Second Hand Smoke Essays (Examples)

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Old Smoke the Case of Old Smoke

Words: 1152 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98848754

Old Smoke

The case of "Old Smoke" presents workplace issues involving cigarette smoke, perfume and body odor. The employer is responsible for upholding law and company policy, as well as using common sense and tact to deal with possibly competing employee interests while continuing to effectively meet business requirements. Though laws and company policy sometimes assist in formulating solutions, employers are also charged with creative thinking to deal with some workplace issues uncovered by law and/or policy.

Explain how you would handle this situation if you were Charles Renfold

Charles Renfold has competing problems. Darlene Lambert is an employee entitled to a safe workplace, including freedom from second-hand smoke and the scent of old smoke. Simultaneously, Renfold has a pressing deadline for a report requiring Darlene's assistance with files located in a room that strongly smells of old smoke (Shaw, 2010, p. 339). Darlene rightfully refuses to work in that…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Shaw, W.H. (2010). Business ethics: A textbook with cases, 7th ed. Boston, MA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.

Winterbauer & Diamond P.L.L.C. (1998). Multiple chemical sensitivity and the ADA: Taking a clear picture of a blurry object. Retrieved on February 23, 2012 from Winterbauerdiamond.com Web site: http://www.winterbauerdiamond.com/inprint/Doc040629.PDF
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Old Smoke Case Study Darlene

Words: 1536 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22198313

cannot control the urge, then the employee might consider seeking outside professional help with the addiction. Since a person's car is private property, however, it is unlikely that any non-smoking ban would extend to that area. However, the smoker would need to take steps to ensure that their clothing and work supplies did no retain the odor of smoke. In essence, other than in the privacy of one's own car and home, thus any place that one could potentially harm someone else with smoke, is legally favoring the non-smoker (Grensing-Pophal, 1999).

EFEENCES

Co-Workers Can Sue Over Excessive Perfume in the Workplace. (28 August 2009). Godlike

Productions. etrieved from: http://www.godlikeproductions.com/forum1/message869754/pg1

Indoor Air Quality in Hospitality Venues Before and After Implementation of a Clean Indoor Air

Law. (12 November 2004). Center for Disease Control -- MMW. etrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5344a3.htm

Negative Ions: More Scientific esearch. (2010). Comtech esearch. etrieved from:

http://www.negativeiongenerators.com/negativeionsresearch.html

Tobacco Facts,"…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Co-Workers Can Sue Over Excessive Perfume in the Workplace. (28 August 2009). Godlike

Productions. Retrieved from:  http://www.godlikeproductions.com/forum1/message869754/pg1 

Indoor Air Quality in Hospitality Venues Before and After Implementation of a Clean Indoor Air

Law. (12 November 2004). Center for Disease Control -- MMWR. Retrieved from:  http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5344a3.htm
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Old Smoke- Kantainism Workplace Ban

Words: 691 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63082363

In the case of Darlene and old smoke, we can thus say that employers need to ask themselves what they would want in this situation so strongly that they would wish it were the law. There are many courses of action available to them such as they can force Darlene to work in the main file room, they can force Frank and Alice to quit smoking complete or they can develop a new policy whereby the entire workplace would stay smoke-free and there would be no designated smoking areas. The choice of the course of action is up to the employers who wouldn't want to hurt the rights of anyone but at the same time, would want a conflict with the law.

In my opinion, the best course of action is to make the entire workplace completely smoke-free so that there will be no conflicts based on old or lingering…… [Read More]

Reference

Immanuel Kant. Mary J. Gregor (Editor), Kant: The Metaphysics of Morals. Cambridge University Press; 2nd edition (1996)
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New Law

Words: 543 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49917467

Smoke Free Cars

A new law

Banning cigarette smoking in a car when driving with a child

Laws limiting the areas in which people can smoke have become increasingly popular. In many major cities, smoking is now prohibited in restaurants, bars, and other enclosed areas. The reason for this is twofold: first it has become increasingly obvious that second-hand smoke proposes a serious threat to the health of nonsmokers. The argument that such laws interfere with smokers' personal freedoms is outweighed by the concerns that innocent bystanders will be subjected to carcinogens. Secondly, the state has a compelling interest in discouraging smoking, given the higher healthcare costs smokers incur. The secondary, acknowledged need to discourage cigarette smoking and to promote health is why cigarette taxes are so uniformly high across the land.

However, although smoking has been increasingly limited by law, and also by rules at many private companies which…… [Read More]

References

Smoke free cars. (2013). no-smoke.org. Retrieved:

 http://www.no-smoke.org/learnmore.php?id=616
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Bans on Smoking in American Cities New

Words: 1135 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45619639

BANS ON SMOKING IN AMEICAN CITIES: NEW YOK CITY & LOS ANGELES

Public Health

Moving with unexpected swiftness, New York state lawmakers passed a sweeping anti-smoking measure that makes New York the third state after California and Delaware to ban smoking in all workplaces, including restaurants, bars, and hotels. Within hours of the New York bill's passage, Governor George E. Pataki signed the tough measure, which exempts only America-Indian-owned casinos, cigar bars already licensed in New York City, fraternal clubs, outdoor areas of restaurants with no roof or awning, private homes, and personal but not company cars. New York's ban will take effect July 24 in areas where smoking now is permitted and where local ordinances are weaker. Although the law will not supersede the stricter measures previously passed in Westchester and Nassau counties, it will replace elements of New York City's new law, which took effect March 30.

Bans…… [Read More]

References:

Hahn, RN, E.J., Rayens, PhD, M.K., York, RN, PhD, N., Zhang, RN, M., Dignan, PhD, Delaimy, MD, PhD, W.K. (2006) Effects of a Smoke-Free Law on Hair Nicotine and Respiratory Symptoms of Restaurant and Bar Workers. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 48(9), 906 -- 913.

Magzamen, S., & Glantz, PhD, S.A. (2001) The New Battleground: California's Experience with Smoke-Free Bars. American Journal of Public Health, 91(2), 245 -- 252.
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Smoking After Many Studies Observations

Words: 360 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52576228

Furthermore, smokers are also in greater danger than non-smokers of premature death as a result of their habit. Indeed, the Action on Smoking and Health Web site states that worldwide, a staggering 5 million smokers per year die prematurely, and that half of all smokers are at risk of premature death.

The prospects for non-smokers exposed to secondary smoke are also gloomy. According to Science News Online. http://www.sciencenews.org/pages/sn_arc98/1_17_98/fob1.htm (accessed 07March07), a study has shown that secondary smoke causes at least 40% of the damage to a non-smoker as smoking does. Surely, for the protection not only of non-smokers, but also of smokers themselves and of our children, the law should discourage this habit.

eferences

Action on Smoking and Health. "Factsheet No:2." http://www.ash.org.uk/html/factsheets/html/fact02.html (accessed 07March07).

Seppa N. " Science News Online: Secondary Smoke Carries High Price." http://www.sciencenews.org/pages/sn_arc98/1_17_98/fob1.htm (accessed 07March07).… [Read More]

References

Action on Smoking and Health. "Factsheet No:2." http://www.ash.org.uk/html/factsheets/html/fact02.html (accessed 07March07).

Seppa N. " Science News Online: Secondary Smoke Carries High Price." http://www.sciencenews.org/pages/sn_arc98/1_17_98/fob1.htm (accessed 07March07).
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Measurement and Density Determination Measurement

Words: 1315 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27019507

Protecting children from the effects of second-hand smoke and the extent by which the government can mandate repulsive images on the cigarette boxes are two cases which are causing controversy. The "Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) released data claiming that one in five middle and high school students are regularly exposed to secondhand smoke while in cars." (Yahanda, 2012, p. 1) Thus there are many proponents of banning smoking while in the car and children are present. This type of law is difficult because to many it impinges on individual freedom in a private location. Secondly, a U.S. District judge blocked the government mandate that required cigarette companies to place specific graphic images of the effects of cigarette smoking on cigarette boxes. This case also deals with the government authority to require corporations to compel private business to include images on their product.

Procedures

1. Two pieces of…… [Read More]

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Community Health Advocacy

Words: 849 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58416396

Community Health Advocacy

The prevention of disease has three distinct levels: primary, secondary and tertiary. Primary prevention methods are the first prevention strategies that are employed to prevent a person from a disease or illness. Primary prevention's main goal is to stop the disease or illness from occurring at all. Secondary prevention is employed after the disease or illness has happened, but before the individual has any adverse effects from the disease or illness and before they realize that anything is wrong with them. Tertiary prevention comes into play when an individual has symptoms of a disease or an illness and thus the goal becomes to prevent both harm and physical hurt from that disease or illness. Tertiary prevention is also used in order to prevent the disease or illness from escalating, ease the pain of the disease or illness, and help people get back to their former quality of…… [Read More]

References

Butz, A.M., Breysse, P., Rand, C., Curtin-Brosnan, J., Eggleston, P., Diette, G.B., Williams, D.,

Bernert, J.T., & Matsui, E.C. (2011) "Household smoking behavior: effects on indoor air quality and health of urban children with asthma." Matern child health (15): 460-468.

