How did Galileo respond to the edict? hat did he do to protect himself?
The original 1616 edict was not taken entirely seriously: "The Sun-Centered universe still remained an unproven idea -- without, [Pope] Urban believed, any proof in its future" (Sobel 138). However, Galileo still undertook steps to protect himself, defending his writings as a way: "to show Protestants to the north…that Catholics understood more about astronomy" (Sobel 140). His writings, in other words, would be used to glorify the Church and Catholicism's intelligence, as compared to Protestantism. Given that Catholicism and Protestantism were effectively 'at war' for dominance over Europe at the time, Galileo hoped that being seen as a warrior against Protestantism would license his writings and take some of the 'heat' of scrutiny off of his writings.
Q4. Describe the relationship between Galileo and Cardinal Barberini, who become Pope Urban. How did this and Galileo's Catholic…… [Read More]
On orders of Pope Paul V, Galileo is ordered not to hold or defend the Copernican theory. Later, in 1624, Galileo was allowed to write about the Copernican theory provided that he treated it as a mathematical hypothesis. When Galileo published Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems in1630, comparing the Ptolemaic and Copernican models, the Church stopped its distribution and condemned Galileo to house arrest for the rest of his life.
The final steps leading to the rejection of Aristotle and Ptolemy come from Johannes Kepler, Rene Descartes and Isaac Newton. Kepler's laws of planetary motion describe an elliptical form and operation of planetary orbits that contradict Aristotle's assertion that the orbits of the planets were round circles.
In 1637, Rene Descartes published Discourse of Method, a work setting forth the principles of deductive reasoning as used in the modern scientific method. In short, his method required (1) accepting…… [Read More]
Two of the most important proponents were the French philosophes, Montesquieu and Jean Jacques Rousseau, whose great contributions to the Enlightenment lead to the development of liberal democracy characterized among modern societies at present.
Montesquieu's discourse, entitled, "The Spirit of the Laws," provided objective and insightful propositions for reforms as societies change from being traditional to modern. According to him, the process towards social progress should be accompanied with material progress, which can only become possible if societies conduct a careful analysis of the factors for economic and political success (such as socio-demographic variables and economic and political structures of the society). These factors should be studied at the context of the extant structures of the society; the parallelism between the factors and structures shall lead to material, and eventually, social progress.
Rousseau's contribution to the Enlightenment is illustrated in his seminal work, "The Social Contract." In this treatise, Rousseau…… [Read More]
Scientific Revolution of 1600-1715 -- hen humanity shook its free from the grips of the fallacy that 'Man is the center of the solar system,' it gained the confidence to raise the human scientific intellect to the center of the political, religious, and mathematical world.
According to Roy T. Matthews and F. Deitt Platt, the scientific revolution of 1600-1715 was a paradoxical one. (Matthews & Deitt, 2004) Before, according to Aristotle and the Catholic Church, humanity and the earth were the centers of the solar system. (ilde, "Copernicus," The Galileo Project ebsite, 2004) But during this historical period, the intellectual reconfiguring of the cosmological world in the consciousness of the human animal put humanity on the periphery of the sun. Now, the earth, and by extension humanity, was merely in rotation amid other planets, a mere speck of thought upon a larger earth in a larger, impersonal universe. (ilde, "Biography,"…… [Read More]
' His ground-breaking "Principia Mathematica" published in 1687 argued that the universe could be explained completely through the use of Mathematics without resorting to theology or the scriptures; that the universe behaved in an entirely rational and predictable way explainable by the laws of physics. Newton thus argued, and proved his arguments by observation and the use of mathematics, that the universe was 'mechanistic' and behaved like a vast machine with interacting objects whose behavior followed the laws of motion. (Hooker, para on Isaac Newton)
Importance of the Scientific Revolution
The success of the scientific developments during the 'Scientific Revolution,' particularly the works of Isaac Newton convinced more and more people that if the universe could be understood rationally, then so could other aspects of human knowledge such as economics, history, politics, and ethics. It was only logical to assume that if economics, history, politics, and ethics were a mechanical…… [Read More]
Scientific Revolution was the period when man's intellect explored the interests of science, reasoning, and truth. It was the time when man, not satisfied with the assumptions about things he was used, explored scientific methods and theories to determine the truth about things based on scientific way of thinking. The emphasis of this intellectual change was on natural sciences of the earth such as astronomy, physics, zoology, geology, mathematics, and botany. The period of the Renaissance's desire to produce reality from art led to mathematics and scientific interests (Sedivy, D. HRHS). This intellectual shift appealed to the middle and upper classes of society. Two of the famous contributors in the Scientific Revolution were Isaac Newton and Galileo. Isaac Newton formulated the law of gravity, while Galileo developed the first telescope. Rene Descartes was another contributor of this period of intellectual change. He formulated mathematical theories that provide explanation to the…… [Read More]
middle ages, scholastic thinking was structurally limited by the Catholic Church, which considered itself the arbiter of such matters. However, thanks to changes in the sciences and in the methodologies used to approach them, the sheer weight of evidence was able to defeat some of the old dogmas that restricted thinking. Changes in science took on mathematical, experimental, and political dimensions and eventually gave enlightenment thinkers the objectivity needed to approach almost every subject from a rational angle, including political theory. In the history of European culture and perhaps even for humanity as a whole, the emergence of the enlightenment was one of the most divisive turns of events to ever occur, and ultimately one of the most rewarding.
