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Explain companies held liable losses sustained a successful attack made accounting information system sources. The paper APA style includes -text citations sources.
Liability for losses in successful attack made on their accounting information system
"One of the fastest-growing threats on the Internet is the theft of sensitive financial data" (Beard & Wen 2007). The greater the amount of sensitive financial data available online, the greater the risk for the organization. "Failure to include basic information security unwittingly creates significant business and professional risks...With the expansion of computer technology, traditional business processes have been restructured and unique internal control techniques are required to address exposure to many new dangers" (Beard & Wen 2007).
New laws have placed additional security burdens upon managers, regarding the handling of sensitive financial data. "Management's responsibilities include the documentation, testing, and assessment of internal controls, including relevant general IT controls...and appropriate application-level controls designed…
Beard, Deborah & H. Joseph Wen. (2007). Reducing the threat levels for accounting information
Systems: Challenges for management, accountants, auditors, and academicians.
CPA Journal. Retrieved: http://www.nysscpa.org/cpajournal/2007/507/essentials/p34.htm
Clifford, Robert. (2002). Accountant's liability. Clifford Law Firm.
security threat is a potential happening that may have an undesirable effect on the system, its resources, or the organization as a whole. Vulnerability is the weakness that makes it possible for the threat to occur. There are a number of threats that can occur on a system, and are usually grouped together since some overlap.
Errors and Omissions -- Data entry, data verification, programming bugs.
Fraud and Theft -- kimming and/or controlling access to the system for profit.
Employee (or Outside) sabotage -- Destroying information or planting viruses, stealing proprietary data or customer information, etc. (NIT, 2012).
imilarly, there are a number of losses that can occur based on threat and vulnerability; some more serious than others, and all somewhat dependent on the type of organization under analysis. For instance, a bank's security loss might be different than an academic institution's, but both are a data loss. Losses may…
Best Practice for Computer Security. (2011). Indiana University Information Technology Services. Retrieved from: http://kb.iu.edu/data/akln.html#polp
Bishop, M. (2003). Computer Security: Art and Science. Boston, MA: Pearson Education.
Brenner, S. (2010). Cybercrime. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.
Kassner, M. (2009, August). 10 Ways to Detect Malware. TechRepublic. Retrieved from: http://www.techrepublic.com/blog/10things/10-ways-to-detect-computer-malware/970
Global concerns: Russia, missile shields and cyberterrorism
Thus domestic concerns such as internal instability and even energy scarcity have global repercussions that affect NATO nations. That is why, despite the end of the Cold ar, tensions between NATO member and non-member nations remain bubbling so close to the surface. It has not been forgotten by the Russian leadership that NATO was founded to address the security concerns raised by the now-defunct institutions of the Soviet Union and the arsaw Pact. Fears of 'Star ars' shield defense systems were reignited in March when Secretary General Rasmussen, warning of the "looming threat of weapons of mass destruction," made a case for a missile shield system for all NATO alliance states against "unconventional weapons and the missiles that [they] could carry…Should Iran produce intermediate- and intercontinental-range missiles…the whole of the European continent, as well as all of Russia would be in range," he…
Brunnstrom, David. "Missile Defense Needed Against Growing Threat, NATO Chief Says."
Reuters. March 26, 2009. May 14, 2010.
Fedynsky, Peter. "NATO to Transfer Security Tasks to Afghan Government." Global Security.
Controls Reduce Security Threats
Technology is only a part of the measures it takes to produce a strong, secure information system. Well written security policies can lay the ground work and tell employees what is mandated and required to protect the information system. Remote access should be a part of the security policy to control who does what and what they are allowed to access in the system. Setting standards for the types of devices that are allowed to access the system is equally important.
"Without an effective security policy that addresses procedures, mitigation strategies, and periodic training, all other security programs will be less successful." (Welander, 2007) Technology alone will not protect the information system of the business. Employees need to be trained on the security standards that are set for the company. No matter how secure the system is, employees can let intruders in just by checking personal…
CompTecDoc. (n.d.). Retrieved from Security Policies: http://www.comptechdoc.org/idependence/security/policies/security-policies.html
Welander, P. (2007, Apr 01). 10 Control System Security Threats. Retrieved from Controleng.com: http://ciip.wordpress.com/2009/05/25/top-10-scada-security-threats
Non-Traditional Security Threats and the EU
Weapons of Mass Destruction and Nuclear Threat
Non-Traditional Security Threats and the EU
Due to the discontentment with the conventional concepts of security, the research schedule based on these conventional concepts, associated theoretical debates and their impact on policy, have given rise to the idea of non-traditional security. In the present era, it is universally acknowledged that security possesses multifaceted characteristics. Growing from the components of military and political units of the days of the Cold War, it has presently come to achieve new magnitude i.e. which is composed of economic, social, environmental based and educational oriented. These are not brought together under the military characteristics of security and they encompass a whole lot, ranging from macroeconomic equilibrium to environmental based.
Non-traditional security risks like extremism or terrorist activities, weapons which lead to mass destruction,…
Burgess, John. (2004) EU Taking Up Terrorism Issues: Security Officials Try to Forge Europe-Wide Response After Attacks. Washington Post Foreign Service. March 20; p. A13
Black, Ian. (2004) EU faces Nuclear Terror Threat. The Guardian. May 5. p.5
Buzan, Barry. (1991) People, States and Fear: National Security Problem in International Relations. Longman Publishers.
Desertification/Land degradation. European Environment Agency, 2001
2015, President Obama outlined a set of core national security objectives that included references to ISIL, climate change, and even social justice, all covered in the National Security Strategy. The direction the new administration takes is likely to shift some of the main national security objectives and strategies, while still addressing some of the aforementioned crucial issues. It is a futile attempt to narrow down the range of national security threats to one particular issue, as all present clear and present dangers. Some threats like terrorism and cybercrime are bound to remain ongoing and almost impossible to eliminate entirely; others like climate change, nuclear proliferation, and ISIL have the potential to be contained with the cooperation of global allies. However, one issue continues to boil beneath the surface of all other threats and only recently came to light with renewed media attention: the potential for nuclear war.
A year prior…
Clapper, James R., 2016. Statement for the Record: Worldwide Threat Assessment of the US Intelligence Community. Retrieved online: https://www.intelligence.senate.gov/sites/default/files/wwt2016.pdf
McCurry, Justin, 2017. "North Korea warns 'thermonuclear war could break out at any moment' The Guardian. Retrieved online: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/apr/17/north-korea-war-break-out-any-moment-donald-trump-v
President of the United States, 2016. National Security Strategy. Retrieved online: http://nssarchive.us/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/2015.pdf
There are many types of IT security breaches. There's malware, ransomware, theft of sensitive information, DDoS attacks...the list goes on. The reason that these threats exist is simple -- there's money in it. ansomware is used to get quick payment from companies, and stolen information can be sold on the dark web. But what companies need to know is that most cyberattacks rely on somebody within the company making a mistake, for the criminals to get the access they need. So training is key to preventing cybercrime. This isn't something that happens randomly -- companies are often specifically targeted, with criminals focused on key vulnerabilities that can be exploited (amanan, 2015).
Slide 2: There are a few things that companies can do to prevent cybercrime. It starts with awareness at the highest levels of the company. Two reasons for this -- first off top official need to prioritize…
Kaspersky Lab (2016) The threats from within. Kaspersky Lab. Retrieved December 6, 2016 from http://go.kaspersky.com/rs/802-IJN-240/images/Threats-From-Within-EDU-Ebook%20FINAL.pdf
Ramanan, S. (2015). Top 10 security breaches of 2015. Forbes. Retrieved December 6, 2016 from http://www.forbes.com/sites/quora/2015/12/31/the-top-10-security-breaches-of-2015/#33dcef67694f
These different elements show the overall nature of possible threats that could be facing a variety of organizations and how to mitigate them. This is important, because given the rapid changes in technology and the way various threats could occur, requires all entities to be watchful of different situations. Where, those who implement such strategies will be able to adapt to the various challenges that they are facing in the future; by understanding the nature of the threat and how to address it. Over the course of time, this will help to keep an organization flexible in addressing the various security issues, as the approach will require everyone to remain watchful and understand new threats that could be emerging. This will prevent different weakness from being exploited, by knowing where they are and then fixing them.
