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Maslow’s Self-Actualization Theory
Self-actualization Theory was developed by Abraham Maslow to emphasize on an individual’s uniqueness and his/her potential for self-direction and improved functioning. This theory represents an individual’s journey of growth towards realization of the highest needs. Maslow introduced the Theory of Self-actualization based on the belief that people are motivated to look for ways of achieving personal goals in order to make their lives more meaningful and fulfilling. Therefore, Maslow’s Self-actualization Theory is considered as a motivational theory that comprises of a five-tier model of human needs that are known as the hierarchy of needs (Achilleos, 2017). The first level of needs is physiological/basic needs that must be satisfied including hunger, oxygen, sex, sleep, thirst, and removal of body waste. The second level is safety needs including self-protection while the third level is belongingness/love needs like acceptance and affiliation. The fourth level is self-esteem needs like achievement and…… [Read More]
MASLOW'S HIEACHY AND BAIES TO SELF-ACTUALIZATION
Maslow's Hierarchy of Human Needs
Abraham Maslow introduced his Hierarchy of Human Needs to explain the universal stages of development that all people go through (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2009). Stage I corresponds with the physiological needs of the individual, such as the normal biological processes that sustain life. Stage II corresponds with the need for physical security and safety, such as shelter and warmth. Stage III corresponds with the need for social relationships and close companionship, such as within the nuclear and extended family. Stage IV corresponds to the need for the approval or esteem of others in society beyond the family. Stage V corresponds to self-actualization and, unlike the other four stages, is not necessarily reached by all persons (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2009).
According to Maslow, the individual must successfully achieve each stage of development in order to progress to the next stage…… [Read More]
Don Quixote, despite his inability to recognize between his conscious and unconscious selves, differed from Shylock in that made no conscious effort to allow his unconscious self to emerge. His continued exposure to an alternative life -- life in the world of fiction -- made him develop a stronger unconscious self: " ... he became so absorbed in his books that he spent his nights from sunset to sunrise ... And what with little sleep and much reading his brains got so dry he lost his wits. His fancy grew full of ... all sorts of impossible nonsense ... " This narrative about the development of Don Quixote de la Mancha's character, the metaphorical self of Don Quixote, was associated with the Captain's Leggatt's persona, the individual who symbolized the man's innermost desire for freedom and adventure. In effect, the hero that was Don Quixote surfaced to dominate over the…… [Read More]
The key to flexibility of motivation is intrinsically conflicting motivational structures. The self as defined by Jung is the core or central component that keeps these opposing forces operating as an integrated whole. To what closing stages does this process manage? It was formed by evolution and so survival is the architect but it is survival not just of the next generation but into an unclear future. The self as described by Jung is the psychic image of this limitless potential for prospect development. For itself it focuses on the various dimensions of human functioning that put in to survival including ingenuity in all its forms.
Sensing the self as something irrational, as an impalpable existent, to which the ego is neither opposed nor subject, but simply attached, and about which it spins very much as the earth does round the sun, accordingly the goal of individuation is reached. The…… [Read More]
A Concept Analysis in Behavior Management: Self-Management in Psych Nursing
In nursing, when it comes to behavior management—i.e., helping individuals to alter their behavior in order to achieve a positive aim—various strategies are available. One concept of behavior management that has been handed down over generations of nursing practice is the concept of self-management. This concept analysis paper will analyze self-management by describing a history of the concept, its defining characteristics and attributes, antecedents and consequences, various cases related to the concept, empirical measurements, and recommendations following a discussion of the analysis.
Aims and Purposes of Analysis
The aims of this analysis are:
1) to obtain better understanding of a concept;
2) to obtain clarity in terms of what the concept means and how it impacts an environment, a population, a sector, an industry or a strategy; and
3) to establish definition in terms of empirical evidence that…… [Read More]
Edward L. Deci's Book "Why We Do What We Do Understanding Self-Motivation"
Why We Do What We Do: Understanding Self-Motivation" by Edward L. Deci's
Edward L. Deci's book structures on the hypothesis of an American school of psychology called "Humanistic Psychology." The most significant of all the other advocates of this school was the philosopher and psychologist Abraham Maslow, who lived and died between 1908 and 1970. Abraham Maslow established the conception of "self-actualization," as a technological and scientific expression.
In this field the experiencing person is of most important interest. Humanistic psychology starts with the study of individuals in real-life state of affairs. According to Edward L. Deci, Humans are subjects, rather than mere objects, of study. The writer argues that the humanists challenge, cannot be replicated after early physics, in which the objects of study are "out there." The writer asserts that the person has got to be…… [Read More]
Youth Leadership and the Development of Communication Skills, Self-Esteem, Problem Solving and Employment Opportunities
The four-year longitudinal study by Marshall, Parker, Ciarrochi and Heaven (2014) showed that self-esteem is a reliable predictor of "increasing levels of social support quality and network size across time" (p. 1275). The idea that social support is a reliable predictor of self-esteem was not supported by the study's findings. The researchers measured the quantity and quality of self-esteem and social support levels of 961 adolescents over a five-year period to find that self-esteem is the key to helping adolescents develop into successful adult leaders with a wide range of networking possibilities open to them and a strong social support group behind them. This study directly links the concept of self-esteem to the greater possibility of employment as well, indicating that as adolescents with high self-esteem mature into adults, their ability to network and utilize support…… [Read More]
A company may be profitable, but not growing, and vice versa, thus affecting leverage (Aggaral and Zhao, 2007).