Chan, K.G., Upi, H.., Gani, R., & Chang, K.H. (2007). "Paediatric ward nurses' action intentions

and attitudes towards quit smoking interventions and their knowledge on second-hand smoke." International journal of nursing practice (17): 181-186.
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New Clean Living Movement Individual

Words: 311 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5248526

In cases where smokers impose their tobacco use upon bystanders, individual choice affects those not making the choice. Smokers are indeed not altogether prohibited from indulging their addiction. They are allowed to smoke in certain places. The restriction on the choice to smoke around individuals who choose not to smoke is therefore beneficial in terms of the general health of society in general, while not placing universal restrictions on smokers and their choices.

In conclusion, while I do support the choice of individuals, these choices should be freely allowed only insofar as they do not harm others not making the choice. If choices (such as smoking) are harmful to the public in general, restrictions should indeed apply as far as is reasonable. A smoker should therefore be allowed to purchase and use tobacco, as long as this is done in an acceptable and…… [Read More]

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Issue of Smoking

Words: 1185 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74445858

moking and Lung Disease

moking is a hazardous habit that has the ability to greatly affect the health of the smoker and those that are close to them. The purpose of this discussion is to investigate smoking and lung disease. The discussion will focus on possible community health nursing interventions/teaching strategies. We will also use Orem's nursing model to describe the community, its health issue/problem, and proposed interventions.

Community and Health issue

The community in question is Grady County which is located in Chickasha, Oklahoma. moking is a prevalent problem in this community and people are seemingly unaware of the health consequences related to smoking. The reason why this issue was chosen was due to my mother having evere Emphysema and the effects this disease has on her, also because of the impact that second hand smoking can have on non-smokers For example, I am Deathly Allergic to moking. My…… [Read More]

Sources, and Consumption Values of Teenagers: Implications for Public Policy and Other Intervention Failures. Journal of Consumer Affairs, 36(1), 50+.

American Lung Asociation. 2005. http://www.lungusa.org/site/apps/s/content.asp?c=dvLUK9O0E& b=34706& ct=910873

Cigarette Smoking and Cancer, 2004. National Cancer Institute. http://cis.nci.nih.gov/fact/10_14.htm

Nicotene Addiction. (National Institute on Drug Abuse. Research Reporthttp://www.drugabuse.gov/PDF/NicotineRR.pdf
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Ethics and Morality Case Clean

Words: 739 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3967560

Although the tobacco Janet would market is not smoked, it is an addictive substance, and thus it could easily lead to smoking nicotine-containing cigarettes later on in life, and cause harm through second-hand smoke to millions of other people. The societal costs to the legal system because of the lawsuits the product has inspired, and the unhappiness the product has caused for the target audience's families are another example of how the sum total happiness of society is reduced, rather than increased, if Janet takes the job. Also, the campaign is in violation of laws that prohibit minors from using tobacco, and by encouraging the violation of the laws of the land, society's total happiness is reduced, as persons (and marketing departments) feel free to behave and market products in a less law-abiding fashion.

Finally, the idea that Janet can help herself and her future career by taking the job…… [Read More]

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Small Business Management and Entrepreneurship

Words: 7031 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19110372

mall-Business Management & Entrepreneurship

The fruition of many years of dreaming and planning will be realized through the opening of a restaurant in the Tri Cities area. Opening any business requires serious planning and calculations, yet the special needs of a restaurant are particular to the idea that many restaurants have gradual and long-term returns on investment. tart-up costs are often very significant with hard goods and food costs making up a very large output, not to mention procuring a location and either a purchase or lease and either building or remodeling space to meet the needs of the business and procuring the real estate.

Breaking even is often a guiding light at the end of a very long tunnel, between six months and two years depending on the region, and turning a profit often takes much longer. Another consideration is of coarse that restaurants usually do not provide a…… [Read More]

Service Business." Retrieved February 20, 2003, Website: (http://www.paloalto.com/ps/bp/ebb_details.cfm?b=1&ac=googleselect, restbind)

Sanson, M. (December, 2002). Will It Come to a Smoking License for Restaurants?

Restaurant Hospitality, 86(12), pg. 8.
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Mcclure Case Study Patient Overview -- Patient

Words: 609 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6658659

McClure Case Study

Patient Overview -- Patient, Mr. M., is 49 years old and has smoked for 25 years, quit three years ago when diagnosed with emphysema. He indicates he as shortness of breath for the past 48 hours, with sputum so thick he has difficulty coughing it out. Skin is warm and dry with slight clubbing of fingers noted. Lung sounds diminished with crackles and expiratory wheezes and barrel chest. Vitals are 101.8 Temp, pule 110, respiratory 32, BP 150/82. Blood gases show decreased O2 and increased C02 with an increase in red blood cells and twice the normal white cells.

M's risk factors for emphysema are high. Smoking for so long contributed to decrease of long function and is an abnormal dilation and destruction of the alveolar ducts and air spaces in the lungs. It usually occurs in people over 50, so Mr. M is at the lower…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Cash, J. And Glass, C. (2011). Family Practice Guidelines. New York: Springer.

Dains, J., et al. (2012). Advanced Health Assessment & Clinical Diagnosis in Primary Care.

St. Louis, MO: Mosby/Elsevier.

Mortelli, M., et al. (2002). Acute respirator distress syndrome. American Family Physician. 65 (9): 1823-30.
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Nklenske Protection the First Thing

Words: 719 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74761354

My overall advice to Mr. Smith would be that he has a weak case, at best.

Question Two:

To evaluate whether Susie has a valid equal protection claim, one must start by determining whether the city ordinance is a state action. As a city is a branch of the state, the smoking ordinance would be considered a state action. The next step is to determine whether she belongs to a suspect class or whether a fundamental right is being violated. Although being a woman places her in a quasi-suspect class, this ordinance does not involve a distinction between the genders. Instead the issue is between smokers and non-smokers and as such, there is no suspect class involved. Furthermore, there is no fundamental right involved as neither the right to smoke or to open a business is considered a fundamental right. (Chemerinsky, 2002; p. 157).

Under these facts, the court will…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Barron, Jerome. (2005): Black Letter Outline on Constitutional Law. West Publishing.

Chemerinsky, Erwin. (2002): Constitutional Law: Principles and Policies. Fredericksburg: Aspen.

Graham, Francis. (2003): Equal Protection: Rights and Liberties Under the Law. New York: ABC-CLIO Inc.

Korematsu v. U.S., 584 F.Supp. 1406 (1984).
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Exposure Assessment Approximating Rates of

Words: 411 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35806899



Data gaps must also be acknowledged, and approximated if at all possible. hen approximating, conservative estimates should be made -- in other words, when assessing an individual's exposure to second-hand smoke, assuming exposure over a 24-hour period (the maximum possible exposure to the environment) rather than the minimum, is usually preferred. or, in the case of childhood exposure to lead paint, even if this cannot be confirmed, if the individual lived in an area where residency in lead-painted accommodations was likely, exposure to the toxin may need to be factored into an analysis of the subject's health status. Conservative estimates seem like a necessary, compassionate, allowance assessing the complications caused by 9/11. 9/11 was an extraordinary, unprecedented event, and data collection at the point of time was virtually impossible, yet it had very real effects upon emergency responders, given their higher rate of manifesting respiratory illnesses. Creating an approximation of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Prezant D.J., Weiden M., G.I. Banauch, et al. (2002). Cough and bronchial responsiveness in firefighters at the World Trade Center site. New England Journal of Medicine.
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Environmental Theory and Emancipatory Knowledge

Words: 5800 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66395592

Nightingale met a friend Richard Monckton Miles in 1842. Then in 1844, Nightingale asked Dr. Howe if she could do a charitable job in a hospital like the catholic nuns, and refused her marriage to her cousin, Henry Nicholson. By 1845, Nightingale started training herself in the nearby Salisbury Hospital, but her parents were not happy about it, seeing nursing as an inappropriate job for a well to do woman like their daughter. In the next year, Nightingale began teaching herself from the government blue books. In the meantime, Monckton Miles wanted to marry her, but soon she travelled to Rome, Italy with friends to avoid him. Britain unlimited, 2009). Finally, after she attended the Herbert's Charmouth convalescent home, her knowledge was recognized. In 1849, after refusing finally to Miles proposal, she decided to go to Egypt while accompanying her friends, the Bracebridges. They then travelled through Europe, and ended…… [Read More]

(Source: Cody, 2006, p. 259).

Differences Between Nightingale's Theory and Emancipatory Knowing -- When Nightingale thought about the benefits of a well-ventilated room, she was not basing her view on previous knowledge. Emancipatory progress is now evident in the way world healthcare approaches a patient's room -- typically well-ventilated and clean (Beck, 2005, pg. 140). Nightingale was born in an era were by women has very little voice most of the work done by women were in-house work so most of Nightingale's major innovation was providing place for women to work with and for women (Selanders, 2005, pg., 83). Today with Emancipatory knowledge we see a more educated workforce of both men and women in nursing. Although in the late 19th century there were still arguments regarding Nightingale's visions, today's theorists use her broad-based knowledge as a best -- practice template for modern conceptions (Attewell, 2005).

