Scientific Method Essays (Examples)

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Scientific Thinking in Personal Beliefs

Words: 633 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7108522

In one culture that may mean a single omnipotent consciousness that is aware of human thoughts and behavior and that responds to our wishes and prayers. In another culture, the concept of "God" may refer to something entirely different, such as a multitude of different Gods such as those of the Ancient Greeks. The only way for two individuals with different specific beliefs that are inconsistent with one another to determine who was right would be through scientific testing.

The Affirmative Burden of Logical Proof

Many types of beliefs (including beliefs in Gods) may be incapable of ever being tested empirically. Nevertheless, another more general aspect of scientific reasoning is highly useful in that regard. Namely, the beginning point for any 'scientific" discussion of ideas must be that nothing is true ab initio ("from the start") or a priori ("from the former"). In scientific reasoning, one must always begin any…… [Read More]

Reference

Feynman, M. (2005). Perfectly Reasonable Deviations: The Letters of Richard

Feynman. New York: Basic Books.
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Scientific Theory in Scientific Investigation

Words: 2513 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91974570

Once again, time is an indicator. When a significant amount of evidence for a theory is readily available, the theory tends to be older and concomitantly more accepted by the scientific community. If there are significant gaps in the evidence, the theory can benefit from further investigation.

The same is true of the complexity level of the theory is not very high. More components can then be added by further investigation.

A theory can also be evaluated according to its ability to serve as an indicator of future phenomena. This makes a theory applicable to further scientific investigation, and furthermore also allow for further development in the theory itself. If the theory is for example a consistently accurate predictor of future events or phenomena, it can be viewed as valid. If it however proves inaccurate in one or some of its predictions, further evidence and modifications will be necessary.

Furthermore,…… [Read More]

Sources

BBC. Science and Nature: What is psychology? Oct, 2008.  http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/humanbody/mind/articles/psychology/what_is_psychology.shtml 

Carter, J. Stein. The Scientific Method. Nov. 4, 2004. http://biology.clc.uc.edu/Courses/bio104/sci_meth.htm

Theory Evaluation. 2008.  http://arti.vub.ac.be/memos/AI-Memo-93-07/subsubsectionstar4_2_3.html 

Wilson, Jerry. Scientific Laws, Hypotheses, and Theories. 2007. http://www.wilstar.com/theories.htm
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Scientific Approach to Knowledge Is Generally an

Words: 1263 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43602049

scientific approach to knowledge is generally an expansion on the common-sense everyday approach, by which individuals seek the truth. For example, both the scientific and the everyday approaches to knowledge entail successive and related stages of observation, reporting, concepts, instruments, measurement, and hypotheses. The scientific method is usually far more formal and rigid than the general, everyday approach to knowledge because of the necessary rigors of the sciences.

If an ordinary individual sees a flower she has never before seen, she will probably approach it for a closer look. A scientist would also approach the flower to examine it. Next, both scientist and layperson use as many senses as possible to observe the flower. Observation means not just watching with the eyes, but also listening, smelling, touching, and being aware of the surrounding environment. In the everyday approach, the person might ignore that which the scientist would observe, such as…… [Read More]

Works Cited

'Operational Definition." Wikipedia. 2005. Online at .
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Scientific Inquiry Into Extraterrestrial Life

Words: 2388 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83384088

Furthermore, he argues, a technological culture is not an inevitable feature of human evolution. If other cultures had achieved ascendancy, then science and technology would not have emerged as a reference point for measuring intelligence. SETI's requirement for an almost identical technology, although scientifically understandable, is based on an impoverished concept of intelligence.