The development of modern mathematics was spearheaded by Newton in England and DesCartes in continental Europe, but was inspired by astronomy. ome place the start of the cientific Revolution was the…… [Read More]
Of course there exist different concepts of anti-modernism, which state that scientific revolution and modernism lead the society to the moral and spiritual decline. But their appeal to refuse from the achievements of scientific progress sounds absurd or as a regressive religious appeal of fundamentalists, who want to contradict natural matter of facts, set by the dynamic laws of nature.
Making a conclusion it's important to say that scientific revolution of the seventeenth century had turned modern society into the society of continuing progress both in technology and humanism, into the society, whose fundamentals are based on "Mathematical beginnings of natural philosophy" and "Social contract." The development of thought and of cognition principles caused liberation from theological and scholastic dogmas, which had been putting restrictions on society, preventing it from further progress. But contradictory question of the "revolutionary" nature of scientific revolution and its influence on philosophy in general as…… [Read More]
The new universe made room for God because the collective mind was opened to the notion of a divine entity controlling all aspects of the universe not just one corner of it.
The Industrial Revolution can call Britain "home" (Craig 627) because at the time, Britain was the "single largest free-trade area in Europe" (627). Mechanical inventions spark the beginning of this revolution. In 1769, the spinning jenny was patented, which lead to the invention of a power loom. This increased demand for cotton with production jumping to twice as fast as before. The steam engine is another important invention of the Industrial Revolution and it connected to two "basic commodities of modern industrialization -- coal and iron" (Chodorow 718). Iron production was a basic element of modern development, as it "constitutes the chief element of all heavy industry and land or sea transport and is the material out of…… [Read More]
A a) Describe the personal traits and talents of Napoleon which place him in a unique position in world history.
Napoleon Bonaparte was the leader of the French army that defeated the revolution. He ultimately became the dictator ruler of France and succeeded in conquering various parts of Europe. However his methods are frowned upon, Napoleon the First and Emperor of France remains unique personality in the history of the world.
As a civilian, Bonaparte was a modest, but extremely bright man. His teachers have often praised his merits and he has also constituted a role model for his military fellows. In school and in the military he was hardworking. However he was generally quiet, he always managed to make an impression upon the people around him. His small stature had an impressive posture and he inspired both respect as well as admiration. His teachers and early commanders stated to…… [Read More]
history of human civilization, the Scientific evolution emerged during the 17th century, which happened right after the enaissance Period. The Scientific evolution is the period in history wherein scientific methods and results where arrived at using experimentation and the use of scientific instruments such as the telescope, microscope, and thermometer (Microsoft Encarta 2002). The Scientific evolution is attributed to Galileo Galilei, who proposed that the universe and its elements can be explained mathematically, while subsisting to the fact the Sun is the center of the solar system. During the enaissance Period, Nicolaus Copernicus had declared that the Sun is the center of the solar system, but his declaration is only descriptive, while Galileo's declaration is verified through experimentation and the scientific method. This important distinction is the main reason why Galileo's time was considered the Scientific evolution, primarily because it uses the scientific method of research and experimentation.
Studies and…… [Read More]
Scientific Revolutions Preview
The author uses successive paradigms to bring out the nature of the universe. The point is that there are various (and diverse) aspects of the universe and the behavior of its population. Specifically, Thomas points out that "they differ, that is, about such questions as the existence of subatomic particles, the materiality of light, and the conservation of heat or of energy." (9) The author states that these differences do not require further explanation as they arise in successive paradigms. The paradigms are important since they provide basis for solutions, problem fields and various methods in the universe.
The author points out that the nature of the universe is too complex with great variations and thus, random exploration is not justified. Therefore, there is a need for a map that provides important information to be used in relevant scientific research that explores the complex nature. The importance…… [Read More]
The history of modern human civilization reflects the gradual evolution of thoughts, ideas, political reform, and technological progress. At various times, specific periods of change were important enough to have been recorded as revolutions. Some of the most significant of these revolutions contributed to human history and societal development individually as well as in conjunction with other simultaneous or nearly simultaneous changes.
The Scientific evolution was responsible for fundamental changes in the understanding of the physical world, chemistry, biology, and of human anatomy and physiology. The French evolution represented the recognition of the fundamental rights of citizens to fairness and humane consideration on the part of their respective monarchical governments. The Industrial evolution increased the availability of information and provided new modes of transportation and mechanical processes that radically changed the lives of large numbers of people throughout Europe and the North American continent.
The Scientific evolution
The Scientific…… [Read More]
Revolution American Style: The Nineteen-Sixties and eyond
Paul N. Goldstene's book "Revolution, American Style: The Nineteen-Sixties and eyond" is a political science book that really is political. The book's central focus is to scrutinize key assumptions that routinely precede and preempt about political power. It is basically an analysis of essential foundations of political power in United States and their influences on the revolutionary politics of 1960's. It is an inquiry that is profoundly serious and could serve as an important tool for unearthing the realities of present-day repression and laying a solid foundation for democratic life. Goldstene is excellent at connecting events and ideas to the wider frame of Western thought. Focusing on the disruptive battle between the ideological impulses of democracy and liberalism, and the crucially different opportunities for human development each efforts.
On the argument that the book is an assault on right to productive property, I…… [Read More]
Fundamental and inherently subjective (and thus at least partially false) systems of though cannot be avoided, and in Western thought this basic system consists of these ultimately false binary oppositions. This makes an understanding of a science that could incorporate objective and subjective elements a logical contradiction to Western minds.