b. induce a negative relationship between firm value and leverage; conversely, if a firm is perceived with negative or flat growth, leverage is affected. Interestingly enough, new research shows that there are some micro-factors outside of growth that correlate to value and leverage. These include the way a corporation is managed, the size of the Board, the impression of large dividends and lack of focus on shareholder value, and milking of an industry (e.g. yellow pages in the day of the Internet). In addition, certain governmental regulations that are perceived as heavy handed and/or not conducive to growth or -- what is most critical -- perceived growth have considerable negative effects on leverage. Whether this psychological perception is valid or not, the research does not comment -- but it is surprising that…… [Read More]
Stanton's Solitude Of Self
Elizabeth Cady Stanton's speech before the United States Senate in 1892 was the first major awakening of women receiving the right to vote, thus validating the equal rights for all people as written in the United States Constitution. The actual seed for the first omen's Rights Convention was actually planted when Elizabeth Cady Stanton, a well-known anti-slave and equal rights activist, met Lucretia Mott at the orld Anti-Slavery Convention in London; the conference that refused to allow Mott and other women delegates from the United States because of their gender. This refusal only infuriated the cause, many finding extreme commonality in anti-slavery and omen's Suffrage Movement (DuBois). In 1851, Stanton met temperance advocate Susan B. Anthony around 1851, found that they had a great deal in common and joined together in a three pronged approach to repeal or limit the sale of alcohol, emancipate the slaves,…… [Read More]
Taking the self-development path is imperative in order to excel in life. This is true for all social life encounters careers, disciplines or even academics. We must take full responsibility of our lives if we wish to progress. Improving ourselves is a central determiner for improving other area of our lives (Simuyemba, 2013).
According to Hibbert (2016) Personal development entails constantly trying to become a better person in terms of personality, knowledge and skills. The process involves recognition of one's weaknesses and developing self-love. One must abandon the pursuit of the illusion of perfection and stopping to begrudge yourself and others. Learn to see the world through the windows of faith rather than fear. It may involve coming to terms with reality by reconciling experiences and even pain and letting it pass.
Growing personality is a direct effect of life (Puddicombe, 2013) in a continuous learning curve; through meditation…… [Read More]
Christian Moral Philosophy, H. ichard Niebuhr takes a probing look at the characteristics of a moral life. So many times, people judge others as good or bad without examining the underlying characteristics of those judgments. However, Niebuhr rejects that idea. Instead, he goes beyond vague notions of good and bad and suggests that ethical behavior is inextricably intertwined with the concept of responsibility. esponsibility towards others is what guides people to engage in ethical ways. Moreover, to Niebuhr, this responsibility towards others does not imply any type of bondage. Instead, every individual has the freedom to act as he or she wants to act and the flexibility to respond in their own ways. Unethical people may act in ways that ignore their responsibilities towards others, while ethical people will respond in a way that demonstrates that concern for others guides their actions. In this way, Niebuhr seems to suggest that…… [Read More]
identity of the self usually involves success. That success may include cars, luxury items, mansions, beautiful kids, and a beautiful spouse. It varies from person to person. Some people view success through self-actualization as well, having the ability to harness one's potentials and talents and becoming something more than what they thought possible. In The Great Gatsby by Fitzgerald and The Talented Mr. Ripley by Highsmith, men attempt to find success through illegal means in order to fulfill their need of self-actualization and material gain. To them, success and self-actualization came from being wealthy and living in extravagance, not from being uniquely talented or philanthropic.
Only Gatsby, the man who gives is name to this book, was exempt from my reaction= Gatsby, who represented everything for which I have an unaffected scorn. If personality is an unbroken series of successful gestures, then there was something gorgeous about him, some heightened…… [Read More]
govern the extent to which we thrive as human beings. Our survival has been contingent on the fulfillment of needs since the moment we were born. Abraham Maslow saw great importance and significance in the fulfillment of human needs and created an entire theoretical perspective based in these needs. Everyone, including myself, is a product of the fulfillment, or lack of fulfillment, of certain needs. Essentially, our physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual health and well-being depend upon certain needs being met.
Maslow's theory rests in the concept that certain needs must be tended to and fulfilled prior to other needs. Furthermore, physiological needs must be established before safety needs, safety needs before belongingness needs, and belongingness needs before esteem needs, and finally all of these needs prior to self-actualization (Poston, 2009). These needs were arranged by Maslow in a pyramid, with physiological needs at the bottom and self-actualization at the…… [Read More]
In that manner, 'self' actualization would entail perfecting the chemistry that makes up the mind and one would then go into philosophical meanderings regarding how to achieve that. A spiritualist, on the other hand, might associate the 'self' with the soul, concluding that 'self' actualization refers to eradicating grittiness of the soul via prayer, godly deeds, and other spiritual activities such as charity and repentance. In a colloquial sense, 'self' refers to the person him or herself that the individual has in mind when referring to the 'I', namely the personal being. In that colloquial sense, I perceive 'self'-actualization as referring to the endeavor to make the utmost of all the gifts granted me, whilst, simultaneously, smoothing away my negative (i.e. self-destructive) habits, so that I can become a better instrument for fulfilling my life's objectives to the optimum that I can.
D. How will you know if you are…… [Read More]
Crabb's book, Effective Biblical Counseling and the theories presented there. This paper will examine how Crabb treats some of the more popular theories in the book and how he is able to summarize them for the reader -- largely accomplishing this in a very accessible manner.