Safety, Security, and Physical Plant Systems. (n.d.)
eaver, K. (2010). Introduction to Ethical…
Safety, Security, and Physical Plant Systems. (n.d.)
Beaver, K. (2010). Introduction to Ethical Hacking. Hacking for Dummies. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. 11.
Gallagher, M (2008). Security Tools and Methods. Cyber Security. Cheltenham: Elger. 45 -- 46.
Meyers, M. (2007). Malicious Software. Mike Myers A + Guide. San Francisco, CA: McGraw Hill. 18.
To offer an information security awareness training curriculum framework to promote consistency across government (15).
Security awareness is needed to ensure the overall security of the information infrastructure. Security awareness programs is the can help organizations communicate their security information policies, as well as tips for users, to help keep systems secure, and the practices the entire organization should be utilizing. However, as Kolb and Abdullah reiterate, "security awareness is not about training but rather designed to change employee behavior" (105).
A program concerning security awareness should work in conjunction with the information technology software and hardware JCS utilizes. In this way, it mitigates the risks and threats to the organization. Security awareness is a defensive layer to the information system's overall security structure. Although not a training program, per se, security awareness does provide education to the end users at JCS, regarding the information security threats the organization faces,…
"An Introduction to Computer Security: The NIST Handbook." National Institute of Standards and Technology, SP 800-12, (Oct 1995). Web. 24 Oct 2010.
Anti-virus Guidelines. The SANS Institute, 2006. Web. 24 Oct, 2010.
Culnan, M., Foxman, E., & Ray, A. "Why IT Executives Should Help Employees Secure their Home Computers." MIS Quarterly Executive 7.1 (2008): 49-56. Print.
Desktop Security Policies. The SANS Institute, 2006. Web. 24 Oct, 2010.
The most appropriate products that could be used by MMC to achieve this objective would be: IP San and a Snap Lock. An IP San is a fiber optic channel that can provide secure real time data to each location. Where, software and security applications can be adapted to the current system that is being used. The Snap Lock is: a security software that can be used to provide an effective way for each location to retrieve, update and change information.
Support for why these procedures and products are the optimal approach for this organization
The reason why these different procedures and products were selected was: to reduce the overall risk exposure of the company's external threats. The current system that is being used by MMC increases risks dramatically, by having a number of different systems, where financial information is stored. If any one of these systems is vulnerable, there…
IP San (2010). Retrieved May 27, 2010 from Net App website: http://www.netapp.com/us/products/protocols/ip-san/ip-san.html
Snap Lock Compliance and Snap Lock Enterprise Software. (2010). Retrieved May 27, 2010 from Net App website: http://www.netapp.com/us/products/protection-software/snaplock.html
Mason, J. (2010). How to Bullet Proof Your DR Plan. Retrieved May 27, 2010 from Net App website: http://www.netapp.com/us/communities/tech-ontap/tot-data-recovery-plan-0908.html
This researcher rejects the existence of online communities because computer mediated group discussions cannot possibly meet this definition. Weinreich's view is that anyone with even a basic knowledge of sociology understands that information exchange in no way constitutes a community.
For a cyber-place with an associated computer mediated group to be labeled as a virtual settlement it is necessary for it to meet a minimum set of conditions. These are: (1) a minimum level of interactivity; (2) a variety of communicators; (3) a minimum level of sustained membership; and (4) a virtual common-public-space where a significant portion of interactive computer mediated groups occur (Weinreich, 1997). The notion of interactivity will be shown to be central to virtual settlements. Further, it will be shown that virtual settlements can be defined as a cyber-place that is symbolically delineated by topic of interest and within which a significant proportion of interrelated interactive computer…
Al-Saggaf, Y. & Williamson, K. Online Communities in Saudi Arabia: Evaluating the Impact on Culture Through Online Semi-Structured Interviews. Volume 5,
No. 3, Art. 24 - September 2004
AnchorDesk Staff. (2000). Sign of Trouble: The Problem with E-Signatures.
Retrieved April 9, 2005, from ZDNet AnchorDesk Web site: http://reivews- zdnet.com.com/AnchorDesk/4630-6033_4204767.html?tag=print
Security Plan: Pixel Inc.
About Pixel Inc.
We are a 100-person strong business dedicated to the production of media, most specifically short animations, for advertising clients worldwide. Our personnel include marketing specialists, visual designers, video editors, and other creative staff.
This security plan encompasses the general and pragmatic characteristics of the security risks expected for our business and the specific actions that aim to, first and foremost, minimize such risks, and, if that's not possible, mitigate any damage should a breach in security happen.
The measures to be taken and the assigned responsibilities stated in this document apply to all the departments that make up the company. Exemptions can be given but will be only under the prerogative of the CEO under the consultation of the Chief Security Officer that will be formally assigned after the finalization of this document. Otherwise, there will be no exception to the security…
Internet Securit Alliance. (2004). Common sense guide to cyber security for small businesses. Retrieved from: http://www.ready.gov/business/_downloads/CSG-small-business.pdf .
Microsoft. (2004). Step-by-step guide to securing Windows XP Professional in Small Businesses. Retrieved from: http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/en/details.aspx?FamilyID=9faba6ed-2e9c-44f9-bc50-d43d57e17078 .
Noriega, L. (24 May 2011). Seven Cyber Security Basics Every Small Business Needs. Retrieved from: http://www.openforum.com/articles/7-cyber-security-basics-every-small-business-needs .
Teixeira, R. (4 June 2007). Top Five Small Business Internet Securit Threats. Retrieved from: http://smallbiztrends.com/2007/06/top-five-small-business-internet-security-threats.html .
Uncertainty in regards to individual activities within a large student population is always a cause for concern. It is difficult to govern or even deter the questionable activities of a predominately young student population. This problem is exacerbated due to the rebellious nature of young students in regards to politics, social interactions, student programing and more. Public news often comes from universities with questionable activities such as fraternity hazing, supporting controversial leaders, and more. This behavior is what makes a university campus and atmosphere so unique relative to other educational venues. The university can foster these activities while being sensitive to others personal beliefs. Unforeseen circumstances are common place however on university campuses with such unique activities, beliefs, and behaviors. The magnitude and scope of these incidents often varies. As such, proper training is essential in alleviating the concerns garnered by unforeseen circumstances (Bruce, 2009).
To begin, it is…
1) Bruce Schneier, (2009) Beyond Fear: Thinking Sensibly about Security in an Uncertain World, Copernicus Books, pages 6-27
2) OSPA. "The Operations Security Professional's Association- OPSEC Training, tools and Awareness." Opsecprofessionals.org. Retrieved 2013-05-30.
Security and Baseline Anomalies
Base lining is the performance of measuring and evaluation the presentation of a network in instantaneous situations. Provision of a network baseline calls for quizzing and reporting of physical connectivity, throughout the range of network usage. Such in-detailed network scrutiny is required in identifying problems associated with speed, accessibility, and finding vulnerabilities within the network. Predefined security settings are put in place to manage large security networks. These settings can be applied on a number of similar computers in a network. Settings and templates helps to reduce the occurrence of errors and omissions and this also helps in securing the servers.
How to obtain a baseline system
A baseline system of network behavior can be obtained through sub-netting a network. This entails dividing a network into smaller networks through a series of routers. Routers help to improve the security of the sub-nets by regulating the users…
This leaves those clients that are inside unsupervised while the guard is outside. There is also a lack of signage inside displaying rules and regulations along with directions. This propagates a lot of unnecessary questions being asked of the surety officer on duty. In order to alleviate these issues it would be essential to place distinct parking signage outside in order to help facilitate clients parking in the correct spaces. It is also necessary to place directional signage within the facility along with general rules and policies. All of these signs together would cost approximately $1,000 to install.
The last security issue that needs to be addressed is that of the security information processes that is in place. As each client arrives at the facility, their license plate numbers are recorded and they are then assigned a number. They are seen by the appropriate medical personnel based upon the order…
Conducting a Security Assessment. (2009). Retrieved May 25, 2009, from Processor Web site:
How to Conduct an Operations Security Assessment. (2009). Retrieved May 25, 2009, from eHow.com Web site: http://www.ehow.com/how_2060197_conduct-operations-security-assessment.html
Methadone Maintenance Treatment. (2009). Retrieved May 25, 2009, from Drug Policy Alliance
Many states, such as Virginia, are training private security officers in order to ensure smooth cooperation and coordination between security companies without police powers and the police and sheriff's departments. In Washington D.C., the municipal police department requires private security officers to be licensed as "special police" officers in order to legally search or arrest people. Cooperation can reach significant proportions, as in the case of the Minneapolis Police Department's "SafeZone" program, which place private security officers downtown who now outnumber Minneapolis Police Department officers there 13 to 1.