Sivin concedes that Chinese science is not exactly the same as Western science (though this is arguably not really true in the present era), but he doesn't really put this in terms of a concession. Advances in Chinese astronomy and mathematics were made at approximately the same time they were being made in Europe, he contends, but due to a long and unbroken working understanding of how the observable world and universe worked -- even if it was more flawed than Ptolemy had achieved -- these advances did not cause or warrant the type of Scientific Revolution experienced in the…… [Read More]
Copernican revolution has a pivotal role in the establishment of the modern sciences. We are very much familiar with the fact that the human mind had always been fascinated greatly by the changes taking place around him almost constantly. Human observation and sense of argument and ability to be logical has made him the most intelligent and consequently most powerful species on the planet.
It is very comfortable to believe that Earth is located at the centre of the universe and other planets rotate around it because Earth itself does not seem or feel to be moving and there are only sun, moon and other planets appearing and disappearing at their exact timings. It is quite logical and unless and until something really revolutionary come forward to refute this believe, it looks quite reasonable to carry on believing the same idea (Kuhn, pp 187).
The most significant change…… [Read More]
The universe viewed through a telescope looked different, and this difference in itself played into the Protestant argument that received truths may be fallible. In fact, the notion of truth outside empirical evidence became unsteady:
For most thinkers in the decades following Galileo's observations with the telescope, the concern was not so much for the need of a new system of physics as it was for a new system of the world. Gone forever was the concept that the earth has a fixed spot in the center of the universe, for it was now conceived to be in motion…gone also was the comforting thought that the earth is unique (Cohen 79)
However, while the telescope was transforming ideas about the shape of the cosmos and the relationship between science and faith, the microscope essentially remained a toy through much of the early modern era. If anything, the revelation of the…… [Read More]
Enlightenment on the French evolution
evolutionary changes in the leadership of 18th Century France did not occur overnight or with some sudden spark of defiance by citizens. The events and ideals which led to the French evolution were part of a gradual yet dramatic trend toward individualism, freedom, liberty, self-determination and self-reliance which had been evolving over years in Europe, and which would be called The Enlightenment. This paper examines and analyses the dynamics of The Enlightenment - and also, those individuals who contributed to the growth of The Enlightenment and to the ultimate demise of the Monarchy - in terms of what affect it had on the French evolution.
Introduction to the French evolution
When the legitimate question is raised as to what role, if any, The Enlightenment played in the French evolution, the best evidence from credible historic sources is that The Enlightenment did indeed play an important…… [Read More]
Other employment prospects in fields such as petty trading, retailing, transportation and domestic service also developed simultaneously in urban areas. In the nineteenth century, when the industrial working class became much larger and more important in the social structure they begin to assert themselves socially, politically and economically, evolving into the social order we see today.
Growth of Cities
According to Jeffery G. Williamson (1990) Britain grew at an unusually rapid growth rate during the first part of the nineteenth century. Census data of the period indicates that some nineteenth-century cities grew at rates "that would bring cold sweat to the brow of twentieth-century housing committees" (p.2). Glasgow grew at 3.2% annum in 1830's, Manchester and Salford at 3.9% in the 1820's; Bradford at 5.9% in the 1830s, and Dukinfield nearly tripled in size the 1820's. These were the fast-growing cities and towns in the industrializing north.
The British population…… [Read More]
revolution in understanding genetic contributions to the susceptibility for developing particular diseases and disorders has been the development of the notion of "personalized medicine." The "personalized" connotation of this growing facet in the practice does not refer to individualized treatments as much as it refers to a personalizing of treatments targeted at a specific subset of patients, for example the development of certain drugs that can target specific cancer-causing genes found in patients' tumors. A drug currently being reviewed by the FDA for release is crizotinib, an anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitor. ALK is believed to be active in several different types of tumors, including about five percent of non-small-cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC). In patients with advanced NSCLC it has been found that those carrying the echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 anaplastic lymphoma kinase (EML4-ALK) fusion gene possess a protein product of this fusion that contains a constitutive kinase activity that…… [Read More]
Pierre Bourdieu, "The Field of Cultural Production" from David Finkelstein and Alistair McCleery, the Book History Reader, London: Routledge, 2002.
Bordieu's work is interesting in terms of analyzing contemporary media production. It is interesting that a person's profession defines and narrows is or her perspective. To wit: Bourdieu spoke about 'culture'. Now, even though his intention was culture in the conventional sense, fields including science (which in turn includes social science), law and religion, as well as expressive domains such as art, literature and music, when he spoke about culture he onerously focused on the expressive-aesthetic fields, namely literature and art. These were his occupations and this is what the man thought about. It is possible that another, perhaps a scientist, writing about culture, would extract th scientific aspect of it. Since Bourdeau was an author, he approached it form that tangent and, thereby, gave culture his own p-articular meaning.…… [Read More]
Industrial evolution: esult of an Agricultural evolution?
The Industrial evolution which began in Great Britain in the eighteenth century, and still continues in certain parts of the world, is considered by some historians to be the most significant transformation in the economic environment of human civilization after the Neolithic evolution. There are a number of reasons that triggered and sustained the transformation of an agriculture-based economy to an industrial-based economy, but perhaps the most significant was the occurrence of an 'Agriculture evolution' in Britain in the century following 1750. In this essay, I shall discuss why this was so, besides describing the following:
The causes and outcome of the Agricultural evolution
Features of the Industrial evolution
The Social Consequences of the Industrial evolution
Karl Marx and Emile Durkhiem's theories about the Industrial evolution
How an Agricultural evolution in Britain triggered the Industrial evolution?