For instance, Crabb's treatment of Abraham Maslow's theory of classical needs hierarchy is extremely astute and user-friendly. Crabb explains how the need on the lowest rung of the hierarchy needs to be met and completed in order for the individual to be able to have sufficient motivation to get the subsequent need met and so on (Crabb, 1986). According to these ideologies, the lowest needs are the physical ones: food, water and comparable needs -- these are the needs that the organism must fulfill in order to survive (Crabb, 1986). The following need is the need of security, which encompasses a general sense and…… [Read More]
They need to belong to a secure community and they need to be loved following the terror of Syrian attacks on them.
here esteem needs would be met before belonging and love: a young man becomes a professional baseball player and is placed by the Dodgers in a "Rookie League." He is alone, has no family near and knows very few team members; but if he is good enough to be promoted to "Class a" in Dodger baseball his sense of esteem (approval of his talent) will be greatly enhanced. Later he can worry about being loved, but now he needs to get to "AA" ball.
ho will you consider a self-actualized individual? A young woman who dreamed in high school of getting into an Ivy League school and majoring in drama will be self-actualized if indeed she gets into Cornell, tries out for the Shakespearean play, "As You Like…… [Read More]
Both observation and experiment provided the underpinning for Abraham Maslow’s theory of human motivation. Maslow (1943) posits, “man is a perpetually wanting animal,” leading to the constant striving to fulfill goals (p. 370). If and when anything prevents the fulfillment of a goal—whether the obstacle is internal or external—discomfort or psychopathy can occur (Maslow, 1943). Although Maslow’s original research was conducted decades ago, recent research on motivation and human behavior continues to substantiate Maslow’s core claims. Researchers continue to operationalize Maslow’s definitions of needs and motivation, leading to a strengthening of the original theory and expanded applications in the social sciences. Maslow himself wrote extensively to develop and mature a comprehensive theory of human motivation based on the hierarchy of needs model. The original needs hierarchy consists of five fundamental needs: for physiological comfort and fulfillment, for safety and security, for belongingness, for esteem, and for self-actualization. Although definitions of…… [Read More]
Productivity-Education/Craft/Trade -- a key to being able to stop the return to the penal system is to provide training necessary to allow the individual to find work after leaving prison. Not only is it extremely tough to get a job as a convicted felon, but the skills necessary to get a job that will afford a decent living are tough to get in prison. Earning a degree either online or through continuing education; earning a trade certificate (automotive, plumbing, wood working, etc.) will provide an occupation for the felon after leaving prison, and a focus for their energy and attention while in prison.
Consequences -- Many rehabilitation programs fail because the consequences are unrealistic. Allow people to be human, while still requiring that in order to receive the gift from society of living in society, there are consequences if the rules are broken (Clear, et.al., 2011).
How then, can Maslow's…… [Read More]
Marketing Channels and Methods -- the New Svelte Shape of McDonald's
Objectives & Mission Statement
Although McDonald's latest advertising slogan, as proclaimed on its 2005 website, is "I'm lovin' it," (McDonald's Official ebsite, 2005), shareholders in the fast food company have not be equally enamored of its current stock performance and plummeting sales. (The Rogue Investor, 2005) Thus, the objectives of the new McDonald's marketing campaign must be to undo some of the economic and public relations damage done to the company by the negative press generated by the success of Morgan Spurlock's film 'Supersize Me.' Over the course of the year, McDonald's wishes to gain a greater percentage of the revenue of the current fast food market than its most prominent burger-oriented competitors endy's and Burger King. McDonald's also wishes to gain some of the type of positive media as generated by the sandwich chain Subway. The Subway Diet…… [Read More]
Over the course of the project, I took the responsibility for ensuring that all of the bureaucracy and paperwork regarding the needed permits for the addition's plumbing, electric work, and building materials remained in order. I became more fluent in the legal language as well as the technical aspects of a major construction effort. After the addition was built, I had to ensure that the work passed its inspection within the time of the contract -- and check for the company's own peace of mind that the work was sound from the bottom of its foundation to the top of its rafters.
This experience brought about an intense sense of self-actualization, as I gained confidence in my own leadership abilities and competence. Nothing could be taken for granted, and it was my duty to check and double-check even the work of 'experts.' Because of my thoroughness, my ability to speak…… [Read More]
Based upon these results, Kasser posed the question as to what other values advanced by capitalist society were linked low levels of mental and physical health, such as maintaining a strong social image. He tested the links between aspirations to financial success, the need for social esteem, and image-related concerns in his next study. Social image was measured by ranking such statements high as: "Your name will be known by many people; You will be famous; You will be admired by many people." Valuing an 'appealing' appearance involved agreeing with statements about having an attractive image and successfully hiding the effects of aging as important values. In this second round of surveys, extrinsic drivers such as money, fame, and materialism all seemed to be linked as a 'cluster' of aspirations found in persons who also ranked high in anxiety and depression and low in vitality and levels of self-actualization.
hen…… [Read More]
ERG and Herzberg's Motivational Theories:
The life of Steve Jobs
The response to the death of Steve Jobs can be described as nothing short of extraordinary. Mourners placed flowers at Apple stores all over the world. How can this be explained, given the fact that Apple was a commercial product that people bought, not a spiritual movement? The answer is that in his design philosophy Steve Jobs made use of ERG motivational theory, tapping into the potential for self-actualization in terms of how his machines were constructed. Instead of simply being functional, Apple products embodied a concept of sleekness, excellence in design, and belief in human potential. The ERG concept was likewise embodied in Jobs' own life -- Jobs was a businessman who strove to make a profit, yet he also sincerely loved his work and continued to work, long after he could have retired or delegated more of his…… [Read More]
Seeking therapy is a good first step, but given Frank's stunted emotional life, having concrete behavioral goals might be helpful, especially at the beginning of the therapeutic process.