4. Industries and organizations that use special and/or commissioned officers and for what purposes
a. There is a truly broad range of industries and organizations which use special police officers. These organizations tend to have significant financial resources, large premises, and sensitive security needs which they believe cannot be met by the existing public police force. These often involve the need…
Amy Goldstein, Washington Post, the Private Arm of the Law January 2, 2007
However, this still relatively young application of internet technology does come with a wide array of security concerns that highlight the ethical and legal responsibilities facing these handlers of sensitive information.
ith identify theft and hacking of open source network activities real threats in the internet age, it is increasingly important for online shoppers bankers to be aware of the risks and for online financial institutions to be armed to protect against them.
For the banking industry, which has gone to considerable lengths to continually upgrade security measures, this presents a demand which is simultaneously economic and ethical. Indeed, the transition of users from traditional to online banking methods will be a shift "resulting in considerable savings in operating costs for banks." (Sathye, 325) This highlights the nature of it risks for all companies, which must balance security concerns with the financial optimization often associated with such change.
CMU. 2003. Risk Management. Carnegie Mellon University: Software Engineering Institute. Online at http://www.sei.cmu.edu/risk/index.html
Comptroller of the Current, Administrator of National Banks (CoC). (2005). Authentication in an Internet Banking Environment. Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. Online at .
Sathye, M. (1999). Adoption of Internet Banking by Australian Consumers: An Empirical Investigation. International Journal of Bank Marketing, 17(7), 324-334.
Stoneburner, G; Goguen, a. & Feringa, a. (2002). Risk Management Guide for Information Technology Systems. NIST 800-30.
Even though there is always some form of a risk involved in the coding technique together with the deployment methods of a website, some technologies such as PHP and MySQL form some of the worst aggravators of online website security. The loopholes that exists in the use of these technologies results in some of the worst hack attacks and security breaches ever experienced in the field of web design. The internet is bustling with a lot of activities. Some of the activities that are officiated over the internet are very sensitive due to both the nature of the information exchanged or even the information stored in the database.
It is paramount that websites be provided with secure and personalized databases. One inevitable fact however is that once a site is deployed on the internet, it becomes a resource to be accessed by everyone as postulated by Kabir
Secure website development…
Bloch, M (2004). "PHP/MySQL Tutorial - Introduction." ThinkHost. .
Friedl, J (2002). Mastering Regular Expressions, Second Edition. Sebastopol, CA: O'Reilly & Associates Inc., 2002.
Kabir, MJ (2003) Secure PHP Development: Building 50 Practical Applications.
Indianapolis, in: Wiley Publishing, Inc.
Security: Mobile Protection
As the Internet has become the dominant means of communicating, sharing information, tending to business, storing data, and maintaining records in the Digital Age, the importance of security for the digital world has become more and more realized (Zhang et al., 2017). Not only do companies have to invest in digital security in order to safeguard against threats and risks such as hacking or malware, but individuals also have to be cognizant of the threats to their personal information and property now that all things are online. This is particularly important for people to consider given that so many individuals today carry around pocket computers in the form of a mobile phone—an iPhone, a smart phone, a tablet, an iPad—all of these devices require mobile protection as they can link up to and connect to the Internet wherever one goes (so long as one is within range…
Security and Safety in the Lodging Industry: The Use of CCTV Cameras and Proper Lighting
Security and Safety in the Lodging Industry
In the past, when an individual needed to access a lodging facility, they would only be torn between two things: food and the space. Today, however, security has become so much of a concern that clients first have to find out how secure the environment is and the safety equipment a lodging facility uses in order to determine how safe they will be during their brief stay. Hotels and lodges have to determine the most effective safety procedures and equipment to apply. The staff at Berryworth Inns cannot decide whether to install CCTV cameras or improve the hotel lighting. Gerald opines that CCTV will be more effective in deterring criminal activity, while according to Frank, the more lights there are, the fewer the criminals that will likely invade…
Cathy, A. (2002). The Safety and Security of U.S. Hotels. A Post-September 11 Report. The Cornell University Library. Retrieved 20 March 2015 from https://www.hotelschool.cornell.edu/research/chr/pubs/reports/abstract-13616.html
XXX- Book sent as resource
To the extent a broad security agenda appropriately includes a concern over energy resources, that concern must address issues of consumption patterns, lifestyle habits, and insufficient development of alternative energy sources and processes. By contrast, direct population control such as through mandatory restrictions against having children represents a simplistic and unproductive approach to the problem that, in addition, is violative of fundamental human rights and autonomy of individuals and families to decide for themselves how large a family to have.
Furthermore, in terms of security, the real issue in the realm of energy and natural resources relates not to their overuse but to their deliberate disruption or destruction for terrorist or criminal purposes. Typical examples would include recently publicized cases of individuals who attempted to profit from oil and natural gas futures by puncturing pipelines located in remote areas to drive up prices in conjunction with coordinated efforts to pre-purchase…
"Government representatives are responsive to and reliant upon feedback and suggestions from their constituents" and "the most direct way of impacting a legislator is through a letter-writing campaign. The more letters a legislator receives, the more important the issue becomes" (Keene State College Advocates, 2011).
One of the emerging threats that is now a more commonplace threat is that of cyber security. With technology advancing at a rapid rate, it seems that security is sometimes overlooked. Our society is well-versed in how hackers can hack into e-mail, social networking sites and bank accounts but it is absolutely something that the public needs to be more cautious of. A way to combat cyber threats would be to make sure that the computer is completely secure and use common sense when it comes to certain online transactions. People should band together and use one place to reveal the scams that they may…
Garcia, Mary Lynn. (1997). Emerging threats. Retrieved from http://engr.nmsu.edu/~etti/fall97/security/mlgarcia.html
Keene State College Advocates. (2011, March 09). Write to your legislator. Retrieved from http://kscadvocates.org/write-to-your-legislator/
" (Muntenu, 2004)
According to Muntenu (2004) "It is almost impossible for a security analyst with only technical background to quantify security risk for intangible assets. He can perform a quantitative or qualitative evaluation using dedicated software to improve the security of the information systems, but not a complete risk assessment for the whole information system. Qualitative assessment based on questionnaires use in fact statistical quantitative methods to obtain results. Statistical estimation represents the basis for quantitative models." Muntenu states conclusion that in each of these approaches the "moral hazard of the analyst has influence on the results because human nature is subjective. He must use a sliding window approach according to business and information systems features, balancing from qualitative to quantitative assessment." (2004) qualitative study of information systems security is reported in a study conducted in U.S. academic institutions in the work of Steffani a. urd, Principal Investigator for…
Burd, Steffani a. (2006) Impact of Information Security in Academic Institutions on Public Safety and Security: Assessing the Impact and Developing Solutions for Policy and Practice. Final Report." NCJ 215953, United States Department of Justice. National Institute of Justice, Oct 2006.
Muntenu, Adrian (2004) Managing Information in the Digital Economy: Issues & Solutions Information Security Risk Assessment: The Qualitative vs. Quantitative Dilemma
Full text PDF: http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/215953.pdfMunteanu , Adrian (2004) the Information Security Risk Assessment: The Qualitative vs. Quantitative Dilemma. Managing Information in the Digital Economy: Issues & Solutions.
Physical vulnerabilities, such as users who leave their systems running while still logged in can also create security concerns, even in the case of a secure system. hile systems should have automatic log-outs after a specific period of time, it is impossible for a system to be totally secure if it is being used by an employee who does not follow proper security protocols.
Question 4: Identify five (5) important documentation types necessary for the assessment and explain why they are important.
Network-based testing tests "components of application vulnerability assessment, host vulnerability assessment, and security best practices" ("Security assessment questionnaire," CMU, 2011). It is used to "assess the ease with which any outsider could exploit publicly available information or social engineering to gain unauthorized access" from the internet or intranet due to weak encryption, authentication, and other vulnerabilities ("Security assessment questionnaire," CMU, 2011).