Most historians are in agreement that the…… [Read More]
It has been called the "Western Miracle" and the "European Miracle," but it is commonly known as the Industrial Revolution. During the later half of the 1700's and to the beginning of the 20th century, The European continent and North America went through some amazing changes. These changes did not involve politics, but centered on economics and a new way of business in the U.S. They would also bring a new way of life for the middle and lower classes. These changes are no referred to as the Industrial Revolution, and it brought forth a new way of producing goods. It changed the face of our nation from and agricultural emphasis to one of industry and mass production of processed goods, which in turn changed how the country would look at work places and how workers were treated.
Great Britain gave birth to this whole concept of industry…… [Read More]
Industrial Revolution heralded a shift in the way that goods were produced. Technological developments in particular began a shift in emphasis away from human capital towards financial capital. Human beings, once almost exclusively in one trade or another, became increasingly viewed as equivalent to machines, or worse. This marked a shift both in business and society with respect to the nature of work in society, a shift whose repercussions are still felt today. The Introduction section will highlight the background information -- defining the Industrial Revolution, the ways work was viewed in society prior to it and how work is viewed in society today, which will provide perspective of some of the critical changes that have occurred.
In his essay hy e ork, Andrew Curry outlines some of the more profound of these changes. These changes will form the basis of my research paper on how the Industrial Revolution affected…… [Read More]
Certainly, one could tell from your presentation that your political past and present has not yet left you, but the valid ideas remain. My discourse is structured less on what we should do, but rather on how water is both a commodity and a public good.
Moderator: Excellent, but please make sure you don't get into a fight with Paul's rigorous political approach!
Karen akker: Right, will do. We can all understand why water is a public good: because the public drinks it, washes with it and uses it for water balloons. On the other hand, there are companies who see that water can also be a commodity and, as such, they stock the water in water balloons and them sell them, either to the state, in public-private partnerships, or directly to the population. France is a good example in this sense, but then, it was also them who had…… [Read More]
Nineteenth century ideologies emerged concurrently with the ongoing entrenchment of secular values and the principles of scientific inquiry. With empirical methods at the fore, philosophers and social scientists also grounded their theories in the prevailing political themes and realities of their time. The industrial revolution had a profound impact on political ideology and practice throughout Europe.[footnoteRef:1] When Karl Marx developed the theories that would inform his most influential works like Das Capital and the Communist Manifesto, his theories blended the methodologies used in history and political theory with those used in social sciences, most notably economics. Marx’s scientific socialism reflected the shift from an economic and political model dominated by feudalism and tight authoritarian political control towards one that reflected the tenets of independence, self-governance, and human rights. [1: Joshua Cole and Carol Symes., Western Civilizations: Their History & Their Culture, Brief 4th ed. (New York: W.W. Norton, 2017) v.…… [Read More]
Scientific Principles: "Timeline in Optics"
It is very clear that Optics is the physical science that examines the source and broadcast of light, how it fluctuates, what effects it yields, and other marvels that are connected with this interesting science. Many science nerds may be unaware that there are two divisions of optics. One of those divisions is called the Physical optics. The physical optics is related to the properties and nature of light itself. Also, it is clear that the geometrical optics are what concentrates with the principles leading image-forming assets of mirrors, and lenses, other devices, for example optical data computers.
This "Timeline in Optics" puts the emphasis on important developments and events in the science of optics from prehistory to the start of the 21st century. It likewise consist of associated expansions in other fields (the evolution of processors) and interconnected highpoints in the human worldview.
Concept…… [Read More]
The industrialist 19th-century Europeans frequently put this to the difference between private and state-sponsored religion. In 1837, an Austrian visitor to the United States observed:
In America, every clergyman may be said to do business on his own account, and under his own firm. He alone is responsible for any deficiency in the discharge of his office, as he is alone entitled to all the credit due to his exertions. He always acts as principal, and is therefore more anxious, and will make greater efforts to obtain popularity, than one who serves for wages (Powell 1967).
This should be no surprise to those who have seen populations stick to their religions despite sanctions from the state, such as in Poland. At the time of the fall of the erlin Wall, Polish participation in Catholic ceremonies was quite high; after independence and the establishment of an official relationship with the state,…… [Read More]
Shen Tong, in his Almost a Revolution, provides the first autobiographical account of the student uprising in Beijing during the summer of 1989 to reach western audiences. The book as come under attack for being somewhat self-serving and Tong has been accused of attempting to "cash-in" on the tragedy that occurred at Tiananmen Square by publishing his own, insider's account.
Despite these accusations, Almost a Revolution is a valuable rendering of the student movement's atmosphere and ideologies because it comes from the perspective of those who were involved. It should be regarded as something of a primary historical source, in this respect; accordingly, we should expect it to be filled with personal and nationalistic bias, but this does not detract from its capability to illuminate the events that took place for those of us who were not there.
Accepting Tong's position with reference to the movement, other critics have noted…… [Read More]
Social Revolution 1945 to 1990
Eric Hobsbawm's writing style was that of a historian. Nevertheless, his objective was always: adding to political action and thought, which he accomplished more effectively through this book than all his other works. Retrospectively, the author discovered that global socialism's challenge to the capitalist idea had a strength which was its opponent's weakness. Also, in truth, a large number of individuals who backed socialism sincerely to the very end held a belief, for long, that socialism's political yzantinism, bureaucratic rigidities, and mass murders would eventually be overcome, and that the above horrors were responsible for ensuring capitalism remained afloat. The weaknesses of the socialist theory were underrated, while those of the capitalist theory were overvalued. In effect, the world was convinced in its belief that capitalism was unable to solve issues, while socialism could tackle their own issues. However, the latter issues were deep-rooted rather…… [Read More]
Study Limitations. There is no doubt that the issue of stem cell research and cloning carries with it scientific obligations, moral concerns, and future possibilities (obertson, 2000). However, authors such as osenthal and Lanza have managed to put the issue squarely where it belong at this juncture, namely, controlled empirical investigative research. The authors, although, thorough in their presentation, did little to encourage the on-going process of stem cell research for regenerative medicine. The limitations of their research presentation include the following:
No direct relationship was established between animal stem cell research and human stem cell research.
