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Second Hand Smoke
Should there be a ban on smoking in public places? Many people say yes, because they do not want the negative effects of second hand smoke on their lungs and other organs. Innocent people can be harmed by this second hand smoke. Since not every person chooses to smoke cigarettes, pipes, or other tobacco products, people who do not smoke should be protected from those who do. As such, rules are needed (i.e. smoking bans) that stop people from smoking in public places where others could be harmed by the smoke coming from their tobacco products. Those who choose to smoke know that there are consequences, but it is unfair to extend those consequences to others just to ensure that the "rights" of the smokers are protected. When people walk down the street and have smoke blown in their faces, or when they go to restaurants and…… [Read More]
Nicotine can imitate neurotransmitters in the brain and send confusing messages, affecting critical brain development" (Beauchaine in Shepherd). This is but the tip of the iceberg regarding the harmful nature of tobacco in any form.
From an ethical standpoint, one can take a formal moral standpoint and quote utilitarianism/deontology: Utilitarianism holds that the most ethical thing one can do is any action that will maximize the happiness within an organization or society. Actions have quantitative outcomes and the ethical choices that lead to the "greatest good for the greatest number" are the appropriate decisions, even if that means subsuming the rights of certain individuals. It is considered to be a consequential outlook in the sense that while outcomes cannot be predicted the judgment of an action is based on the outcome -- or, "the ends justify the means" (obinson and Groves, 2003). . Deontology argues that there are norms and…… [Read More]
The case of "Old Smoke" presents workplace issues involving cigarette smoke, perfume and body odor. The employer is responsible for upholding law and company policy, as well as using common sense and tact to deal with possibly competing employee interests while continuing to effectively meet business requirements. Though laws and company policy sometimes assist in formulating solutions, employers are also charged with creative thinking to deal with some workplace issues uncovered by law and/or policy.
Explain how you would handle this situation if you were Charles Renfold
Charles Renfold has competing problems. Darlene Lambert is an employee entitled to a safe workplace, including freedom from second-hand smoke and the scent of old smoke. Simultaneously, Renfold has a pressing deadline for a report requiring Darlene's assistance with files located in a room that strongly smells of old smoke (Shaw, 2010, p. 339). Darlene rightfully refuses to work in that…… [Read More]
cannot control the urge, then the employee might consider seeking outside professional help with the addiction. Since a person's car is private property, however, it is unlikely that any non-smoking ban would extend to that area. However, the smoker would need to take steps to ensure that their clothing and work supplies did no retain the odor of smoke. In essence, other than in the privacy of one's own car and home, thus any place that one could potentially harm someone else with smoke, is legally favoring the non-smoker (Grensing-Pophal, 1999).
Co-Workers Can Sue Over Excessive Perfume in the Workplace. (28 August 2009). Godlike
Productions. etrieved from: http://www.godlikeproductions.com/forum1/message869754/pg1
Indoor Air Quality in Hospitality Venues Before and After Implementation of a Clean Indoor Air
Law. (12 November 2004). Center for Disease Control -- MMW. etrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5344a3.htm
Negative Ions: More Scientific esearch. (2010). Comtech esearch. etrieved from:
Tobacco Facts,"…… [Read More]
In the case of Darlene and old smoke, we can thus say that employers need to ask themselves what they would want in this situation so strongly that they would wish it were the law. There are many courses of action available to them such as they can force Darlene to work in the main file room, they can force Frank and Alice to quit smoking complete or they can develop a new policy whereby the entire workplace would stay smoke-free and there would be no designated smoking areas. The choice of the course of action is up to the employers who wouldn't want to hurt the rights of anyone but at the same time, would want a conflict with the law.
In my opinion, the best course of action is to make the entire workplace completely smoke-free so that there will be no conflicts based on old or lingering…… [Read More]
Smoke Free Cars
A new law
Banning cigarette smoking in a car when driving with a child
Laws limiting the areas in which people can smoke have become increasingly popular. In many major cities, smoking is now prohibited in restaurants, bars, and other enclosed areas. The reason for this is twofold: first it has become increasingly obvious that second-hand smoke proposes a serious threat to the health of nonsmokers. The argument that such laws interfere with smokers' personal freedoms is outweighed by the concerns that innocent bystanders will be subjected to carcinogens. Secondly, the state has a compelling interest in discouraging smoking, given the higher healthcare costs smokers incur. The secondary, acknowledged need to discourage cigarette smoking and to promote health is why cigarette taxes are so uniformly high across the land.
However, although smoking has been increasingly limited by law, and also by rules at many private companies which…… [Read More]
BANS ON SMOKING IN AMEICAN CITIES: NEW YOK CITY & LOS ANGELES
Moving with unexpected swiftness, New York state lawmakers passed a sweeping anti-smoking measure that makes New York the third state after California and Delaware to ban smoking in all workplaces, including restaurants, bars, and hotels. Within hours of the New York bill's passage, Governor George E. Pataki signed the tough measure, which exempts only America-Indian-owned casinos, cigar bars already licensed in New York City, fraternal clubs, outdoor areas of restaurants with no roof or awning, private homes, and personal but not company cars. New York's ban will take effect July 24 in areas where smoking now is permitted and where local ordinances are weaker. Although the law will not supersede the stricter measures previously passed in Westchester and Nassau counties, it will replace elements of New York City's new law, which took effect March 30.
Bans…… [Read More]
Furthermore, smokers are also in greater danger than non-smokers of premature death as a result of their habit. Indeed, the Action on Smoking and Health Web site states that worldwide, a staggering 5 million smokers per year die prematurely, and that half of all smokers are at risk of premature death.