According to Munevar, the development of a scientific culture, with access to radio communication, is highly contingent, requiring a number of lucky breaks from the environment and human natural and social history. In this context Munevar cites the development of mammalian intelligence. It is widely believed that the dinosaurs were wiped out by the immediate effects of an asteroid or cometary impact or possibly volcanic eruption. But mammals who survived the years of darkness caused by the dust of the impact or eruption then evolved to occupy the niche held by the dinosaurs. If the dinosaurs had…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Lamb, D. Discovery, Creativity and Problem Solving, Aldershot: Ashgate. 1991

Lamb, D. Crop patterns and the greening of Ufology, Explorations in Knowledge, XI, 2: 12-46. 1994

Munevar, G. Radical Knowledge, Aldershot: Avebury. 1981

Munevar, G. Extraterrestrial and human science, Explorations in Knowledge, VI, 2: 1-8. 2005
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Methods of Instruction and Intervention

Words: 1655 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56250778

proponents of evidence based instruction represent one end of the methods of teaching continuum where practices that have been tested empirically using rigorous research designs are considered to be the only valid method of instruction (Odom et al., 2005). On the other end of the spectrum are methods that may be have some basis for use such an intuition, theory, etc. But have not been subject to empirical scrutiny are considered valid to use. Evidence based instruction or scientific research-based instruction consists of instructional practices or programs for which empirical data have been collected to determine the effectiveness of the program (Odom et al., 2005). In these types of practices/programs rigorous research designs have been conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the practices. Such research designs can include randomized, controlled trials; quasi-experiments; single subject designs; correlational methods, and/or qualitative research. The most empirically sound designs, randomized controlled experiments, are used…… [Read More]

References

August, D., & Shanahan, T. (Eds.). (2006). Executive summary. Developing literacy in second- language learners: Report of the National Literacy Panel on Language-Minority Children and Youth. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Condelli, L., & Wrigley, H.S. (2004). Identifying promising interventions for adult ESL literacy students: A review of the literature. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences.

Foorman, B.R., & Torgesen, J. (2001). Critical elements of classroom and small-group instruction promote reading success in all children. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 16, 203 -- 213.

Odom, S.L., Brantlinger, E., Gersten, R., Homer, R.H., Thompson, B., & Harris, K.R. (2005). Research in special education: Scientific methods and evidence-based practices. Exceptional Children, 71, 137-149.
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Scientific Theory and Intelligent Design

Words: 377 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75324902

classmates are ordinary citizens interested in science education. You have been assembled into an advisory group. The Virginia State Education Commission is drafting policy that will affect all school boards in the state. You are being protected in a secluded hotel from ACLU lawyers and right-wing demonstration groups. Here is your question: Is Intelligent Design theory scientific? The Commission is paying you thousands of dollars for a simple yes or no answer to this question. Such an answer may be unrealistic but court battles will follow. You need to get as close to a yes or no answer as possible!

As a group you have three reference sources:

• The course Presentation entitled "Origins, ID and the Public School Classroom"

• Two expensive expert witnesses: Michael Behe, a Lehigh University biochemist and Eugenia Scott of the National Center for Science Education. Your two expert witnesses come to you from presentations…… [Read More]

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Scientific Research Collect Methods Comment by Sabina

Words: 659 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39378242

Scientific Research Collect Methods

Comment by Sabina:

Scientific research is obtainable through several methodologies, of which qualitative and quantitative methods are highly utilized. These two research methodology are highly used in the field of social sciences and marketing. Social scientist utilizes these two data collection tools to collect data that would otherwise not be observable without these tools. Marketing researchers utilizes these tools to collect information about the market, gain information about how customers feel and gather other useful information about their product and services.

It is important to understand the type of research that a researcher is attempting to gather. The researcher should first determine the research question, which would help the research determine the type of research tool that is necessary to collect the data. If the researcher is looking for customer opinion, how they feel about a particular store, or product, then a qualitative research would be…… [Read More]

Gibbs et. al. (2007). What have sampling and data collection got to do with good qualitative research? Australian & New Zealand Journal of Public Health. 31 (6) 540-544.

Smith, P. (2008). Qualitative & Quantitative Research. Research Starters Education. 1-17

Trochim, M.K. (2006). Types of Designs. Research Methods Knowledge Base. Retrieved from  http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/destypes.php
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Scientific Knowledge

Words: 2208 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11338397

Scientific Knowledge

There lies question on whether scientific knowledge is able to answer all the questions that relate to physical reality. For many years, people have wondered what the earth is composed of, leaving them wondering if the nature's secrets will one day be revealed (Grant 64). However, it is notable that since Galileo discovered the moon in 1608, there has been a remarkable move by his fellow scientists.