Mention was not made with respect to the costs of current stem cell research efforts and possible future costs.
Emphasis was not place on the overall need for advanced biotechnology.
Documentation between government regulations and current stem cell research efforts was not addressed.
The authors did little to address the potential stem cell…… [Read More]
factory owners during the Industrial Revolution. You are having trouble recruiting and retaining workers, and getting them to do what you want them to do. What techniques would you use to accomplish your goals of achieving efficient and profitable production?
oday, because of the apparently unjust conditions of workers during the early days of industrialization, modern sympathies tend to lie with the factory workers in their efforts to unionize and secure their rights during the early days of the Industrial Revolution. However, even from the capitalist's perspective, unmotivated employees were not as productive as loyal and motivated laborers, thus it was perhaps mistaken to be blatantly unconcerned about workers rights. In fact, at the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, the capitalist factory owners were often frustrated by the need to impose discipline upon workers who were used to agricultural methods and rhythms of labor. his began, initially, by paying workers…… [Read More]
Ample scientific evidence exists to demonstrate that global warming is an authentic and unequivocal threat to the globe, to nations around the world, and to society in developed countries. Climatologists have found evidence of seven cycles of glacial retreat and advance over the past 650,000 years ("NASA," 2012). Notably, the beginning of the era of the climate we experience today is estimated to have occurred 7,000 years ago when the last ice age ended ("NASA," 2012). Scientists assert that these earlier climate changes were caused by changes in the solar energy that Earth receives as a result of its orbit ("NASA," 2012). However, the current global warming is not a natural event since it has been induced and worsened by human activity ("NASA," 2012). Moreover the rate of global warming in unprecedented over the past 1,300 years as substantiated by scientifically validated geological and climatological records, and by…… [Read More]
Social Media and the ed Shirt evolution
Most scholars are in conflict with regard to the subject of revolution in the age of social media. Until now, revolution has been considered a top-down process. In Thai situation, things might have been different. The ed Shirt evolution in Thailand was one of the first of the "Twitter" revolutions, that is one that was fueled by social media and Web 2.0 technology. Since then, other revolutions have come as well. The lone citizen is now no longer on their own. The dissident in Chiang Mai now can commiserate with their brother or sister in Tahrir Square and plan revolution on a country to country or even on a global basis. Even as this writer types up a dissertation proposal, demonstrators coordinate strategy on a global basis to protest corporate greed. It is with this in mind that this study looks back at…… [Read More]
The information collected through these observations would then be documented and organized in ways that support the understanding of the underlying phenomena (Wolff, 2012).
Throughout history, scientific revolution has always centered on investigations that are conducted and developed through various observations. This process of investigation or observation has also included the review of existing scientific beliefs or practices. According to Francis Bacon, scientific revolution begins from existing evidence and gradually proceeds from specific observations to provisional generalizations or theories. The process is then cautiously repeated to establish some general truths that can be the basis of people's beliefs.
The scientific investigations that form the nature of scientific revolution are also based on observations that are directed by theory. ather than the mere collection and tabulation of data, scientific observations are in the form of hypotheses, which are also known as experiments. This is largely because experiments help in approving or…… [Read More]
272). There were great changes taking place during that period in history, and not all of those changes had to do specifically with science. Some of them stemmed from science in other ways, and were encouraged to develop because they had a better framework during that time.
Philosophy during that time also had a "momentous transfer of allegiance from religion to science" (Tarnas, 1993; p. 272). That deeply affected how people felt about themselves and their world, and it changed the way many of them thought. Those who embraced science did so willingly, and those who embraced religion were also afforded that right. In other words, whether a person focused on science or religion, that person had a choice. Things were no longer all about the Church, and what the Church had always taught people. During that time in history, many people were afraid of the Church and thought that…… [Read More]
morning Here information seventh unit term. Once complete, left final paper. Unit 7: Scientific Revolution e've reached end journey. The Scientific Revolution represents development thinking world.
Attitudes during the Scientific Revolution
The scientific revolution and the age of classical science have had a severe impact on society and made it possible for it to experience great progress as a consequence of the fact that technology had advanced significantly. Humanity was especially ignorant up to this point and technology actually made it possible for the masses to look at the world from a different perspective. People learnt that a lot of things they previously believed to be impossible were actually possible and joined the rest of the world in a struggle to achieve progress. The Scientific Revolution basically represents the moment when the social order started to experience massive reform as a result of technological advancements.
One of the first steps…… [Read More]
This would become the basis of a profound shift in European knowledge: classical mechanics (Hooker).
Francis acon (1561-1626), added a key element to the genesis of the mechanical universe in his attacks on traditional knowledge. He proposed the Aristotelean model of induction and empiricism as the best model of human knowledge. This model of systematic empirical induction was the piece that completed the puzzle in the European world view and made the scientific revolution possible (Hooker).