The prospects for non-smokers exposed to secondary smoke are also gloomy. According to Science News Online. http://www.sciencenews.org/pages/sn_arc98/1_17_98/fob1.htm (accessed 07March07), a study has shown that secondary smoke causes at least 40% of the damage to a non-smoker as smoking does. Surely, for the protection not only of non-smokers, but also of smokers themselves and of our children, the law should discourage this habit.
Action on Smoking and Health. "Factsheet No:2." http://www.ash.org.uk/html/factsheets/html/fact02.html (accessed 07March07).
Seppa N. " Science News Online: Secondary Smoke Carries High Price." http://www.sciencenews.org/pages/sn_arc98/1_17_98/fob1.htm (accessed 07March07).… [Read More]
Protecting children from the effects of second-hand smoke and the extent by which the government can mandate repulsive images on the cigarette boxes are two cases which are causing controversy. The "Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) released data claiming that one in five middle and high school students are regularly exposed to secondhand smoke while in cars." (Yahanda, 2012, p. 1) Thus there are many proponents of banning smoking while in the car and children are present. This type of law is difficult because to many it impinges on individual freedom in a private location. Secondly, a U.S. District judge blocked the government mandate that required cigarette companies to place specific graphic images of the effects of cigarette smoking on cigarette boxes. This case also deals with the government authority to require corporations to compel private business to include images on their product.
1. Two pieces of…… [Read More]
In cases where smokers impose their tobacco use upon bystanders, individual choice affects those not making the choice. Smokers are indeed not altogether prohibited from indulging their addiction. They are allowed to smoke in certain places. The restriction on the choice to smoke around individuals who choose not to smoke is therefore beneficial in terms of the general health of society in general, while not placing universal restrictions on smokers and their choices.
In conclusion, while I do support the choice of individuals, these choices should be freely allowed only insofar as they do not harm others not making the choice. If choices (such as smoking) are harmful to the public in general, restrictions should indeed apply as far as is reasonable. A smoker should therefore be allowed to purchase and use tobacco, as long as this is done in an acceptable and…… [Read More]
moking and Lung Disease
moking is a hazardous habit that has the ability to greatly affect the health of the smoker and those that are close to them. The purpose of this discussion is to investigate smoking and lung disease. The discussion will focus on possible community health nursing interventions/teaching strategies. We will also use Orem's nursing model to describe the community, its health issue/problem, and proposed interventions.
Community and Health issue
The community in question is Grady County which is located in Chickasha, Oklahoma. moking is a prevalent problem in this community and people are seemingly unaware of the health consequences related to smoking. The reason why this issue was chosen was due to my mother having evere Emphysema and the effects this disease has on her, also because of the impact that second hand smoking can have on non-smokers For example, I am Deathly Allergic to moking. My…… [Read More]
Although the tobacco Janet would market is not smoked, it is an addictive substance, and thus it could easily lead to smoking nicotine-containing cigarettes later on in life, and cause harm through second-hand smoke to millions of other people. The societal costs to the legal system because of the lawsuits the product has inspired, and the unhappiness the product has caused for the target audience's families are another example of how the sum total happiness of society is reduced, rather than increased, if Janet takes the job. Also, the campaign is in violation of laws that prohibit minors from using tobacco, and by encouraging the violation of the laws of the land, society's total happiness is reduced, as persons (and marketing departments) feel free to behave and market products in a less law-abiding fashion.
Finally, the idea that Janet can help herself and her future career by taking the job…… [Read More]
mall-Business Management & Entrepreneurship
The fruition of many years of dreaming and planning will be realized through the opening of a restaurant in the Tri Cities area. Opening any business requires serious planning and calculations, yet the special needs of a restaurant are particular to the idea that many restaurants have gradual and long-term returns on investment. tart-up costs are often very significant with hard goods and food costs making up a very large output, not to mention procuring a location and either a purchase or lease and either building or remodeling space to meet the needs of the business and procuring the real estate.
Breaking even is often a guiding light at the end of a very long tunnel, between six months and two years depending on the region, and turning a profit often takes much longer. Another consideration is of coarse that restaurants usually do not provide a…… [Read More]
McClure Case Study
Patient Overview -- Patient, Mr. M., is 49 years old and has smoked for 25 years, quit three years ago when diagnosed with emphysema. He indicates he as shortness of breath for the past 48 hours, with sputum so thick he has difficulty coughing it out. Skin is warm and dry with slight clubbing of fingers noted. Lung sounds diminished with crackles and expiratory wheezes and barrel chest. Vitals are 101.8 Temp, pule 110, respiratory 32, BP 150/82. Blood gases show decreased O2 and increased C02 with an increase in red blood cells and twice the normal white cells.
M's risk factors for emphysema are high. Smoking for so long contributed to decrease of long function and is an abnormal dilation and destruction of the alveolar ducts and air spaces in the lungs. It usually occurs in people over 50, so Mr. M is at the lower…… [Read More]
My overall advice to Mr. Smith would be that he has a weak case, at best.
To evaluate whether Susie has a valid equal protection claim, one must start by determining whether the city ordinance is a state action. As a city is a branch of the state, the smoking ordinance would be considered a state action. The next step is to determine whether she belongs to a suspect class or whether a fundamental right is being violated. Although being a woman places her in a quasi-suspect class, this ordinance does not involve a distinction between the genders. Instead the issue is between smokers and non-smokers and as such, there is no suspect class involved. Furthermore, there is no fundamental right involved as neither the right to smoke or to open a business is considered a fundamental right. (Chemerinsky, 2002; p. 157).
