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The Church although took a reactionary approach to the change, there was no benefit of such approach. People felt more farther from the religious authority than before. The Church labeled the new secular system as the pursuit of wanton passions and indulgence in sins by the masses. The labeling took systematic shape when Pope and regional priests tried to lure vast segments of society by declaring the new secular system as inviting the wrath of God and corrupting the society with evil (Gunn, 2005).
The Church also held the new ideology responsible for the widespread poverty and suffering of the common men. They also tried to pursue people that not displaying allegiance to the religion will leave the segments of French society vulnerable to suffering through divine sources. The French left played a vital role in spreading the anticlericalism in Pre-revolution and post-revolution France. This helped the middle classes of…
Arjomand, S.A. (1988). The turban for the crown: The Islamic revolution in Iran. Oxford University Press.
Bauberot, J. (2003). Secularism and French religious liberty: a sociological and historical view. BYU L. Rev., 451-464.
Gunn, T.J. (2005). French Secularism at Utopia and Myth. Hous. L. Rev., 42, 81.
Klaits, J., & Haltzel, M.H. (2002). Global ramifications of the French revolution. Cambridge University Press.
As a result, explicit religious control over social and political life diminishes, but it still retains its ability to control and constrain individuals; it simply relies more on its individual adherents than formal church hierarchies and leadership.
This process has played itself out in a number of different contexts, and although the particular religious response to secularization differs according to nations and societies, in each case these responses disprove the secularization theory while reiterating the danger of religious influence in political and social affairs. For example, though the Enlightenment saw a somewhat dramatic increase in the secularization of Europe, particularly during the French evolution, this secularization did not correspond to the expected decrease in religious influence over political and social affairs. This is because even when formal religious institutions lose some explicit power, religious belief remains an acceptable justification for the formation of public policy and social norms (Audi &…
Audi, R., & Wolterstorff, N. (1997). Religion in the public square. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers.
Berger, P. (1999). The desecularization of the world: Resurgent religion and world politics.
Washington: Ethics and Public Policy Center.
Norris, P., & Inglehart, R. (2004). Sacred and secular: Religion and politics worldwide.
Secularism is a term that describes a certain worldview that believes in the separation of church and state. The European Enlightenment gave birth to this secularism and the spread of secularism has had a variety of repercussions across the globe (Lavenda & Schultz, N.d.). As a result of a secularist perspective many nations have transformed their religious and political institutions to accommodate a more liberal viewpoint. Secularism has also been promoted as a way to protect both religious believers as well as non-religious believers (National Secular Society, N.d.). The idea is that if the country's instructions are secular in nature then this allows for an infinite number of different beliefs and provides an atmosphere of religious freedom. No religious or political affiliations give advantages or disadvantages and all citizens have equally protected freedoms.
Some people believe that this translates into a public sphere that is devoid of all religious symbols,…
Ferrara, P. (2012). Globalization and Post-Secularism. Journal of Dialogue and Culture, 61-70.
Lavenda, R., & Schultz, E. (N.d.). Religion and Secularism. Retrieved from Oxford University Press: http://www.oup.com/us/companion.websites/9780195189766/student_resources/Supp_chap_mats/Chap11/Religion_and_Secularism/
National Secular Society. (N.d.). What is Secularism? Retrieved from National Secular Society: http://www.secularism.org.uk/what-is-secularism.html
Taylor, C. (N.d.). Focus II Religion and Secularism. Retrieved from IWM: http://www.iwm.at/research/focus-ii/
Secularism in All Governments
The international Bill of Human ights is an informal name for General Assembly resolution and two international treaties that were established by the UN. It is made up of Universal Declaration of Human ights, international covenant of civil and political ights together with two protocols that are optional international covenant of economic, social and cultural rights. The role of the international bill of human rights can therefore be seen as responsibility to individual, groups and organs of the society to promote, and protect universally recognized human rights. Secularism is a principle where there is separation government institutions and anyone with the mandate of representing the state from religious institutions and other religious dignitaries. Secularism can be seen from the perspective that it asserts the right of being free from religious rules and teachings and the right to freedom from the impositions made by governments on religions…
Brace, A.R. (2005). Secularism -- the most evil philosophy known to human government. Retrieved December 11, 2012 from http://www.ukapologetics.net/secularism.htm
Hsieh, D.(2010). Coalition for Secular Government. Retrieved December 11, 2012 from http://www.seculargovernment.us/
In short, the IBH implies that governments all across the world should promote secularism in order to keep peace and understanding when negotiations take place between countries (Cliteur, 2010). However, nowhere does the IBH insist that country's governments have to be secular in nature. That would intrude too strongly on the countries and whether they are allowed to govern themselves. While the IBH is important, it is not a document designed to tell each country how it has to govern its people. Instead, the IBH is about the rights of the people in those countries and how the governments work with one another when issues are handled that go across cultures and across borders (Cliteur, 2010). Henkin understood this, and worked tirelessly throughout the majority of his lifetime for human rights. Foreign policy and international law were the two biggest areas he focused on, because he saw how a lack…
Cliteur, P. (2010). The Secular Outlook: In Defense of Moral and Political Secularism. NY: Wiley-Blackwell.
Grimes, W. (2010). Louis Henkin, 92, Leader in Field of Human Rights Law. The New York Times.
Turkey is a secular state but is largely influenced by the Islamic religion. Almost 99% of the Turkish population practices the Islamic faith (Ghanim, 2009). The four major aspects that characterize Turkey include Islam, secularism, democracy, and nationality. The influence of Islam is felt via the Turkish people while the influence of the government is felt through secularism, nationalism, and democracy. Different groups of Muslims diverge on various aspects of the Islamic faith, but they coexist as a demonstration of tolerance between religion and democracy. While introducing secularism to Turkey’s governance systems, Ataturk had envisioned a country that would uphold nationalism. However, the modern-day Turkey has witnessed a clash between institutional secularism and political Islam because politics defines the people while the government forms laws. Whereas their religious values drive the people, the institutions are guided by secular rules and principles. Therefore, Islam influences the national politics while secularism…
Ansary, T. (2009) Destiny Disrupted: A History of the World through Islamic Eyes. New York: Public Affairs.
Bardakoglu, A. (2008). “Culture of Co-Existence in Islam: The Turkish Case.” Insight Turkey 10 111-26.
Barkey, H. and Yasemin C. (2007). “Deciphering Turkey\\'s Elections: The Making of a Revolution.” World Policy Journal 24: 63-73.
Ghanim, D. (2009) “Turkish Democracy and Political Islam.” Middle East Policy 16: 75-84
Jenkins, G. (2008) “Political Islam in Turkey: Running West, Heading East?” New York: Palgrave Macmillam
Kuru, T. (2008) “Secularism in Turkey: Myths and Realities.” Insight Turkey 10 (2008): 101-10.
Mecham, R. Quinn. (2012) “From the Ashes of Virtue, a Promise of Light: The Transformation of Political Islam in Turkey.” Third World Quarterly 25(1): 339-58.
The community breakdown is one that can be mended, though, with creative community-building programs like the retreat. etreats can be designed to blend practical learning and the needs of adults with those of the developing child. Graham (1994) emphasizes the need for strong catechesis, which provides the means by which to develop religious communities. The Congregation for Catholic Education (1988) claims, "catechesis takes place within a community living out its faith at a level of space and time not available to a school: a whole lifetime," (p. 55). Thus, the school's role in the community transcends that of the student, that of the parent, and that of the curriculum.
By applying Catholic values to academic subjects, catechesis becomes far more than religious education. Catechesis becomes a transformative force in the community. Communities are comprised of individuals, and when each individual is empowered with spiritual tools, the community as a whole…
Congregation for Catholic Education. (1988). The Religious
Dimension of Education in a Catholic School
Crotty, L., Fletcher, E. & McGrath, J. (1995). Reflections on an emerging religious education curriculum.
English, G. (1992). Religious education: what did you expect?