A lot of studies in science including the origin of the solar system, sonata of the stars, how matter changes to energy, and detailed works of an atom, among others has not fully exposed the science knowledge. However, the human culture seems to change with science. orldview patterns prove that complex systems studies by working from their smallest constituents meaning from bottom up. These paradigms also confirm that the laws of nature pounce from deep symmetry writs in to the basics…… [Read More]

Works cited

Berlin, I. Concepts and Categories New York: Viking Press, 2006

Davis, P. Cosmin Jackpot: Why Our Universe is Just Right for Life California: Houghton Mifflin 2007

Grant, EA History of Natural Philosophy: From the Ancient World to the Nineteenth Century. London: Cambridge University Press, 2007 pp. 62 -- 67

Gleiser, M. The dancing Universe: Creation Myths to the Big Bang New York: Continuum 2001
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Scientific Approaches to Hookup Culture

Words: 3934 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22341787

Scientific Approaches to Hookup Culture

On a practically day-to-day basis we are swamped with tales about the collapse of the current star marital relationship-- and cheating is usually the source of those who choose to separate. Is it even possible for 2 individuals to remain together gladly over a prolonged time frame? Since early evolution day, we've been informed that sexual monogamy comes normally to our types. However it does not and never ever has (yan and Jetha, 2010).

Mainstream science-- in addition to spiritual and cultural establishments-- has long propagated the belief that males and females progressed in nuclear households where a guy's possessions and defense were exchanged for a female's fertility and fidelity. However this story is breaking down; now more so than before. Less and less couples are marrying and divorce rates keep climbing up while adultery and flagging sexual libido drag down even relatively strong marital…… [Read More]

References

Abbey, A., Ross, L.T., McDuffie, D., & McAuslan, P. (1996). Alcohol and dating risk factors for sexual assault among college women. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 20, 147 -- 169.

Armstrong, E.A., England, P., & Fogarty, A.C.K. (2009). Orgasm in college hookups and relationships. In B.J. Risman (Ed.), Families as they really are (pp. 362 -- 377). New York, NY: Norton.

Backstrom, L., Armstrong, E.A., & Puentes, J. (2012). Women's negotiations of cunnilingus in college hookups and relationships. Journal of Sex Research, 49,1 -- 12.

Bisson, M.A., & Levine, T.R. (2009). Negotiating a friends with benefits relationship. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 38, 66 -- 73.
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Scientific Progress Scientific Responsibility Nuclear

Words: 996 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94001606

In fact:

In the months following the accident, although questions were raised about possible adverse effects from radiation on human, animal, and plant life in the TMI area, none could be directly correlated to the accident. Thousands of environmental samples of air, water, milk, vegetation, soil, and foodstuffs were collected by various groups monitoring the area. Very low levels of radionuclides could be attributed to releases from the accident. However, comprehensive investigations and assessments by several well-respected organizations have concluded that in spite of serious damage to the reactor, most of the radiation was contained and that the actual release had negligible effects on the physical health of individuals or the environment. (United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission).

hile the Three Mile Island incident did not cause the same type of damage as Chernobyl and the destruction from Chernobyl was less than people initially believed it would be, it is clear…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Kinley, D, Ed. Chernobyl's Legacy: Health, Environmental, and Socio-Economic Impacts and Recommendations to the Governments of Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine.

Chernobyl Forum: Vienna, 2006.

TXU Energy. "Nuclear FAQS." TXUCorp.com. 2008. TXU Energy. 8 June 2008 http://www.txucorp.com/power/faqs.aspx.

United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. "Fact Sheet on the Three Mile Island Accident."
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Scientific Theory in Psychology the

Words: 936 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86305141

So, just as the concept of Right has to have Wrong as its counterpart to be a truth, so does theory need evidence. Science is a method of understanding, it is an understanding of what exists, what we can determine that we know about these things, and the method by which we go about achieving that understanding. Thus, without evidence on either side of the theory, there can be no support for the theory therefore making that theory non-scientific.