Under these facts, the court will…… [Read More]
Data gaps must also be acknowledged, and approximated if at all possible. hen approximating, conservative estimates should be made -- in other words, when assessing an individual's exposure to second-hand smoke, assuming exposure over a 24-hour period (the maximum possible exposure to the environment) rather than the minimum, is usually preferred. or, in the case of childhood exposure to lead paint, even if this cannot be confirmed, if the individual lived in an area where residency in lead-painted accommodations was likely, exposure to the toxin may need to be factored into an analysis of the subject's health status. Conservative estimates seem like a necessary, compassionate, allowance assessing the complications caused by 9/11. 9/11 was an extraordinary, unprecedented event, and data collection at the point of time was virtually impossible, yet it had very real effects upon emergency responders, given their higher rate of manifesting respiratory illnesses. Creating an approximation of…… [Read More]
Nightingale met a friend Richard Monckton Miles in 1842. Then in 1844, Nightingale asked Dr. Howe if she could do a charitable job in a hospital like the catholic nuns, and refused her marriage to her cousin, Henry Nicholson. By 1845, Nightingale started training herself in the nearby Salisbury Hospital, but her parents were not happy about it, seeing nursing as an inappropriate job for a well to do woman like their daughter. In the next year, Nightingale began teaching herself from the government blue books. In the meantime, Monckton Miles wanted to marry her, but soon she travelled to Rome, Italy with friends to avoid him. Britain unlimited, 2009). Finally, after she attended the Herbert's Charmouth convalescent home, her knowledge was recognized. In 1849, after refusing finally to Miles proposal, she decided to go to Egypt while accompanying her friends, the Bracebridges. They then travelled through Europe, and ended…… [Read More]
Encouraging people to report violations for the sake of their health is a final service that nurses can perform to support the ban. People often do not like to report violations, because they feel like 'busybodies' but there is no way that state health inspectors alone can constantly police restaurant owners who illegally look the other way when customers light up. Nurses can remind the public that this legislation was the result of a voter-generated, rather than a politician-generated effort. It must be supported by the public to succeed.
One final criticism of the bill was that smokers will simply go across the border to smoke (Steinberg, 2007). However, proponents point out that, for smokers, there are other options, like patios, personal residences, and other places where they can smoke and not put hospitality workers' lives at risk. And once again, nurses can act as advocates, asking smokers to ask…… [Read More]
emoving Smoking in the Workplace Increases Productivity
The purpose of this proposed study is to determine if removing smoking from the workplace has increased workplace productivity. The writer will explore the question by using a survey study method. The participants will include workers across the nation in varying levels of work and careers. The proposed study is designed to measure whether or not there is an increase in productivity since employers began refusing to allow smoking in the workplace environment. There are several factors involved in the study including a look at five previously published studies regarding smokers and their habits. In addition the writer explores some of the different concerns for productivity that have been studied throughout the years with regards to smokers including secondhand smoke damage, absenteeism and dollars lost. This proposal suggests the direct question of affect on productivity from the time workplaces began to ban smoking…… [Read More]
This is related to bronchitis, asthma and long-term conditions such as lung cancer and bladder cancer (obinson, 2009).
It is estimated that the chances of getting bladder cancer is high for ex-smokers and passive smokers even after thirty years later. This brings us to the question of management of bladder cancer for current and ex-smokers as well as passive smokers.
The management of bladder cancer is a three-pronged approach that involves reducing the progression of the disease, protecting the bladder and increasing the chances of survival. The course of treatment depends to a large extent on the stage of the cancer. During the earlier stages, surgery, trans urethral resection, intravesical chemotherapy and immunotherapy are used to contain the disease and prevent it from progressing further. The malignant areas are treated with one of the above procedures to remove the tumor. In the case of a more advanced stage, radical cystectomy…… [Read More]
Developmental perspective was the concept that the nursing students participating in this study were typically younger than they patients they were caring for. This made it difficult for them to ask the "older" patient questions about a lifestyle they had been practicing for many years.
Environmental constraints were noted that prevented the participants in the study from fully implementing best practice guidelines. The primary of which was time. They noted that because of other duties and paper keeping requirements, they had little time to properly present the best practice guidelines. Some noted that they had little time to do expected things such as breathing, much less introduce the patient properly to best practice guidelines.
During their third year of training the nurses were introduced to a comprehensive program concerning cigarettes and cessation programs. In addition they had already been taught more efficient time management training. With these new tools they…… [Read More]
, Binns, Colin W., and Alfonso Helman. (2006): "Which Women Stop Smoking During Pregnancy and the Effect on Breastfeeding Duration." Biomed Central. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/6/195
Torfs, Claudine P. And Roberta E. Christianson. (2000): "Effect of Maternal Smoking and Coffee Consumption on the Risk of Having a Recognized Down Syndrome Pregnancy." American Journal of Epidemiology. Vol. 152, No. 12: 1185-1191.
Solomon, Laura J. And Virginia P. Quinn. (2003): "Spontaneous Quitting: Self Initiated Smoking Cessation in Early Pregnancy." Nicotine and Tobacco Research. Vol. 6, Sup. 2; S203-S216.
leinman, Michael. (2000): "The Health Effects of Air Pollution on Children." Irvine: University of California.
Eichhammer P, and Johann M. harraz. (2003): "High Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Decreases Cigarette Smoking." Journal of Clincial Psychiatry. 64:951-953.