(Casanova, n.d., pp. 10 -- 26)
The Secularization by odney Stark
In the article titled Secularization, Stark (1999) is discussing how secularization is having a dramatic impact upon the society. This is because organized religion has not offered any kind of new or creative ideas in over two hundred years (which are leading to its decline). Moreover, many of the more mystical religions are experiencing similar decreases. The combination of these factors are important, in showing how there has been fundamental shift in morals and values. (Stark, 1999, pp. 249 -- 273)
Evidence of this can be seen with observations from Stark who said, "The day will come when religion has been relegated to memory and museums. This will not have been caused by modernization, and the demise of faith will bear no resemblance to the process postulated by the secular doctrine." (Stark, 1999, pg. 269) This is illustrating how…
Casanova, J. (n.d.). Public Religions in the Modern World. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Stark, R. (1999). Secularization. Sociology of Religion 60 (3), 249 -- 273.
Stark, R. (n.d.). The Dynamics of Religious Economies.
Antonio Canova was an Italian sculptor from Venice who lived from 1757 to 1822. He primarily worked in marble and believed that he could use that medium to render an artistic view of human flesh. He is most famous as someone who rejected the excesses and filigree of the Baroque to return to classical style, making him one of the foremost artists of the neoclassical style. For a number of years, Canova's work was considered to be the greatest example of European sculpture -- to the point that in 1802, Canova was invited to Paris to carve marble portraits of the emperor Napoleon and family. Most art critics find that the combination of returning to mythology and discreet eroticism that flowed out of the enaissance and into the modern era, without all the unnecessary frills of the Baroque, to be his greatest contribution to art.
Canova was born in…
All-Art.org, "Introduction to Neoclassicism." Last modified April 2000. Accessed December 27, 2013. http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/english/melani/cs6/neocl.html .
Bindman, David. Warm Flesh, Cold Marble. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2013.
Durant, Will & Aiel. The Age of Napoleon: The Story of Civilization. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2011.
Friedel, E. A Cultural History of the Modern Age. Westport, CT: Bergin and Garvey, 1999.
Turkey and Islam
Tensions have existed between Islamic powerbrokers and the state of Turkey since the state was founded. While Islam was the state religion of modern Turkey's precursor, the Ottoman Empire, it was not long after the Republic of Turkey was founded that Islam was removed as the state religion in favor of the secular approach of the country's founder, Mustafa Kemal Ataturk. But there have always been tensions between Islam and the state since that point. Turkey's demographics -- split between a handful of large, secular cities and a more rural, religious majority population, and Turkey's vision as a balance of power between east and west, are among the chief causes of this tension. This paper will examine this tension further, as it continues to manifest to this day.
Brief Historical Overview
During Ottoman times, religious law co-existed with civil law. Ataturk, after founding the Republic of Turkey,…
Apologetics Application Paper: Secular Humanism
Thou shalt have no other gods before me. – The First Commandment
Thou shalt have no gods. – Secular Humanists
Although the epigraphs above do not reflect the entire arguments in support of their respective oppositional positions, they do capture the essence of the specific argument between Christians and secular humanists concerning the centrality of religious beliefs for the human condition. Indeed, since time immemorial, humankind has sought spiritual solace, guidance and redemption but it has only been relatively recently that this fundamental worldview has been challenged by human secularism which holds that there is no god and that human beings possess the natural gifts to manage their affairs just fine, thank you. Human secularism gained significant impetus as a result of innovations in scientific and medical technologies that have further reinforced the notion that people can take care of themselves without a…
The Doctrine of Divine Providence
Divine Providence is the way God rules over all things in the world and the Heavens. Gotanswers. org states,
"The purpose, or goal, of divine providence is to accomplish the will of God. To ensure that His purposes are fulfilled, God governs the affairs of men and works through the natural order of things. The laws of nature are nothing more than a depiction of God at work in the universe. The laws of nature have no inherent power, nor do they work independently. The laws of nature are the rules and principles that God set in place to govern how things work" (Gotquestions.org, 2010)
The Bible, Proverbs 16:9 states: "The heart of a man plans his way, but the Lord establishes his steps." Though God allows man free will, he also has a guidance control in our life.
In Acts 9, God directly deal…
"Baptism FAQ." 2010. Retrieved on May 8, 2010 from http://paracleteforum.org/archive/articles/baptism_faq/dialogue.html
Cloud, D. 2006. "What about Hyper-Calvinism?" Retrieved on May 8, 2010 from http://www.wayoflife.org/database/hypercalvinism.html
Holman Christian Standard Bible. 2004. Holman Bible Publishers. Nashville, TN.
"Secularism." 2010. Retrieved on May 8, 2010 from http://www.answers.com/topic/secularism
evisionist historian often seek to find non-Christian association among the lives of the founding fathers, such as the Freemasons, and Humanism, yet it is clear that these organizations were not dominant to religion and that a strong Protestant ethic still reigned supreme, especially in the language of the foundational documents of the nation.
Fundamentalism has in fact created a more recent expression in modern America as churches attempt to "go back to the word" and support the idea that the scripture of the church is divine and unfailing. Though interpretations are varied in this group in general they espouse and return to "family values" via some "golden era" ideals regarding the past.
At its base, fundamentalism was compatible with the religiosity of the people, for both assumed the reality of supernatural power and the prevalence of supernatural forces at work in the world. By stressing such theological notions as…
Domke, D., & Coe, K. (2007). The God Strategy: The Rise of Religious Politics in America. Journal of Ecumenical Studies, 42(1), 53.
Harries, R. (2003). After the Evil: Christianity and Judaism in the Shadow of the Holocaust. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Lippy, C.H. (1994). Being Religious, American Style: A History of Popular Religiosity in the United States. Westport, CT: Praeger.
McDermott, R.A. (1993). The Spiritual Mission of America. Re-vision, 16(1), 15-25.
In striving to be inclusive, Malkin may run the danger of excluding significant minorities of the Jewish community, those who cannot celebrate the text of the Bible as a literary feat, but see it as holy writ and are offended by literary interpretations and reverence for the Torah.
There is a final problem that will likely become even more contentious in the future, that of the question of the policies of the Israeli government in relation to Jewish national identity. One can certainly love America and not support the policies of the current administration, but support for Israel's ruling party is often conjoined with supporting Israel in the popular imagination, because of Israel's threatened identity in the Middle East. Defining Judaism in terms of support for Israel can be a slippery slope as well. Even defining Judaism in terms of social justice and liberal political values can itself be alienating…
histories of the United States address the matter from a secular point-of-view. The government, the society, the economy and other such matters have been examined and discussed thoroughly but religion and its history has been largely ignored. Religion played an important role in the formation of the American government and played an even more important role in the development of American society, yet, studies related to how these roles developed are minimal (Eidsmoe). The purpose of this research is to examine how religious philosophy impacted on the formation of the American society and how religious philosophy developed as the young nation evolved and how religious philosophy has continued to impact American society .It is my belief that religion played a far more significant role in the formation of the United States than current history books presently represent and that, through proper and thorough research the importance of religious philosophy in…
Butler, Jon. Religion in Colonial America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.
This book described the development of the various organized religions that existed in America from the period of 1500 to the present. The book attempts to dispel the idea that the Puritans were the only religion that influenced the development of early American political thought and that other religious philosophies played a significant role as well. The book explores the role that other religions such as Roman Catholics, Judaism, and other Protestant denominations played. The failure of the Puritans to achieve their goal of instituting their religious philosophy throughout the Colonies is examined as is their influence on how the doctrine of the separation of Church and state was ultimately adopted.
Clarke, P.H. "Adam Smith, Stoicism and religion in the 18th Century." History of the Human Services (2000): 49-72.
This article examines how Adam Smith was affected by the influence of Stoicism and religion but through an examination of their effect on Smith their influences, by extension, are measured on other political philosophers of the time. Religious philosophy of the time was in a period of transition. The Enlightenment had emerged and reason had become the guiding principle and religious philosophers were rushing to combine the orthodox ideology of traditional religion with the ideas of the Enlightenment. In this book, this process is explained and how it affected philosophers in the 18th century.
According to the CIA orld Factbook, 99.8% of Turkey's population is Muslim, the overwhelming majority of those being Sunni. The minorities include ancient communities of Christians and Jews, some from ethnic minorities. Beneath this veneer of homogeneity, however, Turkey does face some religious conflict. Much of this conflict arises from divisions within Islam, but there is also a significant conflict between the country's secular Muslims and its religious ones.