The evaluation of a theory is the identification of the type of theory it is. Much like theories themselves that set out a parameter of evaluation of a measurable prediction about a particular behavior or set of behaviors, theory evaluation is the determination of the validity, structure, and use of the theory itself. Theories have two dimensions: parasitical (its reliance on other theories) and operationalizable (interpretations of the theory). The less…… [Read More]

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Scientific Report of Tufted Capuchin Monkeys San Diego Zoo

Words: 1265 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21763837

Scientific eport of Tufted Capuchin Monkeys in SanDiego Zoo

Behavioral Differences Between Male and Female Capuchin Monkeys in an Artificial Habitat

Studies have shown that the activity and energy of an animal can be determined through the collection of data and presentation as an activity budget (Altmann 1974, Tacha 1985). An activity budget collects specific behavior data over a predetermined time for an animal or population for analysis in the evaluation of a hypothesis. This study reports the differences in activity between males and females for a population of tufted capuchin primates living in an outdoor artificial habitat within a North American zoo. The hypothesis that there are differences in activity levels between male and females for this population is confirmed for the duration of observation in this study. More study would be required to determine the effects of weather, seasonal variation, and daytime verses nocturnal behavior.

Introduction

The tufted…… [Read More]

References

Altmann, J. 1974. Observational study of behavior: sampling methods.Behaviour 49:227-267.

Bobick, J. 2004. The Handy Biology Answer Book New York, Visible Ink Press 141.

Bohn, K. 2012. Photography Credit, copyright San Diego Zoo

Di Bitetti, M.S. Janson, C.H. (2001) Social foraging and the finder's share in capuchin monkeys, (Cebus apella), Animal Behavior 62, 1, 47-56
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Scientific Approaches to Learning Behavior

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15172684

The idea of cross-species language remains somewhat controversial. On one side, proponents say that certain hominids and cetaceans have been able to learn sign or verbal language; on the other hand, skeptics say these individual examples are mimicry. Cetacean experts believe that there is a unique and verifiable language that whales, dolphins, etc. use to communicate emotion with one another; certain insects use chemicals to communicate, as well as motion (think of a bee hive, the dance telling the hive where a new set of flowers is located). However, the perception of language as communication is one thing -- yes, animals communicate, emotionally pets seem to know when we are happy or sad, or needy. There is evidence that chimpanzees who are taught sign language can come up with independent thoughts (weaving of disparate signs into something new). However, the jury is still out scientifically regarding actually learning of human…… [Read More]

3. Creative thinking is one of the ways in which human beings are able to separate themselves from other animals and to actualize. Animals can be curious, but whether that curiosity has memory, or deeper implications of "what if," in the future, or synthesizing disparate materials into something new is still debatable. There is a wonderful book series by Roger Von Oech that asks us to continue to develop creative thinking within our daily lives in order to keep our brains functioning well and robust (Von Oech, 1973, 1986). There are several questions about innate human nature that are personally fascinating: 1) Why do myths and legends seem to resonate throughout the ages? 2) What is about certain music, art or literature that seems to transcend human emotions and make us feel actualized? 3) Is there a neurochemical relationship to emotions, and if so, how did it develop within the human psyche?

4. The idea of cross-species language remains somewhat controversial. On one side, proponents say that certain hominids and cetaceans have been able to learn sign or verbal language; on the other hand, skeptics say these individual examples are mimicry. Cetacean experts believe that there is a unique and verifiable language that whales, dolphins, etc. use to communicate emotion with one another; certain insects use chemicals to communicate, as well as motion (think of a bee hive, the dance telling the hive where a new set of flowers is located). However, the perception of language as communication is one thing -- yes, animals communicate, emotionally pets seem to know when we are happy or sad, or needy. There is evidence that chimpanzees who are taught sign language can come up with independent thoughts (weaving of disparate signs into something new). However, the jury is still out scientifically regarding actually learning of human language -- but the question may also be -- can humans learn to communicate with animals in their language? (Rumbaugh and Washburn, 2003).