In conclusion, the literature presented clearly shows that smoking during pregnancy does have an adverse affect on infants and fetuses and that through the proper treatment and counseling, these effects can…… [Read More]
If a driver ignored a road sign that said "Danger: Bridge Out!" and proceeded along the street, he would be labeled as an idiot by his community. If a fence had a sign on it that read, "arning: Vicious Dogs" and some adventure-seeking teens climbed that fence, no one would be surprised when they had their legs torn off by a pack of pit bulls. However, every single year 400,000 Americans die from ignoring one of the most infamous warnings: The Surgeon General's warning on cigarette packages. Smoking cigarettes may seem to be a part of the definition of being an American-- everyone from the street punk rebels to the successful big business CEOs are automatically visualized with a cigarette or fat Cuban cigar hanging from their mouths. These smokers see themselves as a better person for the momentary pleasure they receive from these tobacco products, but fail to realize…… [Read More]
Military personnel must achieve and maintain the best physical conditioning of they are reasonably able to reach for the duration of their enlistment as a fundamental obligation of being fit for duty. Smoking makes that impossible. Likewise, the American taxpayer has a justifiable interest in reducing the costs of fielding a military by eliminating unnecessary costs. Smoking invariably adds to the already substantial costs of providing medical care to armed services personnel, both during their active service as well as throughout their lives afterwards to the extent they rely on veteran's services for medical care.
Military personnel already understand that the privilege and benefits associated with military service entail various restrictions on rights enjoyed by civilians. In this case, military justice must catch up to the manner in which civilian society has already incorporated the understanding of the risks of smoking into American life.
Dershowitz, Alan. (2002). Shouting Fire:…… [Read More]
An individual has many recommendations in which to solve these issues in the workplace. Well, since the law was passed in which to not allow smoking on the premises, this has reduced complaints from customers at my workplace. One is not exposed to the smell in which people have on them after smoking marijuana, and I no longer have to endure it second-hand. In essence, this has provided me with much relief, and for that one thankful that my state passed this. However, other issues have arisen since then. People are continuing on in this horrible habit but in secret and away from those in management (National Institute on Drug Abuse, 2011).
One has many suggestions that my workplace needs to consider when dealing with people are defiant and not wanting to comply with policy. They need to have cameras in those locations in which the people were allowed to…… [Read More]
Healthy People 2020 and Tobacco Use
The Healthy People 2020 initiative provides a set of goals to improve the health of American citizens. The science-based goals set out ten-year targets to be achieved by 2020 across a wide range of health issues. One health issue included in the initiative is tobacco use with a target to reduced tobacco use to a "point that it is no longer a public health problem" (DHHS, 2012).
Over the last forty years there ahs been a wealth of research examining the health impacts associated with the use of tobacco, with tobacco use being cited as being the single most preventable cause of death in the United States (DHHS, 2012). Tobacco has a negative impact on those who smoke as well as those who do not smoke but are exposed to the second hand smoke. The health problems associated with tobacco use in cancer, heart…… [Read More]
In public statements such as the one below:
We are keen to work with governments, public health authorities and other tobacco companies to agree on rules and regulations for our industry. We want to do what we can to respond to public health concerns and, at the same time, establish a stable business environment for our company (Why we support strong legislation (http://www.philipmorrisinternational.com/PMINTL/pages/eng/busenv/Tob_regulation.asp)."
The industry provides an attitude of compassion and caring for the products they place on the retail shelves and therefore in the hands of innocent buyers.
They further combat the regulations however by making statements like the following:
It can be difficult to create a regulatory environment for a product that is dangerous yet remains popular (Why we support strong legislation (http://www.philipmorrisinternational.com/PMINTL/pages/eng/busenv/Tob_regulation.asp)."
The industry has given up the fight against public smoking bans and instead decided on a smart advertising strategy of agreeing with such bans in…… [Read More]
Its use on those with acute PAH should be performed with caution. The complication rate was observed at 2%
in patients with acute PAH. The use of the procedure was deemed relatively safe for chronic pulmonary arterial hypertension. Severely ill patients should be subjected to non-invasive imaging method exhaustively before resorting to pulmonary angiography (Hofman et al.).#
Albert, Nancy M. Caring for Patients with Pulmonary Hypertension. Nursing:
Springhouse Corporation, May 1999. Retrieved on April 25, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3689/is_199905/ai_n8846566/?tag=content;col1
adesch, David, et al. Medical Therapy for Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.
131 (6). Chest: American College of Chest Physicians, July 20, 2007. Retrieved on April 25, 2009 from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/560041
Flattery, Maureen P. And Kathy M. aker. Evidence for Racial Disparity in Cardiac
Transplantation Survival Rates. Journal of Cultural Diversity: Tucker Publications,
March 22, 2004. Retrieved on April 26, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m)MJU/is_1_11/ai_n6183827/?tag=content;col1
Hofman, Lawrence V., et al. Safety and Hemodynamic Effects of Pulmonary…… [Read More]
And, students should be notified of where they can go to report smoking policy violations.
The student who does not comply with smoking policies should be allowed only one warning before mandatory expulsion. Because of this significant penalty, the student should be asked to sign an agreement before the beginning of each school year that they are aware of the university's smoking policies and will abide by them as a condition of attending school. This measure should help protect the university against possible law suits and will give the student adequate information to determine if this is an environment that is conducive to the student's desired lifestyle.
To improve the health of our university community, the administration should also encourage health services to educate smokers about the harm smoking causes to both smokers and nonsmokers. The administration should also encourage health services to develop and promote programs to help smokers…… [Read More]
In addition, smoking is addictive, and the earlier a person starts, the more likely they are to continue, making it more difficult to quit as one ages. Young people do not understand smoking, because they tend to have an "it will not happen to me" mentality, and it should not be available to teens, you should have to be an adult to make the choice to smoke, because it is a health choice, as well as a lifestyle choice.