Turkish Sunni Muslims typically belong to the Hanafi school, while Kurdish Sunnis follow the Shafil school. As many as one-third of Kurds in Turkey actually belong to the Alevi school of Shia Islam, despite statistics that indicate this group is Sunni. There are many Sufi brotherhoods that are active in Turkey as well. The Turkish city of Konya -- one of the most conservative cities in the country -- is the home of Sufism, as this is where Mevlana Rumi…
CIA World Factbook. (2012). Turkey. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved March 19, 2012 from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/tu.html
Garda, I. (2007). Ataturk's secularist legacy. Al-Jazeera. Retrieved March 19, 2012 from http://www.aljazeera.com/focus/turkey/2007/07/2008525185649513144.html
Jones, E. (2010). The conflicts of secularization and Islam in Turkey. Salve Regina University. Retrieved March 19, 2012 from http://escholar.salve.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1046&context=pell_theses
No author. (2012). Shrine of Rumi, Konya. SacredSites.com. Retrieved March 19, 2012 from http://sacredsites.com/middle_east/turkey/shrine_of_rumi_konya.html
This essay examines the meaning of culture and provides several possible titles and topics that may be used as starting points for developing a paper on culture. It discusses the definition of culture, how culture is developed, and how cultures change. It shows how cultural identity and cultural differences are formed and how culture diversity is a fact of life. It also explains why in spite of diverse cultures commonly existing in one group there is usually a dominant culture that comes to the fore and is promoted by the leaders of the group. The essay closes with recommendations for other ways in which a paper on culture can be written.
Culture is the heart and soul of a society, group or organization: it is the manifestation of what a particular set of people thinks, feels, believes in, and holds as ideal. It is the communication of what a people…
For fundamentalists, law and authority come from God.
This is true not only in formally theocratic societies, like Iran, but can also be seen expressed in the views of fundamentalist U.S. Christians, who have an obsession with having the Ten Commandments displayed outside of secular buildings, advocate school prayer and the need for laws to be justified by Judeo-Christian values.
Female sexuality must be contained; boundaries must be established between men and women.
The female body is an obsession: hence the obsession with women staying home and not working in fundamentalist Christian circles, as well as the extreme control of women by the Taliban in Afghanistan.
Sexual behavior is a major concern of all fundamentalists
Opposing gay marriage, abortion rights, sexual education unite almost all fundamentalist groups.
Fundamentalism and nationalism converge.
"The moral life according to the will of God can only be fully lived in a society of fellow-practitioners…
rise of Hindu Fundamentalism
At the turn of the century, religious fundamentalism has emerged as a well-known trend; a custom of mind found within religious communities and paradigmatically incarnated in certain typical individuals and activities. The harassed supporters try to protect their distinctive group identity by its expressions as a strategy. The supporters strengthen it by selective recovery of doctrines, viewpoint and practices from a sacred past, feeling that this identity will be at danger in the contemporary era. This assortment is cautiously done so that it is not only attractive to the spectators but also satisfactory. Actually, fundamentalist movements selects and chooses cautiously among inherited doctrines and practices, as well as cloaking innovations in the attire of ancient times, it maintains that selective retrieval is only reinstating the ancient ways. (eligious Fundamentalism in India and Beyond)
In a spirit of practicality these recovered fundamentals are polished, tailored and authorized:…
Amaladoss, Michael. "Hindu Fundamentalism in Contemporary India." Forum for Liberation Theologies, Annual Report 1999-2000. 9 December 2000.
Retrieved at http://www.theo.kuleuven.ac.be/clt/flt_anrep_9900_3.htm. Accessed on 02/26/2003
Ayodhya." Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. 2004. Encyclopedia Britannica. 23 Feb. 2004 Retrieved at http://concise.britannica.com/ebc/article?eu=380124Accessed on 02/26/2003
Bhambri, C.P. "Hindutva and Multi-Culturalism" The Hindu. December 06, 1998, Pg: 25: Col: a Chatterji, Angana. "For Dissent against Hindu Extremism," July 28, 2002
The Turkic tribes transformed themselves from a disparate, fragmented state into a hegemonic and organized empire. Lasting for centuries and making a profound impact on global politics, the Ottoman Empire built its status and power on bureaucratic authoritarianism, and also on fusing the power of religion and politics. The bastion of Sunni Islam, the Ottoman Empire colonized regions far beyond what are now the borders of the modern nation-state of Turkey. Moreover, the Ottoman Empire encompassed a wide range of linguistically and ethnically diverse people, capitalizing on access to global trade routes to bolster power and influence in and beyond Eurasia. The use of military might, of economic influence, and also of religious and cultural tools for social control and hegemony all characterized the Ottoman Empire in its heyday.
At the beginning of the twentieth century, shifting balances of power, modernization, and the dismantling of authoritarian regimes trended worldwide and…
In order to gain insight into these it is necessary that they all be combined into one.
6) Miller states the rule that visions are always mentioned as being 'visions'.
7) the rule relating to determine when a word is used literally or physically and states that if the word makes good sense as it stands, and does not violence to the simple laws of nature, then it must be understood literally, if not, figuratively.";
8) Figures always have a figurative meaning, and are used much in prophecy to represent future things, times and events -- such as mountains, meaning governments, 9) to learn the meaning of a figure, trace the word through your ible, and where you find it explained, substitute the explanation for the word used; and if it makes good sense, you need not look further; if not, look again;
10) Figures sometimes have two or more…
Andrews, Allan. R. (2007)a Journalist's Online Glossary of Religion.
Joshua V. Himes (1842) on the Cleansing of the Sanctuary by William Miller Boston. Development of SDA Theology - Department of Theology, Newbold College. Online available at http://www.bics410.szm.com/l13/miller/index.htm
McCook, Matt (2005) Aliens in the World: Sectarians, Secularism and the Second Great Awakening. 2005. Online available at http://etd.lib.fsu.edu/theses/available/etd-08/unrestricted/McCook_Dissertation.pdf
Damsteegt, Foundations of the Seventh day Adventists: Message and Mission (1977); ES Gaustad, ed., the Rise of Adventism (1975); AA Hoekema, Seventh-day Adventism (1974); G. Land, ed., Adventism in America (1986); RL Numbers and JM Butler, eds., the Disappointed (1987); E. Sandeen, the Roots of Fundamentalism: British and American Millenarianism, 1800-1930 (1970).
The continued reunification of Sudan, remains to be fully realized, even some 7 years after the official end to the civil war. Oppression and lack of representation still occur as do more subtle marginalizing tactics on the part of the favored government. Secrecy and fear still abound in the nation, as do economic and social hardships that are difficult to overcome.
Works Cited www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=95248133
Deng, Francis M. "Egypt's Dilemmas on the Sudan." Middle East Policy 4.1 & 2 (1995): 50-56. Questia. 24 Sept. 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=95248133.
El-Tigani, Mahgoub. "Solving the Crisis of Sudan: The Right of Self-Determination vs. State Torture." Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ) 23.2 (2001): 41. Questia. 24 Sept. 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001036026.
El-Tigani, Mahgoub. "The Sudan -- Contested National Identities." Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ) 23.2 (2001): 111. Questia. 24 Sept. 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001036042.
Fluehr-Lobban, Carolyn, and Richard Lobban. "The Sudan since 1989: National Islamic Front Rule."…
Judy Mayotte, "Civil War in Sudan: The Paradox of Human Rights and National Sovereignty," Journal of International Affairs 47.2 (1994), Questia, 24 Sept. 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000189501 .
Richard Lobban, "Slavery in the Sudan since 1989," Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ) 23.2 (2001): 31, Questia, 24 Sept. 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001036022 .
One of the more surprising statistics cited by Shadid is that in post-war Iraq, jobs with Americans are actually the most plentiful source of labor, and pay the best, from $130 up to $175 a month (284).
This statistic starkly underlines how the hope of America pulling out of Iraq without causing economic as well as military chaos seems bleak. The volunteers soldiers still hold fast to the sunrise to sunset fast of Ramadan, and feel grateful that they are able to help their families during the nightly feast in a month that is so sacred -- but not because they feel the ideals of America are important to their nation's collective future. Of course, for some Iraqis, no matter what the salary, joining the occupying forces was morally wrong, and simply not worth the money, however high, that Americans might pay. The enlisted Iraqi soldiers worry about retaliation, stating…
Shadid, Anthony. Night Draws Near. New York, Henry Holt and Co., 2005.
business culture and expansion trends that exist for American companies in India. The paper focuses on answering the following questions: 1. What are the major elements and dimensions of culture in this region? 2. How are these elements and dimensions integrated by local conducting business in the nation? 3. How do both of the above items compare with U.S. culture and business? 4. What are the implications for U.S. businesses that wish to conduct business in that region? The paper also tackles the following aspects: Dimensions of Culture, Communication. Different Meaning of Words across Languages, Verbal, Nonverbal, High Context vs. Low Context and eligion -- Christianity, Judaism, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Shinto and Ethics; Definitions, The Issue of Corruption, Corporate Social esponsibility, Values and Attitudes, Variances in Attitudes across Cultures, Concept of Time, Dealing with Change, The ole of Gender, Social Status, Business Manners and Customs across National Cultures, Social…
Bose, P. And Lyons, L.E. (2010). Cultural Critique and the Global Corporation. Tracking Globalization, Bloomington, IN.