Host-based assessment evaluates the "the health and…
Brandt, Andrew. "How to stop operating system attacks." 2009. PC World. [1 Nov 2011]
"Security assessment questionnaire." Carnegie Mellon University. [1 Nov 2011]
Retrieved November 1, 2011 at http://www.cmu.edu/iso/service/sec-assess/Assessment%20Questionnaire.doc
Tracking normal activity patterns of users is essential to enable abnormal activity to be flagged. Also, unintentional user errors such as logging onto unsecure websites and opening up potentially infected documents must be flagged. Sending an email from an odd-looking address and seeing if employees open the email is one way to gage the relative wariness of employees. If employees open up the email, it staff can include a message warning them that this is just the kind of message employees should delete.
Creating 'backdoor' threats and viruses to attack a system, and see if it is vulnerable is one potential 'fire drill' that can be used by the organization to assess potential areas that can be compromised. General assessments of the knowledge of non-it and it staff of proper security procedures and the areas which can pose new threats are also essential.
Simple systematic procedures, such as requiring employees…
IT Security Plan
The technological advances that have been witnessed in the past twenty to thirty years, has placed a tremendous emphasis on data and information. Computers have changed the world in many facets and the ability to communicate and perform work have been greatly assisted by the digital age. Along with these new found powers, there exists also new found threats. The ability to protect these investments and resources of an informational matter, has produced new sciences and approaches to accomplishing such a task.
The purpose of this essay is to discuss and analyze how to establish an information security program to protect organizational information. This essay will address the specific guidelines and elements that compose such a program and explore ways in which these methods can be exploited for the fullest possible benefit. Specific guidelines will be discussed however this is a general overview of a program and…
Bulling, D., Scalora, M. Borum, R. Panuzio, J., and Donica, A. (2008, July). Behavioral science guidelines for assessing insider threat attacks. Public Policy Center, University of Nebraska. Retrieved from http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1036&context=publicpolicypublications
Boscolo, C. (2008). How to implement network access control. Computerweekly, November 2008 . Retrieved from http://www.computerweekly.com/opinion/How-to-implement-network-access-control
Durbin, S. (2013). Security Think Tank: ISF's top security threats for 2014. Computerweekly, Dec 2013. Retrieved from http://www.computerweekly.com/opinion/Security-Think-Tank-ISFs-top-security-threats-for-2014
Grimes, R. (2012). IT's 9 biggest security threats. Infoworld, 27 Aug 2012. Retrieved from http://www.infoworld.com/d/security/its-9-biggest-security-threats-200828
Information System Security Plan
The information security system is required to ensure the security of the business process and make the confidential data of the organization secure. The organization's management is required to analyze the appropriate system to be implemented and evaluate the service provided on the basis of their required needs. The implementation of the system requires the compliance of organizational policies with the service provider to ensure the maximum efficiency of the system. The continuous update and maintenance of the system is required to ensure the invulnerability of the system towards the potential internal and external threats.
Data Security Manager and Coordinator
Evaluate Service Providers
Change Passwords Periodically
estricted access to personal information
Safeguard paper records
eport unauthorized use of customer information
Terminated Employees 1
3. External isks 1
3.1 Firewall Protection 1
3.2 Data Encryption 1
Baskerville, R., & Siponen, M. (2002).An information security meta-policy for emergent organizations.Logistics Information Management, 15(5/6), 337-346.
Dlamini, M.T., Eloff, J.H., & Eloff, M.M. (2009). Information security: The moving target. Computers & Security, 28(3), 189-198.
Dhillon, G., & Backhouse, J. (2000). Technical opinion: Information system security management in the new millennium. Communications of the ACM, 43(7), 125-128.
Jain, A.K., Ross, A., & Pankanti, S. (2006). Biometrics: a tool for information security. Information Forensics and Security, IEEE Transactions on, 1(2), 125-143.
air cargo industry experienced tremendous growth since inception because of various factors in the aviation industry, particularly the freight sector. The growth and development of this industry is evident in its current significance on the freight sector. Moreover, this industry currently accounts for huge profitability in the freight sector because of increased shipping of various packages across the globe. This increased shipping is fueled by increased interconnectedness of people and countries due to rapid technological factors.
However, the industry has experienced tremendous challenges and concerns in relation to security because of the increase of security issues and emergence of new security threats throughout the world. Some of the major security challenges or issues facing the air cargo industry include terrorism, hijacking threat, vulnerability to security breaches, and probable introduction of explosive devices. These security threats are largely brought by the development of sophisticated tools and means for criminal activities by…
"Bilateral and Regulatory Issues Facing the Air Cargo Industry." (n.d.). Chapter 6. Retrieved
April 17, 2015, from http://www.aci-na.org/sites/default/files/chapter_6_-_bilateral_and_regulatory_issues.pdf
Elias, B. (2010, December 2). Screening and Securing Air Cargo: Background and Issues for Congress. Retrieved April 17, 2015, from http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/homesec/R41515.pdf
"Evaluation of Screening of Air Cargo Transported on Passenger Aircraft." (2010, September).
Countermeasures After 911
Without a doubt, September 11th changed a tremendous amount about how we live and about how safe (and unsafe) we feel. These attacks caused enormous changes and countermeasures regarding the way we travel and the way we interact with one another and the way in which we use technology. However, ever since the ten-year anniversary of 9/11 has come and gone, it begs to determine just how much we've changed in the way that we live, examining specific areas of technology, commerce and communication. Consider the following: "In spite of a doubling of the intelligence budget since 2001 to $80 billion, the creation or reorganizing of some 263 government organizations, and the formation of the $50 billion Department of Homeland Security, the government has largely fallen short, the new report notes. The report states that while some progress has been made, 'some major September 11 Commission…
Aclu.org. (2003, August 25). The Five Problems With CAPPS II. Retrieved from Aclu.org: https://www.aclu.org/national-security/five-problems-capps-ii
Alpha.org. (2011, Fall). Aviation Security. Retrieved from alpa.org: http://www.alpa.org/portals/alpa/pressroom/inthecockpit/ALPAIssueAnalysis_10YearsAfter9-11Attacks.pdf
Browne, D. (2009). Flying without Fear: Effective Strategies to Get You Where You Need to Go. New York: New Harbinger Publications.
Elias, B. (2009). Airport and Aviation Security: U.S. Policy and Strategy in the Age of Global. New York: CRC Press.
The hotel industry has experienced the need to enhance security of guests in the recent past given the increased security threats/attacks in the modern business environment. The increased focus on enhancing security in the hotel industry has represented a major shift from the serious neglect of various security responsibilities that characterized this industry in the past. According to Fischer, Halibozek & Walters (2013), hotel managers, particularly security managers, are faced with the need to enhance their security measures because of the numerous safety concerns in this sector such as potential terrorist attacks. In light of modern security concerns, there is need to adopt a comprehensive approach towards improving hotel security. This paper provides a plan for improving hotel security during ground breaking, grand opening, and across daily operations. The discussion is based on plans to construct the newly approved John Jay Hotel on 59th Street in New York…
Bennett, F.L. (2007). The management of construction: a project lifecycle approach. Third Avenue, NY: Taylor & Francis Group.
Fischer, R.J., Halibozek, E.P. & Walters, D.C. (2013). Introduction to security (9th ed.). Waltham, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Heibutzki, R. (n.d.). Safety and Security Tips for Hotel Management. Retrieved June 28, 2017, from http://work.chron.com/safety-security-tips-hotel-management-7983.html
National Counter Terrorism Security Office. (n.d.). Counter Terrorism Protective Security Advice for Hotels and Restaurants. Retrieved from Association of Chief Police Officers website: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/374923/Hotels_Restaurants_Reviewed.pdf
1. While some people may be better leaders than others, all people can lead and all people can learn to lead better. Discuss some ideas of how leadership skills may be improved.
Development and education
Leaders need to develop in their position. Owing to managerial tasks’ knowledge-based nature, the word “development” has been used to describe the continuous growth in skills and cognition of executives and managers. Managerial development is promoted via education that they may acquire in various settings (Fernandez et al., 2015). Attending and taking part in programs offered by certain general management and security-related institutions may help cater to their developmental requirements.
Training and practice
A leader is required to engage in constant training and practice of leadership skills needed for improving their output, including integrity, delegation and patience, until the time they have acquired mastery over those skills.