Q2: Integrationist point-of-view
No single personality theory can heal all individuals: every person presents the therapist with unique challenges. Some patients, for example, with personality disorders such as bipolar disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, or schizoid personality disorder may benefit from having clear, concrete behavioral goals that they must perform, to help wean them from ineffective coping mechanisms (such as self-injury, obsessive rituals, or isolation). More searching types of 'talk' therapy alone may encourage patients to stall rather than to actively change their life in proactive ways and will not address some of the root, habitual causes of the patient's behavior.
Other patients who feel unfulfilled but have a more structured and healthy lifestyle might benefit from more exploratory types of therapy, including Rogers'…… [Read More]
However, his sense of self-respect is rendered incomplete because of his father. The struggle he experienced demonstrated this and though it did not define his whole being as he is now, it was the primary component in his life that made it a challenge to meet his need for esteem.
2. As the current president of the United States, Obama can be said as a successful person. However, it cannot be said that he is fulfilled and has achieved self-actualization. The absence of a father figure in Obama's life remains a struggle in his life that could determine his successful realization for self-actualization.
3. Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs demonstrates how individual needs are categorized by levels and are comprised of different factors that may or may not apply to the individual. Using the Hierarchy of Needs alone, the theory cannot explain fully Obama's psyche, personality and behavior. Maslow's theory…… [Read More]
Ethics and the Law
It is morally acceptable for the law to require people to do things for their own self-development?
"Political theory is a branch of moral philosophy, which starts from the discovery, or application, of moral notions in the sphere of political relations." This statement, indicated in the literary work, "Two concepts of Liberty," summarizes my personal views on law and self-development. I believe it is morally acceptable to require people to do things for their own self development. Aspects such as making children attend school, requiring high schools to offer basic curriculum courses, or requiring systemically viable institutions to be certified, I believe, all are morally acceptable laws. Although society overall benefits from the self-development of its own constituents, the world benefits as a more educated population continues to drive economic prosperity (Berlin, 2000).
Few would argue over the merits of self-development and its obvious advantages. However…… [Read More]
Motivational Healthcare Techniques
Healthcare Motivational Essay
Most companies would concur that human resources are one of the most -- if not the most -- valuable assets a company has. And what is the healthcare industry besides a (usually) for-profit company? Oftentimes, however, there is an incongruent dichotomy between healthcare management and its employees, or more properly called its caregivers. Hiring, training, and employment policies may sometimes conflict greatly with the company's (hospital's) bottom line, which is profitability, over the ability to maintain high or even average motivation amongst its workers. This paper seeks to explore at least three ways a rapprochement might be met between upper management successfully handling the bottom line -- profit -- and exhorting its agents (employees, or caregivers) to keep their motivation high enough to reach maximum levels for both parties.
The first motivational technique worth noting is one in which a study conducted by S.…… [Read More]
Women Want is an American romantic comedy brought to the big screen in 2000, staring Helen Hunt and Mel Gibson. The story revolves around Nick Marshall (played by Mel Gibson), a Chicago advertising executive and ultimate alpha male personality and considered to be a chauvinist. He is considered highly skilled at selling what men want and seducing women. Although Nick thinks he is next in line for a big promotion, he is faced with new competition from Darcy McGuire (played by Helen Hunt), who is hired in the position Nick aspired to, to broaden the company's general appeal to women. In a freak accident, Nick is electrocuted and develops the ability to hear the innermost thoughts of women. He subsequently uses that ability to advance his ideas vicariously through Helen Hunt; encouraging her as if the ideas were her own or even a collaboration of their two ideas. Nick also…… [Read More]
When will you begin that long journey into yourself? One of the most famous philosophers in history of mankind, Rumi emphasized on exploring or discovering one self. Self-exploration is one of the fundamentals of philosophy. efore contemplating over the wonders of universe, man asked himself the very basic questions about his own existence. Without knowing one's origin and the reason of being born, man cannot shape his beliefs and thus remain directionless. As Aristotle said that the foundation of all wisdom is based on self.
The ideas, beliefs, values and norms of a person originate from his immediate surroundings. Among them, the first encounter is with parents. Parents transmit their own beliefs and values into the child's mind. Later on, siblings, family members and close friends influence a person's self-concept. Gradually, a man's social circle expands and as he becomes able to identify and choose among things,…… [Read More]
That being said, it is quite difficult to be honest with oneself, even thought as we stand in front of the mirror, naked and bare, Didion says we remain "blind to our fatal weaknesses." One might think that being too self-critical would damage the ego, but for Didion, it is completely the opposite -- by knowing out flaws, accepting some and working towards the goal of solving others, we become more actualized and powerful. Without this realization, "one eventually discovers the final turn of the screw: one runs away to find oneself, and finds no one at home."
Both Didion and Walker focus on self-respect, self-actualization, and in a very real way, a pseudo-Marxian approach to alienation from society. There are several points in common for the authors: one's own approach to self; seeking and finding self-respect; and taking an active role in our own place in the universe. Conversely,…… [Read More]
obstacles to becoming a successful manager is getting an understanding of one's own innate strengths and weaknesses. While every person may have leadership potential, leadership comes more naturally to some people than to others. Moreover, the best leaders are those who are aware of and capitalize on their own strengths, while taking actions to minimize their own weaknesses. The Life Styles Inventory (LSI) is one tool that people can use to help identify their own innate personal styles and learn how those styles can impact them in their roles as managers and leaders.
