific method, 2012, University of ochester). Step 4:…
Healey, Melissa. (2012). Exercise benefits black girls less than whites. LA Times. Retrieved:
Introduction to the scientific method. (2012). University of Rochester. Retrieved:
The objective of this study is to examine the 'scientific method' of research. Towards this end, this study will examine the literature in this area of inquiry.
The scientific method of research involves specific steps including those of: (1) defining the question of research; (2) location of resources and gathering of information; (3) formulation of a hypothesis or hypotheses; (4) planning of research collection methods; (5) collection of data; (6) organization of data and analysis of data; (7) interpretation of data and drawing of conclusions; and (8) communication of the results of the research. (National Science Foundation Project, nd, p.1)
Defining the Question
This step involves narrowing down the potential topics and making a choice about the questions that are the focus of the research. The question must be a specific question and more information will have to be gathered prior to settling on the final question of…
Scientific Method Research: Limitations with People (2012) Research Assessment Adviser. Retrieved from: http://www.research-assessment-adviser.com/scientificmethodresearch.html
Scientific Method: A Guide to Basic Steps of Science (2012) Experiment Resources. Retrieved from: http://www.experiment-resources.com/
The Scientific Method: A Model for Conducting Scientific Research (nd) National Science Foundation Project. Retrieved from: http://depts.washington.edu/rural/RURAL/design/scimethod.html
Lighting periods and cycles should also remain identical for all plants. Results would be measured in weekly or bi-weekly intervals (depending on the growth rate of the plant used) by a leaf count according to hemispheric position -- that is, the plant would be "divided" into two halves, the one facing the light source and the one facing away, and the leaves per half would be counted -- as well as a measurement of the angle of growth as it deviates from the center of the compartment (plants would need to be centered in the soil for this measurement to be accurate, of course).
According to the scientific method, the results of any experiment cannot prove a hypothesis correct. But if it does not prove it incorrect, and the experiment was conducted in a logical and thoughtful way, the hypothesis will be supported by the experimental evidence. I believe that…
Scientific Method and "The Stone Tape"
Scientific Method and the Stone Tape
The scientific method is a procedure that was developed over centuries to organize the steps in the procedures of scientific investigations. These steps were designed so that the results gathered by scientists would be considered to be verifiable and repeatable, and therefore correct. By using the scientific method, scientists use observations and hypothesis, in order to predict the outcome of an experiment, then conduct that experiment and draw conclusions from the observations of the experiment. ("Understanding and Using the Scientific Method") In other words, the scientific method sees something, hypothesizes about it, tests that hypothesis through experimentation, and draw conclusions from those experimental results. It is used because it demands strict adherence to the steps, and therefore the results can be accepted as real and conclusive. However, many scientists do not always follow the scientific method, and because…
BBC The Stone Tape (1972). Retrieved from http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0069316/
"Understanding and Using the Scientific Method." (2011). The Science Project.
Retrieved from http://www.sciencemadesimple.com/scientific_method.html
The author of this short report is asked to review a series of six claims that are supposedly scientific and fact-based in nature and review them for efficacy and whether they can be support. The author has chosen the claim that no one has ever been abducted by aliens but instead thoughts and visions are beamed into their head (ogo, 1990). Under both the scientific method as well as proving a theory, this claim is specious and is unprovable on any real level. The author of this report will explain what is measurable, provable and neither of those things in the ensuing two pages.
The variable that is relevant to the alien abduction assertions are the thoughts relating to the supposed abduction. The operational definition of this variable is that these are thoughts or experiences that, while not physical, are a depiction of a…
Rogo, D.S. (1990). Beyond reality. Wellingborough, UK: Aquarian Press
ScienceBuddies.org. "Steps of the Scientific Method." Science Fair Project Ideas, Answers, & Tools. N.p., 18 Aug. 2013. Web. 18 Aug. 2013. .
This should be done 1-2 weeks before the experiment begins -- the goal is to have a full pot of grass that is at least 1" tall. Ensure that each pot has a FULL amount of grass growing to the edges of the pot.
Methodology -- Label each pot as 1, 2, 3 and 4. Note in lab book that 1 = control (use distilled water if possible, if not, untreated tap water), 2 = .1% solution, 3= 1.0% solution, and 4=5% solution. Prepare at least a quart of each solution by using 1/10th gram of salt per 100ml of water for 2, 1 gram per 100 ml for 3, and 5 grams per 100 ml for 4.
Begin experiment by adding 10 ml (5 onto soil and 5 into reservoir) every fourth day. Ensure that all pots are placed in a warm and sunny area, but not directly in…
Cary, S. (2003). A Beginner's Guide to the Scientific Method. New York: Wadsworth.
Swift, C. And Koski, a.J. (2007). Growing Turf on Salt-Affected Sites. Colorado State
University Extension Office. Retrieved from: http://www.ext.colostate.edu/pubs/garden/07227.html
We would graph as many of the observations as possible, then do graphs of initial and final observations.
Which type of salt will increase the boiling point of water the most Table, Epsom or Sea Salt?
State the Problem
The boiling point of water is one of the most unique changes that occur with a liquid becoming gas. When salt is added it will increase. This is because it has unique properties that allow it to withstand greater temperatures. However, there has been debate about which ones can endure the most amounts of heat to include: table, Epsom or sea salt. To fully understand what is the most effective, a study will be conducted that is comparing their impacts on the boiling point of water. This will highlight which one can endure the greatest amounts of pressure. (Cato, 2012)
Gather Information about the Problem
According to Moore (2010) the biggest differences between sea and table salt is the way they are processed. As sea salt is…
Cato, J. (2012). Heat Absorption Properties of Salt. E How. Retrieved from: http://www.ehow.com/info_8464613_heat-absorption-properties-salt.html
Eastman, B. (2011). Epsom Sale. Sky Walker. Retrieved from: http://skywalker.cochise.edu/wellerr/students/epsom/project.htm
Moore, D. (2010). The Significance of Salt. University of Oregon. Retrieved from: http://materialscience.uoregon.edu/ttsem/curriculum%20to%20share/The_Significance_of_Salt.pdf
Many people might be casual users of marijuana and not use hard drugs, thus the research must be structured to see if causality as well as correlation is established between hard drug use and using marijuana beforehand.
hat do you think about the argument raised in the "Are scientists wearing blinkers?" section of the eb page? How does this idea tie into you chapter's discussion of neutrality and politics in research?
Far from being blinkered, Josh udka states that most scientists are actually very willing to entertain unusual theories. He advances the concept that scientists would love to prove everyone else before them wrong, and become the new media darling who wins the next Nobel Prize. However, in the past, virtually every intellectual revolution in science has been quite hard-won, which the website acknowledges in its discussion of Galileo and Copernicus. Furthermore, biases do exist in science -- a scientist…
Wudka, Jose. (1998). "Scientific Method." Retrieved 24 Sept 2007 at http://phyun5.ucr.edu/~wudka/Physics7/Notes_www/node5.html
scientific method is the collection of processes one typically uses in scientific investigation when new scientific knowledge is desired, based upon physical evidence ("Scientific," 2004). The scientific method, traditionally, follows a series of steps. First, a question must be asked or a problem identified. Next, one must gather information in an attempt to answer the question and from there solutions can be proposed. The hypothesis is then tested either by conducting an experiment or making further observations. From this point, the results can be analyzed and scientific theory will either be constructed, supported or cast doubt upon (Schafersman, 1994).
In this particular situation, I have noticed that grass on my property is brown, short and dead. The grass, however, in the neighbor's yard is not. Instead, it is green, tall and alive. The burning question is, why? Why is my neighbor's lawn thriving, while mine is dying?
The Grass is…
Schafersman, S.D. (Jan 1994). Scientific thinking and the scientific method. Retrieved November 10, 2004, from http://www.freeinquiry.com/intro-to-sci.html .