Butler, Patty. (2012). India Business Etiquette, Manners, Cross Cultural Communication, and Geert Hofstede Analysis. International Business Etiquette and Manners. Cyborlink http://www.cyborlink.com/besite/india.htm
Doh, J., and Luthans, F. (2009). International Management: Culture, Strategy, and Behaviour. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Doh, J., and Luthans, F. (2009). International Management: Culture, Strategy, and Behavoir. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Society is a synergistic agreement between different peoples and cultures. In today's modern world any society, it is a conglomeration of people belonging to separate beliefs and cultures. The identity of each culture or group is in fact an indication of the richness and variety in the society and is a pointer of the interaction and civic sense prevalent in them. The success of the society depends on the smoothness with which these sub-groups interact with each other and the levels to which they can adjust with each other. When the balance is upset, there starts the onset of problems, both culturally and in the national level.
The violent incidents that happened in the whole state of Gujarat was unprecedented in the sense that perhaps this was the first time in the history of independent India that human massacre in such a large scale was openly supported by…
Frantz Fanon, 1967,
Black Skin White Masks, New York: Grove Press, 1967
Mead George Herbert Mind, Self, and Society, ed. C.W. Morris, University of Chicago 1934
Human rights watch report, 2003, http://hrw.org/wr2k3/asia6.html
Islam is a religion of war and hatred.
One cannot highlight too much the difference amid Islam, which is plain and Islam, with a fundamentalist version. Islam is the religion of approximately one billion people, as well as is a quickly increasing faith, predominantly in Africa but also elsewhere in the globe. The United States, for instance, boasts, approximately, a million converts to Islam (in addition, an even superior number of Muslim settlers).
Islam's believers find their faith hugely appealing, for the religion possesses an internal power that is quite astonishing. As a primary figure in the Islamic Republic of Iran maintains that any Westerner who really understands Islam will desire the lives of Muslims. Far from feeling embarrassed in relation to it's being temporally the last of the three major Middle Eastern monotheisms, Muslims considered that their faith progresses on the earlier ones. In their interpretation, Judaism, as…
Annemarie Schimmel. Islam An Introduction. State University of New York Press, 1992.
Islam is a religion of war and hatred
Women Status Contemporary India
The Status and ole of Women in Contemporary India
The women in contemporary India have a very significant role as they fulfill crucial responsibilities in almost every sector including family life, agricultural development and industrial development. However, it is unfortunate that such contributions have remained mostly indistinguishable to the planners and policy makers due to which the Indian women have always experienced an unstable status in the country. Even in this modern era of science and technology, women in India are still considered a disadvantaged group as there has been no change in the conventional structure of society as well as cultural and moral standards (Chakrapani and Kumar, 1994).
In addition, a majority of women are still unaware of the social laws that have been designed to alleviate the problems women face in the society. As a consequence, distressed situations influence Indian women more than Indian…
Berman, B.J., Bhargava, R., & Laliberte?, A. (2013). Secular States and Religious Diversity. Vancouver: UBC Press. Print.
Chakrapani, C., & Kumar, S.V. (1994).Changing Status and Role of Women in Indian Society. New Delhi: MD Publications. Print.
Chowdhuri, J.P. (2012). Caste System, Social Inequalities and Reservation Policy in India: Class, Caste, Social Policy and Governance Through Social Justice. Saarbru-cken, Germany: Lambert Academic Publishing. Print.
Jain, T.R., & Ohri, V.K. (2006). Indian Economy: Issues in Economic Development and Planning in India and Sectoral Aspects of Indian Economy. New Delhi: V.K. Publications. Print.
MAT eview (Entwistle) Text
Integrative Approaches to Psychology and Christianity enabled me to gain an understanding and appreciate the previous manifestations of psychology and theology. The text demonstrated the religion and assurance that psychology and Christianity ought to pool for it to have a greater understanding and sanctioning the client a greater likelihood of healing. In order to undertake this, there ought to be an all-inclusive understanding of every component in and of itself. As Entwistle (2010) opined, the text offered all the evidences from account as it has fashioned society in these times. As Entwistle (2010) revealed these historic happenings, it displays how the information in the present day might be a replication or response of what transpired or materialized then. Christianity has consistently had a vast influence on world history and the manner in which the earth is regarded. The author makes it very apparent that God offers…
Entwistle, D. N. (2010). Integrative approaches to psychology and Christianity: An introduction to worldview issues, philosophical foundations, and models of integration. Eugene, Or: Cascade Books.
In addition, the Islam religion teaches that Jesus is both God's prophet and a servant and similarly, Muhammad holds similar positions as a prophet and a servant of God and Muhammad was the final prophet who came to save and preach to humanity. Contrary to this, Jesus as part of the Holy Trinity, and thus He is same as God according to Christianity (obinson, 2010).
On morals, the Islam religion, takes law and morality as one thing, and that whatever becomes legal according to Islamic region, it binds also the morals and if it is not a law, then it is not moral. This then indicates that Islamic law has control over morality and this remains unchanged irrespective of people or culture. According to Christianity, the laws that govern secular activities are different from morality (Gaudet, Mills, & Ali, n.d.). For example, abortion can be legalized by certain country constitutions,…
Gaudet, a.R., Mills, R., & Ali S.M. (n.d.). Islam and Christianity: Similarities and differences.
Muslim-canada.org. Retrieved from http://muslim-canada.org/islam_christianity.html
Robinson, B.A. (2010, January 9). Comparing Christianity and Islam: The world's two largest religions. Religioustolerance.org. Retrieved from http://www.religioustolerance.org/comp_isl_chr.htm
The poem focuses heavily on maternity and the fact that a woman is forced to live life day-by-day, with a different understanding of "good." For God, though, this respect again is usually interpreted as simple obedience. It is God's most basic definition of good, the one individual should not violate another -- that is the ultimate cause for the destruction of the cities, however, and Batey's lack of acknowledgment for this event seems to suggest that neither she nor Lot's wife can truly dismiss this transgression. Still, the single incident does not seem to warrant near-instant and outright destruction in human terms of "good."
It is this perspective that is most fully examined in Batey's poem. "Good in human terms," to Batey, means following the impulses of friendship and allegiance that get one through life, whether they are good or bad. Being good means understanding that mistakes are made, and…
All in all, Turkey is once again western through democracy, but eastern through its identity elements.
4. Impact on Turkey's development and the relations with the United States, Europe and the Middle East
An interesting element at this stage is constituted by the undying desire of Turkey to adhere to the European Union. On the one hand, the country perceives this adherence as a natural step in the historical process and continually prepares for the entrance to the community. Yet, most members of the EU fear the inclusion of Turkey within the community's structures. The main arguments, while they have suffered modifications through time, refer to the different cultural values (including both religion as well as ethnicity) in Turkey and in Europe (Gole). In other words, there is the perception that Islam and other Middle East resembling features would not be adequately integrated within the European Union.
The same features…
Cagaptay, S., Not a bigger slice, a bigger pie, Cagaptay, 2009, http://www.cagaptay.com/6189/not-a-bigger-slice-but-a-bigger-pie last accessed on April 19, 2010
Eller, J.D., From culture to ethnicity to conflict: an anthropological perspective on international ethnic conflict, University of Michigan Press, 1999 http://books.google.com/books?id=a8CxvhZfPYoC&dq=From+Culture+to+Ethnicity+to+Conflict&printsec=frontcover&source=bn&hl=en&ei=d2DKS73CMobmswP_wOX7Ag&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CCIQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q&f=false last accessed on April 19, 2010
Gokhan, S., The role of religion in law and politics: Turkish secularism, The Law and Society Association, http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p_mla_apa_research_citation/1/2/1/1/2/p121122_index.html last accessed on April 19, 2010
Gole, N., Europe- an identity or a project? Sign and Sight, http://www.signandsight.com/features/514.html last accessed on April 19, 2010
Whether it was the Spanish that fought to conquer lands in the south, or the Dutch that engaged in stiff competition with the British, or the French that were ultimately defeated in 1763, the American soil was one clearly marked by violent clashes between foreign powers. This is why it was considered that the cry for independence from the British was also a cry for a peaceful and secure future for the next generations. Thomas Paine argued that the time had indeed come for the colonies to be excluded from the continuous clashes that had defined their past. Thus, because of the British's traditional inclination towards war, such an objective was hard to reach under the Empire's constant control. Consequently, the time had come for the colonies to break apart and search their peace as an independent state.