This paper examines my own LSI scores. Not only does it assess my strengths and weaknesses, but also how those traits fit into my overall character profile. The LSI is broken into three broad categories: constructive styles, passive/defensive styles, and aggressive/defensive styles. The constructive styles reflect positive behaviors and include humanistic-encouraging, affiliative, achievement, and self-actualizing styles. For…… [Read More]
Forces That Motivate
The topic of how people are motivated is one that has investigated by curious minds for as long as man relied on others to achieve some of their goals. The theory has been put forth that, in the end, there are only two forces that motivate people, self-interest and fear. This paper will argue that in fact, these two forces are really one. In addition, there is another, third facet of self-interest that is sometimes overlooked - the love for others.
Understanding how people are motivated is a crucial piece to successfully interacting and collaborating in society. As adults, one must take into account how best to motivate those around us in order to achieve our goals in this world.
If people were not motivated to perform tasks that were not appealing to them, imagine what the world would be like. Although at first people may be…… [Read More]
I would always focus on being the person to extend a hand and make sure the sting of ostracism didn't hurt someone else. That value is very strong in me today as the assessment shows with my affiliative value at percentile at 99% percentile. I also realized that throughout my childhood that achievement and hard work are unassailable. People and circumstances may take away where you live and force you to move, but hard work leading to achievement lasts forever. I began to believe that excellence is really all that matters, and that affiliative style I have kept me at least grounded with people. These events made me who I am and over the many moves (nine by the time I was in high school) I realized that compassion and kindness matter so much more than appearing to be important.
Conclusion and eflection
This is an excellent exercise because it…… [Read More]
(2001, October 1) Self-esteem at work, Psychology Today, etrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/articles/200310/self-esteem-work
6. Describe the needs present in Maslow's hierarchy. How can organizations attempt to meet these needs so that employees are motivated to produce more work? Discuss the answer in detail.
According to Abraham Maslow (1970), there is a hierarchy of needs that define human development. These are: Basic Needs (food, shelter, clothing), Safety, Love and Belonging, Skill Accomplishment and Self-Actualization. In Maslow's view, as each need becomes adequately satisfied, the next highest need becomes dominant. The first three are deficiency needs because they must be satisfied if the individual is to be healthy and secure. The last two are growth needs because they are related to the development and achievement of one's potential (Maslow, 1970). In Maslow's view, as long as we are motivated to satisfy our deficiency needs, then we are moving in a positive direction towards personal…… [Read More]
Incentives and Performance
Kopelman, ., et al. (2012); Further Development of a Measure of Theory X and Y Managerial Assumptions. Journal of Managerial Issues. 24 (4): 450-62.
Certainly, there is no one best way to ensure that either employees or managers are properly motivated. Most scholarship, in fact, indicates that motivation is a balance between the task-relevant behavior and the maturity and acumen of the group in which the individual manages or participates in. In fact, motivation is the basic driving force that helps individuals work, change and actualize to achieve their goals. This motivational behavior may be intrinsic or extrinsic, depending upon the individual and the manner in which that individual's personality uses different sets of motivation to incur actualization. Much of the basic theory of motivation tends to be based on the work of Benjamin Maslow, not only on human needs, but on the manner in which those…… [Read More]
Personality Theories in Chuck Yeager's Life
General Yeager was born in 1923, in Myra, .Va., and is a graduate of Hamlin, .Va., High School. He enlisted in the Army Air Corps in September of 1941, and was then accepted for pilot training under the flying sergeant program in July of 1942. Yeager received his pilot wings and appointment as a flight officer in March of 1943 at Luke Field in Arizona
During orld ar II, General Yeager distinguished himself in aerial combat over France and Germany during the years 1943-1945 by shooting down 13 German aircraft. In fact, he shot down five on one mission, including one of Germany's first jet fighters. On March 5, 1944, he was shot down over German-occupied France but escaped capture when friendly factions of the French Maquis helped him to reach the safety of the Spanish border.
He returned to the United States in…… [Read More]
6. Maslow's hierarchy of needs
Abraham Maslow constructed a pyramid of five levels, each level presenting the types of needs that motivate people. At the bottom level sit the physiological needs, followed by needs of safety, needs of loving, being loved and belonging to a community. At the fourth level sit the needs of esteem, followed by the needs of self-actualization. In order to maintain an organizational staff member motivated and satisfied on the job, it is necessary for the leadership team to strive and manage to satisfy as many of these needs as possible. Below are some pointers as to how the desiderate could be achieved:
Physiological needs -- the first thing is that of remunerating the employee in a means that allows him to exchange the salary for the purchase of primary commodities and services. The second thing is that of ensuring that the employee is able to…… [Read More]
Cultures also define significant roles and set up expectations of the behaviors that accompany them. When these role definitions become rigid, they tend to be counterproductive because both individuals and social groups are constantly in the process of change and adaptation to the differences that are part of life (Schein, 2011). For the young child, knowing what is expected can contribute markedly to feelings of security, However, if expectations are too rigid, it can also be inhibiting to growth and lock in the developing individual so that full use of potential for adaptation to change is impossible. Attitudes and behavior develop in response to unconscious needs and drives for protection from pain, preservation of personal integrity, allowance for essential growth, and assistance in dealing with reality (Keith-Lucas, 2010). Coping mechanisms -- denial, projection, regression, fantasy, and so on -- relate to their source of stimulus and may seem inappropriate to…… [Read More]
" (Halpin and urt, 1998) Duois states: "The history of the American Negro is the history of this strife -- this longing to attain self-conscious manhood, to merge his double self into a better and truer self. In this merging he wishes neither of the older selves to be lost. He would not Africanize America, for America has too much to teach the world and Africa. He would not bleach his Negro soul in a flood of White Americanism, for he knows that Negro blood has a message for the world. He simply wishes to make it possible for a man to be both a Negro and an American, without being cursed and spit upon by his fellows, without having the doors of Opportunity closed roughly in his face. (Duois, 1903)
The work of Pope (1998) conducted a study to make examination of the relationship between psychosocial development and racial…… [Read More]
iPod (Apple's MP3 player) relates to Maslow's hierarchy of human needs.