The mentoring process entails transfer…
One of the most important aspects for enhancing security is perimeter protection, which is regarded as a significant component for residential, industrial, public/private, and commercial areas. The significance of perimeter protection in security is also demonstrated that the defense of an organization commences at the perimeter. As a result, there are several perimeter protection systems that are available in the security market. The concept of perimeter protection is also related to several important elements including the outer defense, internal and external security concerns, and access control. This paper will examine each of these components in relation to perimeter protection as an important aspect of enhancing security.
The Outer Defense
Physical security is considered as one of the important elements of perimeter protection, particularly with regards to the outer defense. Fischer, Halibozek & Walters (2013) define physical security as the measures undertaken by a facility to protect itself against security…
Fischer, R.J., Halibozek, E.P. & Walters, D.C. (2013). Introduction to security (9th ed.). Waltham, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Security Options and High Performance
As McCrie notes, “the training of employees and the development of their skills and careers is a critical and time-consuming activity within security operations.”[footnoteRef:2] For an organization like a public elementary school, employees are more than likely already stretched to the max in terms of time and ability: their primary focus is on teaching and assessing student achievement. Other stakeholders—i.e., parents—will nonetheless be concerned about safety, as Stowell points out.[footnoteRef:3] To keep stakeholders happy, managers and employees have to find ways to satisfy concerns about security—on top of doing their full-time jobs of administering and educating. That can be daunting, but to help there are security solutions that the Digital Age has helped bring into existence—tools like SIELOX CLASS, which allow teachers to communicate with administrators, access campus cameras, alert authorities, trigger a lockdown, and keep students safe by responding quickly to a potentially…
Like all other aspects of business today, security systems often prove to be highly complex and hard (even for the participants) to identify.
The culture of an organization is like the culture of a family, a community, or a nation: Because it surrounds the people in it they often have a great deal of difficulty in recognizing to what extent policies and procedures arise from the constraints of culture and what therefore can be relatively easily changed. Matz (2010) summarizes the ways in which organizational culture both supports an organization and can blind the individuals in it to ways in which their actions may no longer be as effective as they once were:
… the essence of organisational cultures consists of a set of 'unspoken rules' that exist without conscious knowledge of the members of the organisation. Over time the invisibility of the attributes at the deepest level…
Dalton, D.R. (2003). Rethinking Corporate Security in the Post 9/11 Era, New York: Butterworth-Heinemann
Deal, T.E. & Kennedy, a.A. (1982). Corporate Cultures: The Rites, and Rituals of Corporate Life, London: Penguin.
Gartenberg, M. (2005). How to develop an enterprise security policy. http://www.computerworld.com/s/article/98896/How_to_develop_an_enterprise_security_policy .
Johnston, L. & Shearing, C. (2003). Governing Security: Explorations in Policing and Justice. London: Routledge.
" (Vossekuil, orum, Fein, and Reddy, 2008) Stated to be an example of inductive assessment strategy is that of profiling. Profiling involves a description of the 'typical perpetrator' being compiled through use of characteristics that previous perpetrators of that specific type of crime have met. This profile is then used as a template or prototype for comparison of individuals who are believed or suspected to be a potential perpetrator.
In contrast, the process of threat assessment is deductive on a fundamental level and has as its focus primarily the 'facts of the particular case in question to guide inferences about whether the person is thinking about, planning, or building capacity for a violent act. The threat assessment approach emphasizes close examination of the progression of ideas and planning behaviors over time and corroboration of information gathered in the case from multiple sources in contact with the potential perpetrator." (Vossekuil, orum,…
Baehler, Aimee and Somerlot, Douglas K. (2005) Security and Disaster Preparedness: A Collaborative Process between State and Federal Courts. Aug 2005. The Justice Management Institute. Denver Colorado. www.jimjustice.org.
Renfroe, Nancy a. And Smith, Joseph L. (2008) Threat Vulnerability Assessments and Risk Analysis. 24 May 2008. Applied Research Associates. Online available: http://www.wbdg.org/resources/riskanalysis.php
Vossekuil, Bryan, Borum, Randy, Fein, Robert, and Reddy, Marisa (2008) Preventing Targeted Violence against Judicial Officials and Courts. United States Secret Service. Online available at: http://www.secretservice.gov/ntac_aapss.shtml
Form for 1.2.1 National Sheriffs' Association Physical Security Checklist (nd) Online available at: http://www.ncsconline.org/D_Research/TCPS/Forms/Form_121.pdf
If not, what other recommendations would you make to Harold? Explain your reasons for each of recommendations.
No, the actions that were taken by Harold are not adequate. The reason why, is because he has created an initial foundation for protecting sensitive information. However, over the course of time the nature of the threat will change. This could have an impact on his business, as these procedures will become ineffective. Once this occurs, it means that it is only a matter of time until Harold will see an increase in the number of cyber attacks. At first, these procedures will help to prevent hackers from accessing the company's files. Then, as time goes by they will be able to overcome his defenses. This increases the chances that he will see some kind of major disruptions because of these issues. ("Security Policies," n.d, pp. 281 -- 302) ("Computer-ased Espionage," n.d, pp.…
Computer-Based Espionage. (n.d.). (365 -- 391).
Security Policies (n.d.). (281 -- 302).
In the present day, organizations are reliant on information in order to continue being relevant and not become obsolete. To be specific, organizations are reliant on the controls and systems that have been instituted in place, which provide the continuing privacy, veracity, and accessibility of their data and information (Lomprey, 2008). There is an increase and rise in threats to information contained within organizations and information systems (Lomprey, 2008). There is also a rise in the intricacy of such systems and information, which places emphasis on the importance for organizations to understand and gain an understanding of how to better safeguard their information as well as information systems. As stated by Briggs (2005), globalization has instigated the world to become a global village. This, in turn, has increased the level of complexity and intricacy of the information security aspect of the organizations across the world. There is greater…
Alfawaz, S. M. (2011). Information security management: a case study of an information security culture (Doctoral dissertation, Queensland University of Technology).
Ashenden, D. (2008). Information Security management: A human challenge? Information security technical report, 13(4), 195-201.
Briggs, R. (2005). Joining Forces From national security to networked security. DEMOS.
Chang, S. E., Ho, C. B. (2006). Organizational factors to the effectiveness of implementing information security management. Industrial Management and Data Systems, 106 (3): 345-361.
Since access to the site is significantly restricted, the probability of external threat not highly likely. However, the fact that only two guards are stationed at the access gate, leaving the rest of the surrounding perimeter somewhat vulnerable, could provide more access to the site than is desirable. The building itself is, however protected by alarm systems, which contributes to a lower level of vulnerability. The vulnerability level is therefore set at "moderate," which amounts to 2.
Probability refers to the likelihood that a negative event may occur. While external access and night access to the building is significantly restricted, internal threat as a result of grieved or greedy personnel members, or as a result of spy infiltration is somewhat likely. The probability level is therefore set at "high," which is 3.
It follows that the level of criticality is also set at "highly critical;" while no loss of life…
A system possesses authenticity when the information retrieved is what is expected by the user -- and that the user is correctly identified and cannot conceal his or her identity. Methods to ensure authenticity include having user names and secure passwords, and even digital certificates and keys that must be used to access the system and to prove that users 'are who they say they are.' Some highly secure workplaces may even use biological 'markings' like fingerprint readers (Introduction, 2011, IBM).
Accountability means that the source of the information is not anonymous and can be traced. A user should not be able to falsify his or her UL address or email address, given the requirements of the system. "Non-repudiation is a property achieved through cryptographic methods which prevents an individual or entity from denying having performed a particular action related to data... Through the use of security-related mechanisms, producers and…
Introduction to z/OS Security. (2011). IBM. PowerPoint. Retrieved September 27, 2011 at http://www-03.ibm.com/systems/resources/systems_z_advantages_charter_security_zSecurity_L1_Security_Concepts.ppt
Why is information security important? (2011). Security Extra. Retrieved September 27, 2011 at http://www.securityextra.com/why-is-information-security-important.html
Security Standards & Least Privilege
Security Standards and Legislative Mandates
Industries are required by law to follow regulations to protect the privacy of information, do risk assessments, and set policies for internal control measures. Among these polices are: SOX, HIPAA, PCI DSS, and GLA. Each of these regulations implements internal control of personal information for different industries. Where GLA is for the way information is shared, all of them are for the safeguard of sensitive personal information.
Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (SOX) created new standards for corporate accountability in reporting responsibilities, accuracy of financial statements, interaction with auditors, and internal controls and procedures (Sarbanes-Oxley Essential Information). When audits are done to verify the validity of the financial statements, auditors must also verify the adequacy of the internal control and procedures. The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) is designed to protect personal health information held by covered entities and…
Brenner. (2007). How Chevron Met the PCI DSS Deadline. Security Wire Daily News.
Gramm Leach Bliley Act. (n.d.). Retrieved from Bureau of Consumer Protection: http://business.ftc.gov/privacy-and-security/gramm-leach-bliley-act principle of least privilege (POLP). (n.d.). Retrieved from Search Security: http://searchsecurity.techtarget.com/definition/principle-of-least-privilege-POLP
Sarbanes-Oxley Essential Information. (n.d.). Retrieved from The Data Manager's Public Library: http://www.sox-online.com/basics.html
Tipton, K. & . (n.d.). Access Control Models. Retrieved from CC Cure.org: http://www.cccure.org/
Security on Commercial Flights
Describe two (2) lapses in pre-flight security that contributed to the ease of the hijacking operation on September 11, 2001
Following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, the United States of America evaluated the security of the commercial Airline Industry. Major security lapses gave way for terrorists to board commercial flights, which finally led to the aircrafts' hijacking and demise.
The first lapse that contributed to terrorist attack is President Bill Clinton's ignorance. U.S. administration under the leadership of President Bill Clinton ignored warning signs that Osama bin Laden and al Qaida organization was planning a terrorist attack on United States. Osama Bin Laden claimed responsibility of various attacks on U.S. Militaries deployed in various countries, such as Sudan and Soviet Union aimed at fighting the rising terrorist groups (Oliver, 2006).
The failure of the Intelligence Community is another lapse that contributed to the attack.…
Oliver, W. (2006). Homeland security for policing (1st ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ:
This is because it was not officially ratified by the U.S. Senate. The reason why, was due to the underlying fears of the damage that it could cause to the economy. This would create the atmosphere that various provisions were unfair for the U.S., leading to its eventual withdrawal from Kyoto. (U.S. Withdraws from Kyoto Protocol 2001) When such a large country will no longer follow these different provisions, it creates an atmosphere of voluntary compliance. At which point, the other signatories will not follow the different provision of the treaty as strictly. Once this takes place, it means that any kind of efforts to address the problem is the equivalent of having no agreement at all. This will cause the various environmental issues to become worse, as the constant finger pointing and debate are only creating more problems. Evidence of this can be by looking at the total number…
Effects of Global Warming are Everywhere, 2007, National Geographic. Available from: . [27 September 2010].
Future Effects, n.d. UNFCC, Available from: . [27 September 2010].
Hurricane Katrina. 2010, Hurricane Katrina. Available from: . [27 September 2010].
NOAA Raises 2005 Hurricane Season Outlook, 2005, NOAA. Available from: . [27 September 2010].
South America's very old, biggest, most competent, and well- equipped rebellion having Marxist origin is the evolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia - FAC. The uproar and clashing in the 1950s involving liberal and conservative militias lead to the civil war that demolished Columbia and from here FAC came into existence. The murder of liberal party leader Jorge Eliecer by the representatives of the conservative government ignited the battle between the Liberal and Conservative political parties. The consequent civil wars lead to the loss of over 200,000 Columbians and generated a glut of guerrilla groups. One of those groups, lead by Manuel Marulanda, split from the Liberals in 1966 and developed into the Marxist-oriented FAC. (FAC History)
Identify the group by name and country in which based. If there is no one country, state the countries in which the group is operative, or the region.
a. Stated goals and…
Resources) Some medical care and advice is offered by Cuba. A court case is presently happening in Bogota to check whether three members of the Irish Republican Army, detained in Colombia in 2001 upon quitting the FARC-controlled demilitarized zone, supplies sophisticated explosives education to the FARC. The FARC and the Colombian National Liberation Army (ELN) frequently use the border area for cross border invasions and makes use of the Venezuelan territory near the border as a refuge. (Terrorist Group Profiles, 2003)
d. Spiritual or religious support.
Could not find any information.
e. Umbrella or cover organization, if any.
As per Colombian intelligence agencies, the FARC was implementing the techniques studied from a yet another terrorist cluster, namely, the Irish Republican Army. (One year after Sept. 11, U.S. And Colombia face parallel challenges)
For any event, effective countermeasures are an important part of enhancing safety. Those who take these factors into account, will ensure that everyone is protected and the chances of having any kind of incidents are decreased. To fully understand how these objectives are achieved requires focusing on public safety, transportation and issues for the celebrity. This will be accomplished by examining various agencies to be worked with, areas of responsibility and coordination. Together, these areas will improve the ability of stakeholders to deal with a number of challenges. (Fisher, 2000) (Walton, 2011)
With what agencies are you going to work?
The various agencies involve working with numerous levels of government. The most notable include: local, state and federal agencies. Each one of them can offer specific insights, that will deal with key problems and mitigate the probabilities of unfortunate incidents occurring. This is achieved by working with private…
Fischer, R. (2000). Loss Prevention. Oxford: Butterworth.
Walton, B. (2011). Special Event Security Planning. Longboat Key, FL: Government Training Inc.
The foundation of the current private security systems may be credited to Alan Pinkerton. Born in Glasgow in 1819 Pinkerton worked for a sort time as the Cook County Deputy Sherriff before in 1849 being the first detective appointed in the Chicago Police department (Dempsey, 2010). Pinkerton also went on to investigate mail thefts as a special U.S. mail agent in 1850 (Dempsey, 2010). t was in the early 1850's that in partnership with Edward Rucker he started up his on private detective agency, located in the North-West of the country (Dempsey, 2010). After only a year his partner left, at which time the firm was renamed the Pinkerton National Detective Agency, with the tag line 'the eye that never sleeps' (Dempsey, 2010). t was this slogan which led to the term 'private eye' to refer to private investigators (Dempsey, 2010; Burstein, 1999). The agency was highly successful and became…
In the Civil War the firm offered private services to the government, including intelligence gathering and the protection of President Lincoln. The firm is credited with saving the life of Lincoln by identifying an assassination plan during covet intelligence work identifying threats to the railroads (Fischel, 1996).
Pinkertons was not the only private security firm to emerge, the latter part of the nineteenth century also saw other firms established. The need was also supported with the Railway Police Acts 1865, giving railroad the ability to protect themselves (Dempsey, 2010). The two main rivals were Binks Inc., created with the aim of protecting payroll governments, and in 1909 there was the founding of William J. Burns Inc., which went on to become the investigative unit of the American Banking Association (Burstein, 1999).
In the Private Security Task Force Report three factors were identified as ongoing drivers for the development of the industry, these were ineffective policing services, the increase in the level of crimes and increased
Threats to Ownership and Copyright of Intellectual Property
The intellectual property (IP) is defined as an original creative work, which may be tangible or intangible form legally protected by law. (aman, 2004). The intellectual properties include the rights to scientific, artistic and literary works. Moreover, IP covers the invention of human endeavor, scientific discoveries, and industrial design. A current revolution of information technology has made IPs the greatest assets of assets. In the last few decades, there has been a rapid growth of digital discoveries where the IPs of the digital products are in electronic format. However, hackers have taken the advantages of the digital form of IP products by invading and stealing their IP in order to produce the counterfeited products and later sell them online. (Zucker, & Nathan, 2014). IP theft refers to an infringement of patents and copyright through counterfeiting of digital theft. Counterfeiting is an imitation…
Barker, D. M., (2005). Defining the Contours of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act: The Growing Body of Case Law Surrounding the DMCA, 20 Berkeley Tech. L.J. 47.
Guess, R., Hadley, J., Lovaas, S., & Levine, D.E. (2014). Protecting digital rights: Technical approaches. In Bosworth, et al. (Eds.), Computer Security Handbook (6th ed., pp. 42.1-42.23). New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.
IP Center (2011). Intellectual Property Rights Violations: A Report on Threats to United States Interests at Home and Abroad. National Intellectual Property Rights Coordination Center.
NIPRCC (2011). Intellectual Property Rights Violations: A Report on Threats to United States Interests at Home and Abroad .National Intellectual Property Rights Coordination Center.