Scientific method. (9 Nov 2004). Retrieved November 10, 2004, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scientific_Method .
Tyson, Neil de Grasse. (1998) "Belly Up to the Error Bar: The Scientific Method." Natural History. Retrieved on 4 Jul 2005 from Find rticles database at http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1134/is_n9_v107/ai
Understanding the scientific method is one of the first building blocks of teaching modern scientific research to students. But do experienced scientists concern themselves with what makes rigorous hypothesis formulation and testing? In the scientific journal of Natural History, author and scientist Neil de Grasse Tyson writes in his article "Belly Up to the Error Bar: The Scientific Method," about one of the most important parts of the scientific method in the 'real life' academic study and research of science, namely the need to minimize human bias. He calls experimental bias in favor of the initial hypothesis of the experimenter one of the greatest sources of blunders in research.
lthough formal accounts of the scientific method typically describes a clinical "hypothesis-posing,…
Although formal accounts of the scientific method typically describes a clinical "hypothesis-posing, experiment-conducting activity," in terms of "induction, deduction, cause, and effect," there is still a great deal of creativity and uncertainty in the formulation of said hypothesis. "Science can be a process in which practically anything goes -- from middle-of-the-night hunches to mathematical formulations driven by classical aesthetics" -- so long as the results eventually "accurately describe and predict phenomena in the real world." (Tyson, 1998, p.1)
But in terms of bias in interpreting their results, scientists are only human. "When making multiple measurements, scientists occasionally discard values that deviate strongly from their expectations." (Tyson, 1998, p.1) In the social sciences, public opinion polls are accompanied by "margins of error." (Tyson, 1998, p.1) But in science experiments as well, "some measurements will come out above the true value, while some will come out below. These are ordinary fluctuations: a chart of all the data points would look like the statistician's beloved bell curve. The history of science has shown that if an experiment is well designed, then most of the data will cluster around some value, presumably the right one." (Tyson, 1998, p.1)
But the bias of the scientist in question in favor of his or her original hypothesis can also skew the perceptions of the final results.Does this mean that all scientfic finds according to the scientific method are potentially biased? Not necessarily, only that scientists are human beings, however objective the scientific method may seem. "In courts of law, yes/no questions and multiple-choice questions are common. But science does not lend itself to such responses without incurring major misrepresentations of reality," thus scientists must be particularly rigorous in their own self-scrutiny about their biases in favor of one hypothesis over another. (Tyson, 1998, p.2)
cells to combat and beat back inflammatory breast cancer cells. The questions that will be answered and details included will include the overall hypothesis of the study, the materials and methods of the study, the treatment of the experimental group, whether the scientists involved followed the scientific method and what the author of this report personally concludes from this study. While all studies have limitations and limited scope in terms of what can be surmised, this study was done quite well and looks rather promising.
The overall hypothesis of the study is that epigallocatechin-3-gallate cells inhibit the spread and progress of inflammatory breast cancer cells. The treatment conditions of the study is that SUM-149 and SUM-150 cells were isolated on their own from primary inflammatory invasive ductal carcinoma. Cells were frozen and then grown in a verifiably cancer-free way. ALDH-positive cells were isolated using fluorescence activated cell sorting. Cell growth…
Mineva, N., Paulson, K., Naber, S., Yee, A., Sonenshein, G., & Singh, S. (2013).
Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate Inhibits Stem-Like Inflammatory Breast Cancer Cells.
PLoS ONE, 8(9), E73464-E73464.
Scientific Method & Fundamentals of esearch
esearch is a crucial part of our lives, regardless of whether it is to find a cure for a disease, or simply write an essay. Even simple questions that a person wants answered can be keyed into the world wide web, found in a library, or even a bookstore, involves performing research. It is true there are a many scientific approaches one can use to test research and data, the scientific method is likely the most often used. It is still unclear how the scientific method was developed and originated, most scientists will are that contributors such as Galileo and van Leeuwenhoek were instrumental in its infancy.
There is little doubt that the scientific methods is one of the most commonly utilized approaches for solid research ventures. One might even say that the scientific method and research are as paramount to human life as…
National Academies. (2011). National Research Center. Retrieved on June 1, 2012 from http://www.nationalacademies.org/nrc/ .
University of Phoenix. ( 2008). Educational Research. Retrieved from University of Phoenix,
BSHS 382-Research and Statistics for the Social Sciences website.
Snow, in contrast to Farr's epidemiology, was far more innovative and spontaneous in his methods, which also made his conclusions, in the eyes of his colleagues more suspect. As well as doing his own hands-on research, Snow analyzed the "natural experiment created when one water- supply company of London, the Lambeth Company -- but not the Southwark and Vauxhall Company -- moved its water inlet to a less polluted area of the Thames. Snow's hypothesis was that if cholera was related to consumption of water contaminated by human excrements, then mortality rates should be greater among those who drank the contaminated water supplied by the Southwark and Vauxhall Company than among those who drank the cleaner water supplied by the Lambeth Company" (Morabia 2001: 224). Determining the exact purity of the water supply at a given point in time, however, was difficult, and made it difficult for Snow's thesis to…
Dallal, Gerard E. (2008, September 12). Cause and effect. The little handbook of statistical practice. Retrieved August 30, 2010 at http://www.JerryDallal.com/LHSP/cause.htm .
Eyler, J.M. (2001). The changing assessments of John Snow's and William Farr's cholera studies. Soz Praventiv Med, 46 (4): 225-232. Retrieved August 30, 2010 at http://www.epidemiology.ch/history/papers/eyler-paper-1.pdf .
Morabia a. (2001). Snow and Farr: A scientific duet. Soz Praventiv Medicine, 46 (4): 223-224.
Retrieved August 30, 2010 at http://www.epidemiology.ch/history/papers/SPM%2046 (4)%20223-4%20Morabia%20Editorial-2.pdf.
scientific method include a reliance on the empirical approach toward acquiring knowledge, and the skeptical attitude that scientists adopt toward explanations of behavior and mental processes (5). The empirical approach entails relying on direct observation and on objectivity. Once a scientist observes an object or a phenomenon and describes the phenomenon using clearly defined terms, he or she will probably formulate a hypothesis. The hypothesis is generally designed to provide a testable explanation for the phenomenon. Next, the scientist constructs an experiment and uses the hypothesis to predict the results. Finally, the scientist performs tests. The results should ideally be published in scientific journals so that other scientists can replicate the study and subject the hypothesis to the same scrutiny.
The skeptical attitude that scientists adopt assumes that they will accept nothing in the absence of scientific proof. The scientist takes care not to jump to conclusions too early and…
Negative control is similarly established . Tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) is used as the positive control. Care should be taken to prevent contamination, duplication of tests should be conducted to verify reactive results.
Material Samples -- for the test, samples were used that could have the outward appearance of being blood and, by their color, containing hemoglobin. These included: ed Paint, Smashed Potato, Cooked Tomato Sauce, ed Food Coloring, Fresh aw Beet, Actual Blood from test kit.
esults: The results for this test are presented in the table below:
Table 1 -- Sample Test eactions
Cooked Tomato Sauce
FP required retests
ed Food Coloring
Fresh, aw Beef
FP required retests
Cary, S. (2003). A Beginner's Guide to the Scientific Method. Wadsworth.
Schiro, G. (2011). "Collection and Preservation of Blood Evidence from Crime Scenes." Crime Scene Investigator Network. Cited in:
scientific method. The one most common in nursing circles, that is derived from a desire to understand all facets of the question is the PICO method. The first letter of the acronym asks the researcher to label the specific population or the patient problem under examination. fter the population or problem is defined, then the researcher must be able to suggest an intervention that is to be the focus of the research. In any good study there is also the opposite to the intervention which is made as a comparison. Finally, the researcher looks at the outcomes of the research to determine whether their hypothesis regarding the intervention was a success or a failure.