Looking at the historical development of the events, it is easy to…
Aptheker, Herbert. 1960. The American Revolution, 1763-1783: a history of the American people. New York: International Publishers.
Berstein, Serge, and Milza. 1994. Pierre. Histoire de l'Europe. Paris: Hatier.
Braunstein, Florence, and Pepin, Jean Francois. 1998. Les Grandes Doctrines. Paris: Ellipses.
Carlyle, Thomas. 2004. The French revolution, New York: Kessinger Publishing, LLC. Vol. 2
The study of physics, optics and biology of the eye contributed to the development of the quadrant and sextant. The Islamic world also created the concept of a library.
The Crusades of the eleventh century brought the learning of the Islamic world to Europe unfortunately this information was acquired by the act of war. The Crusades also increased the flow of trade, bringing new spices, gemstones and foods to Europe. The Crusades marked the beginning of religion as the basis for society. The Pope and the Catholic Church emerged as the leaders of society and religion as the unifying morality.
Rather than a change in politics, a mini-renaissance occurred during Romanesque period. The study of art, science and culture brought about a change in architectural styling and building materials; increased use of rounded arches and barrel vaults emerged at the same time as the use of metal, enamel, ivory, bronze,…
Interestingly, Dubrofsky reveals how women of color on the Bachelor rarely make it beyond the first few rounds of competition -- and even then only serve as framing devices for the feelings and reactions of the white female contestants. All this means is that reality programming like the Bachelor is as superficial and far-removed from reality as anything can possibly get -- and that it also reinforces negative stereotypes about women, whether of color or not.
3: Is Capitalism Gendered and acialized?
Joan Acker's "Is Capitalism Gendered and acialized?" does not shock me at all, although it takes a look at the different ways "economy" can be conceptualized. Her essay is a bit difficult to process as it uses many abstract concepts to convey a meaning. But her main point seems to be that women provide economic support even if they do not receive payment for it -- which…
Acker, J. (n.d./2009). Is Capitalism Gendered and Racialized? Race, Class, and Gender
(7th Ed.) M. Andersen, (Ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.
Cofer, J. (n.d./2009). The Myth of the Latin Woman: I just met a girl named Maria.
Race, Class, and Gender (7th Ed.) M. Andersen, (Ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.
Dr. David Livingstone seemed to epitomize this view, "These privations, I beg you to observe, are not sacrifices. I think that word ought never to be mentioned in reference to anything we can do for Him….Can that be a sacrifice which is simply paid back as a small part of a great debt owing to our God, which we can never repay… it is a privilege."
With this attitude of sacrifice for the greater glory, and it was certainly that for many who endured pain, pestilence, disease, hunger and bodily harm, also came a certain attitude about modernizing and bringing the native populations into the modern world through Christ. In places as diverse as Hawaii, the Philippines, central Africa, and even the Muslim world, these well-meaning missionaries invariable also brought with them cultural baggage and xenophobia. While wishing to save the population from the fires of Hell through Christianity, there…
Smith, E. (1834). Missionary Researches in Armenia: Including a Journey Through Asia Minor. London, J.S. Hudson. Cited in: http://books.google.com/books?id=-c0NAAAAIAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=Eli+Smith&hl=en&ei=e0Y9TN3FG4rCsAP3xLjaCg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=10&ved=0CFYQ6AEwCQ#v=onepage&q&f=false
Hallote, 2006, p.12.
Williams, J. (1999). The Times of Edward Robinson: Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature.
And modern warfare, although it is less overt, is never-ending and demands constant intelligence-gathering. This kind of flexibility that challenges nations which would often prefer to be fighting 'the last war' they fought, rather than the current one.
During the Cold War, both adversaries 'played by the same rules.' The Soviet Union was even more of a perfect model of an industrialized war society, in which all resources were focused upon defeating its main adversary at the expense of economically providing for its people. But after the dissolution of the bipolar balance of power, non-state actors could openly claim the loyalty of small bands of nationals and co-religionists within the fragmented new world order. Industrialized warfare came into being with the modern nation-state, with its capability of mobilizing large numbers of relatively expendable soldiers. These individuals were organized by a larger, centralized intelligence. Today, given that various non-state cells may…
Smith, Rupert. The Utility of Force: The Art of War in the Modern World. New York: Vintage
The armed activities of resistance or assault committed in these contexts tends to drive a view of Islam as a radical force counterintuitive to the philosophical aims of western capitalism. As Malik (2004) contends on this point, "it is not surprising that islamophobic authors frequently resort to the concept of secularism which they say needs to be defended against an increasing influence of political Islam in Europe." (Malik, 148) It is under this very set of terms that we are given over to a proclivity where the Islamic identity of Bosnia is concerned. Specifically, the secular society in which this Islamic faith has achieved cultural dominance is belied by a brewing discontent in Bosnia.
A history of ethnic tension, a war still fresh in the memories of all inhabitants, and the new infusion of religious exploration produced by the withdrawal of communist authority are having the effect of diversifying and…
Bougeral, X. (?). Bosnian Islam as 'European Islam.' Islam in Europe.
Cesari, J. (2006). When Islam and Democracy Meet: Muslims in Europe and in the United States. Palgrave.
Malik, J. (2004). Muslims in Europe from the Margin to the Centre. Transaction Publishers.
Yavuz, M.H. (2004). Is There a Turkish Islam? There Emergence of Convergence and
Globalization meant that Western values had a presence in almost every corner of the world -- bringing opportunities in some instances, to work for U.S. companies, gain a better education abroad, and improve one's life. Even in China today, as a result of capitalist outreach, a new middle class has emerged. But whether Western values are 'better' or merely more dominant is questionable. Again, there was criticism of international organizations such as the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank, for forcing nations to privatize and engage in economic reforms that were fundamentally Western in nature, not necessarily fundamentally better or keeping with the nation's interests and cultural orientation.
Western dominance has also brought rejection and resentment in many areas of the world, most notably the Islamic world that despises what it sees as the unhealthy secularism and decadence of the West. The attacks on the World Trade Towers, many…
In this encouragement, American would help to touch off something
perhaps all the more miraculous given the proximity to its oppression to
the European peasantry at large. First in the doctrines which would be
formulated in the wake of French independence and secondly in the way that
Napoleon Bonaparte would begin the spread of such doctrines to a continent
driven by inequality, America's revolution could be said to have been the
opening round in the deconstruction of colonialism and feudalism throughout
Europe and thus, the world.
Drafted in the image of the American Declaration of Independence,
though perhaps more ambitious and sweeping even in its trajectories, the
Declaration of the Rights of Men would dictate a universal principle
arguing that all men are born equal and that any distinctions made between
men according to the social conditions must be terms agreed upon by all
parties. The constitutional document underscoring the…
Center for History and New Media (CHNM). (2005). Monarchy Embattled.
George Mason University. Online at
Chew, Robin. (2004). Napoleon I: Emperor of the French. Lucid Caf?.
Online at http://www.lucidcafe.com/library/95aug/napoleon.html.
Locke, John. (2003). Two Treatise of Government, 14th. ed. Cambridge
Tibetan culture and language had always been distinct, yet had always been linked to China -- while the Dali Lama was seen as a worthy one for whom gifts and alms were necessary and the Manchu Emperor was also seen as a revered figure worthy of respect and lay patron, but not a spiritual teacher (Goldstein & Rimpoche 44).