In conclusion, smoking is hazardous to your health and well-being, and that has been proven. People start to smoke too early in life, and then they find it difficult to quit. The earlier you start smoking, the longer smoke can do damage to your lungs, making it more likely you will develop lung disease such as emphysema or lung cancer. Smoking is no less dangerous than drinking, it can harm others…… [Read More]
Declaration of Rights of Students
A Declaration of the Rights of Students to the Uber Chancellor Supreme
Acknowledging that there is one governor above us, we the students put before his attention and the attention of all a list of complaints, which should, being rational and true, secure a place of prominence in the mind of any man, who calls himself a rational being. This Declaration casts no blame, nor proposes injury; its purpose is only to draw attention to the God-given, natural, and inalienable rights of students. For a student is no less a man than any other -- and for students to be viewed as something less than equal to any other living member of the human race is nothing but an abuse of reason, and an abuse of justice. In justice' sake, in equality's sake, and out of a fraternal bond that separates us not but links…… [Read More]
Altria's commitment to the environment appears very weak. It pledges full and complete compliance will all applicable environmental laws and regulations, something it has to do anyway unless it wants to face the consequences (Altria, environment and agriculture). Kraft says it is developing a systematic approach to move beyond compliance and to understand issues along its supply and demand chains, but this effort began in 2000 and five years later it's still formulating plans rather than reporting results. Further, its own Environmental Performance Indicators (EPIs) show only moderate improvement from 2001 to 2003. It's interesting to note that 2004 EPIs are missing. Philip Morris International reports monitoring efforts, but offers no concrete results. Of all the environmental issues related to cigarettes, all Philip Morris USA can talk about is cigarette litter. And, even on this issue, the company makes it clear that it does not endorse any changes…… [Read More]
Courage, the ability to face danger or hardship without showing fear, may have subtly different meanings in various cultures, but it is universally viewed as a virtue.
Courageous people, e.g., those who show bravery in wars and battles are honored by their nations, communities and even enemies through medals, rewards and praise. Most heroes in history built their reputation due to the extra-ordinary courage shown by them in the face of adversity. Cowardice, on the other hand, is almost unanimously considered to be a vice and cowardly people are commonly derided as chicken-hearted, gutless, and "yellow."
Some people distinguish between "physical courage" and "moral courage" although both types of courage are usually present side by side. For example, Martin Luther King Jr. may be categorized as possessing "moral" courage as he took an unflinching moral stand against racial discrimination. However, King could not have been morally courageous if he was…… [Read More]
" (AAF, nd)
The Health Maintenance Organization further should "…negotiate with both public and private payers for adequate reimbursement or direct payment to cover the expenses of interpreter services so that they can establish services without burdening physicians…" and the private industry should be "…engaged by medical organizations, including the AAF, and patient advocacy groups to consider innovative ways to provide interpreter services to both employees and the medically underserved." (AAF, nd)
One example of the community healthcare organization is the CCO model is reported as a community cancer screening center model and is stated to be an effective mechanism for facilitating the linkage of investigators and their institutions with the clinical trials network. It is reported that the minority-based CCO was approved initially by the NCI, Division of Cancer revention Board of Scientific Counselors in January 1989. The implementation began in the fall of 1990 and the program was…… [Read More]
Besides the most serious medical consequences, smoking causes bad breath, yellowing of teeth and is considered equally damaging to the skin in terms of premature aging and wrinkles as overexposure to the sun. Finally, the increased awareness of the dangers of second-hand smoke have already led to laws prohibiting smoking in the workplace, in restaurants and other public areas, and even in residential buildings. In general, smoking is becoming something that many people consider evidence of poor decision making or even low intelligence.
The decision to start smoking is just not consistent with good judgment and intelligent choices. The fact that so many people who already smoke wish they had never started and the difficulty they experience in trying to quit should be enough proof to anybody that starting is a very bad idea. Healthcare costs are one of the most expensive bills that Americans pay and a substantial amount…… [Read More]
Advertising Controversy and Assessment Overview
Stage 1 Controversial Advertising
The advertisement in this controversial case aimed to actually cause some sort of stir by having models pose in proactive poses. These marketing techniques are directed at young women aged 16- 35 and fashion conscious men who are seeking to say in step with the current fashions of the day. The advertisement in this case was very effective for several reasons. The first reason for its effectiveness is because the picture is very risque and promotes a challenge to sexual and violent taboos. This cutting edge style certainly appeals to a demographic that looks to set itself apart by pushing the social envelope using sex and violence as a tool to stir emotions. The scale of the controversy also depicts the success of the ad campaign and created a definite buzz amongst the fashion industry. This ad could be…… [Read More]
women are better listeners than men.
Women only know women's issues
Men and women are different
How do you prove women are better listeners?
Men can listen too
Most men do not care about listening
Capital punishment is no deterrent to crime.
Public enjoys executions
Crime still exists where death penalty is in effect
Criminals don't think they will be caught
Turns people into martyrs
Death penalty takes too long to impose
Death is always a deterrent
More publicized more deterrent
Do it more quickly, less appeals
Death penalty is historical
Brings about closure
Hard sciences such as math are more difficult than soft sciences like sociology.
Hard science has concrete answers
Hard science uses formulas and numbers
Hard science are less abstract
Hard science is provable
Hard science involves reality
1. Soft sciences…… [Read More]
The Food and Drug Administration has not made full use of even the meager authority granted it by the industry-friendly 1994 Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA)… Because of inadequate quality control and inspection, supplements contaminated with heavy metals, pesticides, or prescription drugs have been sold to unsuspecting consumers. And FDA rules covering manufacturing quality don't apply to the companies that supply herbs, vitamins, and other raw ingredients" (More dietary supplement, 2010 redOrbit).
Law 3: Picture-based warnings on cigarettes
Unfortunately, much like calorie counts on the back of food products, consumers have shown themselves to be all-too-apt to ignore written information the back of packages, even if the information can save their lives. To remedy the tendency of consumers to ignore written information, many nations (including Canada) have begun to require cigarette companies to use photographs that illustrate the dangers of smoking, to more vividly underline the dangers of…… [Read More]
Thorndike, Joseph J. "The IRS Is Hiding Its History." The ashington Times.