This method can be used for any research, and will, in this paper, be used to conduct an analysis of four articles. The population under examination are elderly nursing home patients. The intervention to be used…
All four of the studies were designed to look at how the populations could be helped when a regular exercise program was used. There was also a comparison with the original ability of the group studied before and after the exercise program was used.
Exercise programs that lasted six months were the norm as far as length, but the type of exercise completed was a major difference between the four studies. It has long been debated among exercise experts what the best type of exercise is for increased flexibility and mobility. Studies have been conducted which looked at the benefits of cardiovascular exercises (Fisher, Atler, & Potts, 2007; Stathi & Simey, 2007; Wallmann, et al., 2009) versus the benefits of a weight-bearing regimen (Littbrand, et al., 2009). The reason for this divergence of thought is that one type of exercise offers stretching and improvement of lung and heart function, while the other focuses more on strengthening the muscle so that it adds the above benefits plus. It is necessary for researchers to look into how all types of exercise might work with a given population because there may be a benefit from one type of exercise that is not inherent in the other. It might be that weight-bearing exercises will work better for this population because they have allowed muscles to atrophy over time (Littbrand, et al., 2009). However, other researchers work with the hypothesis that strengthening exercises will not be as effective for a group of participants who have lost a significant amount of muscle mass. The outcomes will hopefully determine which hypothesis is correct.
Outcomes are generally vague because all variables cannot be controlled for in a given experiment. This is the case with this group of four studies. The sample size issue was a problem for three of the studies, so they had what was considered inconclusive data. It is interesting to note that people in the population studied have other issues facing them which tend to skew results. The study with the largest number of cases (199) had a 54% incidence of dementia among its participants (Littbrand, et al., 2009). This variable effectively worked to skew the final data, but it is necessary to determine if participants who have dementia are less able to effect positive results. In the end, all of the studies had mixed results. Some (Littbrand, et al., 2009; Wallmann, et al., 2009) had very good initial results, but these decreased as the participants used the program. In the other two studies, Fisher, Atler and Potts (2007) found that their intervention had no effect on the eventual health of the individuals, while Stahi and Simey (2007) had very good results. The study done by Stahi and Simey (2007) also produced a variable that the researchers were not
Many inquiries were made into the universe, from how it worked to its creation, as well as the construction of a workable calendar and an understanding of numerous illnesses. These collective areas of discussion fall under the term of natural philosophy, or philosophy of nature. efore modern science was developed and widely used, natural philosophy was the prominent method of gaining knowledge. So dominant and involved was natural philosophy that it served as a precursor of various natural sciences like physics. Indeed, the term 'science' did not evolve until the nineteenth century; until then it simply referred to knowledge. Therefore it is a natural progression from natural philosophy to science, or philosopher to scientist, and it is instantly apparent that the Greek philosophers provided the stepping-stones to modern science. So intrinsically linked is philosophy with Greece that Martin West is quoted in The Oxford History of Greece and the Hellenistic…
Aaboe, Asger. "Scientific Astronomy in Antiquity." Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 276 (1257): 21-42. May 2, 1974. Print. 28 Mar 2010.
"Academy Papyrus to be Exhibited at the Metropolitan Museum of Art" The New York Academy of Medicine. 27 May 2005. Web. 29 Mar 2010. http://www.nyam.org/news/2493.html
"Ancient Mesopotamia: Science & Inventions" The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago. Web. 28 Mar 2010 http://oi.uchicago.edu/OI/MUS/ED/TRC/MESO/science.html
Artz, F.B. The Mind of the Middle Ages. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980. Print.
Scientific Method: The BYOD Debate
The Scientific Method
The scientific method is a recipe for constructing non-arbitrary, consistent, and reliable representations of natural phenomena by collecting and analyzing relevant data in a systematic and organized manner. It forms the basis of theory-development, and generally comprises of five major steps -- i) formulation of a question about the phenomenon of interest; ii) development of hypotheses based on knowledge obtained from existing theories and literature; iii) conduction of independent experimental tests to test the formulated hypotheses; and iv) recording of data or primary observations from the experiment; v) comparison of the gathered data and hypotheses (ochester University, n.d,.). Experimental data will either rule out or confirm the hypotheses for which the test was conducted. In case the data does not support the hypotheses, the researcher is required to repeat the experiment for confirmation; and if the two are repeatedly incompatible, they are…
Privacy Rights Clearinghouse. (2013). Factsheet 40: Bring Your Own Device…at Your Own Risk. Privacy Rights Clearinghouse. Retrieved 30 January 2015 from https://www.privacyrights.org/bring-your-own-device-risks
Rochester University. (n.d.). Appendix E: Introduction to the Scientific Method. Retrieved 29 January 2015 from http://teacher.nsrl.rochester.edu/phy_labs/appendixe/appendixe.html
Whittington, O.R. & Delaney, P.R. (2007). Wiley CPA Exam Review 2008. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons
Zikmund, W., Babin, B., Carr, J. & Griffin, M. (2012). Business Research Methods (9th ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
When Pasteur said, "Chance favors the prepared mind," he was pointing out that the discovery he made would never have been possible had he not already been prepared to identify and understand what was happening when he saw it. This shows that by teaching ourselves the basic principles of natural science, of cause and effect, of the relationship between factors and variables, we will be better prepared to see connections between points that were previously unknown or that were simply missed. It is like planting the seed of investigation within the mind by first tilling the ground and fertilizing the soil with knowledge and understanding. Pasteur did this and he was able to make his breakthrough in science as a result.
For us, we can take what we have learned about scientific inquiry throughout the course and use it to make headway in our own lives in the…
Healthwise. (2015). What is Valley Fever? WebMD. Retrieved from http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/valley-fever-topic-overview
Mayo Clinic. (2015). Treatments and Drugs. Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/valley-fever/basics/treatment/con-20027390
Symptoms. (2015). MayoClinic. Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/valley-fever/basics/symptoms/con-20027390 .
The law enforcement in the U.S.A. today is better equipped to handle the terrorism attacks and any terrorism threats than it was before the 9/11 incidence in America. This is evident in the general ways through which the security measures are implemented in the country and the intricate manner of investigations that take place to counter terrorism.
Due to the nature of the data and information that is needed here, the scientific method employed was statistical data collection. This was due to the fact that there is need to have objective information on the facts surrounding the various arms of law enforcement. The best way to have facts behind the changes that took place after the 9/11 in terms of the quality of training and the number of law enforcement agencies, it was not feasible to conduct interviews among the Americans as they would only give a general…
Central Intelligence Agency, (2011). About CIA. Retrieved January 29, 2011 from https://www.cia.gov/about-cia/index.html
National commission on Terrorist Attack Upon United States, (2004). Counter Terrorism evolves. Retrieved January 28, 2011 from http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/911/report/911Report_Ch3.htm
US Department of Justice, (2006). Legal Authorities Supporting the Activities of the National SECURITY Agency Described by the President. Retrieved January 28, 2011 from http://www.justice.gov/opa/whitepaperonnsalegalauthorities.pdf
esearch and the Scientific Method: A Concise Definition
esearch as a term does not have an assigned definition. Indeed, different authors have in the past offered varying definitions of the same. In the opinion of Goddard and Melville (2004), research does not limit itself to information gathering. esearch as the authors point out "is about answering unanswered questions or creating that which does not currently exist" (Goddard and Melville, 2004). In that regard, an individual who seeks to systematically gather new information in an attempt to find answers to specific questions is in one way or the other involved in research. On the other hand, when it comes to the scientific method, the same according to Jackson (as cited in Coon and Mitterer, 2010) can be defined as "a form of critical thinking based on careful collection of evidence, accurate description and measurement, precise definition, controlled observation, and repeatable…
Brain, C. & Mukherji, P. (2005). Understanding Child Psychology. Cheltenham: Nelson Thornes Ltd.