5. Argument by anecdote is a method of proving one's point by using stories that may be personal recollections, hearsay, or other popular myth. One of the problems with using this format is that each person may have a different anecdote. Stories, we know, can be entertaining, but can also perpetuate like a rumor, once through the crowd, it has changed and become something more than it ever was. One popular example of argument by anecdote is in some of the dubious claims from the non-regulated
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Scientific Thinking and Scientific Skepticism

Words: 1936 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92833628

Scientific Thinking and Scientific Skepticism

It isn't easy to define psychology. Nonetheless, the general understanding of psychology is that it a scientific study of behavior, the mind and the brain. As a discipline, it spans several levels of analysis. A thorough understanding of psychology cannot be achieved by looking at just a single level of analysis since every level has a different set of knowledge and view point (Lillienfied, Lynn, Namy & Woolf, 2011).

Lilienfield, Lynn, Namy and Woolf (2011) are of the opinion that scientific thinking gives us skills to overcome our prejudices and biases which can distort our perception and make us ignore evidence that go against our line of thinking. Six scientific principles of thinking are particularly vital when one wants to study psychology. The first one is "Extraordinary Claims" which was proposed by David Hume, a Scottish Philosopher who lived in the 18th century. David Hume…… [Read More]

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Criminal Science Applying the Scientific

Words: 1382 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30620261

At the same time, there is a different element introduced in the pursuit of forensic science that is not dealt with in other branches of scientific inquiry. As the question of justice is also central to any forensic proceeding, the suspect's account of events and/or hypothesized explanations for observations must also be taken account (Young 2009). In this way, both verification and falsification can be used during experimentation.

Before these experiments take place, however, the predictions must lay out a way to clearly identify the expectations of the experiments, as well as a way the methods by which they should be conducted. Several predictions can usually be made rather quickly after the hypothesis that are fully testable and easily determined. Based on hairs found at the crime scene, for instance, it could be predicted that skin found under the victim's fingernails was of the same DNA as the on-matching hairs…… [Read More]

References

Palmer, G. (1998). "Forensic Analysis in the Digital World." Accessed 16 November 2009. http://74.125.155.132/search?q=cache:mSArrV3VjMQJ:www.utica.edu/academic/institutes/ecii/publications/articles/9C4E938F-E3BE-8D16-45D0BAD68CDBE77.doc+forensics+scientific+method&cd=7&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us&client=safari

Shodor. (2009). Forensic Science. Accessed 16 November 2009.  http://www.shodor.org/workshops/forensic/ 

Vogt, W. (2009). "Forensic investigation." Paradigm. Accessed 16 November 2009. http://www.paradigmconsultants.com/content.asp?secnum=60&pid=73

Young, T. (2009). "Forensic Science and the Scientific Method." Heartland Forensic Pathology. Accessed 16 November 2009.  http://www.heartlandforensic.com/writing/forensic-science-and-the-scientific-method
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Intelligence the Role of Scientific

Words: 2772 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38343941

More and more deep analysis can clarify the internal dynamics of the matter being studied, and in the long run to prediction, known as estimation. The reason for intelligence analysis is to make known to a precise decision maker the necessary significance of selected target information. Analysts should start with established facts, apply specialist knowledge in order to produce plausible but less certain findings, and even predict when the forecast is appropriately qualified. Analysts should not, however, engage in fortune telling that has no foundation in fact (Heuer, 1999). Not only is it poor science to claim absolute truth, but it also leads to the kind of destructive and distrustful debate we've had in last decade about global warming. The history of science and technology suggests that such absolutism on both sides of a scientific debate doesn't often lead to practical solutions (Botkin, 2011).

In the arrangement of science there…… [Read More]

References

A Compendium of Analytic Tradecraft Notes. (1997). Retrieved from http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/cia/tradecraft_notes/contents.htm

Botkin, D.B. (2011). Absolute Certainty Is Not Scientific. Retreived from http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052970204630904577058111041127168.html

Clauser, J. (2008). An introduction to intelligence research and analysis. Lanham, Maryland:

The Scarecrow Press.
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Mixed Methods Primary and Secondary

Words: 1738 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31406654

Quantitative research uses survey, and questionnaires to collect data. Through quantitative analysis, a researcher is able to correlate mass data to the research findings. Despite the benefits identified in both quantitative and qualitative research, the paper identifies some shortcomings in both research methods. To address these shortcomings, the paper proposes mixed methods that involve combining both quantitative and qualitative research.

eferences

Bryman, A. (1984). The Debate about Quantitative and Qualitative esearch: A Question of Method or Epistemology? The British Journal of Sociology, 35,(1): 75-92.