December 19, 1997, p. A23. February 18, 2008. http://www.taxhistory.org/thp/readings.nsf/cf7c9c870b600b9585256df80075b9dd/9de7fcd59915a3be85256e430079327d?OpenDocument
After 9/11, the Federal Reserve Bank, then led by Alan Greenspan, used monetary policy reduced the interest rate, or the rate that consumers must pay to borrow money. This did encourage individuals to spend more. However, it is still debatable if this was the most vital component in extricating America from the throws of economic recession. Government spending, or fiscal as opposed to monetary policy, is often seen as a more direct and superior way to rapidly change economic conditions. Fiscal policy was required to stimulate America's recovery from the Great Depression, according to conventional wisdom, although some still argue that it was the Hoover administration's monetary policy that was ineffective, not that monetary policy was ineffective altogether.
But most economists believe that, to get the…… [Read More]
Local Health Policy: Philadelphia
In the article by Brownson, et al., the authors assert that environmental changes and certain policy interventions can have a positive impact in terms of reducing the incidence of chronic disease in a community. The authors go on to explain how interventions and environmental policies in a community can "…provide opportunities, support, and cues to help people develop healthier behaviors" (Brownson, et al., 2005, p. 17.2). This article also posits that pursuing a healthier environment benefits everyone in the community, which is a policy that makes sense from a public health standpoint because "changing the behavior of one person at a time" is short-sighted (Brownson, 17.2). Among the interventions that Brownson reviews are: a) tobacco use reduction (through clean air laws; taxes; restriction of availability); b) advertising; and education; c) better access to fitness facilities and school-based physical education programs; d) encouraging healthy eating in schools…… [Read More]
Democracy and Public Administration
This report is a theoretical essay on the inevitable conflicts that consistently occur between public agencies that are managed by unelected civil servants and the political environment in which these individuals and organizations operate in. Public agencies in the healthcare environment are prime examples of successful interdepartmental cooperation in most cases, but, there are also examples where they can demonstrate both internal and external in-fighting. "The health sector workforce, which usually comprises a significant element within the total public sector workforce, may be either directly employed by the public sector health system, or work in public-funded agencies or organizations (e.g., social insurance funded). In many countries healthcare will also be delivered by organizations in the private sector and by voluntary organizations." (World Bank Group) As concerns like the nation's aging population, a rapidly depleting Medicare Trust or the many potential pandemics such as SAs, Swine…… [Read More]
ECIG and Healthy/Unhealthy Vaporizers
Electronic Cigarettes Internal Group (ECIG) is a business that manufactures and sells vaporizers and electronic cigarettes, which groups in the U.S. have labeled as harmful to health (even though the scientific board under the direction of the U.K. government has identified them as 95% healthier than traditional tobacco cigarettes) (Public Health England, 2015). ECIG, nonetheless, markets its "unhealthy" products by actually promoting them as a healthy alternative to traditional cigarettes and cites the U.K. study as a reason to switch from tobacco to e-liquids. Essentially, ECIG markets itself as a way to help tobacco smokers quit their habit.
The ethical dilemma associated with the production and distribution of e-cigarettes and vaporizers is the question of whether they are as harmful for one as traditional tobacco cigarettes (or whether they are even harmful at all). Critics of the product argue that they are (oloff, 2015), but there…… [Read More]
Nursing and the E
The Emergency oom is often one of the most visible parts of healthcare for political debate. It is also one of the most difficult environments for a modern nurse. It is interesting that one of the founders of modern nursing had emergency experience prior to developing her overall theories. Nightingale also looked at negatives and positives that are the conditions, which could help make people recover and reach their actual potential, as also noted by Maslow hierarchy of needs. She did not look or speak directly of the disease per se, but rather, looked at air, clean water, environment, and sanitation. She published her book in1860 with the title a "Notes on Nursing: What it Is and What it Is Not," connecting human beings and quality of human life, and comparing the stagnant sewage she saw in Scutari, as well as in London. She…… [Read More]
Eight Models of Policy Change as Related to a Problem-Structuring Method
Comprehensive Rationality and Synectics
According to the text, comprehensive rationality occurs when "an individual or collective decision maker […] weighs the cost and benefits of all available alternatives and takes actions that are motivated by a concern with the efficient use of resources" (Chapter 2, 48).
Here, problems within the community are addressed and discussed in terms of importance to see if they are worth acting upon. Some may not ever be dealt with, while others are sent forth onto the next stage.
An example of this is when a council member prepares a presentation for public policy change independently and then produces it to the Council.