Coon, D. & Mitterer, J.O. (2010). Psychology: A Journey (4th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
Gravetter, F. & Forzano, L.B. (2009). Research Methods for the Behavioral Sciences (4th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
Goddard, W. & Melville, S. (2004). Research Methodology: An Introduction (2nd ed.). Lansdowne: Juta and Company Ltd.
Reliability of Eyewitness Testimony
The Scientific Method
The scientific method is one of the most commonly utilized mechanisms in physical science to develop and conduct experiments. This method consists of several sequential steps, which are reflections of what happens during the scientific process. The use of the scientific method in conducting experiments is influenced by its ability to help lessen experimental bias and errors, which contribute towards poor results. Through lessening bias and errors in experiments, the scientific method enhances the reliability and accuracy of the results, which in turn enhances the researcher's confidence. The sequential steps in this method contribute to achievement of accurate results through proper organization of thoughts and procedures by scientists when performing an experiment (Science Made Simple, n.d.).
As a result of its capability to produce accurate results in experiments, the scientific method can be applied to problems or challenges in a particular field of…
The Descriptive Method: Because psychology is an observational science, it necessarily relies on the experimenter to observe, catalogue, quantify, and interpret variables suspected of a causative relationship. While observation is, therefore, essential to the study of psychology, it also presents a potential weakness in the results observed (Carlson 2006). For example, in the above experiment, the experimenter could, through a series of well designed experiments, determine that: (1) domestic violence perpetrators have, on average, a higher testosterone level than non-perpetrators; (2) other criminals do not, on average, have a higher testosterone level than non-criminals; and (3) none of the domestic violence perpetrators have a lower testosterone level than either non-perpetrators or non- criminals. Those results would seem to validate the initial hypothesis, that high testosterone levels are a causal factor in male perpetrators of domestic violence. However, the preceding series of experiments establishes only that there is a correlation between…
REFERENCES Carlson, N.R. (2006) Physiology of Behavior 9th Edition. Boston: Allyn & Bacon. Gerrig, R, Zimbardo, P. (2005) Psychology and Life. 17th Edition.
New York: Allyn & Bacon.
components of the scientific method in the article on the science of AIDS published in the journal Archives of Internal Medicine. Additionally, the article will be cited properly in the bibliography according to the APA citation style, sixth edition.
In the article by Semba, et. al., observed the anemic and the average ranges of hemoglobin among individuals with AIDS had not been well documented. The study's authors hypothesized that hemoglobin (as they measured it in cross-sectional and also longitudinal analyses), possesses a measurable and significant association with health-related quality of life issues that are independent of the other markers of HIV disease severity. Further, they also hypothesized an important relationship between hemoglobin and quality of life would be apparent for smaller changes of hemoglobin within the range that is conventionally defined as a normal hemoglobin concentration and within the anemic range.
In terms of the experimental design, the authors examined…
Semba, R.D., et. al. (2005). The impact of anemia on energy and physical functioning in individuals with aids. Archives of Internal Medicine, 165, 2229-2236.
) and Group C (control group 2) will have no lunch at all.
Testing hypothesis: Student's grades of the students receiving the nutritionally balanced lunches will increase, because of improved memory and attention span, compared with students in the control groups. Group B. will have a glucose spike of energy and crash, Group C. will have not enough glucose in their systems at all.
Variables that will remain the same: Students will be in the same types of classes. Improvement, not overall intelligence or GPA will be measured by the experiment.
Variables that will be tested: Students will eat the same type of nutritionally balanced or unbalanced lunch (or no lunch at all) for a period of one month. They will not be allowed to bring their lunches to school, regardless of how they ate before, depending on their group assignation.
Data: Performance on tests, attention span in class, and…
Colson, Deborah. (26 Feb 2006). "How Food Can Affect Your Child's Mood."
Junior Magazine. Retrieved 21 Feb 2007 at http://www.juniormagazine.co.uk/page/juniormagazine?entry=how_food_can_affect_your
Delisio, Ellen. (26 Feb 2006). "How Breakfast Choices Affect Learning."
Education World. Retrieved 21 Feb 200t at http://www.education-world.com/a_issues/chat/chat168.shtml
scientific method in the doctoral research process.
The scientific method has long been the preferred means of conducting research in most fields, including both social sciences and hard sciences. Because the scientific methods "demands that the procedures be objective," as well as clearly stated in research papers, bias is minimized (Stangor, 2012). Moreover, the statement of procedures allows for replication of experiments, something that is integral to the peer review process. eplication is crucial for the validation of scientific research at the doctoral level and beyond.
Doctoral students might develop cogent hypotheses in their research, and those hypotheses when proven over time may evolve into widely accepted theories in their field. However, repeated testing is the only means by which to solidify theories (Harris, n.d.). The doctoral student must be relatively detached from the results of research, and the scientific method enables detachment by highlighting ways the theory can be…
Babbie, E. (1990). The essential wisdom of sociology. Teaching Sociology 18(4): 526-5.30
Babbie, E. (2012). The Practice of Social Research. Nelson.
Harris, W. (n.d.). How the scientific method works. Retrieved online: http://science.howstuffworks.com/innovation/scientific-experiments/scientific-method9.htm
"Introduction to Scientific Research," (n.d.). Chapter One. Pearson. Retrieved online: http://www.pearsonhighered.com/assets/hip/us/hip_us_pearsonhighered/samplechapter/0205701655.pdf
This is one example of a falsifiable -- indeed, a falsified -- psychological theory. Many aspects of Freudian psychology have raised serious objections since Freud first advanced them, and in this instance the observations did not fit the logic of his seduction theory, so the theory was abandoned. It was logically proven to be incorrect -- or falsified. McNally also points out that falsifiability should in now way be considered the only, or even the primary, indicator of pseudoscience, as many pseudoscientific claims -- such as the belief in a flat Earth -- are logically falsifiable, which might make them seem scientific (McNally, 2003). Thus, psychologists and other practitioners of psychology must make sure that their theories are not only falsifiable, but they also need to make sure that they are built on logical deductions from repeated observations.
A lack of falsifiability also does not render a theory completely useless,…
McNally, R. (2007). "Is the pseudoscience concept useful for clinical psychology?" The scientific review of mental health practice, 2(2).
Peter, J. (2007). "God and bad theories." On philosophy, April 2007. Accessed 11 February 2009. http://onphilosophy.wordpress.com/2007/04/27/good-and-bad-theories/
Popper, K. (1992). The logic of scientific discovery. New York: Routledge, 1992.
In one culture that may mean a single omnipotent consciousness that is aware of human thoughts and behavior and that responds to our wishes and prayers. In another culture, the concept of "God" may refer to something entirely different, such as a multitude of different Gods such as those of the Ancient Greeks. The only way for two individuals with different specific beliefs that are inconsistent with one another to determine who was right would be through scientific testing.
The Affirmative Burden of Logical Proof
Many types of beliefs (including beliefs in Gods) may be incapable of ever being tested empirically. Nevertheless, another more general aspect of scientific reasoning is highly useful in that regard. Namely, the beginning point for any 'scientific" discussion of ideas must be that nothing is true ab initio ("from the start") or a priori ("from the former"). In scientific reasoning, one must always begin any…
Feynman, M. (2005). Perfectly Reasonable Deviations: The Letters of Richard
Feynman. New York: Basic Books.
Once again, time is an indicator. When a significant amount of evidence for a theory is readily available, the theory tends to be older and concomitantly more accepted by the scientific community. If there are significant gaps in the evidence, the theory can benefit from further investigation.
The same is true of the complexity level of the theory is not very high. More components can then be added by further investigation.