Security Sector eform
Overview of the relevant arguments regarding Security Sector reform
The objective of security sector reform has to take care of the threats to the security of the state and the safety of its citizens. These arise often from the situation within the state and military responses may not be suitable. This leads on to an analysis of the government. The second article talks in a wider, more theoretical and less action oriented tone. It says that "existing constitutional frameworks have been used to maintain status quo than promote change." This much is certainly true and it is true not only of the countries with a security problem, but also of even United States wherein recently a justice of the Supreme Court was appointed, though she had no experience of being a judge, but she was a friend of the Chief Executive of the country. There are and…
Anderson, Major Will. Wiring up Whitehall: Ensuring Effective Cross -- Departmental
Activity. Journal of Security Sector Management. Volume 3 Number 3 -- June 2005. Retrieved from http://www.jofssm.org/issues/jofssm_0303_AndersonW_Wiring_up_whitehall_2005.doc?CFID=939029& CFTOKEN=57506392 Accessed 6 October, 2005
Ball, Nicole. Enhancing Security Sector Governance: A Conceptual Framework for UNDP. 9
October, 2002. http://www.undp.org/bcpr/jssr/4_resources/documents/UNDP_Ball_2002_SSR%20Concept%20Paper.pdf Accessed 6 October, 2005
Security Audit for FX Hospital EH/EM Systems
The study carries out the security audits for the FX Hospital EH/EM information systems to identify the vulnerabilities in the systems. The study uses the BackTrack as an auditing tool to penetrate the website, and outcomes of the auditing reveal that the website is not secure and can be subject to different vulnerabilities. After carrying out the auditing, the study is able to collect as much patients' data as possible revealing the website can be subject to vulnerable attacks. One of the vulnerabilities identified is that the website UL starts from HTTP showing that an attacker can easily break into the website and collect sensitive information. Moreover, all the data in the website are not encrypted making them easy for an attacker to collect patients' data.
By consequence, the FX Hospital can face lawsuits for failing to protect patients' data because if patients'…
Abdel-Aziz, A. (2009). Intrusion Detection & Response - Leveraging Next Generation Firewall Technology. SANS Institute.
Burr, W. Ferraiolo, H. & Waltermire, D. (2014). IEEE Computer Society. NIST and Computer Security.
Chadwick, D. (2012). Network Firewall Technologies. IS Institute, University of Salford.
Mell, P.Bergeron, T. & Henning, D.(2005).Creating a Patch and Vulnerability Management Program. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).
Security Failures and Preventive Measures
Summary of the Case
The Sequential Label and Supply company is a manufacturer and supplier of labels as well as distributor of other stationary items used along with labels. This company is shown to be growing fast and is becoming highly dependent on IT systems to maintain their high end inventory as well as the functioning of their department.
The case started with the inception of a troubled employee who called up the helpdesk agent to resolve the issue he is facing. Likewise, other employees start calling in to launch similar complaints. Later, the technical support help desk employee, while checking her daily emails, accidentally opened an untrusted source file sent from a known work colleague. This led to a number of immediate problems in her network computer which led to her being not able to access the information over the network and the call…
Baker, W. (2007). Is information security under control?: Investigating quality in information security management, Security & Privacy, retrieved October 14, 2011 from http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=4085592
Chapin, D. (2005). How can security be measured, information systems control journal, retrieved October 14, 2011 from http://naijaskill.com/cisa2006/articles/v2-05p43-47.pdf
McAdams, A. (2004). Security and risk management: a fundamental business issue: all organizations must focus on the management issues of security, including organizational structures, & #8230;, Information Management Journal, retrieved October 14, 2011 from http://www.freepatentsonline.com/article/Information-Management-Journal/119570070.html
Zeltser, L. (September 2011). Social Networking Safety. OUCH! The Monthly Security Awareness Newsletter for Computer Users. etrieved September 18, 2011 from http://www.securingthehuman.org/newsletters/ouch/issues/OUCH-201109_en.pdf
The SpyEye Hacking Toolkit ingeniously is being promoted online as an Android application that will guard against exactly what it does, which is steal online logins and passwords. What makes this application so state-of-the-art and unique is that it uses an Android client application on smart phones and other devices running the operating system to transmit data to the command and control (C2) server. The hackers then have the ability to capture logins and passwords and without the user's knowledge, transmit them to the server completely independent of any action taken by the user (Keizer, 2011). While this threat is most predominant in Europe and Australia, the potential exists for it to become global in scope within days due to the pervasive distribution of Android…
Keizer, G. (2011, September 13). SpyEye hacking kit adds Android infection to bag of tricks. Computerworld. Retrieved from: http://www.computerworld.com/s/article/9219963/SpyEye_hacking_kit_adds_Android_infection_to_bag_of_tricks
Threats and Consequences
Terrorism does very little damage to a nation's military capacity, as well as its manufacturing infrastructure, and terrorism rarely even damages a nation's political apparatus. hat terrorism does do, however, is project an image of insecurity within a country. The effects of perception of insecurity that terrorist attacks bring most heavily hit a major sector of any nation's economy, tourism. The tourism sector feels negative impacts for years after terrorist attacks, depending on how the attack happened, and how confident tourists feel that adequate security has been implemented. The 2008 Mumbai attacks were devastating, but the poor reaction of the Indian authorities made the attacks seem even worse. hat could have been ended in just minutes of a competent counterterrorism unit, ended up taking three days as the attackers were prepared to cause as much violence as they possibly could.
Tourism in India plummeted dramatically as a…
Chandigarh, M. (2009, June 29). 'mumbai terror incident hits tourist inflow. . Retrieved from http://www.business-standard.com/india/news/mumbai-terror-incident-meltdown-hits-foreign-tourist-inflow/65960/on
Dow, R. (2011, Sept 21). Retrieved from http://www.rejuvenatemeetings.com/2011/09/21/u-s-lost-606-billion-in-tourism-after-911/
According to an article entitled "Three Vulnerability Assessment Tools Put to the Test"
Vulnerability assessment systems scan operating systems and applications for potential problems, such as the use of default passwords or configurations and open ports. This can give administrators a head start in fixing problems and will, hopefully, let IT organizations more effectively beat bad guys to the punch."
The above factors are only true when vulnerability systems find all the problems that may be present in an application.
Research has often demonstrated a gap between the best vulnerability assessment tools and the weaknesses in a test network. However IT employees who are responsible for securing IT assets will find the use of a vulnerability assessment tool beneficial even if all it does is eliminate some of the monotonous work they are confronted with.
When vulnerability assessment tools were first made available, scanning was the primary method utilized. However,…
James M. Snyder. Online Auction Fraud: Are the Auction Houses Doing All They Should or Could to Stop Online Fraud. Federal Communications Law Journal. Volume: 52. Issue: 2. 2000. Page Number: 453.
20 EBay Security and Resolution Center. http://pages.ebay.com/securitycenter/stop_spoof_websites.html08/16/03
Identifying Phishing or Spoofed E-mails. http://www.amazon.com/gp/help/customer/display.html?ie=UTF8&nodeId=15835501
A Foreign Intelligence Entity (FIE) can be delineated as any identified or suspected foreign organization, individual, or group, whether private, public, or governmental, that undertakes intelligence activities to obtain United States information, block or damage U.S. intelligence gathering, impact U.S. policy, or mess up U.S. systems and programs. In particular, this term takes into account an international terrorist organization and also a foreign intelligence and security service.[footnoteef:1] The FIE considered in this essay is Pakistani's Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI). Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) is the nation's biggest of its five intelligence services. Pakistan is deemed to be one of the fast-paced and rapidly developing nations in the [1: Center for Development of Security Excellence. "Counter Intelligence Awareness Glossary." CDSE, 2017.]
South Asian expanse. Owing to the country's strategic positioning in the core of all the nuclear adversaries, it had grown and develop to become of the best intelligence services…
Capriz, Marco, and Kelly George. "Pakistan Inter Services Intelligence Directorate." (2014).