The mechanical universe would emerge from Sir Isaac Newton's work (1642-1727). He based his entire view of the universe on the concept of inertia: every object remains at rest until moved by another object; every object in motion stays in motion until redirected or stopped by another object. He argued that all the planets and other objects in the universe moved according to a physical attraction between them, which is called gravity; this mutual…… [Read More]
Kuhn's ationale on the Irrationality of Scientific evolutions
"Communities in this sense exist, of course, at numerous levels. The most global is the community of all natural scientists."
~Thomas S. Kuhn, from The Structure of Scientific evolutions
To understand Thomas Kuhn's ideas regarding scientific revolutions, one must have a grasp on Kuhn's ideas relating to the history of science in general. Kuhn's perspective on the history of science is that scientific knowledge is not accumulative. He did not perceive the accumulation of knowledge as linear. Thus, before Kuhn explains the irrationality of scientific revolutions, he explains the irrationality of the historical picture of science in general. The paper will contend that scientific revolutions are irrational because science is irrational. As will be demonstrated by Kuhn and other authors, there is no specific logic as to why some theories and paradigms become popular and other do not. To paraphrase Kuhn,…… [Read More]
In contrast, English baroque has been described as being more secular, with a higher degree of classical inspiration. However, as Daniells states, this form of the Baroque style is not easy to categorize with finality (Daniells). Wellek uses the term 'restraint' to characterize English baroque (Wellek). With regard to the period of the Scientific Revolution, English Baroque drew inspiration from renaissance geometry. As in the Italian or Roman Baroque, there is a strong religious element that permeates all the designs.
The form of Baroque is exemplified by work of Sir Christopher Wren and buildings like St. Paul's Cathedral. The following summary by Soo is reiterated as it encapsulates the link between English baroque and the religious and scientific values of the period. "...as the result of a compromise between native medieval tradition and continental classicism, reconciled by creating a disunity between appearances and reality, the final design of St. Paul's…… [Read More]
It also set up a conflict between labour and capital, a variation of the old conflict between peasants and nobility. Because it was based on a competitive "free" market, capitalism inherently sought labour-saving and time-saving devices by which it might increase efficiency and productivity. In other words, manufacturing and production processes were sped up through specialisation (division), automation, mechanisation, routinisation, and other alienating forms of production in which the human being was less a personality at work and more a replaceable cog in a much larger system. This changed the way construction products were made. The concept of capitalism itself envisioned the mass production system and then made it a reality.
Furthermore, with the rise of the factory and the mechanisation of labour, farming began a decline and people flocked to the cities to find other types of work. Added to this there were advances in medicine which meant that…… [Read More]
Two examples of this "Enlightened Despotism" were Catherine the Great of Russia and Frederick the Great of Prussia. They based their monarchial powers, not on the Divine Right of Kings, but upon the need for a strong authoritative government to promote greater welfare within the state. These rulers created greater national standards and regulations that helped the state create a strong political infrastructure that veered away from traditional custom-based doctrine. As a result, Enlightened Absolutism became the norm within European government as monarchs began to systematically create a method to entrench national level reforms that would provoke greater political, economic and social stability.
Ultimately all four of these events are strongly interrelated because they were changes in the mindset of individuals. At the core level however, they were all reactions and extensions of the Reformation movement, which promoted greater individual liberty and free thinking. Absolutism and its evolution led to…… [Read More]
Satan and Paradise Lost
In Paradise Lost by John Milton, Satan represents the royalist, Catholic and aristocratic enemies of the Puritans during the civil wars and religious wars of the 17th Century and reflects the culture and events of the era such as the Renaissance, Reformation and Scientific Revolution. Milton was a Puritan who had supported Oliver Cromwell in the English Civil ar and the overthrow of the king, aristocracy and Church of England. He was disappointed by the outcome of this revolution, and especially with the Restoration of the monarchy and the old order in 1660, which banned and censored many of his writings for being too radical. Not only is it a specifically Christian story of original sin, the fall from grace and hope for redemption, it should be considered as a revolutionary tract from the Puritan-Protestant side during the civil wars and religious wars of the 17th…… [Read More]
A favorite target for conspiracists today as well as in the past, a group of European intellectuals created the Order of the Illuminati in May 1776, in Bavaria, Germany, under the leadership of Adam Weishaupt (Atkins, 2002). In this regard, Stewart (2002) reports that, "The 'great' conspiracy organized in the last half of the eighteenth century through the efforts of a number of secret societies that were striving for a 'new order' of civilization to be governed by a small group of 'all-powerful rulers.' The most important of these societies, and the one to which all subsequent conspiracies could be traced, is the Illuminati founded in Bavaria on May 1, 1776 by Adam Weishaupt" (p. 424). According to Atkins, it was Weishaupt's fundamental and overriding goal to form a secret organization of elite members of Europe's leading citizens who could then strive to achieve the Enlightenment version of revolutionary social…… [Read More]
It was founded on the knowledge that spurred during the Renaissance and has placed significance on rational thought and cultural emphasis, which was not present before.
Furthermore, with regards to the popularity of Baroque during this period, it is important to note that this style was able to combine the principles of science and the philosophies and doctrines of early Christianity, which has been very prominent in architectures built on such style. During the earlier period, the Renaissance, art was simpler and characterized by simple rhythms. With Baroque, however, a dynamic change has occurred, as art and architecture became more ostentatious and it has shown how art can move from the previous period (Saisselin).