The Legacy of Nightingale Part 1 -- Nursing Ethics -- Most modern ethical theorist are based on traditions dating back as far as Ancient Greece. However, medical, and in particular nursing, ethics are clearly a post-Nightingale logical evolution (never a conclusion). The philosophical combination of advocacy and ethics, while still remaining true to the realities of budgets and the need for a medical institution to
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Local Community Local Regional Community Health

Words: 1581 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77992869



Encouraging people to report violations for the sake of their health is a final service that nurses can perform to support the ban. People often do not like to report violations, because they feel like 'busybodies' but there is no way that state health inspectors alone can constantly police restaurant owners who illegally look the other way when customers light up. Nurses can remind the public that this legislation was the result of a voter-generated, rather than a politician-generated effort. It must be supported by the public to succeed.

One final criticism of the bill was that smokers will simply go across the border to smoke (Steinberg, 2007). However, proponents point out that, for smokers, there are other options, like patios, personal residences, and other places where they can smoke and not put hospitality workers' lives at risk. And once again, nurses can act as advocates, asking smokers to ask…… [Read More]

Works Cited

The Basics: Smoke Free Arizona" (2007). Smoke Free Arizona. Retrieved 19 May 2007 at: http://www.smokefreearizona.org/

Exemptions." (2007). Smoke Free Arizona. Smoke Free Arizona. Retrieved 19 May, 2007 at http://www.smokefreearizona.org/exemptions.asp

Hedding Judy. (2007). "Smoking." About.com. Retrieved 19 May 2007 at http://phoenix.about.com/b/a/201522.htm

Reporting." (2007). Smoke Free Arizona. Smoke Free Arizona. Retrieved 19 May 2007 at http://www.smokefreearizona.org/reporting.asp
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Removing Smoking in the Workplace Increases Productivity

Words: 2301 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91781793

emoving Smoking in the Workplace Increases Productivity

The purpose of this proposed study is to determine if removing smoking from the workplace has increased workplace productivity. The writer will explore the question by using a survey study method. The participants will include workers across the nation in varying levels of work and careers. The proposed study is designed to measure whether or not there is an increase in productivity since employers began refusing to allow smoking in the workplace environment. There are several factors involved in the study including a look at five previously published studies regarding smokers and their habits. In addition the writer explores some of the different concerns for productivity that have been studied throughout the years with regards to smokers including secondhand smoke damage, absenteeism and dollars lost. This proposal suggests the direct question of affect on productivity from the time workplaces began to ban smoking…… [Read More]

References

Robert A. Logan; Daniel R. Longo, Rethinking Anti-Smoking Media Campaigns: Two Generations of Research and Issues for the Next. Vol. 25, Journal of Health Care Finance, 06-01-1999, pp 77-90.

Gonz-z; M.L. Ballester Calabuig., Tuberculosis Related to Labor Activity in an Area of Valencia, Spain. Vol. 62 no, Journal of Environmental Health, 07-01-1999.

Greene, Robert E.; Williams, Phillip L., Indoor air quality investigation protocols.. Vol. 59, Journal of Environmental Health, 10-01-1996, pp 6(9).

Dardis, Rachel; Keane, Thomas, Risk-benefit analysis of cigarette smoking: public policy implications.. Vol. 29, Journal of Consumer Affairs, 12-01-1995, pp 351(17).
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Aetiology and Management of Cancer

Words: 4918 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77784533

This is related to bronchitis, asthma and long-term conditions such as lung cancer and bladder cancer (obinson, 2009).

It is estimated that the chances of getting bladder cancer is high for ex-smokers and passive smokers even after thirty years later. This brings us to the question of management of bladder cancer for current and ex-smokers as well as passive smokers.

The management of bladder cancer is a three-pronged approach that involves reducing the progression of the disease, protecting the bladder and increasing the chances of survival. The course of treatment depends to a large extent on the stage of the cancer. During the earlier stages, surgery, trans urethral resection, intravesical chemotherapy and immunotherapy are used to contain the disease and prevent it from progressing further. The malignant areas are treated with one of the above procedures to remove the tumor. In the case of a more advanced stage, radical cystectomy…… [Read More]

References

Cancer Research UK. (2011). Cancer in the UK: April 2011. Retrieved from http://info.cancerresearchuk.org/cancerstats/mortality/

Friedman, Howard. (1990). Personality and Disease. Publisher: New York, John Wiley & Sons.

Abrahamson; Seligman; Teasdale. (1978). Learned Helplessness in Humans: Critique and Reformulation. Abnormal Psychology. Vol 87. pp 49-74.

McAllister, Robert. (May 1974). Viral Etiology of Cancer: Two Hypotheses with relevance to chemical exposure. Pediatrics. Vol 53 (5). pp826.
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Nursing Supervised Smoking Cessation Plan

Words: 2766 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4187897



Developmental perspective was the concept that the nursing students participating in this study were typically younger than they patients they were caring for. This made it difficult for them to ask the "older" patient questions about a lifestyle they had been practicing for many years.

Environmental constraints were noted that prevented the participants in the study from fully implementing best practice guidelines. The primary of which was time. They noted that because of other duties and paper keeping requirements, they had little time to properly present the best practice guidelines. Some noted that they had little time to do expected things such as breathing, much less introduce the patient properly to best practice guidelines.

During their third year of training the nurses were introduced to a comprehensive program concerning cigarettes and cessation programs. In addition they had already been taught more efficient time management training. With these new tools they…… [Read More]

10) Sanders, D., Fowler, G., Mant, D., Fuller, a., Jones, L., & Marziller, j.

Randomized controlled trial of anti-smoking advice by nurses in General practice. Journal of the Royal College of General

Practitioners, 1989, 39, pp 273-276.
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Nursing it Is Generally Agreed

Words: 1500 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27966345

, Binns, Colin W., and Alfonso Helman. (2006): "Which Women Stop Smoking During Pregnancy and the Effect on Breastfeeding Duration." Biomed Central. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/6/195

Torfs, Claudine P. And Roberta E. Christianson. (2000): "Effect of Maternal Smoking and Coffee Consumption on the Risk of Having a Recognized Down Syndrome Pregnancy." American Journal of Epidemiology. Vol. 152, No. 12: 1185-1191.

Solomon, Laura J. And Virginia P. Quinn. (2003): "Spontaneous Quitting: Self Initiated Smoking Cessation in Early Pregnancy." Nicotine and Tobacco Research. Vol. 6, Sup. 2; S203-S216.

leinman, Michael. (2000): "The Health Effects of Air Pollution on Children." Irvine: University of California.

Eichhammer P, and Johann M. harraz. (2003): "High Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Decreases Cigarette Smoking." Journal of Clincial Psychiatry. 64:951-953.

In conclusion, the literature presented clearly shows that smoking during pregnancy does have an adverse affect on infants and fetuses and that through the proper treatment and counseling, these effects can…… [Read More]

Kleinman, Michael. (2000): "The Health Effects of Air Pollution on Children." Irvine: University of California.

Eichhammer P, and Johann M. Kharraz. (2003): "High Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Decreases Cigarette Smoking." Journal of Clincial Psychiatry. 64:951-953.

In conclusion, the literature presented clearly shows that smoking during pregnancy does have an adverse affect on infants and fetuses and that through the proper treatment and counseling, these effects can be mitigated either before they happen or after the infant is born. However, the literature review shows that the research thus far conducted is limited in that there is no conclusive evidence as to the best method for preventing smoking during pregnancy. Therefore, all future research should be focused not on what the effects are, as this is already known, but how best to get pregnant mothers to cease smoking.
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Persuasive Against Smoking

Words: 1123 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32760190

If a driver ignored a road sign that said "Danger: Bridge Out!" and proceeded along the street, he would be labeled as an idiot by his community. If a fence had a sign on it that read, "arning: Vicious Dogs" and some adventure-seeking teens climbed that fence, no one would be surprised when they had their legs torn off by a pack of pit bulls. However, every single year 400,000 Americans die[1] from ignoring one of the most infamous warnings: The Surgeon General's warning on cigarette packages. Smoking cigarettes may seem to be a part of the definition of being an American-- everyone from the street punk rebels to the successful big business CEOs are automatically visualized with a cigarette or fat Cuban cigar hanging from their mouths. These smokers see themselves as a better person for the momentary pleasure they receive from these tobacco products, but fail to realize…… [Read More]

Works Cited.

The American Cancer Society. Who Is At Risk? "Tobacco and Cancer." 2001.

The American Heart Association. Publications and Resources. "Tobacco Smoke."

California Department of Health Services. Youth Media Network. "Effects of Secondhand Smoke." November 2001.

Emphysema Foundation For Our Right to Survive. Medical Info Pages. "About Smoking With Emphysema." January 2002.
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Military Ethics -- Smoking Within

Words: 1776 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52494149

Military personnel must achieve and maintain the best physical conditioning of they are reasonably able to reach for the duration of their enlistment as a fundamental obligation of being fit for duty. Smoking makes that impossible. Likewise, the American taxpayer has a justifiable interest in reducing the costs of fielding a military by eliminating unnecessary costs. Smoking invariably adds to the already substantial costs of providing medical care to armed services personnel, both during their active service as well as throughout their lives afterwards to the extent they rely on veteran's services for medical care.