But although it shares some cultural ties and history with China, Tibet today also maintains a distinct cultural, unique identity. Monasticism and the Tibetan Theravada Buddhist tradition in general are integral to Tibetan culture in a way that is anathema to modern, communist China. "During the Cultural Revolution, the Chinese government was responsible for the destruction of more than 6,000 monasteries in Tibet. The contents of these monasteries - religious images and statues - were destroyed or looted, and millions of ancient and priceless manuscripts burnt" (Thurman 9). This hostility continues…
Goldstein, Melvyn C. & Gelek Rimpoche. A History of Modern Tibet, 1913-1951: The Demise of the Lamaist State. Berkley: University of California Press, 1991
Thurman, Robert. No Faith in the State. Free Tibet. December 14, 2008. http://www.freetibet.org/files/NoFaithFINAL.pdf
Waley-Cohen, Joanna. The Sextants of Beijing. New York: W.W. Norton, 2000.
Fueled by massive inflows of foreign direct investment, rising exports, and one of the highest personal savings rates (around 40% of GNP) in the world, this exceptional economic performance has translated into a tripling of per capita incomes. A better material existence is apparent from the provision of food, clothing, and housing for the vast majority of China's 1.3 billion people to the widespread availability of basic consumer durables such as refrigerators, washing machines, and television sets for an increasingly large number of households.: China's growing prosperity was evident by explosive construction throughout the country (Shanghai reportedly has 20% of the world's high-rise construction cranes currently in operation) and by a proliferation of services such as restaurants, fashionable boutiques, movies, and discos in the cities. For the growing and increasingly consumer-oriented middle class, shopping and dressing fashionably is definitely "in." (Ahearn, 1998)
The businesses of China are managed by people…
China's Post-Tiananmen Windfall (2001) Human Events 23 Apr 2001. ProQuest Information and Learning Company.
Gries, Peter Hays (2005) China Eyes the Hegemon. 2005 Published by Elsevier Limited on behalf of Foreign Policy Research Institute. Summer 2005. Online available at http://www.ou.edu/uschina/gries/articles/texts/Gries2005ChinaEyesHegemon.pdf
Larsen, Rick, and Kirk, Mark (2005) Congress and the Updating of the U.S.-China Relationship. The National Bureau of Asian Research. Vol. 16, No. 5 Dec. 2005. Online available at http://www.nbar.org/publications/analysis/pdf/vol16no5.pdf
Boon, Lin, and Tan, Benjamin (2002) Impact of Industrialization on Acculturation of Managers in the Global Marketplace. 1 Jan 2002. Singapore Management Review. Online available at http://www.allbusiness.com/legal/international-law/102407-1.html
A view of this event captures an incredible sea of worshippers flowing like a human river in the footsteps of the prophet Mohammed, who it is said arrived at this spot some 1400 years ago to pay homage to Abraham.
The role of the woman as it is understood through the ritual reenactments are quite different from the unequal stance which is often assumed of Muslim women today, with Hagar and Ishmael given tribute as well. Exiled to the dessert valley that would become Mecca, Hagar would give birth to the numerous Arab peoples, and would be enabled to do so by the salvation of the angel Gabriel. In many ways, this story parallels the matriarchal role of the Madonna to Christianity, who was likewise guided by an angel in a time of crisis. Islam tells that Gabriel was sent down to bring water to Hagar in the desert in…
Pakistan: Hounour Killings of Girls and Women. Amnesty International.Online at http://web.amnesty.org/library/Index/engASA330181999
Al-Uthaimeen, S.M.A. (2006). How to perform the ritiuals of Hajj and Umrah. Princeton University. Online at http://www.princeton.edu/~humcomp/hajjguide.html
BBC. (June 2003). Pakistan's Sharia Law Is Criticized. BBC News. Online at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/2958316.stm .
In the future, though, the influence the U.S. must wield over nations such as Pakistan that are Muslim yet strive to be part of the international community, is likely to be contingent upon the U.S.' recapitulation perceived moral authority as well as its ability to use economic and military carrots and sticks. American influence is also dependant upon the international population's own perceptions of the U.S. As well as these nation's national leaders' rhetorical compliance with U.S. demands for the curtailment and monitoring of terrorist activities. Thus to generate loyalty in the hearts of the people in nations such Pakistan, the U.S. must use soft, rather than hard power. And use this soft power more effectively and seem more morally upstanding a more judicious rather than aggressive use of national force seems essential.
Hess, Charles. "American Foreign Policy," Human Rights and Human elfare. Durham: Duke
University Press, 2004.…
Hess, Charles. "American Foreign Policy," Human Rights and Human Welfare. Durham: Duke
University Press, 2004.
Nye, Joseph S. Soft Power, the Means to Success in World Politics. London: PublicAffairs, Ltd.,
Nye, Joseph, "Soft Power and American Foreign Policy," Political Science Quarterly. 19. 2
These methods are then examined with respect to future events using empirical observations and statistical tools. (History of Economics Society, 25)
It has to be accepted that such a method has been used to arrive at various conclusions. A lot of dedication is required by thinkers to derive the facts out of the information available. This concept of economics is not drawn out of nothing, but it has been derived from facts, and scientists have toiled to put together the casual details into formal approaches. Formal methods reduce the details in a systematic manner and so this is preferred than the informal method. However those is favor of the scientific method were against the formal method and argued that formal methods were not reliable since it was not sure whether the important aspects of the fact would be retained while reducing the information available. (History of Economics Society, 25)
Canterbery, E. Ray. A Brief History of Economics: Artful Approaches to the Dismal
Science. World Scientific. 2001.
History of Economics Society. Complexity and the history of economic thought: Selected
Papers from the... Routledge. 2000.
) They are, in the popular imagination, a peaceful people who spend their time going to church and making preserves, while the rest of us lost our spiritual way, got jobs moving paper around, became obsessed with buying stuff, and watched our families fall apart. (Issenberg, 2004, p. 40).
Today, tourism is second only to agriculture as Pennsylvania's leading industry and Lancaster County accounts for $1.6 billion of the state's $20.5 billion in annual tourism revenue (Goodno, 2004). While the tourism industry in Lancaster County is booming, many observers suggest that unless something is done soon, the Amish will have significant problems in being able to sustain their way of life - and the burgeoning tourism industry -- in the future. Although the Amish are not unique in being reclusive (Paige & Littrell, 2002), they remain the most important tourism element in this region of the country. For example, in…
Boissevain, J. (1996). Coping with tourists: European reactions to mass tourism. Providence, RI: Berghahn Books.
Forsyth, T. (1997). Environmental responsibility and business regulation: The case of sustainable tourism. The Geographical Journal, 163(3), 270.
Friesen, J.W. (2003). Garden spot: Lancaster County, the Old Order Amish, and the selling of rural America. Utopian Studies, 14(1), 274.
Goodno, J.B. (2004, June). Living with tourism: Michael Foley did what many visitors to Maui dream of doing. Planning, 70(6), 16.
The industrialist 19th-century Europeans frequently put this to the difference between private and state-sponsored religion. In 1837, an Austrian visitor to the United States observed:
In America, every clergyman may be said to do business on his own account, and under his own firm. He alone is responsible for any deficiency in the discharge of his office, as he is alone entitled to all the credit due to his exertions. He always acts as principal, and is therefore more anxious, and will make greater efforts to obtain popularity, than one who serves for wages (Powell 1967).
This should be no surprise to those who have seen populations stick to their religions despite sanctions from the state, such as in Poland. At the time of the fall of the erlin Wall, Polish participation in Catholic ceremonies was quite high; after independence and the establishment of an official relationship with the state,…
Asen, R. "The Multiple Mr. Dewey: Multiple Publics and Permeable Borders in John Dewey's Theory of the Public Sphere." Argumentation and Advocacy, 2003: 174-182.
Bazillon, R.J. The Zollverein 1834-1870. Historical Report, Leiden: Leiden University, 2007.
Clout, H.C. "An Historical Geography of Europe 1800-1914." Geographical Review, 1987: 115-117.
Diderot, J. Encyclopedie. Paris: Andre le Breton, 1743.
Despite the political agreement, it did not result in any sustainable resolution due to the fact that while the Sudan People's Liberation Army endorsed the provisions with a clear focus on the self-determination solution, the regime in Khartoum underlined the importance of the unity of the country and the preeminence of the Shari a as the national reference law. Consequently, the peace talks reached a stalemate.