Abraham Maslow created his theory of a hierarchy of human needs in the late 1960's and early 1970's. The psychologist wrote that human beings are primarily motivated by unsatisfied needs. Certain lower needs must be satisfied before higher needs are satisfied. (Maslow, 1970) Advertising new products often depends upon generating a sense of need, and promising that the new product can fulfill this need.
Take for example the Apple's new MP3 player, the iPod. True, on a Maslow-like physiological level, the first level of need, one cannot eat an iPod, and a less mechanical form of 'apple' is necessary for sustenance, iPods do satisfy the consumer's immediate physical needs for lighter equipment. iPods are portable and more amenable to working out, and for musical use on crowded subway, and the crush and strain of modern urban life. The iPod…… [Read More]
These factors -- self-awareness, self-concept and emotional intelligence -- will also affect one's leadership style. High levels of these traits would make one a perfect candidate for servant leadership, but if levels of these traits differ, they could guide one to other forms of leadership. For example, a leader with relatively poor social skills is unlikely to be a servant leader, and is more likely to pursue a transactional leadership style. Somebody with great social skills but lacking in self-awareness or self-concept could become a "great man" -- style leader or could become an autocrat (or both, in some political cases).
One's self-concept in particular will guide one's leadership style. How one envisions him- or herself is critical to understanding how he or she will define his or her leadership style. Self-awareness contributes the ability to challenge one's assumed constraints and to celebrate one's points of power (Fowler et al.,…… [Read More]
600). What Cushman means with this is that the self has become empty resulting from the loss of the community, tradition, and shared experience connected to specific cultures or communities (Cushman, 1990, p. 600). This empty self then needs emotional fulfillment, which individuals have sought in consuming products and ideas offered by the media and by shops. Indeed, the author claims that the current psychological phenomena of narcissism and borderline states are the direct product of the emptiness created by the post-World War II loss of connection to humanity via common culture and belief systems.
Twenge (2006, p. 2), on the other hand, believes that individualism has reached an ultimate high with today's young generation, or what the author refers to as the "Generation Me." This is a generation for whom morality and human connection are exclusively focused upon the individual as well as individual desires or ideals. Even love…… [Read More]
, 2010). The model includes several mediator (e.g., knowledge exchange) and moderator variables (e.g., self-leadership competencies of actors) that explain why and when this approach is effective and looks at leadership in more of a comprehensive way than focusing on one individual. Such perspectives have suggested that when employees become involved in the decision making processes then this can strengthen leadership.
Transactional leadership is the leadership model that represents what most people view as the concept of management. Transactional leadership is defined by an exchange relationship between the managers and the employees that are all motivated by their own self-interests and meeting the expectations that are associated with their job description. Transactional leadership consists of monitoring, controlling, and motivating employees through economic incentives and other types of exchange incentives (Bass, 1985). Most of the motivation in this model stems from financial exchanges such as by either salaries, performance…… [Read More]
In this case one may imagine the student who attending class in school and cannot concentrate on what is being taught because their stomach is rumbling from lack of having eaten and they also have a headache from a general lack of nutrition. Furthermore, this student has no sense of security or safety and is nervous and anxious.
Example 2: The individual in this example is not hungry and they are not tired but they are nervous because their parents fought all night and this resulted in their being awake and scared the neighbors would call the police again and that their parents would wind up in jail by morning. This individual has no inner motivation to learn because they are worried and stressed about their own safety and security in their home life. This individual may very well be extrinsically motivated to learn but have not reached the level…… [Read More]
I try not to pry into what I see as the private business of others. Privacy, I believe is something that is strongly valued in America -- in other societies, older societies, what one did was of interest to the community, even if it took place behind closed doors. However, despite or even because of the privacy and freedom given to me, I try to uphold my high moral standards, even when I do not feel that there is someone like a priest or a policeman 'watching' over my shoulder.
However, I do think that given that we live in an age where life is growing even more private, maybe too private, as so many people spend the little leisure time they have surfing the net, pretending to be anonymous individuals in the virtual and disembodied space of the Internet. It is easy to profess one set of morals at…… [Read More]
job redesign approaches to revise the selected position.