The Scientific Revolution has presented a new perspective and shows a shift from the orthodox. It has also allowed the use of the past in order to create the future. In the field of arts, the…… [Read More]
As activists in women's liberation, discussing and analyzing the oppression and inequalities they experienced as women, they felt it imperative to find out about the lives of their foremothers -- and found very little scholarship in print" (Women's history, 2012, para. 3). This dearth of scholarly is due in large part to the events and themes that are the focus of the historical record. In this regard, "History was written mainly by men and about men's activities in the public sphere -- war, politics, diplomacy and administration. Women are usually excluded and, when mentioned, are usually portrayed in sex-stereotypical roles, such as wives, mothers, daughters and mistresses. History is value-laden in regard to what is considered historically 'worthy'" (Women's history, 2012, para. 3).
In what Kessler (1994, p. 139) describes as "the all-too-common historical exclusion or devaluation of women's contributions," the male-dominated record of human history has either diminished the…… [Read More]
"My gracious Lord," said Hippolita, "let us submit ourselves to heaven. Think not thy ever-obedient wife rebels against thy authority. I have no will but that of my Lord and the Church." (alpole, Chapter 4) Despite Manfred's attempt to control the world, the forces of heaven cannot be thwarted in their determination to right the wrongs committed by Manfred's grandfather, Ricardo, and prevent Manfred from committing further mischief. The characters experience helplessness and terror in the face of the forces of beyond, rather than any sense of empowerment that they can control them with science. Morality, rather than reason enables them to survive.
The realism that alpole perceives in his narrative is the morality that the characters struggle with, in attempting to do the 'correct' thing. Finally, at the end of the novel, Manfred realizes his ancestor's crimes and repents: "Thou guiltless but unhappy woman! Unhappy by my crimes!" Manfred…… [Read More]
Knowledge and truth were considered absolute and immutable by these two, though for very different reasons, which is the complete antithesis to the empirical theories of Popper, Peirce, Kuhn, and James. The progression of knowledge in the face of such certainty could only result in pure growth from previously established claims, as no truth could ever be said to exist that was not thoroughly and absolutely proved by careful extrapolation from a priori conclusions.
Several interesting anthropological occurrences have convinced me that the empirical method, with its possibility for the adjustment of truth based on the framework or paradigm from which the determination of truth is made, is a much better way of understanding truth and the concept of "absolute certainty." Cultures exist that have no concept of, or words for, time. "Yesterday" and "today" are meaningless concepts that do not exist. The extreme difficulty of communication that this presented…… [Read More]
Cox communications has grown due to pushing the perceived envelope of knowledge. The fundamental foundation of the company is the paradigm shift. Technology of any type, particularly high tech such as communications have their progress predicated upon the changes occurring in organizations based on dynamics of this technology.
This is especially true in communications technologies over the internet. Cox Communications got into broadband starting in 2001 after cutting its teeth in basic internet technologies. Then in 2004, they expanded into Voice Over Internet Protocol (VOIP) and into cable broadband and telephony in 2006.("Cox communications, inc.," 2011).
Cox Communications is now the third largest cable multi-system operator in the U.S. Cox was founded in 1962 in the cable television industry. The company's expanded from initial markets included Lewistown, Lock Haven and Tyrone in Pennsylvania. From then until now, Cox has become a multi-service broadband communications provider and is currently the cable…… [Read More]
Karl Popper's Proposed Solution To The Demarcation Problem:
Popper vs. Kuhn
According to the philosopher Karl Popper, "the central problem in the philosophy of science is that of demarcation, i.e., of distinguishing between science and what he terms 'non-science'" (Thornton 2009). Colloquially, of course, all of us think we know what science is -- it is the scientific method, or the proving of a hypothesis. But even here there is confusion, given that what constitutes a scientific 'theory' is not what is meant by 'theory' when a layperson speaks. And much of what we intuitively believe to be science may not be science at all, given that it may be based more upon observed correlations and observed, personal experiences than the proving and disproving of hypotheses. According to Popper, what we call science is largely a web of hypotheses, rather than 'truth.'
Popper called the problem of distinguishing between science…… [Read More]
Philosophy of Science
Scientific theories allow scientists to organize their observations regarding reality and existence, and predict or create future observations or results. Scientific theories need to be consistent, testable, verifiable and useful in order to be valid and reliable. Theories are typically ideas about the ways in which things work. Scientific theory relates to logical and empirical criteria that can be tested and validated. For science to exist and to be considered valid there must be a logically consistent idea presented to the public that explains certain conditions or realities. To be valid, science must explain something and should be proven via experimentation. Science should also enable the user to have a better understanding of the item or issue it is explaining. This relates to validity.
Thesis) will argue in this paper that science needs to be independently verified to be considered science but also that science does not…… [Read More]
The word biology means the study of life. It is a combination of "bio," which means "life," and "ology," which means "wisdom" or "science of." Thus, the term itself tells us what its meaning is: it is the science or study of life.
However, there are many fields in biology, which look at specific sectors or areas of "life." Because life on this planet is abounding and so complex, it is required that there be several fields of biological science. For instance, marine biology studies life in water (such as in oceans or lakes). Human biology studies the complexities of the human body. Cellular biology takes an even closer look at biological studies by closing in on the activities and structures of cells, which are just one part of life.
Advancements in biological knowledge have taken place over many centuries throughout the history of the world. In fact, all…… [Read More]
The Implicate Order and Explicate Order can be compared to a piece of holographic film and the image it produces. The film corresponds to the enfolded, or hidden, Implicate Order. The image, or hologram, (what is humanly perceived) is the Explicate Order. Thus, the tangible "reality" of our everyday lives is a kind of holographic image being projected from the "film" or source -- the Implicate Order (Dunlap, 2000).