Burney, S.M.A (2008). Inductive and Deductive esearch Approach. Department of Computer Science. University of Karachi.

Hanson, J.L. (2011). Qualitative esearch Methods for Medical Educators. Academic Pediatric Association.11(5):375 -- 38.

Henderson, J. (2011). Primary and secondary sources, IthaCha College Library.

Firestone, W.A. (1987).Meaning in Method: The hetoric Quantitative and Qualitative esearch. Educational esearcher.19(7):16-21.

Goodwin, W.L. Goodwin, L.D. (1996). Understanding qualitative & quantitative research in early childhood education.…… [Read More]

References

Bryman, A. (1984). The Debate about Quantitative and Qualitative Research: A Question of Method or Epistemology? The British Journal of Sociology, 35,(1): 75-92.

Burney, S.M.A (2008). Inductive and Deductive Research Approach. Department of Computer Science. University of Karachi.

Hanson, J.L. (2011). Qualitative Research Methods for Medical Educators. Academic Pediatric Association.11(5):375 -- 38.

Henderson, J. (2011). Primary and secondary sources, IthaCha College Library.
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Mixed Methods Approaches Although Some Researchers May

Words: 2630 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10030830

Mixed Methods Approaches

Although some researchers may believe that only one method of research is valid when studying human behavior, in general it is more useful to view different research approaches as part of the varied 'instruments' in a researcher's toolbox, rather than denigrate one type of research at the expense of other kinds. Whether quantitative, qualitative, or mixed methods approaches are selected determines on the nature of the research; its purpose; and above all the types of questions that are being asked. No format is inherently better.

The strength of quantitative research lies in its ability to deploy the scientific method or a quasi-scientific method in an effective fashion to answer a highly specific question -- usually in terms of a numerical value. For example, in the case of my research on female juvenile delinquency, the research question I chose to focus upon was the correlation between female delinquent…… [Read More]

References

Broidy, L., Cauffman, E., Espelage, D.L., Mazerolle, P., & Piquero, A. (2003). Sex differences in empathy and its relation to juvenile offending. Violence and Victims, 18(5), 503-16.

Hartwig, H.J., & Myers, J.E. (2003). A different approach: Applying a wellness paradigm to adolescent female delinquents and offenders. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 25(1), 57-75.
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Mixed Methods Benefits and Challenges of Qualitative

Words: 1487 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5190647

Mixed Methods

Benefits and challenges of Qualitative, Quantitative and mixed methods approaches to research

Benefits and Challenges of Qualitative, Quantitative and Mixed Methods Approach to esearch

In any type of research, it is possible to characterize a research's study methodology as qualitative, quantitative, or one that involves the two methods, in which case it becomes a mixed method approach. Moreover, the term research design is popular in research, but it takes varied meanings in various studies. For instance, the term might refer to the entire research process in a given study, whereas in another study, it may refer to the applied methodology (Mary, Hanne and Frank, 2011). It is crucial for one to recognize a study's research design because the design communicates information, which is relevant to the study, and can vary for qualitative (Pop and Mays, 2000), quantitative and mixed methods. In addition, a key element, which is common…… [Read More]

References

Creswell, J.W. (2003). Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (2nd ed.).

Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Denzin, N.K., & Lincoln, Y.S. (2005). Introduction. In N.K. Denzin & Y.S. Lincoln (Eds.),

The SAGE handbook of qualitative research (3rd ed., pp. 1 -- 29). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
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How to Use Observations in Scientific Research

Words: 579 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44955146

folk wisdom idea common sense generalization grown (e.g., birds a feather flock ). How test validity folk wisdom idea scientific method (consult chapter research methods)? Which research method select? 2.

I would test the validity of this method using the scientific method by direct and systematic observation. I would select a representative sample of birds. The sample would need to include birds of the same type, so the bird behavior would not differ. I would watch the birds during the same temporal interval (morning, between 10 to 11 am or whenever I see the birds are active) and monitor whether their flight habits are generally individual or group.