A theory can also be evaluated according to its ability to serve as an indicator of future phenomena. This makes a theory applicable to further scientific investigation, and furthermore also allow for further development in the theory itself. If the theory is for example a consistently accurate predictor of future events or phenomena, it can be viewed as valid. If it however proves inaccurate in one or some of its predictions, further evidence and modifications will be necessary.
BBC. Science and Nature: What is psychology? Oct, 2008. http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/humanbody/mind/articles/psychology/what_is_psychology.shtml
Carter, J. Stein. The Scientific Method. Nov. 4, 2004. http://biology.clc.uc.edu/Courses/bio104/sci_meth.htm
Theory Evaluation. 2008. http://arti.vub.ac.be/memos/AI-Memo-93-07/subsubsectionstar4_2_3.html
Wilson, Jerry. Scientific Laws, Hypotheses, and Theories. 2007. http://www.wilstar.com/theories.htm
scientific approach to knowledge is generally an expansion on the common-sense everyday approach, by which individuals seek the truth. For example, both the scientific and the everyday approaches to knowledge entail successive and related stages of observation, reporting, concepts, instruments, measurement, and hypotheses. The scientific method is usually far more formal and rigid than the general, everyday approach to knowledge because of the necessary rigors of the sciences.
If an ordinary individual sees a flower she has never before seen, she will probably approach it for a closer look. A scientist would also approach the flower to examine it. Next, both scientist and layperson use as many senses as possible to observe the flower. Observation means not just watching with the eyes, but also listening, smelling, touching, and being aware of the surrounding environment. In the everyday approach, the person might ignore that which the scientist would observe, such as…
'Operational Definition." Wikipedia. 2005. Online at .
Furthermore, he argues, a technological culture is not an inevitable feature of human evolution. If other cultures had achieved ascendancy, then science and technology would not have emerged as a reference point for measuring intelligence. SETI's requirement for an almost identical technology, although scientifically understandable, is based on an impoverished concept of intelligence.
According to Munevar, the development of a scientific culture, with access to radio communication, is highly contingent, requiring a number of lucky breaks from the environment and human natural and social history. In this context Munevar cites the development of mammalian intelligence. It is widely believed that the dinosaurs were wiped out by the immediate effects of an asteroid or cometary impact or possibly volcanic eruption. But mammals who survived the years of darkness caused by the dust of the impact or eruption then evolved to occupy the niche held by the dinosaurs. If the dinosaurs had…
Lamb, D. Discovery, Creativity and Problem Solving, Aldershot: Ashgate. 1991
Lamb, D. Crop patterns and the greening of Ufology, Explorations in Knowledge, XI, 2: 12-46. 1994
Munevar, G. Radical Knowledge, Aldershot: Avebury. 1981
Munevar, G. Extraterrestrial and human science, Explorations in Knowledge, VI, 2: 1-8. 2005
proponents of evidence based instruction represent one end of the methods of teaching continuum where practices that have been tested empirically using rigorous research designs are considered to be the only valid method of instruction (Odom et al., 2005). On the other end of the spectrum are methods that may be have some basis for use such an intuition, theory, etc. But have not been subject to empirical scrutiny are considered valid to use. Evidence based instruction or scientific research-based instruction consists of instructional practices or programs for which empirical data have been collected to determine the effectiveness of the program (Odom et al., 2005). In these types of practices/programs rigorous research designs have been conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the practices. Such research designs can include randomized, controlled trials; quasi-experiments; single subject designs; correlational methods, and/or qualitative research. The most empirically sound designs, randomized controlled experiments, are used…
August, D., & Shanahan, T. (Eds.). (2006). Executive summary. Developing literacy in second- language learners: Report of the National Literacy Panel on Language-Minority Children and Youth. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Condelli, L., & Wrigley, H.S. (2004). Identifying promising interventions for adult ESL literacy students: A review of the literature. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences.
Foorman, B.R., & Torgesen, J. (2001). Critical elements of classroom and small-group instruction promote reading success in all children. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 16, 203 -- 213.
Odom, S.L., Brantlinger, E., Gersten, R., Homer, R.H., Thompson, B., & Harris, K.R. (2005). Research in special education: Scientific methods and evidence-based practices. Exceptional Children, 71, 137-149.
classmates are ordinary citizens interested in science education. You have been assembled into an advisory group. The Virginia State Education Commission is drafting policy that will affect all school boards in the state. You are being protected in a secluded hotel from ACLU lawyers and right-wing demonstration groups. Here is your question: Is Intelligent Design theory scientific? The Commission is paying you thousands of dollars for a simple yes or no answer to this question. Such an answer may be unrealistic but court battles will follow. You need to get as close to a yes or no answer as possible!
As a group you have three reference sources:
• The course Presentation entitled "Origins, ID and the Public School Classroom"
• Two expensive expert witnesses: Michael Behe, a Lehigh University biochemist and Eugenia Scott of the National Center for Science Education. Your two expert witnesses come to you from presentations…
Children Could Lose Their Attention on TV Advertisements
While watching TV, children could create their own imaginary world and totally engrossed in it for a period of time. Recent survey finds out that children watch their favorite program on TV for about four or more hours every day. It is assumed that television has brought hazardous effect on children's attitude, intelligence, and social acceptance this way. However, based on my recent observation, kids are not totally engrossed on the program. My subjects show that during the program they also insert several different tasks such as inviting friends (other people over). Why do some children lose interest in television programming during commercials and begin other task? Is it because they lack of concentration span as most children do? Are there any other factors from the commercial itself that prevent them from watching? The research will combine behavior observation and questionnaire method…
____. Survey Design. 2001. The Survey System's Tutorial. Creative Research System. http://www.surveysystem.com/sdesign.htm .(Apr5, 2002)
____. TV or No TV?. 2000. Your Child's Health. http://www.yourchildshealth.com/family/tv.html.(Apr5, 2002).
Commercials. 1997. Center for Media Education. http://www.cme.org/children/kids_tv/commercial.html.(Apr5, 2002)
DeGaetano, Gloria. 1998. Visual Media and Children's Attention Span. University of Oregon. http://interact.uoregon.edu/MediaLit/mlr/readings/articles/degaetano/visualmedia.html (Apr5, 2002)
Business Tools & Methods
Business tools and methods
Q1 Hypothesis for a local business: High employee turnover
High employee turnover is caused by the large number of part-time teenagers employed by the company who have school commitments that compete with work.
To test the hypothesis the company could determine if rates of employee attrition tended to increase at times when students tended to have other commitments (such as at the end of summer break or before midterms, finals, and the SATs). Or did attrition have a correlation with other factors, such as the opening of a new business nearby that paid better wages? Did rates spike at the end of the training period (which might highlight a problem with orientation or hiring)? It could compare the rates of attrition of teenagers compared with other employees at the company. It could also compare the rates of part-time vs. full-time workers' attrition.…
Davis, M (2011). U.S. beef consumption in decline. Reuters. Retrieved from:
There lies question on whether scientific knowledge is able to answer all the questions that relate to physical reality. For many years, people have wondered what the earth is composed of, leaving them wondering if the nature's secrets will one day be revealed (Grant 64). However, it is notable that since Galileo discovered the moon in 1608, there has been a remarkable move by his fellow scientists.
A lot of studies in science including the origin of the solar system, sonata of the stars, how matter changes to energy, and detailed works of an atom, among others has not fully exposed the science knowledge. However, the human culture seems to change with science. orldview patterns prove that complex systems studies by working from their smallest constituents meaning from bottom up. These paradigms also confirm that the laws of nature pounce from deep symmetry writs in to the basics…
Berlin, I. Concepts and Categories New York: Viking Press, 2006
Davis, P. Cosmin Jackpot: Why Our Universe is Just Right for Life California: Houghton Mifflin 2007
Grant, EA History of Natural Philosophy: From the Ancient World to the Nineteenth Century. London: Cambridge University Press, 2007 pp. 62 -- 67
Gleiser, M. The dancing Universe: Creation Myths to the Big Bang New York: Continuum 2001
Scientific Approaches to Hookup Culture
On a practically day-to-day basis we are swamped with tales about the collapse of the current star marital relationship-- and cheating is usually the source of those who choose to separate. Is it even possible for 2 individuals to remain together gladly over a prolonged time frame? Since early evolution day, we've been informed that sexual monogamy comes normally to our types. However it does not and never ever has (yan and Jetha, 2010).