Military personnel already understand that the privilege and benefits associated with military service entail various restrictions on rights enjoyed by civilians. In this case, military justice must catch up to the manner in which civilian society has already incorporated the understanding of the risks of smoking into American life.

eferences

Dershowitz, Alan. (2002). Shouting Fire:…… [Read More]

References

Dershowitz, Alan. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York:

Touchstone.

O'Neill, Xana and Lite, Jordan. "Real Estate Companies Making it Tougher for Smokers

in Their Homes" The New York Daily News, March 30, 2008. Retrieved February
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Healthy People 2020 and Tobacco Use the

Words: 911 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9711201

Healthy People 2020 and Tobacco Use

The Healthy People 2020 initiative provides a set of goals to improve the health of American citizens. The science-based goals set out ten-year targets to be achieved by 2020 across a wide range of health issues. One health issue included in the initiative is tobacco use with a target to reduced tobacco use to a "point that it is no longer a public health problem" (DHHS, 2012).

Over the last forty years there ahs been a wealth of research examining the health impacts associated with the use of tobacco, with tobacco use being cited as being the single most preventable cause of death in the United States (DHHS, 2012). Tobacco has a negative impact on those who smoke as well as those who do not smoke but are exposed to the second hand smoke. The health problems associated with tobacco use in cancer, heart…… [Read More]

References

Center for Disease Control and Prevention, (CDC), (2005), Annual smoking-attributable mortality, years of potential life lost, and economic costs -- United States, 1995 -- 1999, MMWR, 51(14), 300-3

Center for Disease Control and Prevention, (CDC), (2012), United States Cancer Statistics (USCS), retrieved 17th March 2012 from http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/uscs/

Frieden, Joyce, (2004, June 15), Peer pressure likely to prompt tobacco use: behavior predictors studied, Family Practice News, p66

Guilfoyle, Jessica, (2011), Toll of Tobacco in the United States of America, Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids, retrieved 17th March 2012 from  http://www.tobaccofreekids.org/research/factsheets/pdf/0072.pdf
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Workplace and Working Environment Substance

Words: 2975 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74250186



An individual has many recommendations in which to solve these issues in the workplace. Well, since the law was passed in which to not allow smoking on the premises, this has reduced complaints from customers at my workplace. One is not exposed to the smell in which people have on them after smoking marijuana, and I no longer have to endure it second-hand. In essence, this has provided me with much relief, and for that one thankful that my state passed this. However, other issues have arisen since then. People are continuing on in this horrible habit but in secret and away from those in management (National Institute on Drug Abuse, 2011).

One has many suggestions that my workplace needs to consider when dealing with people are defiant and not wanting to comply with policy. They need to have cameras in those locations in which the people were allowed to…… [Read More]

References

American Council for Drug Education's Facts for Employers . (1999). Why worry about drugs and alcohol in the workplace? Retrieved May 28, 2011, from American Council for Drug Education's Facts for Employers: http://www.acde.org/employer/DAwork.htm.

National Institute on Drug Abuse. (2011). NIDA infofacts: Workplace facts. Retrieved May 28, 2011, from National Institute on Drug Abuse: http://www.drugabuse.gov/infofacts/workplace.html.

Office of National Drug Control Policy. (2011). Drug free workplace. Retrieved May 28, 2011, from Office of National Drug Control Policy: http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/prevent/workplace/.

United States Department of Labor. (2011). Workplace substance abuse. Retrieved May 28, 2011, from Uniteed States Department of Labor: http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/substanceabuse/index.html.
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Marlboro Regulations in Many Industries

Words: 1371 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66664097



In public statements such as the one below:

We are keen to work with governments, public health authorities and other tobacco companies to agree on rules and regulations for our industry. We want to do what we can to respond to public health concerns and, at the same time, establish a stable business environment for our company (Why we support strong legislation (http://www.philipmorrisinternational.com/PMINTL/pages/eng/busenv/Tob_regulation.asp)."

The industry provides an attitude of compassion and caring for the products they place on the retail shelves and therefore in the hands of innocent buyers.

They further combat the regulations however by making statements like the following:

It can be difficult to create a regulatory environment for a product that is dangerous yet remains popular (Why we support strong legislation (http://www.philipmorrisinternational.com/PMINTL/pages/eng/busenv/Tob_regulation.asp)."

The industry has given up the fight against public smoking bans and instead decided on a smart advertising strategy of agreeing with such bans in…… [Read More]

References

Buyout program (Accessed 12-06-06)

http://aolsearch.aol.com/aol/search?encquery=31b830daa0f3dd91&invocationType=keyword_rollover&ie=UTF-8

Kraft Boycott (Accessed 12-06-06)

http://www.infact.org/helpstop.html
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Heart Transplant Asthma & Pulmonary

Words: 1811 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74860934

Its use on those with acute PAH should be performed with caution. The complication rate was observed at 2%

in patients with acute PAH. The use of the procedure was deemed relatively safe for chronic pulmonary arterial hypertension. Severely ill patients should be subjected to non-invasive imaging method exhaustively before resorting to pulmonary angiography (Hofman et al.).#

ILIOGRAPHY

Albert, Nancy M. Caring for Patients with Pulmonary Hypertension. Nursing:

Springhouse Corporation, May 1999. Retrieved on April 25, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3689/is_199905/ai_n8846566/?tag=content;col1

adesch, David, et al. Medical Therapy for Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.

131 (6). Chest: American College of Chest Physicians, July 20, 2007. Retrieved on April 25, 2009 from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/560041

Flattery, Maureen P. And Kathy M. aker. Evidence for Racial Disparity in Cardiac

Transplantation Survival Rates. Journal of Cultural Diversity: Tucker Publications,

March 22, 2004. Retrieved on April 26, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m)MJU/is_1_11/ai_n6183827/?tag=content;col1

Hofman, Lawrence V., et al. Safety and Hemodynamic Effects of Pulmonary…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Albert, Nancy M. Caring for Patients with Pulmonary Hypertension. Nursing:

Springhouse Corporation, May 1999. Retrieved on April 25, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3689/is_199905/ai_n8846566/?tag=content;col1

Badesch, David, et al. Medical Therapy for Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.

131 (6). Chest: American College of Chest Physicians, July 20, 2007. Retrieved on April 25, 2009 from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/560041
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Smoking Proposal the Purpose of

Words: 566 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1348843

And, students should be notified of where they can go to report smoking policy violations.

The student who does not comply with smoking policies should be allowed only one warning before mandatory expulsion. Because of this significant penalty, the student should be asked to sign an agreement before the beginning of each school year that they are aware of the university's smoking policies and will abide by them as a condition of attending school. This measure should help protect the university against possible law suits and will give the student adequate information to determine if this is an environment that is conducive to the student's desired lifestyle.

To improve the health of our university community, the administration should also encourage health services to educate smokers about the harm smoking causes to both smokers and nonsmokers. The administration should also encourage health services to develop and promote programs to help smokers…… [Read More]

Works Cited

18-24-year-old smoking prevalence. California Department of Health Services. http://www.dhs.ca.gov/tobacco/documents/pubs/18-24-year-olds06.pdf

New Surgeon General's report focuses on the effects of secondhand smoke (2006, June 27). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

http://www.hhs.gov/news/press/2006pres/20060627.html
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Mental Patients' Physical Health Who Use Antipsychotic Medication

Words: 13284 Length: 32 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44641264

Antipsychotic Medication and the Physical Health Problems of the Patient With Mental Illness

More and more attention is now being given to the mental disorders especially in U.S. And due to this increase in attention an increase has also been noticed in the treatment of these mental health issues (Zuvekas, 2005). About 30% of the total U.S. population that is between the ages of 18-52 is being affected by mental health issues which make up a large part of the public health problem (Kessler et al., 2005; Narrow et al., 2002). The risk of morbidity and smaller life expectancy is very high in the patients who suffer from the mental health issues (Millar, 2008; Skodol, 2008). It has been observed from numerous researches that the chances of suffering from various health issues such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease and hypertension are a lot more for the patients suffering from schizophrenia (Millar,…… [Read More]

References

Robson, D. And Haddad, M. (2012). Mental health nurses' attitudes towards the physical health care of people with severe and enduring mental illness: The development of a measurement tool. International Journal of Nursing Studies 49; 72 -- 83

Rosenberg, S., Goodman, L.A., Osher, F.C., 2001. Prevalence of HIV, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C in people with sever mental illness. American Journal of Public Health 91, 31 -- 37.

Ruigomez, A., Rodriguez, L.A.G., Dev, V.J., Arellano, F., Raniwala, J., 2000. Are schizophrenia or antipsychotic drugs a risk factor for cataracts? Epidemiology 11, 620 -- 623.

Ryan, M.C., Thakore, J.H., 2001. Physical consequences of schizophrenia and its treatment: the metabolic syndrome. Life Sciences 71 (3), 239 -- 257.
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Global Health

Words: 1291 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97032353

improvements in health since 1960, there are still a quantity of challenges, which should have been easy to resolve. As a person, all through my career, I have personally chosen to focus on the opportunities and experiences produced within the area of global health differences. Nevertheless within this area, there is an abundant divide among global aspects of health issues, for instance the effect of inequality and poverty that are really bothering me. With that said, this paper will give a personal involvement with global health through my experience with the illness of my professor.