There are various job redesign approaches that can be adopted in order to revise the role of the supervisor at GM. Grant & Parker (2009, p. 5) pointed out that job design describes how various jobs, roles and tasks are structured, modified and enacted. It also describes the impact of the structures. Job design has also been pointed out by Strumpfer (2006) to be of increasing importance to various organizations. This is because a well designed job results in an improvement of employee well-being. And yet again, it can observed as the process in which a given supervisor makes up his/her mind to change an element of the job, roles as well as tasks of a given individual (Tims and Bakker,2010)
The proposed and improved Job edesign system
General Motors should redesign their jobs to follow the framework of job…… [Read More]
Pilgrimages in India
A Quest for Finding Oneself in India: Introduction
Humans are born with an incredible amount of mental capacity to learn and grow, yet we are not born with a pre-determined set of rules guiding our thoughts. Religious practice around the world is thus the result of a collaboration of ideas between humans within a society in order to bring a framework of understanding into everyday life. Yet even with justifications of existence provided by religion, some individuals choose to pursue unanswered questions, in order to find a deeper meaning to life, and existence. Pilgrimage is such a quest, and is the pursuit of knowledge, as well as a journey of the mind and body, in search of answers to the unknowable questions of the universe. Pilgrimage also serves to prove one's own devotion to his or her faith, and can be qualified as a measure of…… [Read More]
Learning & Teaching
Identify a behavior in the healthcare setting that you would like to change that involves extinguishing an undesirable behavior and replacing it with a healthier behavior (e.g., getting cardiac patients to reduce their high-fat diet and eat healthier foods; getting patients with low back pain to minimize their pain and become more independent in their activities). Describe how the behavior could be changed using the principles of a particular learning theory. Then describe how the same behavior could be changed using a different theory. Depending on the behavior to be changed and replaced, you might also discuss why one plan might work better for men than women, or for younger people than older people.
To start with the last sentence first, it is clear that the younger a person is, they are generally more pliable and "changeable" than with older and/or more mature people that are more…… [Read More]
Modern America lacks a true love ethic. riters like M. Scott Peck and Bell Hooks argue that our confusion about love stems from an inability to see love as an action rather than a noun, and the confusion of romance and sex with love. Instead, they argue that true love is based on choice and the desire to nurture the self or another spiritually.
Hooks specifically argues that much of our confusion about love stems from our paternalistic culture that teaches men that to love is to be weak and inferior. As such, love has become associated with what is feminine and weak in our culture. In their works, June Jordan and Sonia Sanchez describe the gamut of what is considered love in our culture, from the sensual and romantic, to the understanding that love of humanity can help create a more meaningful and functional relationship with ourselves, others,…… [Read More]
Managing Organisational Culture
The values and behaviors that contribute to the unique social and psychological environment of an organization make up the organizations culture. Organizational culture is the summation total of an organization's past and current suppositions, incidents, viewpoint, and values that hold it together, and is articulated in its self-image, inner workings, connections with the outside world, and future prospects.
In dealing with the management of organisational culture, it is firstly essential to recognize as fully as possible the characteristics of the existing or new target culture to include the myths, symbols, rituals, values and assumptions that strengthen the culture. Organisational culture is not something that can be viewed very easily it is consequently quite hard to replace it. Usually when certain leaders form a company, their values are converted into the actions of the members of that organisation. When other leaders take over, it may not…… [Read More]
you pick 2 companies write their motivation techniques. I pick intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation. And compare companies. Do papers have database, searches people pulled web. You find UOPHX Website writes companies listed, pick.
Motivating employees at two companies:
Ben & Jerry's versus Southwest
Motivational theories by their very nature address companies in a fairly generic, prescriptive format. However, two corporations exist that continue to be very successful, after many years of impressive financial growth, seem to break all molds, yet confirm one of the most noteworthy theories regarding what motivates employees -- intrinsic vs. extrinsic motivation. Ben & Jerry's began as a small company based in Vermont that, despite or because of its ethical ideals, has become an integral part of American culture. Ben & Jerry's changed the way Americans consume ice cream, shifting the focus from quantity to quality. Southwest Airlines is a largely regional airline…… [Read More]
Freud, Jung and tar Wars
The tar Wars movies, especially the first three, are clearly a type of myth written to demonstrate archetypal personalities. The characters are driven by their behavior, so what they do and why they take the actions they take can be used to analyze their characters in terms of Jungian and Freudian theories.
In the Empire trikes Back, many of the characters are acting out of great personal need or personal striving, and many of them fit fairly well into Jung's theory or archetype personalities.
The "elf" is the highest form a personality can take, well integrated and centered. To become a self-actualized elf is Luke kywalker's goal and the final achievement of his mentor, Obi-Wan Kenobe. In an interesting twist, Darth Vader also sees himself that way. He believes self-actualization can be either good or evil, and finds evil more powerful and rewarding.
Most viewers…… [Read More]
Organizational Psychology - Motivation
Landy and Conte (2013) define industrial-organizational psychology as "the application of psychological principles, theory, and research to the work setting" (p. 7). A prominent line of research in industrial-organizational psychology is the study of worker motivation. Over many decades, as management theory has developed, several philosophical and psychological strands have emerged, and are often referred to as: 1) Person as machine; 2) person as scientist, and 3) person as intentional.
Person as Machine
Theory X managers are known to take "the carrot and the stick" approach to supervision since they believe that people work only for the monetary compensation, which means that coercion, threat, and punitive measures must be used to extract efficient workplace effort from employees. Manifestations of Theory X management include high levels of mistrust between employees and employers, and a tendency of management to blame workers for inefficiencies or mistakes rather than looking…… [Read More]
Once the children are of age, the parents' duty to take care of them reduces as the child takes charge to start a new life somewhere else. The parent usually has saved enough money through life insurance scheme and retirement savings to cater for himself after retirement. hen the child is grown, there is no dependence between the parents and children. Traits like hard work and honesty are encouraged towards children to ensure their survival in different societies when he grows up. In some cases when the parent is too weak and old to look after himself, he is taken to a home for the elderly since none of his children is available to take care of him (Stewart et al. 580).