Mainstream science-- in addition to spiritual and cultural establishments-- has long propagated the belief that males and females progressed in nuclear households where a guy's possessions and defense were exchanged for a female's fertility and fidelity. However this story is breaking down; now more so than before. Less and less couples are marrying and divorce rates keep climbing up while adultery and flagging sexual libido drag down even relatively strong marital…
Abbey, A., Ross, L.T., McDuffie, D., & McAuslan, P. (1996). Alcohol and dating risk factors for sexual assault among college women. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 20, 147 -- 169.
Armstrong, E.A., England, P., & Fogarty, A.C.K. (2009). Orgasm in college hookups and relationships. In B.J. Risman (Ed.), Families as they really are (pp. 362 -- 377). New York, NY: Norton.
Backstrom, L., Armstrong, E.A., & Puentes, J. (2012). Women's negotiations of cunnilingus in college hookups and relationships. Journal of Sex Research, 49,1 -- 12.
Bisson, M.A., & Levine, T.R. (2009). Negotiating a friends with benefits relationship. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 38, 66 -- 73.
In the months following the accident, although questions were raised about possible adverse effects from radiation on human, animal, and plant life in the TMI area, none could be directly correlated to the accident. Thousands of environmental samples of air, water, milk, vegetation, soil, and foodstuffs were collected by various groups monitoring the area. Very low levels of radionuclides could be attributed to releases from the accident. However, comprehensive investigations and assessments by several well-respected organizations have concluded that in spite of serious damage to the reactor, most of the radiation was contained and that the actual release had negligible effects on the physical health of individuals or the environment. (United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission).
hile the Three Mile Island incident did not cause the same type of damage as Chernobyl and the destruction from Chernobyl was less than people initially believed it would be, it is clear…
Kinley, D, Ed. Chernobyl's Legacy: Health, Environmental, and Socio-Economic Impacts and Recommendations to the Governments of Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine.
Chernobyl Forum: Vienna, 2006.
TXU Energy. "Nuclear FAQS." TXUCorp.com. 2008. TXU Energy. 8 June 2008 http://www.txucorp.com/power/faqs.aspx.
United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. "Fact Sheet on the Three Mile Island Accident."
So, just as the concept of Right has to have Wrong as its counterpart to be a truth, so does theory need evidence. Science is a method of understanding, it is an understanding of what exists, what we can determine that we know about these things, and the method by which we go about achieving that understanding. Thus, without evidence on either side of the theory, there can be no support for the theory therefore making that theory non-scientific.
The evaluation of a theory is the identification of the type of theory it is. Much like theories themselves that set out a parameter of evaluation of a measurable prediction about a particular behavior or set of behaviors, theory evaluation is the determination of the validity, structure, and use of the theory itself. Theories have two dimensions: parasitical (its reliance on other theories) and operationalizable (interpretations of the theory). The less…
Scientific eport of Tufted Capuchin Monkeys in SanDiego Zoo
Behavioral Differences Between Male and Female Capuchin Monkeys in an Artificial Habitat
Studies have shown that the activity and energy of an animal can be determined through the collection of data and presentation as an activity budget (Altmann 1974, Tacha 1985). An activity budget collects specific behavior data over a predetermined time for an animal or population for analysis in the evaluation of a hypothesis. This study reports the differences in activity between males and females for a population of tufted capuchin primates living in an outdoor artificial habitat within a North American zoo. The hypothesis that there are differences in activity levels between male and females for this population is confirmed for the duration of observation in this study. More study would be required to determine the effects of weather, seasonal variation, and daytime verses nocturnal behavior.
Altmann, J. 1974. Observational study of behavior: sampling methods.Behaviour 49:227-267.
Bobick, J. 2004. The Handy Biology Answer Book New York, Visible Ink Press 141.
Bohn, K. 2012. Photography Credit, copyright San Diego Zoo
Di Bitetti, M.S. Janson, C.H. (2001) Social foraging and the finder's share in capuchin monkeys, (Cebus apella), Animal Behavior 62, 1, 47-56
The idea of cross-species language remains somewhat controversial. On one side, proponents say that certain hominids and cetaceans have been able to learn sign or verbal language; on the other hand, skeptics say these individual examples are mimicry. Cetacean experts believe that there is a unique and verifiable language that whales, dolphins, etc. use to communicate emotion with one another; certain insects use chemicals to communicate, as well as motion (think of a bee hive, the dance telling the hive where a new set of flowers is located). However, the perception of language as communication is one thing -- yes, animals communicate, emotionally pets seem to know when we are happy or sad, or needy. There is evidence that chimpanzees who are taught sign language can come up with independent thoughts (weaving of disparate signs into something new). However, the jury is still out scientifically regarding actually learning of human…
3. Creative thinking is one of the ways in which human beings are able to separate themselves from other animals and to actualize. Animals can be curious, but whether that curiosity has memory, or deeper implications of "what if," in the future, or synthesizing disparate materials into something new is still debatable. There is a wonderful book series by Roger Von Oech that asks us to continue to develop creative thinking within our daily lives in order to keep our brains functioning well and robust (Von Oech, 1973, 1986). There are several questions about innate human nature that are personally fascinating: 1) Why do myths and legends seem to resonate throughout the ages? 2) What is about certain music, art or literature that seems to transcend human emotions and make us feel actualized? 3) Is there a neurochemical relationship to emotions, and if so, how did it develop within the human psyche?
4. The idea of cross-species language remains somewhat controversial. On one side, proponents say that certain hominids and cetaceans have been able to learn sign or verbal language; on the other hand, skeptics say these individual examples are mimicry. Cetacean experts believe that there is a unique and verifiable language that whales, dolphins, etc. use to communicate emotion with one another; certain insects use chemicals to communicate, as well as motion (think of a bee hive, the dance telling the hive where a new set of flowers is located). However, the perception of language as communication is one thing -- yes, animals communicate, emotionally pets seem to know when we are happy or sad, or needy. There is evidence that chimpanzees who are taught sign language can come up with independent thoughts (weaving of disparate signs into something new). However, the jury is still out scientifically regarding actually learning of human language -- but the question may also be -- can humans learn to communicate with animals in their language? (Rumbaugh and Washburn, 2003).
5. Argument by anecdote is a method of proving one's point by using stories that may be personal recollections, hearsay, or other popular myth. One of the problems with using this format is that each person may have a different anecdote. Stories, we know, can be entertaining, but can also perpetuate like a rumor, once through the crowd, it has changed and become something more than it ever was. One popular example of argument by anecdote is in some of the dubious claims from the non-regulated
Scientific Thinking and Scientific Skepticism
It isn't easy to define psychology. Nonetheless, the general understanding of psychology is that it a scientific study of behavior, the mind and the brain. As a discipline, it spans several levels of analysis. A thorough understanding of psychology cannot be achieved by looking at just a single level of analysis since every level has a different set of knowledge and view point (Lillienfied, Lynn, Namy & Woolf, 2011).
Lilienfield, Lynn, Namy and Woolf (2011) are of the opinion that scientific thinking gives us skills to overcome our prejudices and biases which can distort our perception and make us ignore evidence that go against our line of thinking. Six scientific principles of thinking are particularly vital when one wants to study psychology. The first one is "Extraordinary Claims" which was proposed by David Hume, a Scottish Philosopher who lived in the 18th century. David Hume…
At the same time, there is a different element introduced in the pursuit of forensic science that is not dealt with in other branches of scientific inquiry. As the question of justice is also central to any forensic proceeding, the suspect's account of events and/or hypothesized explanations for observations must also be taken account (Young 2009). In this way, both verification and falsification can be used during experimentation.