The international community became more actively involved in the negotiations underway in Sudan. In this sense, the involvement of the U.S. is most relevant. The Clinton Administration in particular imposed economic and political sanctions on the regime in Khartoum given the fact that it was the Sudanese state that constantly refused to accept negotiations with its counterparts. Countries in the region as well got involved in the process and supported the ongoing talks through the Intergovernmental Authority for Development. This structure included states such…
Abdelgadier, Osama. God, Oil, and Country: Sudan's Long Road to Peace. Sudan at the Crossroads. 2004. 4 October 2007 http://fletcher.tufts.edu/sudanconference2004/outcomes/Abdelgadier%20Thurs.pdf
Agreement on Wealth Sharing during the Pre-Interim and Interim Period. 2004. 4 October 2007 http://www.usip.org/library/pa/sudan/wealth_sharing_01072004.pdf
BBC. "Country profile: Sudan" BBC World. 2007. 3 October 2007 http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/country_profiles/820864.stm#facts
CIA. The World Factbook. Sudan. 2007. 3 October 2007 < https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/su.html#Intro
As a matter of fact, she seems very open to new ideas and theories, as she was able to discuss my beliefs with me in a very open manner.
Although Carol claims she does not strongly adhere to her original fundamentalist beliefs, she still belongs to the Baptist Church. She raised two children with the husband she found at Bob Jones and her family attended and still attends church together. She disagrees with some of the newly-imposed strictures that the Southern Baptist Convention has handed down, but she has faith in the future of the denomination. She believes that the basic organization of the Baptist Church as a whole is the way that churches should be organized. hen she was a young person, meetings were held in a democratic fashion, using Robert's Rules of Order. Even in the youngest classes of Sunday School. She believes that her parents' strongly protecting…
Armstrong, Karen. The Battle for God. New York: Alfred a. Knopf. 2000.
Jones, Steven. "Fundamentalism." New Religious Movements. July 17, 2001. Website available at http://religiousmovements.lib.virginia.edu/nrms/fund.html .
Pojman, Louis P. "Gilbert Harman's Internalist Moral Relativism," the Modern Schoolman, Vol. 68 (November, 1990), pp. 19-39.
Robinson, B.A. "Eschatology, End Times and Millennialism." Religious Tolerance. 2006. http://www.religioustolerance.org/millenni.htm .
It shows that, contrary to the idea of Islam as a uniquely 'brutal' religion as erroneously depicted the Western media, the current ideology of many activists is the product of modern forces. It disturbs the fundamentalist worldview that their vision has roots in the far past, but also provides a balanced perspective to the idea that such fundamentalist interpretations arise only from the religion's precepts itself and not from social pressures. This current ideologization of Islam has international roots, roots in colonialism, in the Marxist ideology of some of the post-colonial leaders, and also resistance to the state of Israel and the perceived domination of the world by the European powers
Chapter 8 -- Human Rights, Human Dignity and Islam. n Exploration. From Islam: historical, social and political perspectives. Edited by Jacques Waardenberg. New York: de Gryter, 2002.
lthough no state can be forced to sign the 1948 United Nation's…
Although no state can be forced to sign the 1948 United Nation's Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which specify a variety of basic human rights, from children's rights to the rights of workers, there is considerable political pressure for most nations that seek to be recognized as legitimate political entities to do so (163). However, although many Islamic countries seek national legitimacy, there is also often the tendency in the international community to perceive Islam as antithetical to human rights. Within the Islamic community of nations itself, there is also resistance to conforming to any internationally prescribed ideals for fear of Westernizing their principles of Islam. Some nations, such as Saudi Arabia, resisted the Declaration, stating that unlike the principles of God, the principles laid down by an international organization as a moral formula could not last for all time (167). Islamic nations also resisted declarations that threatened polygamy and the prescription against states forbidding individuals to change their religion (168). It should be noted, however, in the Quran, religion under compulsion is strictly forbidden (179). Regardless, falling in line with Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and a number of other Islamic states also showed resistance to the UN Declaration's guarantees of equality for women and other matters (169).
Islam was not the only religion whose leaders showed reluctance to endorse the doctrine. The Roman Catholic Church hesitated, perhaps fearing that some of the declarations might run against its social teachings, although the Jewish community was largely positive in its reception of the Universal Declaration, given the history of the Jewish people when they existed as a minority in many nations. Regardless, the Islamic Council of Europe did seek to delineate a list of human rights, not to rival those of Islam, but to provide political as well as religious guidelines for Islamic nations to protect human rights in keeping with the principles of Islam.
These rights, unlike the rights of the UN Declaration were not defined as essential to the human person but as rights bestowed by God that could be taken away by God. Moreover, the obligation to protect the rights of fellow was not because of the inalienable rights of all human beings, but a duty that human beings owed to God (174). This is keeping with the contractual relationship between human and God that can be traced back to the earliest days of the religion (176). This Declaration by the Islamic Council, like similar declarations of the Vatican, claimed to be both highly particular, in that it took an openly theological, in this case, Islamic view, of humanity, yet proclaimed its universality in terms of the principles it articulated. However, as problematic as the document may be, it is still worth remembering, given how human rights are violated in so many Muslim nations, that even Muslim nations themselves have collectively defined human rights as commensurate rather than antithetical to Islamic principles (181).
The issue remains debatable, but a case can be made that the mainstream judgment was terribly wrong in a cultural sense" (right 17).
Schools and educational institutes play a vital role in teaching religious traditions and imparting knowledge regarding religion. The most important aspect of teaching religion is to adopt proper method of teaching. Avoiding controversial and extremist point-of-views and including positive elements from religious teachings from various religions could help in developing tolerance in the generation that growing in the era when religious violence is at its peak.
Other School of Thought
The other school of thought makes the case against religion when it comes to controlling violence. They argue that it is the religion that encourages violence simple on the basis of religious differences. People belonging to one religion consider them superior to others. Examples of all major religions including Christianity can be given when these religions induced…
Wright, Elliott a. 'Religion in American Education'. Phi Delta Kappan. 81.1. (1999): 17.
Volf, Miroslav. 'More Religion, Less Violence'. The Christian Century. 119. 8. (April 10, 2002): 32.
Bennett, Gary L 'Preventing School Violence: Is Religion the Answer'. Free Inquiry. 19. 4. (Fall 1999): 28.
Vernon, Glenn M. Sociology of Religion. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1982.
But this seems to be an assumption athe than an established fact. Jugensmeye late points out that Abouhalima denies his involvement in the Wold Tade Cente bombing. If so, how can one know that Abouhalima was "disappointed" to see little damage? One can also see assumptions in the wods Jugensmeye uses. Fo example, Jugensmeye wites that Abouhalima "felt fee to talk about the subject of teoism in geneal and teoist incidents of which he was not accused, including the Oklahoma City fedeal building bombing."
Instead of witing, he "was not involved," Jugensmeye says he "he was not accused," as if Abouhalima could be accused of the Oklahoma City bombing.
Instead of making assumptions about Abouhalima, Jugensmeye could have focused on the contadictions in the actions and views of the Islamist militant and his appaent lack of knowledge in Islamic law. Jugensmeye povides evidence fo that by telling the stoy…
references to religious doctrines are almost always abstract and vague. As Jurgensmeyer's discussion of Abouhalima's ideological views demonstrates, Islamists like Abouhalima are not well-versed in Qur'anic studies or other Islamic core texts. It is important to critically examine the views of Abouhalima and other Islamist terrorists and expose their lack of Islamic knowledge and contradictions inherent in their views as this may help in discrediting them in the eyes of most Muslims.
Mark Jurgensmeyer, Terror in the Mind of God: The Global Rise of Religious Violence (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2001), p. 60.
Ibid, p. 61.
Ibid, p. 62.
Ibid, p. 61.
S., when it's clear to any objective bystander that Republicans are the party of big business and corporations. Many claim that those economically disadvantage folk who vote Republican are voting against their own self-interests, opting to elect officials who will lobby against collective bargaining and union benefits. Nevertheless, and despite overwhelming evidence to support that theory, poor people, working class people continue to vote Republican. The reasons for this phenomenon is that liberal/democratic agenda has certain blind spots when it comes to recognizing the needs of real, working class people. The liberal agenda, the democratic agenda, is a "We know what's best for you" agenda. And many individuals recognize this and rebel against it, even if it's at their own peril.