I was heartbroken when I learned of my professor illness. She was not just a respected professor but a good nurse. She was only 40 when her health was challenged. It started because she did not want to stay in an unhealthy work environment, she made the decision that she didn't want to continue to…… [Read More]

References

Iain Barton, M. (2013, November 21). Fostering Healthy Businesses. The Task Force on Sustainable Business Models. www.everywomaneverychild.org/iwg.

Michael Weitzman. (2013). Housing andChildHealth. Curr ProblPediatrAdolescHealthCare, 23(11), 1-38.

Schenker, M.B. (2010). A Global Perspective of Migration and Occupational Health. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF INDUSTRIAL MEDICINE, 23(8), 232-400.

Sinha, S.R. (2011). Health Technologies and Innovation in the Global Health Arena. The New England Journal of Medicine, 365(9), 779.
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Legal Age for Smoking Today

Words: 412 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68507499



In addition, smoking is addictive, and the earlier a person starts, the more likely they are to continue, making it more difficult to quit as one ages. Young people do not understand smoking, because they tend to have an "it will not happen to me" mentality, and it should not be available to teens, you should have to be an adult to make the choice to smoke, because it is a health choice, as well as a lifestyle choice.

In conclusion, smoking is hazardous to your health and well-being, and that has been proven. People start to smoke too early in life, and then they find it difficult to quit. The earlier you start smoking, the longer smoke can do damage to your lungs, making it more likely you will develop lung disease such as emphysema or lung cancer. Smoking is no less dangerous than drinking, it can harm others…… [Read More]

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Declaration of Rights of Students a Declaration

Words: 1564 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57726346

Declaration of Rights of Students

A Declaration of the Rights of Students to the Uber Chancellor Supreme

Acknowledging that there is one governor above us, we the students put before his attention and the attention of all a list of complaints, which should, being rational and true, secure a place of prominence in the mind of any man, who calls himself a rational being. This Declaration casts no blame, nor proposes injury; its purpose is only to draw attention to the God-given, natural, and inalienable rights of students. For a student is no less a man than any other -- and for students to be viewed as something less than equal to any other living member of the human race is nothing but an abuse of reason, and an abuse of justice. In justice' sake, in equality's sake, and out of a fraternal bond that separates us not but links…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Buchler, Justus, ed. Introduction to Contemporary Civilization in the West. Vol 2. New

York: Columbia University Press, 1961.

Damrosch, David, ed. The Longman Anthology. British Literature. Vol 2A: The Romantics and Their Contemporaries. New York: Longman, 2002.

"The Quotable Franklin." The Electric Ben Franklin, n.d. Web. 21 Feb 2011.
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Strategic Initiative

Words: 506 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55398896

Strategic Initiative

Altria's commitment to the environment appears very weak. It pledges full and complete compliance will all applicable environmental laws and regulations, something it has to do anyway unless it wants to face the consequences (Altria, environment and agriculture). Kraft says it is developing a systematic approach to move beyond compliance and to understand issues along its supply and demand chains, but this effort began in 2000 and five years later it's still formulating plans rather than reporting results. Further, its own Environmental Performance Indicators (EPIs) show only moderate improvement from 2001 to 2003. It's interesting to note that 2004 EPIs are missing. Philip Morris International reports monitoring efforts, but offers no concrete results. Of all the environmental issues related to cigarettes, all Philip Morris USA can talk about is cigarette litter. And, even on this issue, the company makes it clear that it does not endorse any changes…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Altria, environment and agriculture. Retrieved September 3, 2005 from Web site: http://www.altria.com/responsibility/4_10_environmentagriculture.asp

Tobacco, Its impact on our environment. Retrieved September 3, 2005 from Web site: http://www.mpshu.on.ca/Tobacco/enviro.htm
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Community Health Issue Nursing and

Words: 1323 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94289019

The team analyzed samples for carcinogen-DNA adducts, biomarkers associated with increased cancer risk, and cotinine, a measure of secondhand tobacco smoke exposure. Based on prior findings in animal models, scientists believe only one-tenth of the dose of PAH passes from the mother to fetus through the placenta. Even so, the investigators found that newborns incurred DNA damage at a rate slightly higher than their mothers" (ood, 2006). In other words, even if a mother does not smoke, the nurse may wish to ask about the patient's partner's smoking habit, or if the patient works in a smoke-containing environment.

The study also found that "detectable adducts were identified in 45% of the newborns and 42% of the mothers. Newborn cotinine levels were higher, 47% in the infants versus 44% detectable in the mothers," despite the screening effect of the placenta (ood, 2006). "Researchers said the fetal concentration may be due to…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Green, Pauline M,

Polk, Laura V.,

Slade, Diann S. "Environmental nursing diagnoses:

proposal for further development of Taxonomy II."
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Courage the Ability to Face Danger or

Words: 1247 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33321810

Courage, the ability to face danger or hardship without showing fear, may have subtly different meanings in various cultures, but it is universally viewed as a virtue.

Courageous people, e.g., those who show bravery in wars and battles are honored by their nations, communities and even enemies through medals, rewards and praise. Most heroes in history built their reputation due to the extra-ordinary courage shown by them in the face of adversity. Cowardice, on the other hand, is almost unanimously considered to be a vice and cowardly people are commonly derided as chicken-hearted, gutless, and "yellow."

Some people distinguish between "physical courage" and "moral courage" although both types of courage are usually present side by side. For example, Martin Luther King Jr. may be categorized as possessing "moral" courage as he took an unflinching moral stand against racial discrimination. However, King could not have been morally courageous if he was…… [Read More]

Doctors use microscopic television cameras to probe the interior of a human body without surgery.

Nicotine behaves as a sedative when it is absorbed slowly in the blood; and as a stimulant when absorbed rapidly

For example, cigarette smoking in the U.S.A. has fallen more than 40% since 1965 (Quoted in "Smoking," Article in Encyclopedia Encarta Online, 2005; available at http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761579162/Smoking.html)
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Profile of an Elderly Patient

Words: 1429 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85419760

Client Evaluation

The client is a 78-year-old female. She has been divorced for 30 years. She is retired. Her social class is upper middle class. Her medical history is free from significant trauma. She had six hospitalizations, all for childbirth, and one surgery; a cesarean section combined with a tubal ligation. She has two chronic health conditions: high blood pressure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). She is a former smoker. She lives with an adult son and her other children live nearby. She was a domestic violence victim for the 20 years of her marriage and has some lingering physical problems (an improperly healed broken rib) and emotional problems from that period of abuse. Her parents, a younger brother, and two of her children predeceased her.

Medical Issues

The patient is not currently suffering from any acute medical issues. She does have two significant chronic medical issues: high blood…… [Read More]

References

Friedman, G.D., Asgari, M.M., Warton, E.M., Chan, J., & Habel, L.A. (2012).

Antihypertensive drugs and lip cancer in non-Hispanic whites. Arch Intern Med, 172(16): 1246-51. doi:10.1001/archinternmed.2012.2754.

Goren, A., Annunziata, K., Schnoll, R.A., & Suaya, J.A. (2014). Smoking cessation and attempted cessation among adults in the United States. PlosOne, 9(3): e93014. doi: 10.371/journal.pone.0093014

Hoonhorts, S.J., Ten Hacken, N.H., Lo Tam Loi, A.T., Koenderman, L., Lammers, J.W.,
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Risk Factor Prevention Risk Factor

Words: 2115 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49555841

Clinical interventions put in place include, counseling of those teenagers who are already using tobacco and provide them with tobacco cessation. While, one of the community intervention strategies are, increase in the unit price of tobacco increased to hinder teenagers from buying hence, decreased tobacco use initiation among them. Also, there are efforts to restrict access of tobacco for minors, aided by community support to stop teenage access to tobacco. Worksite / school health promotion has also been enhanced to enlighten the students on the effects of tobacco use (Myers, 2000).

Another strategy which might be employed is the use of other teenagers as behavior change agents amongst their peers. This is where; selected teenagers are trained to act as peer educators and anti-tobacco use ambassadors within their neighborhood's and at school. These peer educators are to be selected from different ethnic groups to deal with the cultural factors that…… [Read More]

References

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health. Reducing tobacco use: A report of the Surgeon General. (2000). Atlanta: CDC Retrieved from  http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/sgr/sgr_2000/index.htm .

Colby, S.M., Tiffany, S.T., & Shiffman, S. (2000). Are adolescent smokers dependent on nicotine? A review of the evidence. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 59, S83 -- S95.