Before these experiments take place, however, the predictions must lay out a way to clearly identify the expectations of the experiments, as well as a way the methods by which they should be conducted. Several predictions can usually be made rather quickly after the hypothesis that are fully testable and easily determined. Based on hairs found at the crime scene, for instance, it could be predicted that skin found under the victim's fingernails was of the same DNA as the on-matching hairs…
Palmer, G. (1998). "Forensic Analysis in the Digital World." Accessed 16 November 2009. http://220.127.116.11/search?q=cache:mSArrV3VjMQJ:www.utica.edu/academic/institutes/ecii/publications/articles/9C4E938F-E3BE-8D16-45D0BAD68CDBE77.doc+forensics+scientific+method&cd=7&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us&client=safari
Shodor. (2009). Forensic Science. Accessed 16 November 2009. http://www.shodor.org/workshops/forensic/
Vogt, W. (2009). "Forensic investigation." Paradigm. Accessed 16 November 2009. http://www.paradigmconsultants.com/content.asp?secnum=60&pid=73
Young, T. (2009). "Forensic Science and the Scientific Method." Heartland Forensic Pathology. Accessed 16 November 2009. http://www.heartlandforensic.com/writing/forensic-science-and-the-scientific-method
More and more deep analysis can clarify the internal dynamics of the matter being studied, and in the long run to prediction, known as estimation. The reason for intelligence analysis is to make known to a precise decision maker the necessary significance of selected target information. Analysts should start with established facts, apply specialist knowledge in order to produce plausible but less certain findings, and even predict when the forecast is appropriately qualified. Analysts should not, however, engage in fortune telling that has no foundation in fact (Heuer, 1999). Not only is it poor science to claim absolute truth, but it also leads to the kind of destructive and distrustful debate we've had in last decade about global warming. The history of science and technology suggests that such absolutism on both sides of a scientific debate doesn't often lead to practical solutions (Botkin, 2011).
In the arrangement of science there…
A Compendium of Analytic Tradecraft Notes. (1997). Retrieved from http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/cia/tradecraft_notes/contents.htm
Botkin, D.B. (2011). Absolute Certainty Is Not Scientific. Retreived from http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052970204630904577058111041127168.html
Clauser, J. (2008). An introduction to intelligence research and analysis. Lanham, Maryland:
The Scarecrow Press.
Quantitative research uses survey, and questionnaires to collect data. Through quantitative analysis, a researcher is able to correlate mass data to the research findings. Despite the benefits identified in both quantitative and qualitative research, the paper identifies some shortcomings in both research methods. To address these shortcomings, the paper proposes mixed methods that involve combining both quantitative and qualitative research.
Bryman, A. (1984). The Debate about Quantitative and Qualitative esearch: A Question of Method or Epistemology? The British Journal of Sociology, 35,(1): 75-92.
Burney, S.M.A (2008). Inductive and Deductive esearch Approach. Department of Computer Science. University of Karachi.
Hanson, J.L. (2011). Qualitative esearch Methods for Medical Educators. Academic Pediatric Association.11(5):375 -- 38.
Henderson, J. (2011). Primary and secondary sources, IthaCha College Library.
Firestone, W.A. (1987).Meaning in Method: The hetoric Quantitative and Qualitative esearch. Educational esearcher.19(7):16-21.
Goodwin, W.L. Goodwin, L.D. (1996). Understanding qualitative & quantitative research in early childhood education.…
Bryman, A. (1984). The Debate about Quantitative and Qualitative Research: A Question of Method or Epistemology? The British Journal of Sociology, 35,(1): 75-92.
Burney, S.M.A (2008). Inductive and Deductive Research Approach. Department of Computer Science. University of Karachi.
Hanson, J.L. (2011). Qualitative Research Methods for Medical Educators. Academic Pediatric Association.11(5):375 -- 38.
Henderson, J. (2011). Primary and secondary sources, IthaCha College Library.
What are the steps of scientific method? What good is it? Does it prove anything? What's a variable? What a control vs. An experimental factor? What makes a good experiment?
Steps of scientific method:
Ask a question
Do background research
Construct a hypothesis
Test your hypothesis
Analyze your data
f. Communicate your results
The scientific method is good because it allows other scientists to repeat your experiment and all researchers to use the same method of investigation.
A variable is the thing in an experiment which varies from subject to subject.
A control in an experiment is the thing that remains the same. Experimental factors are the factors that are being tested and are changing.
e. Good data and accurate experimentation make a good experiment.
How does evolution explain the diversity of life we see today? What is natural selection and how does it work? What do we mean…
Qualitative, quantitative, mixed methodologies
Quantitative, qualitative and mixed methodology research
Quantitative methodologies tend to be data-driven in nature. The presumption of the correct 'way of knowing' in quantitative research is positivistic in nature. It is assumed there is an objective, concrete truth that can be learned through empirical observation and the careful construction of an experiment. Quantitative methods of research often use the scientific method or quasi-scientific methods of study design. The researcher has a clear idea of the phenomenon he or she is attempting to study. The researcher's primary tools include questionnaires, objective measurements and other methods of gathering statistical results. Often there is a control group to see if the results are statistically significant in nature. The study is carefully designed before the research takes place to isolate specific variables of inquiry and its focus of study is narrow, rather than broad. The types of knowledge…
Neill, James. (2007). Qualitative vs. quantitative research. Retrieved:
The qualitative vs. quantitative debate. (2012). Writing at CSU. Retrieved:
Taylorism' / 'Scientific management.'
Introduction to the Evolvement of Management Theory during the 19th and 20th Century
With the coming of the Industrial age at the turn of the Century, and a new era, came the need for more efficient management techniques. Several Classical Theories evolved during the early years of this discipline. Fordism arose from a synthesis of the other earlier theories. Fayolism philosophy included close communication between bosses and workers. Taylorism developed a theory known as "Scientific Management" to study and set appropriate work quotas based on research. Lillian Gilbreth believed that workers were motivated by both direct and indirect motives. Arthur Gantt developed a task chart to help monitor and plan projects more efficiently.
After the Classical theorists, the Human Relations Movement began to take into account the reasons for individual responses. The first of these theorists was George Elton Mayo who conducted experiments at the General…
Website information for citation:
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Bibby, A. (2001) Organising in Financial Call Centres [online]. Available at http://www.eclipse.co.uk/pens/bibby/ofcc4.html . Or http://www.eclipse.co.uk/pens/bibby/hw-aa.html [Accessed 12th June 2002].
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history of human civilization, the Scientific evolution emerged during the 17th century, which happened right after the enaissance Period. The Scientific evolution is the period in history wherein scientific methods and results where arrived at using experimentation and the use of scientific instruments such as the telescope, microscope, and thermometer (Microsoft Encarta 2002). The Scientific evolution is attributed to Galileo Galilei, who proposed that the universe and its elements can be explained mathematically, while subsisting to the fact the Sun is the center of the solar system. During the enaissance Period, Nicolaus Copernicus had declared that the Sun is the center of the solar system, but his declaration is only descriptive, while Galileo's declaration is verified through experimentation and the scientific method. This important distinction is the main reason why Galileo's time was considered the Scientific evolution, primarily because it uses the scientific method of research and experimentation.
Baber, Z. "Canada Research Chair in Science, Technology, and Social Change." 6 February 2003. University of Saskatchewan Web site. 16 April 2003 http://www.usask.ca/crc/profiles/baber.php.
History of Astronomy." Microsoft Encarta Reference Library 2002. Microsoft Inc. 1998.