Center for Development of Security Excellence. "Counter Intelligence Awareness Glossary." CDSE. (2017). Retrieved from: http://www.cdse.edu/documents/toolkits-fsos/ci-definitions.pdf
Pakistan Defence. "ISI Pakistan Inter-Services Intelligence". (2006). Retrieved from: https://defence.pk/pdf/threads/isi-pakistan-inter-services-intelligence.551/
Roberts, Mark J. Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence Directorate: A State within a State?. NATIONAL DEFENSE UNIV WASHINGTON DC INST FOR NATIONAL STRATEGIC STUDIES, 2008.
Both types -- qualitative and quantitative -- have their advantages and disadvantages. One of the most well-known of the quantitative risk metrics is that that deals with calculation of annual loss expectancy (ALE) (Bojanc & Jerman-Blazoc, 2008). ALE calculation determines the monetary loss associated form a single occurrence of the risk (popularly known as the single loss exposure (SLE)). The SLE is a monetary amount that is assigned to a single event that represents the amount that the organizations will potentiality lose when threatened. For intangible assets, this amount can be quite difficult to assess.
The SLE is calculated by multiplying the monetary value of the asset (AV) with the exposure factor (EF). The EF represents the percentage of loss that a threat can have on a particular asset. The equation, therefore, is thus: SLE=AV*EF. Applying this practically, if the AV of an e-commerce web server is $50,000 and a…
Bojanc, R. & Jerman-Blazoc, B. (2008), An economic modelling approach to information security risk management. International Journal of Information Management 28 (2008) 413 -- 422
Chowdhary, A., & Mezzeapelle, M.A. (n.d.) Inforamtion Security metrics. Hewlett Packard.
Pedro, G.L., & Ashutosh, S. (2010). An approach to quantitatively measure Information security 3rd India Software Engineering Conference, Mysore, 25-27
There needs to be however more efficiency put into the process of validating just what is personal vs. professional mail, with a more insightful series of policies put in place to define acceptable use of e-mail and communications systems (Breaux, Anton, 2008).
Clearly, being able to guard against personal data of employees being accessed, sold or used in any way needs to have even more stringent rules associated with it (Breaux, Anton, 2008). The fact that so many companies today have their employee database compromised and then selectively sold off to telemarketers, it is clear that higher penalties need to be put into place for it professionals who either have lax security in place to allow this to happen, or unfortunately make the terrible mistake of thinking this is a way to make extra cash. As has been seen from the cases of overt theft of employee data, it has…
Breaux, T., & Anton, a.. (2008). Analyzing Regulatory Rules for Privacy and Security Requirements. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 34(1), 5-20.
Doss, Erini, & Loui, Michael C. (1995). Ethics and the privacy of electronic mail. Information Society, 11(3), 223.
Lautsch, John C.. (1985). Information Privacy and the MIS Manager. The Journal of Information Systems Management, 2(2), 79.
Patel, M.. (2009). The Threat from Within. Risk Management, 56(5), 8-9.
Essentially, the most successful it security systems will rely on a fragmented structure; they may look to third-party or other external local hosting service providers for data that is not as crucial to keep secret. Thus, enterprises must plan for space for "machine rooms that afford high availability and reliability to departmental server resources as well as appropriate network security for these resources" (Clotfelter, 2013, p 7).Then, for more restricted data, in-house servers can provide an extra layer of security to help ensure that such sensitive data remains in proper hands. To protect such restricted data, proper identity management strategies should include "a cross functional client and technical team abstracted requirements for updates" (Clotfelter, 2013, p 5). Thus, enterprise organizations must rely on a tiered network infrastructure that provides a number of different levels of security for various elements of the enterprise organization.
Security plans are a necessary…
Arconati, Nicholas. (2002). One approach to enterprise security architecture. InfoSec Reading Room. SANS Institute. Web. http://www.sans.org/reading_room/whitepapers/policyissues/approach-enterprise-security-architecture_504
Clotfelter, James. (2013). ITS technology infrastructure plan. Information Technology Services. University of North Carolina Greensboro. Web. http://its.uncg.edu/About/ITS_Technology_Infrastructure%20Plan.pdf
Glynn, Fergal. (2013). What is penetrating testing? VeraCode. Web. http://www.veracode.com/security/penetration-testing
SANS Institute. (2011). Understanding intrusion detection systems. InfoSec Reading Room. Web. http://www.sans.org/reading_room/whitepapers/detection/understanding-intrusion-detection-systems_337
Terrorist Threat and the Commercial Sector:
Terrorist threat has emerged as one of the major global threats in the 21st Century that has significant impacts on global security. In the past few centuries, the nature and values of terrorism have slowly shifted and resulted in the emergence of different definitions or descriptions of terrorism. These different descriptions have not only been used by scholars but also by governments to broaden the phenomenon to political, judicial, psychosocial, and moral arenas. The differences in definitions of terrorism is attributed to the fact that these attacks are usually characterized by political motivations towards the use or threat of violence, intentional and pre-meditated actions, fear, psychological effects, and asymmetric warfare. The other aspects of these definitions include immorality, social coercion, and reactions. However, terrorist groups and activities continue to pose significant threats to every facet of the modern society including the commercial sector (aman,…
A Military Guide to Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century 2007, Terrorist Motivations and Behaviors, Chapter 2, viewed 20 April 2013,
Brandt, B 2011, Terrorist Threats to Commercial Aviation: A Contemporary Assessment.
Combating Terrorism Center -- United States Military Academy, viewed 20 April 2013,
Catlin Group Limited 2012, A Business Approach to Terrorism, Catlin Group Limited Report,
Maintaining professionalism, when communicating the physical security, ensures its adoption by the stakeholders. In addition, providing a cost estimate for the whole process makes the management team understand the need for the adoption of the physical security in the business/organization (Chapter 7 of Broder, & Tucker, 2011).
Cost benefit/benefit analysis enables the business to assess the risks and advantages associated with the security option. This entails evaluating the efficiency of the security program with the perceived operational costs and implications on organizational performance. This ensures proper development of security design for ensuring effective management operations management. Some of the risk management options that ensure physical security include the development of effective policies, procedures, hardware, and labor that promote utilization of security programs. ecovery can be achieved by ensuring developing the desired hardware that stores data related to operations management in the organization. Evaluating the effectiveness of a security program is…
Chapter 5 of Broder, JF. & Tucker, G. (2011). Risk Analysis and the Security Survey. Upper Saddle River,
Chapter 7 of Broder, JF. & Tucker, G. (2011). Risk Analysis and the Security Survey. Upper Saddle River,
Operation of the Homeland Security Council
Creates the Homeland Security Council and sets down is functions.
This directive creates the Homeland Security Council (HSC) and lists its functions. The purpose of the HSC is to synchronize homeland security-related efforts across executive departments and agencies of all levels all through the country, and to put into practice the Department's policies by way of eleven Policy Coordination Committees.
Homeland Security Presidential Directive 3: Homeland Security Advisory System
Creates a Homeland Security Advisory Board to issue security threat levels. There are five threat levels, each identified by a description and corresponding color. From lowest to highest, the levels and colors are: Low = Green; Guarded = Blue; Elevated = Yellow; High = Orange; Severe = ed. The higher the threat level is, the greater the risk of a terrorist attack. isk includes both the likelihood of an attack taking place and its potential…
Homeland Security Presidential Directives. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.dhs.gov/xabout/laws/editorial_0607.shtm
Campus Security Measures
The impact of mass shooting at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech) on April 16, 2007 continues to be felt across the United States and internationally due to a massacre that killed 27 students and five faculty members. Following the weeks after the shooting, the university conducted several extensive reviews and analysis to better understand the attack and provide strategies to prevent future attacks in the university. In response to the tragedy at the Virginia Tech and other shooting tragedies across the colleges and universities in the United States, IACLEA (the International Association of Campus Law Enforcement Administrators) develops comprehensive recommendations that the colleges and universities should follow in enhancing safety and securities. (Thrower, Healy, Margolis, et al. 2008). Apart from the comprehensive safety procedures against shooting, the university authorities also have the obligations to protect the life and properties against event such as fire,…
Guardly (2012). Assessment of Emergency Response Times on Campus when using Guardly Safe Campus ™ versus Existing
Methods of Reporting, Monitoring and Responding to Incidents. Industry Higher Education.
Randazzo, M.R. & Plummer, E. (2009). Implementing Behavioral Threat Assessment on Campus. A Virginia Tech Demonstration Project. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
Thrower, R.H. Healy, S.J. Margolis, G.J. et al.(2008). Overview of the Virginia Tech Tragedy