Derek Yach, & Douglas Bettcher. (2000). Globalisation of Tobacco Industry Influence and New Global Responses. Tobacco Control, 9(2), 206-216

Myers, M.G., Brown, S.A., & Kelly, J.F.A. (2000). smoking intervention for substance abusing adolescents: Outcomes, predictors of cessation attempts, and post-treatment substance use. Journal of Child and Adolescent Substance Abuse 9, 77 -- 91.
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Letter Addressing Modifiable Risk Factors

Words: 1036 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65223992

Heart disease and stroke are also major conditions commonly associated with the bad habit of smoking. The research shows that your chances of heart disease or stroke can double when compared to nonsmokers' chances. Heart disease is one of the most common conditions smokers face. It is a serious condition which can strike at any time, and leave you completely helpless, or worse off dead. Moreover, smoking is a major cause of respiratory diseases, like emphysema, which is "a lung disease that has no cure" (Jacobs 1997). Such respiratory diseases can severely restrict the quality of life for those suffering through them. They force patients to have to stop a number of activities they love, because they no longer have the lung capacity to continue doing them. According to the research, "a person with this disease has difficulty breathing because the walls of the small air sacs in the lungs…… [Read More]

References

Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). Health effects of cigarette smoking, Smoking & Tobacco Use. Web.  http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/health_effects/effects_cig_smoking/#children 

Jacobs, Marjorie. (1997). The dangers of smoking cigarettes for smokers. From the First to the Last Ash: The History, Economics & Hazards of Tobacco. Web.  http://healthliteracy.worlded.org/docs/tobacco/Unit4/3other_health.html 

Helpguide. (2012). How to quite smoking: A guide to quitting and kicking the habit for good. Mental & Emotional Health. Web. http://www.helpguide.org/mental/quit_smoking_cessation.htm
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Systematic Review of Effectiveness of Group-Based Antenatal Education Programs

Words: 18363 Length: 67 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73902472

Antenatal Education Systematic Review

Antenatal education pogamms

In pegnant women, how does goup antenatal education compae to no antenatal education o individual antenatal education fo impoving outcomes of childbith and paenting?

In pegnant women, how does goup antenatal education compae to no antenatal education o individual antenatal education fo impoving outcomes of childbith and paenting?

Antenatal education pogams ae key in impoving matenal health all ove the wold. They have been widely embaced in most developed counties whee antenatal education pogams ae outinely povided as pat of antenatal cae. They ae associated with benefit such as inceased knowledge of labo and childbith, paent-child attachment, educed anxiety and depession, and inceased knowledge of paenthood. They often involve seveal scheduled sessions with a facilitato o cae povide (often a tained patient educato, midwife, o geneal pactitione) that last about 1 -- 2 hous and focus on diffeent aspects of labo, childbith, and…… [Read More]

references in Saudi Arabia. Journal of Women's Health Care, 2.

PERROW, F. 2004. Investing in teenage parents: what maternity services can do. RCM Midwives, 7, 250-1.

PUP PROGRAM. 2014. Parents Under Pressure Program [Online]. Available: http://www.pupprogram.net.au / [Accessed Aug 1st 2014].

REDMAN, S., OAK, S., BOOTH, P., JENSEN, J. & SAXTON, A. 1991. Evaluation of an antenatal education programme: characteristics of attenders, changes in knowledge and satisfaction of participants. Aust NZJ Obstet Gynaecol, 31, 310-6.

RENKERT, S. & NUTBEAM, D. 2001. Opportunities to improve maternal health literacy through antenatal education: an exploratory study. Health Promot Int, 16, 381-8.
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Health Maintenance Organization Impact on

Words: 13949 Length: 50 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80930377

" (AAF, nd)

The Health Maintenance Organization further should "…negotiate with both public and private payers for adequate reimbursement or direct payment to cover the expenses of interpreter services so that they can establish services without burdening physicians…" and the private industry should be "…engaged by medical organizations, including the AAF, and patient advocacy groups to consider innovative ways to provide interpreter services to both employees and the medically underserved." (AAF, nd)

One example of the community healthcare organization is the CCO model is reported as a community cancer screening center model and is stated to be an effective mechanism for facilitating the linkage of investigators and their institutions with the clinical trials network. It is reported that the minority-based CCO was approved initially by the NCI, Division of Cancer revention Board of Scientific Counselors in January 1989. The implementation began in the fall of 1990 and the program was…… [Read More]

Principles for Improving Cultural Proficiency and Care to Minority and Medically-Underserved Communities (Position Paper) (2008) AAFP -- American Academy of Family Physicians http://www.aafp.org/online/en/home/policy/policies/p/princcultuproficcare.html

Volpp, Kevin G.M. (2004) The Effect of Increases in HMO Penetration and Changes in Payer Mix on In-Hospital Mortality and Treatment Patterns for Acute Myocardial Infarction" The American Journal of Managed Care. 30 June 2004. Issue 10 Number 7 Part 2. Onlineavaialble at: http://www.ajmc.com/issue/managed-care/2004/2004-07-vol10-n7Pt2/Jul04-1816p505-512

Darby, Roland B. (2008) Managed Care: Sacruificing Your Health Care for Insurance Industry Profits: Questions You must ask before joning an HMO. Online available at: http://www.rolanddarby.com/br_managedhealth.html
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Advice - Smoking Cessation Advice

Words: 605 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71584562

Besides the most serious medical consequences, smoking causes bad breath, yellowing of teeth and is considered equally damaging to the skin in terms of premature aging and wrinkles as overexposure to the sun. Finally, the increased awareness of the dangers of second-hand smoke have already led to laws prohibiting smoking in the workplace, in restaurants and other public areas, and even in residential buildings. In general, smoking is becoming something that many people consider evidence of poor decision making or even low intelligence.

The decision to start smoking is just not consistent with good judgment and intelligent choices. The fact that so many people who already smoke wish they had never started and the difficulty they experience in trying to quit should be enough proof to anybody that starting is a very bad idea. Healthcare costs are one of the most expensive bills that Americans pay and a substantial amount…… [Read More]

References

Brody, Jane. In Adolescents, Addiction to Tobacco Comes Easy. The New York Times. (February 2, 2008).

O'Neill, Xana and Lite, Jordan. Real Estate Companies Making it Tougher for Smokers in Their Homes. The New York Daily News (March 30, 2008).
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Controversial Ads and Their Roots

Words: 2341 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28766276

Advertising Controversy and Assessment Overview

Stage 1 Controversial Advertising

Dolce Gabbana

The advertisement in this controversial case aimed to actually cause some sort of stir by having models pose in proactive poses. These marketing techniques are directed at young women aged 16- 35 and fashion conscious men who are seeking to say in step with the current fashions of the day. The advertisement in this case was very effective for several reasons. The first reason for its effectiveness is because the picture is very risque and promotes a challenge to sexual and violent taboos. This cutting edge style certainly appeals to a demographic that looks to set itself apart by pushing the social envelope using sex and violence as a tool to stir emotions. The scale of the controversy also depicts the success of the ad campaign and created a definite buzz amongst the fashion industry. This ad could be…… [Read More]

References

Alden, D. L., Steenkamp, J. B. E., & Batra, R. (1999). Brand positioning through advertising in Asia, North America, and Europe: The role of global consumer culture. The Journal of Marketing, 75-87.

Campbell, C., Pitt, L. F., Parent, M., & Berthon, P. R. (2011). Understanding consumer conversations around ads in a Web 2.0 world. Journal of Advertising,40(1), 87-102.

Clarke, I., & Honeycutt, E. D. (2000). Color usage in international business-to-business print advertising. Industrial Marketing Management, 29(3), 255-261.

Ehrenberg, A., Barnard, N., Kennedy, R., & Bloom, H. (2002). Brand advertising as creative publicity. Journal of Advertising Research, 42(4), 7-18.
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Obesity Is a Psychological and Physical Health

Words: 1304 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61328359

Obesity is a psychological and physical health epidemic in America, and is leading to skyrocketing health care costs and spending. hat to do about the problem is a contentious political issue, though. One side of the argument pushes for government programs, policies, and interventions such as public service announcements or prohibitions on junk food in public schools. The other side of the argument decries government intervention, suggesting that market-driven economics will at least price poor fat people out of the health care insurance market and could motivate rich fat people to change their behaviors. In between these two polarizing points of the spectrum are various ideas that might help end the obesity and overeating epidemic in the United States. This is the most sensible place to rest on the spectrum of what to do about obesity because like most political issues, obesity is not black-and-white but many shades of gray.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Balko, Radley. "What You Eat is Your Business." In Graff, Gerald, Birkenstein, Cathy, and Durst, Russel. They Say, I Say.

Warner, Judith. "Junking Junk Food." In Graff, Gerald, Birkenstein, Cathy, and Durst, Russel. They Say, I Say.

Zinczenko, David. "Don't Blame the Eater." In Graff, Gerald, Birkenstein, Cathy, and Durst, Russel. They Say, I Say.
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Women Are Better Listeners Than Men Pro

Words: 526 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67986076

women are better listeners than men.

PRO:

More analytical

Less competitive

More emotional

More caring

More nurturing

CON:

Women only know women's issues

Men and women are different

How do you prove women are better listeners?

Men can listen too

Most men do not care about listening

Capital punishment is no deterrent to crime.

PRO:

Public enjoys executions

Crime still exists where death penalty is in effect

Criminals don't think they will be caught

Turns people into martyrs

Death penalty takes too long to impose

CON:

Death is always a deterrent

More publicized more deterrent

Do it more quickly, less appeals

Death penalty is historical

Brings about closure

Hard sciences such as math are more difficult than soft sciences like sociology.