Kaiser, T. "French Revolution." Microsoft Encarta Reference Library 2002. Microsoft Inc. 1998.
Shaffer, B. "Chaos in Space." 7 February 2003. LewRockwell Web site. 16 April 2003 http://www.lewrockwell.com .
Human esource Management Methods
Traditional Annual Evaluation Method of Performance Appraisals vs. eal-Time Feedback Coaching Format
Performance appraisals take into account the assessment and evaluation of a person's performance in a methodical manner. It is a progressive technique employed for comprehensive development of the personnel and the organization as a whole. This performance is measured against various elements like quality and quantity of the output, job competence, leadership capabilities, supervision and versatility. Once such evaluations are made, employees can be trained and coached on what to be undertaken. On the other hand, real-time feedback coaching format takes into account the provision of opinion and response in an instantaneous way and therefore the coaching takes place immediately (Deb, 2009).
There are aspects of similarity between these two methods of appraisal. To begin with, both methods are purposed to and give rise to change and coaching. Subsequent to the evaluation of…
Bell, R. L. (2011). Teaching present-day employees the value of scientific management. Supervision, 72(6), 5-8. Retrieved from https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=61927805&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Brooks, C. (2015). Forget Performance Reviews! This Works Better. Business News Daily. Retrieved from: http://www.businessnewsdaily.com/7974-better-performance-reviews.html
Deb, T. (2009). Performance Appraisal and Management. Excel Books India.
Impraise. (2016). Real-Time Feedback! Because Your Employees Hate the Annual Performance Review. Retrieved from: impraise.com/360-feedback/real-time-feedback-because-your-employees-hate-the-annual-performance-review
Prediction and Theory
There are several important components to a research study. First, a hypothesis examines a question or an idea before beginning a study. Next, a prediction suggests an outcome for a study. Finally, after the study has been carefully examined and has been tested multiple times using a wide variety of hypotheses, the results can be defined as a theory.
According to Cozby (2009), a hypothesis is "a type of idea or question: it makes a statement about something that may be true" (17). A hypothesis can be described as a speculative idea or query about why certain behaviors or situations occur. This question can then be either proven or disproven by collecting scientific evidence. Formulating a hypothesis is one of the first steps in developing a research study.
Before beginning an experiment or conducting a study, a researcher will generate a prediction that suggests the most…
Socratic Method of Questioning in "Inherit the ind."
It is a truism, repeated in many crime shows as well as by many lawyers, that a good lawyer never asks a question unless he or she knows the answer to the question, much like the famous Greek teacher and philosopher Socrates. The method of Socratic questioning is thus one in which the lawyer or the instructor professes ignorance of the topic under discussion in order to elicit an engaged dialogue with students or witnesses, with a directed answer or rhetorical destination in mind. The questioning person feigns ignorance about a given subject in order to elicit another person's fullest possible knowledge of the topic under scrutiny -- or lack of knowledge, in the case of the play "Inherit the ind."
In the play "Inherit the ind," the defense attorney Drummond seems to engage in an apparently risky tactic. Drummond calls the…
Lawrence, Jerome and Robert E. Lee. "Inherit the Wind." 1955.
"What is Socratic Questioning?" Science Education Resource Center at Carleton College. 2003. http://serc.carleton.edu/introgeo/socratic/second.html [1 June 2005]
gender discrepancies in regards to African-American education. There has been a noticeable, growing increase of the presence of African-American women in undergraduate and graduate education while the gap between African-American males and females has widened. The dissertation will use a mixed methods, grounded theory perspective to determine why this is the case. The overall theoretical perspective of the work will be rooted in critical race theory and poststructuralist concepts.
Quantitatively assessed questionnaires and coded qualitative interviews will attempt to answer the question of why African-American male participation in higher education lags behind that of African-American females. These trends will be contextualized in the overall, larger trend of increased female participation as a whole on the undergraduate and graduate levels, to the point that women are now graduating in greater numbers than their male colleagues.
As well as research questions specific to the dissertation, the relative merits of qualitative and quantitative…
Charmaz, Kathy. (2003). Grounded theory. The SAGE Encyclopedia of Social Science Research Methods. Sage. Retrieved from:
The gender gap. (2012). Journal of Blacks in Higher Education. Retrieved from:
Q7. The survey should be demographically balanced: in other words, it should be representative of the consumers whose behavior the survey was designed to assess in terms of gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. The questions should be clear and simple, and free from misleading wording that could influence the results. The survey questions should be internally consistent -- in other words, responses that indicate wildly different views in the responses of the same individual raise questions about internal validity. There should be controls to prevent respondents from presenting themselves in an overly positive light. The survey should not draw overly broad conclusions, based upon what respondents were asked.
5a. The city should take public responsibility for its actions, stating that although it was trying to act in the best interests of the city, it crossed the line when it hired a private investigator to infiltrate the boating organization. Avoiding litigation…
Basic vs. applied research. (2009). Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.
Retrieved January 12, 2009 at http://www.lbl.gov/Education/ELSI/research-main.html
ROI. (2009). Investopedia. Retrieved January 12, 2009 at http://www.investopedia.com/terms/r/returnoninvestment.asp
Trochim, William. (2006). Variables. Social Research Methods.
Phenomenological psychology focuses on the subjective experiences of individuals. The “founder” of phenomenology, Edmund Husserl presented a cohesive methodology and philosophical framework that laid the foundation for phenomenological psychology. One of the greatest challenges of phenomenological psychology is differentiating between the unique subjective experiences and perceptions of individuals and the need to discern an objective, shared reality. Phenomenological psychology is almost easier to define by what it is not: it is not about using the scientific method to study human behavior, and it is not about studying personality or psychoses. Rather, phenomenological psychology is about understanding the nature of reality itself, through an evaluation of both individual and collective human psychological experience. Husserl set forth principles for ontology in psychology as well as epistemology, which can be especially useful when studying the divergent experiences of those with psychotic disorders like schizophrenia, whose sense of reality is radically different…
social sciences: quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods. However, there is another classification of research -- evaluation research -- frequently deployed in organizations. Evaluation research may make use of all of these different methodologies, even though it has a different goal than academic research. "The generic goal of most evaluations is to provide 'useful feedback' to a variety of audiences including sponsors, donors, client-groups, administrators, staff, and other relevant constituencies" (Trochim 2006).
In contrast to the use of the scientific method as in quantitative research, evaluation research is more intent upon offering practical data that can be used to maximize organizational resources and is specifically devoted to program evaluation. Some evaluation research does use standard qualitative methods in the tradition of the scientific method. However, an equally common approach is that of "management-oriented systems models. Two of the most common of these are PET, the Program Evaluation and eview Technique, and…
Trochim, W. (2006). Evaluation research. Social Science Research Methods. Retrieved:
The correlation between evaluation research and research methods are they are applications for research and they are also purposes of research (Laureate Education, Inc., 2009). Evaluation research and research methods are distinct in the manner that they specify a specific purpose. The correlation when using the research is that they all correlate together to distinguish a common reason, intent, goal, or idea which is used in acquiring knowledge (Laureate Education Inc., 2009).
scientific observation that distinguish it from our everyday observation are that scientific observation is conducted using precisely defined observational conditions; by performing the observations systematically and objectively; and through keeping careful and accurate records.
Scientific observation, as opposed to everyday observations, must take place within certain well-defined parameters, whether in naturalistic or laboratory settings. Furthermore, the scientist does not choose the parameters arbitrarily but rather relies on such methods as sampling to conduct the observations and experiments in a way that renders them valid. For example, if a researcher wanted to examine the effects of watching violent video games on a child's behavior, he or she would first have to determine which video games would be deemed violent, and what specific behavioral affects to look for. An everyday observation of the same phenomenon would be far less precise.
Also, everyday observation can be passive and filtered through the individual's biases…