The other model of family model is the model of psychological or emotional interdependence. In this model, the children are of less material help to the family. Parenting,…… [Read More]
leadership coach begins each public presentation making it very clear that having a leadership position and being a leader are not the same thing. Leadership and management are quite different even though often used synonymously. A "position" is something one is hired into, or appointed -- whether that results in leadership is dependent on the qualities of the individual. Some leaders rise from relative obscurity, and lead from below; some managers never learn to lead (Ventura, 2008).
Almost all the literature reviewed, though, seem to see the leader as being one who can see a situation and assume the right style of leadership for that occasion (e.g. Harry Truman taking over after Franklin Roosevelt's death). Certainly, once there is a leadership role assumed, the dynamics of interpersonal relationships change -- as they should. It is impossible for a leader to be completely fair and unbiased if that leader openly socializes…… [Read More]
Maslow gave them that self-meaning and appreciation and became one of the pioneers of a movement that brought the focus of individual feeling, yearning and wholeness into psychology. He sort of read them out and spoke their thoughts, feelings and aspirations for them. He devoted much energy to humanistic psychology and the human potential and inaugurated the "fourth force" in psychology towards the end of his life. The first force consisted of Freud and other depth psychologists; the second force, the behaviorists; his own humanism and European existentialism, the third. This fourth force was made up of transpersonal psychologies that derived from European philosophies, which examined meditation, higher consciousness levels and para-psychological phenomena and which reacted against the then dominant psychoanalysis and behaviorism schools of the 20th century. Among the most prominent European philosophers were Kierkegaard, Husserl and Heidegger and the most prominent in the humanist/existential group were Carl Rogers,…… [Read More]
Six different well-vetted and established measures were used to determine each subjects' personal standing in terms of their level of self-actualization or progress towards self-actualization, their perceived level of social support, their placement on a depression index, an assessment of their life experiences, and finally a test designed to measure how likely an individual is to try to present themselves positively on self-reporting measures such as those use din the study. This last test's results were used to control for self-reporting biases in the other instruments. The subjects were given instructions in person and then asked to complete all six instruments in their own homes, with recommendations that the instruments be completed in a single block of time, and respondents then mailed the completed instruments to the researchers.
The research did not yield any results that were contrary to long-held and specifically stated hypotheses, and in large part simply confirmed…… [Read More]
But did she mean well sometimes? Or is she always so rude towards you?
Analysis: This example illustrates a long process in a short amount of space, but it helps to point out some aspects of oger's theory. According to ogers, such dialogue can be observed with nearly every client as generalizations are broken down to acute experiences (ogers, 1951). Such breakthroughs in the origins of the problem rely on a patient's freedom to fully express the self while the therapist provides guidance and acceptance (ogers, 1951). The therapist guides the client as the client comes to understand the reasons for his or her thoughts.
Client: I feel like I can't talk to you, that you have judged me guilty. This feeling sticks with me, I don't know what to do, but I don't like you.
Therapist: So you think I have put you up for trial and…… [Read More]
Growth and Development
Introduction Comment by babyliza: This part discusses the qualities of a good leader. I believe it should discuss the qualities of an individual's effectiveness, both in personal and professional life. Not a leader, so it's out of topic.
Just like the lions and the bees, human are social beings and live in communities sometimes small or large. Daily, we relate one way or another with each other either at home or at our places of work. Irrespective of the form of communication employed, either in person or via phones or emails, our communication and method of relating with other people has an impression on them either positively or otherwise. To this effect, there are certain skills that everyone should become proficient at so as to sustain healthy relationships and perform tasks more quickly; these skills are referred to as the Interaction Essentials. They are very helpful in…… [Read More]
Carl ogers and Abraham Maslow Treatment Approach for Outpatient Therapy
Carl ogers and Abraham Maslow treatment approach for out-patient therapy.
The study of human psychology is important in understanding personality of individuals. One can study personality of individuals, but there is no scientific method of studying personality of the whole humanity. Human are different from person to person and vey unique to some degree. This paper prompts a thesis, and it digs into the psychology of humans. It dwells on the person-Centered approach by Carl ogers and on the Humanistic Approach by Abraham Maslow.
Both Carl ogers and Abraham Maslow have an influence on today's outpatient therapy. Both scholars have had an influence on the humanistic psychology and personal centered approach to therapy. Although humanistic psychology gained its popularity in the mid 20th century, both scholars have further entrenched theories and practices that make it important in today's outpatient therapy.…… [Read More]
Maslow also argues that after a person meets their basic survival needs, they will begin to self-actualize (Maslow, 1999). This means that they will now become concerned with an increase of tension related to their own achievements, goals, and behavior. If Clinton had felt that his physical and psychological needs had not been met, then his main concern would have been tension reduction. Tension reduction would have likely resulted in a lack of sexual desire for other women that could result in tension in his marriage. But since Clinton's basic survival needs were satisfied, he was able to seek out relationships and behaviors that would implicitly likely create more tension, and serve to try and satisfy the need for achievement and self-actualization.
By definition, Maslow's need for self-actualization, sometimes referred to as growth-motivation, cannot be satisfied (Maslow, 1999). People try to enhance their lives instead of their survival, and often…… [Read More]