PRO:

Hard science has concrete answers

Hard science uses formulas and numbers

Hard science are less abstract

Hard science is provable

Hard science involves reality

CON:

1. Soft sciences…… [Read More]

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New Laws Law and the

Words: 853 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18925580

The Food and Drug Administration has not made full use of even the meager authority granted it by the industry-friendly 1994 Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA)… Because of inadequate quality control and inspection, supplements contaminated with heavy metals, pesticides, or prescription drugs have been sold to unsuspecting consumers. And FDA rules covering manufacturing quality don't apply to the companies that supply herbs, vitamins, and other raw ingredients" (More dietary supplement, 2010 redOrbit).

Law 3: Picture-based warnings on cigarettes

Unfortunately, much like calorie counts on the back of food products, consumers have shown themselves to be all-too-apt to ignore written information the back of packages, even if the information can save their lives. To remedy the tendency of consumers to ignore written information, many nations (including Canada) have begun to require cigarette companies to use photographs that illustrate the dangers of smoking, to more vividly underline the dangers of…… [Read More]

References

Ban on junk food introduced. (2008). BBC News. Retrieved September 9, 2010 at  http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/7166510.stm 

Canada's graphic health warnings. (2010). Picture-based cigarette warnings.

Retrieved September 9, 2010 at http://www.smoke-free.ca/warnings/Canada-warnings.htm

Dietary supplements. (2010). FDA. Retrieved September 9, 2010 at  http://www.fda.gov/food/dietarysupplements/default.htm
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U S Tax Policy Although Smokers

Words: 2407 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41402953



orks Cited

Thorndike, Joseph J. "The IRS Is Hiding Its History." The ashington Times.

December 19, 1997, p. A23. February 18, 2008. http://www.taxhistory.org/thp/readings.nsf/cf7c9c870b600b9585256df80075b9dd/9de7fcd59915a3be85256e430079327d?OpenDocument

Question

After 9/11, the Federal Reserve Bank, then led by Alan Greenspan, used monetary policy reduced the interest rate, or the rate that consumers must pay to borrow money. This did encourage individuals to spend more. However, it is still debatable if this was the most vital component in extricating America from the throws of economic recession. Government spending, or fiscal as opposed to monetary policy, is often seen as a more direct and superior way to rapidly change economic conditions. Fiscal policy was required to stimulate America's recovery from the Great Depression, according to conventional wisdom, although some still argue that it was the Hoover administration's monetary policy that was ineffective, not that monetary policy was ineffective altogether.

But most economists believe that, to get the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Heakal, Reem. "What is fiscal policy?" Investopedia. October 22, 2008.  http://www.investopedia.com/articles/04/051904.asp 

Question

Fairness does matter when creating a tax system. In terms of a consumption tax, the poor often consume more than the rich, at least in terms of a percentage of their income. While for a wealthy individual, much of his income can be locked up in assets, making money off of money, for a poor individual, the bulk of his or her income is devoted to buying necessary goods, including rent and food. The consumption tax taxes everyone equally on the surface, regardless of how someone has benefited from the economic system of a particular society, and actually favors those who can allocate their income to sectors of the economy that are not taxed (such as investments, which are not technically consumption).

A flat tax, where everyone pays the same amount, has similar problems in terms of allocating wealth. 15% of a poor person's income, a person who must pay for his or her rent, food, and necessities out of his or her weekly paycheck, means more to that individual than 15% of an income where much of that income can be devoted to investments and luxuries. While not as unfair as a consumption tax as investment income is also taxed, a flat tax is still unfair, and finding the right percentage to finance government operations yet not to be prohibitively costly for the poorest members of society is a difficult balance to strike. The only good thing about the flat tax is its simplicity, as along with the consumption tax as it requires less bureaucracy to enforce. Bureaucracy is expensive as well as frustrating (as anyone who has ever had to fill out a tax form beyond the standard EZ-file well knows!).
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Cross-Cultural Issue Cross Cultural Perspective Globalization Globalization

Words: 1361 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94607845

Cross-Cultural Issue

COSS Cultural Perspective GLOBALIZATION.

Globalization and Starbucks

Few aspects of individual's lives are more personal than that of the coffee they consume. The Starbucks Corporation has been forced to adjust its offerings and approach to marketing to address the needs and expectations of consumers abroad. There have also been ethical considerations about encroaching upon local businesses, as the Starbucks empire gains worldwide traction. Starbucks has tried to answer these concerns by giving back to the communities in which it has established itself.

Starbucks globalization can best be described as a kind of 'middle path:' Starbucks has attempted to stay true to the basic philosophy of the company without offending local sensibilities. According to its current CEO: "On a country-by-country basis, the largest hurdle we had to overcome was thinking we had to be different. There are regional differences in every market, but the main reason we are successful…… [Read More]

References

Aigerim, Tulepbergenova. (2010). Starbucks' global expansion. Business Today. Retrieved:

http://www.businesstoday.org/online-journal/starbucks-global-expansion

Hauser, S. (2006). Is Starbucks globalization? Loaded Learning. Retrieved:

http://sehauser.wordpress.com/2006/09/28/is-starbucks-globalization/
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How to Provide Healthier Environments in Big Cities

Words: 791 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95414969

Local Health Policy: Philadelphia

In the article by Brownson, et al., the authors assert that environmental changes and certain policy interventions can have a positive impact in terms of reducing the incidence of chronic disease in a community. The authors go on to explain how interventions and environmental policies in a community can "…provide opportunities, support, and cues to help people develop healthier behaviors" (Brownson, et al., 2005, p. 17.2). This article also posits that pursuing a healthier environment benefits everyone in the community, which is a policy that makes sense from a public health standpoint because "changing the behavior of one person at a time" is short-sighted (Brownson, 17.2). Among the interventions that Brownson reviews are: a) tobacco use reduction (through clean air laws; taxes; restriction of availability); b) advertising; and education; c) better access to fitness facilities and school-based physical education programs; d) encouraging healthy eating in schools…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brownson, R.C., Haire-Joshu, D., and Luke, D.A. (2005). Shaping the Context of Health: A

Review of Environmental and Policy Approaches in the Prevention of Chronic Diseases.

Annual Review of Public Health, Vol. 27, 17.1-17.30.

Get Healthy Philly. (2013). Annual Report for 2013. Retrieved June 6, 2014, from http://www.phila.gov.
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Democracy and Public Administration

Words: 5642 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63787304

Policy

Democracy and Public Administration

This report is a theoretical essay on the inevitable conflicts that consistently occur between public agencies that are managed by unelected civil servants and the political environment in which these individuals and organizations operate in. Public agencies in the healthcare environment are prime examples of successful interdepartmental cooperation in most cases, but, there are also examples where they can demonstrate both internal and external in-fighting. "The health sector workforce, which usually comprises a significant element within the total public sector workforce, may be either directly employed by the public sector health system, or work in public-funded agencies or organizations (e.g., social insurance funded). In many countries healthcare will also be delivered by organizations in the private sector and by voluntary organizations." (World Bank Group) As concerns like the nation's aging population, a rapidly depleting Medicare Trust or the many potential pandemics such as SAs, Swine…… [Read More]

References

Antos, Joseph. (2008). "Medicare's Bad News: Is Anyone Listening?" American Institute for Public Policy Research. April, No. 3.

American Public Health Association (2009). Retrieved on November 2, 2009, from American Public Health Association Web Site:  http://www.apha.org  aphanet. (2001). Senators' Introduce Bill to Prepare For Possibility of Biological Warfare. Retrieved on November 2, 2009, from http://www.aphanet.org

CDC. (2009). H1N1. Retrieved on November 3, 2009, from Center For Disease Control web site at  http://www.cdc.gov/h1n1flu/sick.htm .

Center for Disease Control. (2009). State and Local Infrastructure. Retrieved on November 3, 2009, from Center for Disease Control Web Site: http://www.cdc.gov/programs
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ECIG and Its Vaporizers Are They Good for People

Words: 721 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65959201

ECIG and Healthy/Unhealthy Vaporizers

Electronic Cigarettes Internal Group (ECIG) is a business that manufactures and sells vaporizers and electronic cigarettes, which groups in the U.S. have labeled as harmful to health (even though the scientific board under the direction of the U.K. government has identified them as 95% healthier than traditional tobacco cigarettes) (Public Health England, 2015). ECIG, nonetheless, markets its "unhealthy" products by actually promoting them as a healthy alternative to traditional cigarettes and cites the U.K. study as a reason to switch from tobacco to e-liquids. Essentially, ECIG markets itself as a way to help tobacco smokers quit their habit.