Thus, the City Council should pair this with the Synectics problem structuring approach because of the fact an individual can create and discern comparisons without the distraction of the group.…… [Read More]
Marketing Strategy for ECIG (Electronic Cigarettes International Group)
Dan O'Neill took over as CEO of ECIG on January 9, 2015, replacing outgoing Brent Willis, who founded the company but who has also been viewed as the main reason for the plummet in share price. Dan O'Neill's record of experience as CEO of Molson's and top leadership positions at Heinz and Star-Kist suggests that ECIG may finally be in more capable hands. With the reduction of debt and the one-time write-off of losses, the company has pivoted for better years (Hoogervorst, 2012). However, restructuring its debt and distribution channels are main points that need to be addressed before any reversal in the company's fortunes can be expected. The three main reasons customers will be attracted to ECIG are: 1) sustainability: the vaporizer market is growing as a result of smokers looking for healthier alternatives; 2) Dan O'Neill is providing the kind…… [Read More]
Obesity reached epidemic proportions by the end of the twentieth century, with as many as thirty percent of adults and sixteen percent of children living in the United States being overweight ("Overweight and Obesity"). Being overweight is not just a matter of personal appearance. Rather, a range of health problems from heart disease to diabetes can be directly caused by eating too much, especially too much of the wrong foods. Fast food, junk food, and processed foods, available in huge portions for cheap prices, are driving factors in the American economy. However, because being overweight is a major cause of disease, obesity becomes an economic problem in America, taxing the medical system with unnecessary and preventable problems. Obese individuals essentially steal treatment services from individuals who suffer from diseases that could not be prevented through lifestyle changes. Overeating is also a slap-in -- the face for those who cannot…… [Read More]
Sociologist activism in the community that simultaneously brings about information processing and the ideal segment of society for the log run can contribute largely to the containment of the epidemic. (Trickett; Pequegnat, 2005)
The possible solution for the state, where the epidemic ca be spread by a known infected person is to cast a punitive punishment. Perhaps make the event actionable. Thus one of the possible laws that could be brought about to stem the growth of infection could closely follow the laws of pollution and the principles of pollution and the polluter pays principle that is much effective in industrialization. Thus the legal system has procedures to deal with the spread of epidemics although it has been used so far in the case of pollution. Another interesting area where the principle is used and can be cited is the case of cigarettes and the non-smokers inhaling second-hand smoke from…… [Read More]
Ethnic and Religous Sources of Conflict
Reference groups within my workplace.
I work part-time in a tax preparation office, answering phones, filing, helping with a calling campaign, Xeroxing, setting up furniture, answering customer questions, setting up appointments, and doing other tasks and errands, as needed. Reference groups in my workplace are (Group 1) the group of us five part-time assistants: Wendy, Tiffany, Angelica, Dawn, and myself; (2) twelve tax preparers, Steve, Marcia, Katrina, Obie, Lyle, Silvia; Erika; Dwight; Tim; John; Rocio, and Mark; and (2) two office supervisors, David and Luz.
Group 1: Of my own part-time assistant group, two people are African-American, two are white, and one is Hispanic.
Group 2: Of the tax preparer group, four are African-American; four are white; three are Hispanic, and one is Native American.
Group 3: Of the Office Supervisor group, one is white and one is Hispanic.
Identify the situation in my…… [Read More]
How does a clinical trial contribute to risk analysis?
In the UK, clinical Trials Toolkit offers realistic advice to researchers in structuring and carrying out publicly funded trials via the utilization of an interactive route map. The Toolkit is majorly centered on CTIMPs (Clinical Trials of Investigational Medicinal Products) and the regulatory needs and environment related with these. However, &D and researchers working in other fields shall also get significant data and guidance of relevance to the broader trials settings. isk evaluation and mitigation entails application of statistical methods to choose significant factors having high research predicative values or sites which might be prone to noncompliance. It is claimed that prospectively arranged data-motivated and model-founded advances could assist optimize resources usage with maximal impact. Although the modeling exercise initiates objectivity in the hunt for significant risk factors, it should not by itself be seen as the only determinant…… [Read More]
Health Disparities in Healthy People 2020
For the last two decades now, one of the central goals of Healthy People has been on alleviating disparities. Healthy people 2000 focused on reducing health related disparities in the American population. The Healthy people 2020 mission defines health disparity as a health difference that has close links with socio-economic and environmental disadvantages. Such heath disparities negatively affect groups that face systematic obstacles because of their race, socio-economic stature, religion gender, age cognitive abilities, physical disability, geographic location, exclusive considerations, sexual orientation, or ethnic group (Anon., n.d.).
Maternal, Infant and Child Health
As in the case with adults, social and demographic forces, including the income that the family gets affects infant health, too. Physical and mental health dynamics of the caregiver and parent are also causal to the effects. acial-based disparities have been observed in both mortality and morbidity for children and mothers. This…… [Read More]
At any rate, the identity of the subjects may not be significant. hat will be needed are basic demographic information (such as age, level of family income etc.), and the direct answers to the survey questions.
A second ethical consideration is the use of other research paper or reports as references. But this can be easily solved by citing all the references that I will be using though a credible citation style. This then shows that the research abides with the copyright law of those published journals, articles and/or reports.
Summary of the reviewed literature will serve as one major factor for the conclusion. This will provide amble information regarding the subject matter. From the said literature review, statistics and other vital information regarding parent smokers and children smokers will be revealed. This information is not limited from one country or area alone, because for sure, the epidemiology and…… [Read More]
puff of white chalky smoke assaulted my lungs, I erupted in simultaneous laughter and explosive coughing. I guiltily glanced at my mom, who was seated behind her desk grading papers. Her familiar red pen in hand, she simply shook her head at me and barely suppressed her smile. I was only eight; what did she expect? "Just erase the board," she said before returning to her work. My mother always came home happy from work, if not a little tired and frazzled. A lifelong elementary school teacher, my mother's inspiration introduced me to the joys of teaching. Since the days when I would help my mom in her classroom after school by decorating or cleaning up, I have been both uplifted and let down by dozens of public school educators. Some teachers obviously love what they do. Like my mom, they bring with them not a sullen look of exasperation…… [Read More]
Banning Smoking in Restaurants in All States
Through this study, the author aims to support a policy regarding ban on smoking in restaurants in all the 50 states of USA. The author is of the view that smoking should be banned in restaurants in all 50 states to lower the rate of second hand smoking related diseases in non-smokers
Due to bad impacts on secondhand smoke, it has been banned on public places and educational institutions in many states. For example, Utah fully banned smoking in restaurants in 1995 and California imposed a complete ban on smoking in restaurants and bars in 1998. No further complete smoking bans were passed by any state till 2002 when South Dakota totally banned smoking in workplaces, and Delaware totally banned smoking in workplaces, restaurants, and bars. As of 2002, the number of states where there is complete ban on smoke at workplace, restaurant…… [Read More]
Bans save cash. It is costly to encourage smoking in prisons. Smoke-harmed detainees and staff require costly medical care, for different tobacco impacts. Citizens pay, both by expanded duties, and by expanded insurance rates. The prison authorities must raise the issue with government officials and ask them how much smoking costs citizens. When inmates smoke in jail, more bills, hospital expenses, come to citizens: for the smokers' conditions, and for those of the nonsmokers around, being unconstitutionally pushed to inhale contaminated air (Ducat, 2009).