These observations will be gathered in a table and the purpose of this would be to understand patterns. If a pattern does exist that would show that the birds have a tendency of flying together in the same group, then one can…… [Read More]

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Science What Are the Steps of Scientific

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12724373

Science

What are the steps of scientific method? What good is it? Does it prove anything? What's a variable? What a control vs. An experimental factor? What makes a good experiment?

Steps of scientific method:

Ask a question

Do background research

Construct a hypothesis

Test your hypothesis

Analyze your data

f. Communicate your results

The scientific method is good because it allows other scientists to repeat your experiment and all researchers to use the same method of investigation.

A variable is the thing in an experiment which varies from subject to subject.

A control in an experiment is the thing that remains the same. Experimental factors are the factors that are being tested and are changing.

e. Good data and accurate experimentation make a good experiment.

How does evolution explain the diversity of life we see today? What is natural selection and how does it work? What do we mean…… [Read More]

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Mixed Method Qualitative Quantitative Mixed Methodologies Quantitative

Words: 728 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50233499

Mixed Method

Qualitative, quantitative, mixed methodologies

Quantitative, qualitative and mixed methodology research

Quantitative methodologies tend to be data-driven in nature. The presumption of the correct 'way of knowing' in quantitative research is positivistic in nature. It is assumed there is an objective, concrete truth that can be learned through empirical observation and the careful construction of an experiment. Quantitative methods of research often use the scientific method or quasi-scientific methods of study design. The researcher has a clear idea of the phenomenon he or she is attempting to study. The researcher's primary tools include questionnaires, objective measurements and other methods of gathering statistical results. Often there is a control group to see if the results are statistically significant in nature. The study is carefully designed before the research takes place to isolate specific variables of inquiry and its focus of study is narrow, rather than broad. The types of knowledge…… [Read More]

References

Neill, James. (2007). Qualitative vs. quantitative research. Retrieved:

 http://www.wilderdom.com/research/QualitativeVersusQuantitativeResearch.html 

The qualitative vs. quantitative debate. (2012). Writing at CSU. Retrieved:

http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/research/gentrans/pop2f.cfm
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Taylorism Scientific Call Centre Management

Words: 3958 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19006947

Taylorism' / 'Scientific management.'

Introduction to the Evolvement of Management Theory during the 19th and 20th Century

With the coming of the Industrial age at the turn of the Century, and a new era, came the need for more efficient management techniques. Several Classical Theories evolved during the early years of this discipline. Fordism arose from a synthesis of the other earlier theories. Fayolism philosophy included close communication between bosses and workers. Taylorism developed a theory known as "Scientific Management" to study and set appropriate work quotas based on research. Lillian Gilbreth believed that workers were motivated by both direct and indirect motives. Arthur Gantt developed a task chart to help monitor and plan projects more efficiently.

After the Classical theorists, the Human Relations Movement began to take into account the reasons for individual responses. The first of these theorists was George Elton Mayo who conducted experiments at the General…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Website information for citation:

Accel-Team.Com, (2000) Scientific Management: Frederick Winslow Taylor [online]. Available at  http://www.accel-team.com/scientific/scientific_02.html  [Accessed 23rd November 2001].

Bibby, A. (2001) Organising in Financial Call Centres [online]. Available at  http://www.eclipse.co.uk/pens/bibby/ofcc4.html . Or  http://www.eclipse.co.uk/pens/bibby/hw-aa.html  [Accessed 12th June 2002].

Cantu, J. (1999) Taylorism viewed in its historical content [online]. Available at http://www.stanford.edu/~cantu/FW.html [Accessed 23rd November 2001].
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History of Human Civilization the Scientific Revolution

Words: 2161 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52464720

history of human civilization, the Scientific evolution emerged during the 17th century, which happened right after the enaissance Period. The Scientific evolution is the period in history wherein scientific methods and results where arrived at using experimentation and the use of scientific instruments such as the telescope, microscope, and thermometer (Microsoft Encarta 2002). The Scientific evolution is attributed to Galileo Galilei, who proposed that the universe and its elements can be explained mathematically, while subsisting to the fact the Sun is the center of the solar system. During the enaissance Period, Nicolaus Copernicus had declared that the Sun is the center of the solar system, but his declaration is only descriptive, while Galileo's declaration is verified through experimentation and the scientific method. This important distinction is the main reason why Galileo's time was considered the Scientific evolution, primarily because it uses the scientific method of research and experimentation.