The flow of time is part of the dynamic process of enfolding and unfolding. "As the present unfolds and becomes part of the past, it does not cease to exist, but simply returns to the cosmic storehouse of the implicate" (Talbot, 1990, p. 200). The event we call death is another example of what he is saying. Death is not the end -- it is simply moving out of the Explicate and into the Implicate.
Bohm (1987) suggests that consciousness flows…… [Read More]
reasoning has been guiding and dictating the scientific enterprise since the scientific revolution. This objective reasoning is also applicable to the business field. Research in business can be applied by following the following general seven steps method.
tate a problem
Any idea or tentative explanation is the result of an existing problem. Research in business is an attempt at identifying new markets including the needs and wants of those markets. The research must pin point how these needs can be met, how customers and clients can best collaborate, and what can be the best pricing of given products among others.
Present preliminary hypotheses
This is where the imagination and intuition of the business researcher come to work. He or she will attempt to derive any type of plausible explanations which will be latter weed out for bad hypothesis.
Data collection in business research can be done by…… [Read More]
Specifically, Caesar masterfully showed how through building alliances one may achieve power and rise to the top of the leadership tier even in a group or society as vast as the Ancient Roman Empire (Abbott, 1901, p.385).
The Roman Empire also provides an example of organizational systems within the public domain through the Republican system. In the Roman Republican system of government, one man did not have the power to make law. Instead, power was balanced amongst three different branches of government: the executive, the legislative, and the judicial ("The Roman Empire"). In fact, this form of government introduced the concept of a senatorial body to the public. In Rome, the Senate was designed as a separate body of government from that of the Emperor so as to avoid the tyranny of one leader. Through the advent of the Senate, the Romans laid the groundwork for leadership structure of Britain…… [Read More]
Technology, Society & Politics
The role of technology in society, politics and economics: Analysis of the works of Kuhn, Rhodes, Christensen, Levy and Toulmin
The development of technology with the onset of the Industrial Revolution, capitalism, and modernism created significant changes in the culture and institutions of human societies. Where technology used to be associated with machinery and manufacturing, technology in the 20th century gradually became associated with computer technology. Scientific developments shifted from macro to micro; human power centered from physical labor to intellectual improvement/development. As civilization progressed towards modernism in the 20th century, technology has become more invasive to people's lives. Inevitably, technology has penetrated not only the science sector, but other institutions as well, particularly human society's culture, politics, and economy.
Indeed, the significant role that technology played in the culture, politics, and economy of modern society has been debated and expressed through discourses by famous philosophers…… [Read More]
The history from the Renaissance to the Machine Age was defined by major technical and stylistic advances that allowed for much larger, taller, more elegant buildings, and higher degrees of functionality and architectural expression.
In cultural and scientific matters, the Modern Era was characterized by an increasingly rationalistic trajectory of thought which was based on an ethos of the humanistic exploration of reality and truth. While in a cultural sense religion still played a significant role, the Industrial Revolution as well as the advent of the Machine Age and the predominance of empirical science and the scientific method, had overtaken the norms and values of the rural and agrarian worldview. There were many other factors that played an important role in the scientific culture of this era, including the rise of Capitalism and international trade. This in turn is linked to other concomitant factors such as the use of steam…… [Read More]
Thomas Aquinas led the move away from the Platonic and Augustinian and toward Aristotelianism and "developed a philosophy of mind by writing that the mind was at birth a tabula rasa ('blank slate') that was given the ability to think and recognize forms or ideas through a divine spark" (Haskins viii). y 1200 there were reasonably accurate Latin translations of the main works of Aristotle, Euclid, Ptolemy, Archimedes, and Galen, that is, of all the intellectually crucial ancient authors except Plato. Also, many of the medieval Arabic and Jewish key texts, such as the main works of Avicenna, Averroes and Maimonides now became available in Latin. During the 13th Century, scholastics expanded the natural philosophy of these texts by commentaries and independent treatises. Notable among these were the works of Robert Grosseteste, Roger acon, John of Sacrobosco, Albertus Magnus, and Duns Scotus. Precursors of the modern scientific method can be…… [Read More]
Had the Enlightenment adequately prepared 19th century readers for Darwin's Origin of the Species? The Enlightenment view of the science of life was neatly summed up by Diderot in his Encyclopedia, in many ways a signature product of the Enlightenment's dedication to setting forth the foundations of human knowledge. As Diderot notes in his prefaratory comments, what we call biology falls under the heading of "Natural History":
The divisions of natural history derive from the existing diversity of the facts of nature, and the diversity of the facts of nature from the diversity of the states of nature. Either nature is uniform and follows a regular course, such as one notes generally in celestial bodies, animals, vegetables, etc.; or it seems forced and displaced from its ordinary course, as in monsters; or it is restrained and put to different uses, as in the arts. Nature does everything, either in…… [Read More]
The study of physics, optics and biology of the eye contributed to the development of the quadrant and sextant. The Islamic world also created the concept of a library.
The Crusades of the eleventh century brought the learning of the Islamic world to Europe unfortunately this information was acquired by the act of war. The Crusades also increased the flow of trade, bringing new spices, gemstones and foods to Europe. The Crusades marked the beginning of religion as the basis for society. The Pope and the Catholic Church emerged as the leaders of society and religion as the unifying morality.
Rather than a change in politics, a mini-renaissance occurred during Romanesque period. The study of art, science and culture brought about a change in architectural styling and building materials; increased use of rounded arches and barrel vaults emerged at the same time as the use of metal, enamel, ivory, bronze,…… [Read More]