Approximately 50% of smokers die from tobacco related ailments (World Health Organization, 2007). Available evidence confirms that prisoners die from cancers related to smoking at higher rates than the public. Further, second hand smoking is also threatening lives of non-smokers within the system of prisons. They include workers, visitors, prison officers and other inmates. The ban on smoking in prison will dramatically reduce the…… [Read More]
Public Health Achievements
hat factors accounted for the control of tobacco in the U.S. Currently, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention about 42.1 million Americans smoke cigarettes, which is about 18.1% of all adults (18 or over). About 20.5% of men smoke cigarettes and 15.8% of women smoke cigarettes (Liss, 2013).
the information environment -- mass media and counter-advertising. There is no doubt that media campaigns have a positive impact when it comes to anti-smoking campaigns. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports that the first year of the federal government's national advertising campaign called "Tips from Former Smokers" "exceeded expectations; an estimated 1.6 million cigarette smokers attempted to stop smoking. Of those, about 100,000 actually succeeded in quitting, and that information came from a study published by the medical journal, The Lancet. Moreover, the campaign run by the CDC reportedly "inspired millions of nonsmokers to encourage…… [Read More]
AIDS in the Workplace," discuss the following:
What are the moral issues in this case?
The first moral obligation Carla has is to the law: it is illegal to discriminate against someone because they have an illness, if that illness does not substantially affect the employee's job performance. In this case, there is no concrete evidence that Tom's rumored illness has affected his abilities as a worker. The second moral obligation Carla has is to the truth. The evidence of Tom having AIDS is based upon second-hand testimony from his ex-wife, and Carla only convinced herself that Tom may have seemed thinner after hearing Frances' comments. Tom's illness does not seem as bad, objectively, as Carla's fears suggest. Carla also has a moral obligation to honor Tom's loyal service and evident qualifications for a promotion.
What ideals, obligations, and consequences must Carla Lombard consider?
Carla Lombard must consider the ideal…… [Read More]
"Perhaps less dramatic because of their ubiquitous presence and legal status, nicotine and alcohol are often consumed together for physiological and/or social reasons. Both drugs stimulate dopamine release, and work synergistically to increase dopamine levels" (Menke, 2009). Similarly, the concept of enjoying a drink and a cigarette makes some people think that they live in a permissive environment, this standing as proof that they live in a democrat society. Moreover, "the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA, 1 998) reports that between 80% and 95% of alcoholics smoke" (Menke, 2009). It is thus difficult to consider the outcome that the smoking ban has had on bars and restaurants without actually checking for convincing data. In spite of the fact that many bar and restaurant owners complained in regard to how their businesses were severely affected by the smoking ban, reality seems to be different. The smoking ban was…… [Read More]
Toward an Effective olution
In principle, the most effective solution to the tremendous problem of cigarette smoking in the U.. would simply be to impose legislation banning the manufacture, sale, or consumption of cigarettes altogether. In fact, it is impossible to justify any logical distinction between the current illegal status of marijuana (at the federal level and in almost all of the individual states) and the fact that a slightly different cultivated vegetation that is empirically linked to almost half a million preventable premature deaths annually is still perfectly legal to market at great financial profits. However, from a practical perspective, the U.. already had experience during the Prohibition era of the 1920s with the difficulties of trying to ban alcohol. In addition to widespread violation by otherwise law-abiding citizens, that ban created such a tremendous opportunity for profit associated with the black market production and distribution of alcohol that…… [Read More]
Flandes-Stepans, M., Wilhelm, S.L., & Dolence, K. (2006). Smoking Hygiene: Reducing Infant Exposue to Tobacco. Biological eseach fo Nusing, 8(2), 104-114.
Consideing the title of the wok, one would believe that the poblem statement would explain ways to educe infant exposue; when in fact the aticle commences by explaining the lage monetay buden that smoking elated issues has bought about in the medical field. The aticle then begins to explain the coelation that exists between the smoking patten of the mothe and the level of exposue to Envionmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS). Finally, it is explained that a stong coelation has been made between beastfeeding and educed ETS; howeve it is also stated that in fact a child is moe likely to have elevated levels & symptoms associated with ETS if the beastfeeding mothe is a smoke. It is also stated that thee is a distinct coelation between the smoking patten…… [Read More]
Ethical Argument: Smoking in the Workplace
In 1994, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) defined second- hand tobacco smoke as a potential workplace hazard, estimating that as many as 14,000 workers die each year from the effects of exposure to passive tobacco smoke. The National Cancer
Institute endorsed much higher estimates, according to which as many as 65,000 Americans die each year from heart disease and lung cancer caused by inhaling secondhand smoke (Washington Post, 2004). Since then, many states have instituted legislation prohibiting smoking in the workplace and the FAA has imposed an outright smoking ban on commercial aircraft, which many smokers view as an infringement of their rights.
While anti-smoking legislation certainly does affect the rights of smokers, it is justified on the basis of comparing the relative imposition on smokers to the rights of non-smokers to a healthy work environment. Certainly, smokers have the same…… [Read More]