Studies and…… [Read More]

References

Baber, Z. "Canada Research Chair in Science, Technology, and Social Change." 6 February 2003. University of Saskatchewan Web site. 16 April 2003 http://www.usask.ca/crc/profiles/baber.php.

History of Astronomy." Microsoft Encarta Reference Library 2002. Microsoft Inc. 1998.

Kaiser, T. "French Revolution." Microsoft Encarta Reference Library 2002. Microsoft Inc. 1998.

Shaffer, B. "Chaos in Space." 7 February 2003. LewRockwell Web site. 16 April 2003 http://www.lewrockwell.com.
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Human Resource Management Methods

Words: 991 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35517254

Human esource Management Methods

Traditional Annual Evaluation Method of Performance Appraisals vs. eal-Time Feedback Coaching Format

Performance appraisals take into account the assessment and evaluation of a person's performance in a methodical manner. It is a progressive technique employed for comprehensive development of the personnel and the organization as a whole. This performance is measured against various elements like quality and quantity of the output, job competence, leadership capabilities, supervision and versatility. Once such evaluations are made, employees can be trained and coached on what to be undertaken. On the other hand, real-time feedback coaching format takes into account the provision of opinion and response in an instantaneous way and therefore the coaching takes place immediately (Deb, 2009).

Comparison

There are aspects of similarity between these two methods of appraisal. To begin with, both methods are purposed to and give rise to change and coaching. Subsequent to the evaluation of…… [Read More]

References

Bell, R. L. (2011). Teaching present-day employees the value of scientific management. Supervision, 72(6), 5-8. Retrieved from https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=61927805&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Brooks, C. (2015). Forget Performance Reviews! This Works Better. Business News Daily. Retrieved from: http://www.businessnewsdaily.com/7974-better-performance-reviews.html

Deb, T. (2009). Performance Appraisal and Management. Excel Books India.

Impraise. (2016). Real-Time Feedback! Because Your Employees Hate the Annual Performance Review. Retrieved from: impraise.com/360-feedback/real-time-feedback-because-your-employees-hate-the-annual-performance-review
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Mixed Methods

Words: 573 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71583064

Prediction and Theory

There are several important components to a research study. First, a hypothesis examines a question or an idea before beginning a study. Next, a prediction suggests an outcome for a study. Finally, after the study has been carefully examined and has been tested multiple times using a wide variety of hypotheses, the results can be defined as a theory.

According to Cozby (2009), a hypothesis is "a type of idea or question: it makes a statement about something that may be true" (17). A hypothesis can be described as a speculative idea or query about why certain behaviors or situations occur. This question can then be either proven or disproven by collecting scientific evidence. Formulating a hypothesis is one of the first steps in developing a research study.

Prediction

Before beginning an experiment or conducting a study, a researcher will generate a prediction that suggests the most…… [Read More]

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Socratic Method of Questioning in Inherit the

Words: 764 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6894093

Socratic Method of Questioning in "Inherit the ind."

It is a truism, repeated in many crime shows as well as by many lawyers, that a good lawyer never asks a question unless he or she knows the answer to the question, much like the famous Greek teacher and philosopher Socrates. The method of Socratic questioning is thus one in which the lawyer or the instructor professes ignorance of the topic under discussion in order to elicit an engaged dialogue with students or witnesses, with a directed answer or rhetorical destination in mind. The questioning person feigns ignorance about a given subject in order to elicit another person's fullest possible knowledge of the topic under scrutiny -- or lack of knowledge, in the case of the play "Inherit the ind."

In the play "Inherit the ind," the defense attorney Drummond seems to engage in an apparently risky tactic. Drummond calls the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Lawrence, Jerome and Robert E. Lee. "Inherit the Wind." 1955.

"What is Socratic Questioning?" Science Education Resource Center at Carleton College. 2003.  http://serc.carleton.edu/introgeo/socratic/second.html  [1 June 2005]