Likewise, supporters of cosmopolitanism carry an air of "we know what's best for you" type attitude. This is destructive because, as with liberalism, it appears haughty to those who…
The Amiens Cathedral, on the other hand, was constructed over a much longer period of time. From beginning to end the Amiens Cathedral's construction took 190 years. As a result of this fact, there is little likelihood that the original plans used to begin the building still existed by the time the building was completed and there is no chance that the individuals responsible for supervising the construction in the beginning were still on hand at its completion. The result is that the Amiens Cathedral does not demonstrate the same uniformity in style that the Salisbury Cathedral does. The differences that exist between the Salisbury and Amiens Cathedrals are ones that exists throughout most of the Cathedrals in Europe. The Salisbury Cathedral tends to be the exception as most of the European Cathedrals demonstrate a severe lack of uniformity in style. The size of these structures and the inherent costs…
Eurocentrism and History Of Amerindians
Eurocentrism and the History of Amerindians
hen Christopher Columbus sailed across the Atlantic and reached the Americas, he was convinced that he actually reached India. Because of his conviction, Columbus dubbed the peoples of the Americas "Indians." It was the beginning of European and later Euro-American myth-making in describing Native Amerindians and the shared histories of peoples who have lived in the American continent for the last five hundred centuries. Columbus was not the first person to come up with myths about Native Americans, but he led an expedition which paved the way for the conquest and exploitation of the Americas (its people and the land). Since Europeans and Euro-Americans who conquered the New orld unjustly murdered and enslaved the indigenous Americans and pillaged their land, historians for the last several centuries, strongly influenced by the values of the society that nurtured them, grappled with…
Jennings, Francis. The Invasion of America: Indians, Colonialism, and the Can't of Conquest. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1975. Print.
Zinn Howard. A People's History of the United States: 1492 -- Present, 20th anniversary edition. New York: Harper Collins, 1999. Print.
pragmatism and analytic philosophy uniquely American movements? What elements of American culture (way of life) connect to why those two movements evolved in the U.S. What ideas make them different from the way Europeans of the same period were thinking?
Pragmatism could be called a kind of anti-philosophy. It stresses 'what works' rather than attempts to provide an overarching theory about the nature of the universe. William James, the founder of American pragmatism called ideas 'road maps,' rather than tools that were valuable in and of themselves. Abstract philosophy could not improve human existence. Pragmatists believed that philosophical ideas were valuable based upon the demonstrated benefit that they have to individuals and society, not as metaphysical abstractions.
The concept of pragmatism was well-suited to the American idea that class was an irrational idea, and that hard work should demonstrate one's merit. Proof was in the 'pudding' or the execution, not…
popular religions in the world, Christianity and Islam, both developed from the same area -- the deserts of the Middle East -- but one existed for several centuries prior the beginning of the other. Christianity, the older of the two religions, was started by the followers of Jesus Christ, himself a Jew who lived and died in present day Israel (Latourette, 1975). Most of the early growth of Christianity was among the Jews but as the Jewish leaders began to persecute the early Christians the Christians began to scatter throughout the oman Empire in order to avoid these persecutions. For the next several hundred years Christianity enjoyed steady growth until Emperor Constantine legally approved the right to practice the religion. Following such recognition, Christianity grew geometrically and, eventually, it became to dominate both the secular and religious affairs on the continent of Europe. When the European powers began to expand…
Cesari, J. (2006). European Muslims and the Secular State. Surrey, UK: Ashgate Publishing Company.
Latourette, K.S. (1975). A History of Christianity, Volume 1: Beginnings to 1500. New York: HarperOne.
Liu, X. (2011). A Silk Road Legacy: The Spread of Buddhism and Islam. Journal of World History, 55-81.
Mayr-Harting, H. (1996). Charlemagne, the Saxons, and the Imperial Coronation of 800. The English Historical Review, 1113-1133.
Cold ar has brought renewed interest in civilizations as a source of identity and conflict. The Cold ar had allowed the world to be divided into two distinct camps: one directed by Communist philosophy and the other directed by democratic ideals. This division often resulted in considerable conflict but at least everyone occupied a definable position. All this changed, however, with the collapse of the Soviet Union.
The collapse of Communism presented the possibility of a more peaceful world. Gone was the constant state of tension between the two ideologies. Democracy was now the prevailing political ideology and the door was open for the growing trend toward globalization to progress in earnest. This feeling of euphoria, however, was short-lived and new barriers soon emerged to construct new walls and barriers between the various worlds' nation-states.
In some cases actual walls have been constructed such as the proposed wall between the…
Eksteins, Modris. Rites of Spring: The Great War and the Birth of the Modern Age. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1989.
Huntington, Samuel. The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of the World Order. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1996.
Lewis, Bernard. What Went Wrong?: Western Impact and Middle Eastern Response. New York:
Oxford University Press, 2001.
To wit, "half of Americans deem religion very important in their lives; fewer than a quarter in Spain (22%) feel this way, and in Germany (21%), Britain (17%) and France (13%), even fewer say religion is "very important" to their lives (PE).
Fifty-three percent of Americans are more apt to agree that it is vital to believe in God prior to having good morals and values while just 33% of Germans, 20% of the British, 19% of Spaniards and 15% of those in France agree with that statement. omen and the elderly are more apt to agree that God is indeed the "necessary foundation for morality and good values" (PE). Fifty-nine percent of American women say religion is "very important" to them but only 41% of American men agree with that statement (PE).
Meanwhile, in the Journal of Beliefs and Values (illiams, et al., 2009) the authors point out that…
Adams, James, and Ezrow, Lawrence. (2009). Who Do European Parties Represent? How
Western European Parties Represent the Policy Preferences of Opinion Leaders. The Journal
of Politics, 71(1), 206-223.
Bernstein, Elizabeth, and Jakobsen, Janet R. (2010). Sex, Secularism and Religious Influence
In both cases, He "is an impersonal force; an indefinable, all-pervading deity. Hinduism recognizes hundreds, even thousands, of lesser gods." (Evangelical.us) the same is true in uddhism, "God is an abstract. In essence, uddhism is an atheistic philosophy." (Evangelical.us) in both Hinduism and uddhism, there are stories of how the divine interacts with humans, but there is no historical proof. Only Christianity has historical proof. Since I am not Asian, I naturally want historical evidence, and I naturally want to follow a religion with a real God who cares about me as a person. Hinduists and uddhists have no sense of self-worth in the scope of the universe. "Humans, as with all living things, are just manifestations of rahman. We have no individual self, or self-worth. The world and everything on it are manifestations of rahman. Sin is committed against oneself, not against God." (Contender Ministries) This idea is opposite…
Christian Response to Hinduism." Apologetics. Contender Ministries. http://www.contenderministries.org/hinduism/christianresponse.php
Comparitive Religions & Christianity." Bibleone.net. 2004. http://www.bibleone.net/print_SF3.html brief comparison of Mohammed to the founders and leading figures of other major religions."
Support the Fight to Acheive Freedom, Secularism, Human Rights and Democracy in Iran. http://www.pcpages.com/ani/pages/isl/moh-comp.htm
How do we know Christianity is the one true way? http://www.evangelical.us/is-christianity-true.html
These settlements make sure that the state of fragmentation and insecurity of the Palestinians continues and thereby hinders the economic, social and political development of the Palestinians. The total number of such settlements in the West bank, Jerusalem and the Gaza strip are 205, with the vast majority of them in West bank and Jerusalem. "These settlements have led to the more than 403,249 settlers in the West bank and Jerusalem itself." (Israeli Settlements on Occupied Palestinian Territories) Israel continues to expand the number of these settlements from time to time as well as the bypass roads connecting them. These new bypass roads as well as the expansions to the existing bypass roads add to the disruption of the Palestine economy, autonomy and society.
The Israeli settlements also have a negative impact on the access of the Palestinians to natural resources like water and arable land. This problem is likely…
Definition of Zionism." Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved at http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Zionism/zionism.html . Accessed on February 16, 2005
Boling, J. Gail. (January 2001) "Palestinian Refugees and the Right of Return: An International Law Analysis" Retrieved at http://www.badil.org/Publications/Briefs/Brief-No-08.htm Accessed on February 17, 2005
Israeli Settlements on Occupied Palestinian Territories." The Palestine Monitor.
Retrieved at http://www.palestinemonitor.org/factsheet/settlement.html . Accessed on Isseroff, Ami. "Israel and Palestine: A Brief History." MidEastWeb. Retrieved at http://www.mideastweb.org/briefhistory.htm . Accessed on February 16, 2005