The ethical dilemma associated with the production and distribution of e-cigarettes and vaporizers is the question of whether they are as harmful for one as traditional tobacco cigarettes (or whether they are even harmful at all). Critics of the product argue that they are (oloff, 2015), but there…… [Read More]

References

Gwynn, S. (2015). Great VIP Giveaway to see 10,000 e-cigarettes handed out. The Grocer. Retrieved from http://www.thegrocer.co.uk/buying-and-supplying/marketing/great-vip-giveaway-to-see-10000-e-cigarettes-handed-out/529168.article

Public Health England. (2015). E-cigarettes around 95% less harmful than tobacco estimates landmark review. Gov.uk. Retrieved from  https://www.gov.uk/government/news/e-cigarettes-around-95-less-harmful-than-tobacco-estimates-landmark-review 

Roloff, J. (2015). The dangers of vaping: teens are falling for flavored e-cigs, but the vapors they inhale may be toxic. Science News, 188(1): 18-21.
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United States Has the Most

Words: 6833 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34903730

al., 2010).

Nursing and the E

The Emergency oom is often one of the most visible parts of healthcare for political debate. It is also one of the most difficult environments for a modern nurse. It is interesting that one of the founders of modern nursing had emergency experience prior to developing her overall theories. Nightingale also looked at negatives and positives that are the conditions, which could help make people recover and reach their actual potential, as also noted by Maslow hierarchy of needs. She did not look or speak directly of the disease per se, but rather, looked at air, clean water, environment, and sanitation. She published her book in1860 with the title a "Notes on Nursing: What it Is and What it Is Not," connecting human beings and quality of human life, and comparing the stagnant sewage she saw in Scutari, as well as in London. She…… [Read More]

References

Americans at Risk. (March 2009). Families USA. Retrieved from:

http://www.familiesusa.org/assets/pdfs/americans-at-risk.pdf

Patient Perceptions in the Emergency Department: Physicians, Physician Assistants,

Nurse Practitioners. (30 August 2010). Retrieved from: http://idiopathicmedicine.wordpress.com/2010/08/30/patient-perceptions-in-the-emergency-department-physicians-physician-assistants-nurse-practitioners/
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Models of Policy Change

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23675457

Policy Changes

Eight Models of Policy Change as Related to a Problem-Structuring Method

Comprehensive Rationality and Synectics

According to the text, comprehensive rationality occurs when "an individual or collective decision maker […] weighs the cost and benefits of all available alternatives and takes actions that are motivated by a concern with the efficient use of resources" (Chapter 2, 48).

Here, problems within the community are addressed and discussed in terms of importance to see if they are worth acting upon. Some may not ever be dealt with, while others are sent forth onto the next stage.

An example of this is when a council member prepares a presentation for public policy change independently and then produces it to the Council.

Thus, the City Council should pair this with the Synectics problem structuring approach because of the fact an individual can create and discern comparisons without the distraction of the group.…… [Read More]

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What ECIG Needs to Do to Overcome Hurdles

Words: 1849 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35690798

Marketing Strategy for ECIG (Electronic Cigarettes International Group)

Dan O'Neill took over as CEO of ECIG on January 9, 2015, replacing outgoing Brent Willis, who founded the company but who has also been viewed as the main reason for the plummet in share price. Dan O'Neill's record of experience as CEO of Molson's and top leadership positions at Heinz and Star-Kist suggests that ECIG may finally be in more capable hands. With the reduction of debt and the one-time write-off of losses, the company has pivoted for better years (Hoogervorst, 2012). However, restructuring its debt and distribution channels are main points that need to be addressed before any reversal in the company's fortunes can be expected. The three main reasons customers will be attracted to ECIG are: 1) sustainability: the vaporizer market is growing as a result of smokers looking for healthier alternatives; 2) Dan O'Neill is providing the kind…… [Read More]

References

Giovenco, D., Hammond, D., Corey, C., Ambrose, B., Delnevo, C. (2014). Oxford

Journals: Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 16(12): 14-15.

Goodman, A. (2013). E-Cigarettes Are Smoking Hot -- Four Ways to Invest in Them.

Forbes. Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/sites/agoodman/2013/12/05/e-cigarettes-are-smoking-hot-4-ways-to-approach-them/
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Truism Obesity Reached Epidemic Proportions by the

Words: 939 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73375183

Truism

Obesity reached epidemic proportions by the end of the twentieth century, with as many as thirty percent of adults and sixteen percent of children living in the United States being overweight ("Overweight and Obesity"). Being overweight is not just a matter of personal appearance. Rather, a range of health problems from heart disease to diabetes can be directly caused by eating too much, especially too much of the wrong foods. Fast food, junk food, and processed foods, available in huge portions for cheap prices, are driving factors in the American economy. However, because being overweight is a major cause of disease, obesity becomes an economic problem in America, taxing the medical system with unnecessary and preventable problems. Obese individuals essentially steal treatment services from individuals who suffer from diseases that could not be prevented through lifestyle changes. Overeating is also a slap-in -- the face for those who cannot…… [Read More]

Works Cited

'Overweight and Obesity." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Online at .
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Sex and AIDS on How

Words: 998 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77617850

Sociologist activism in the community that simultaneously brings about information processing and the ideal segment of society for the log run can contribute largely to the containment of the epidemic. (Trickett; Pequegnat, 2005)

The possible solution for the state, where the epidemic ca be spread by a known infected person is to cast a punitive punishment. Perhaps make the event actionable. Thus one of the possible laws that could be brought about to stem the growth of infection could closely follow the laws of pollution and the principles of pollution and the polluter pays principle that is much effective in industrialization. Thus the legal system has procedures to deal with the spread of epidemics although it has been used so far in the case of pollution. Another interesting area where the principle is used and can be cited is the case of cigarettes and the non-smokers inhaling second-hand smoke from…… [Read More]

References

Andersen, Margaret L; Taylor, Howard Francis. (2005) "Understanding a diverse society" Cengage Learning.

Moore, Melinda; Forst, Martin Lyle. (1996) "AIDS education: Reaching diverse populations" Greenwood Publishing Group.

Murphy, Raymond. (1997) "Sociology and Nature: Social Action in Context." Westview

Press: Boulder, CO.
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Ethnic and Religous Sources of Conflict Reference

Words: 866 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16849468

Ethnic and Religous Sources of Conflict

Reference groups within my workplace.

I work part-time in a tax preparation office, answering phones, filing, helping with a calling campaign, Xeroxing, setting up furniture, answering customer questions, setting up appointments, and doing other tasks and errands, as needed. Reference groups in my workplace are (Group 1) the group of us five part-time assistants: Wendy, Tiffany, Angelica, Dawn, and myself; (2) twelve tax preparers, Steve, Marcia, Katrina, Obie, Lyle, Silvia; Erika; Dwight; Tim; John; Rocio, and Mark; and (2) two office supervisors, David and Luz.

Group 1: Of my own part-time assistant group, two people are African-American, two are white, and one is Hispanic.

Group 2: Of the tax preparer group, four are African-American; four are white; three are Hispanic, and one is Native American.

Group 3: Of the Office Supervisor group, one is white and one is Hispanic.

Identify the situation in my…… [Read More]

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Analyzing Discussion on Risk Analysis

Words: 675 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88063352

isk Analysis

How does a clinical trial contribute to risk analysis?

In the UK, clinical Trials Toolkit offers realistic advice to researchers in structuring and carrying out publicly funded trials via the utilization of an interactive route map. The Toolkit is majorly centered on CTIMPs (Clinical Trials of Investigational Medicinal Products) and the regulatory needs and environment related with these. However, &D and researchers working in other fields shall also get significant data and guidance of relevance to the broader trials settings. isk evaluation and mitigation entails application of statistical methods to choose significant factors having high research predicative values or sites which might be prone to noncompliance. It is claimed that prospectively arranged data-motivated and model-founded advances could assist optimize resources usage with maximal impact. Although the modeling exercise initiates objectivity in the hunt for significant risk factors, it should not by itself be seen as the only determinant…… [Read More]

References

Chappell, P., Knirsch, C., Alvir, J., & Alemayehu, D. (2012, April 1). Risk Assessment and Mitigation. Retrieved January 15, 2016, from http://www.appliedclinicaltrialsonline.com/risk-assessment-and-mitigation

Pang, T., & Guindon, G. E. (2004). Globalization and risks to health. EMBO reports, 5(1S), S11

S16.

Shangquan, G. (2000). Economic globalization: trends, risks and risk prevention. Economic & Social Affairs, CDP Backround Paper, (1).
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An indepth analysis of Health Disparities in Healthy People 2020

Words: 845 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77693067

Health Disparities in Healthy People 2020

For the last two decades now, one of the central goals of Healthy People has been on alleviating disparities. Healthy people 2000 focused on reducing health related disparities in the American population. The Healthy people 2020 mission defines health disparity as a health difference that has close links with socio-economic and environmental disadvantages. Such heath disparities negatively affect groups that face systematic obstacles because of their race, socio-economic stature, religion gender, age cognitive abilities, physical disability, geographic location, exclusive considerations, sexual orientation, or ethnic group (Anon., n.d.).

Maternal, Infant and Child Health

As in the case with adults, social and demographic forces, including the income that the family gets affects infant health, too. Physical and mental health dynamics of the caregiver and parent are also causal to the effects. acial-based disparities have been observed in both mortality and morbidity for children and mothers. This…… [Read More]

References

Anon., n.d. Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. [Online]

Available at:  https://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/about/foundation-health-measures/Disparities 

[Accessed 27 August 2016].

Anon., n.d. Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. [Online]