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Self-identity or self-concept is a multidimensional personal construct that refers to one's individual perception of themselves in relation to a number of different characteristics or situations such as gender role, sexuality, racial identity, and so forth (Shavelson et al. 1976). Social-identity is the portion of the individual self-identity that has to do with perceived membership in a personally-relevant social group or social-identity can refer to the collective identity of the group (Turner and Oakes 1986).
Personal possessions have always been used by anthropogists to help to understand the personal and social identities of people living in different cultures, present and past; however, in the postmodern era, the notion of separate social identities is somewhat marred by the ability of consumers to connect with other cultures and possess items of a cross-cultural nature (Solomon 1983). Self-identity is something that people in the postmodern era create at least partially through their…
Gagne P. And Tewksbury R. 1998. Conformity pressure and gender resistance among transgendered individuals. Social Problems 45(1), pp. 81-101.
James, W. 1890. The principles of psychology Vol. 1. New York: Henry Holt.
Markus, H. And Nurius, P. 1986. Possible selves. American Psychologist 41 (9), pp. 954-969.
Money J. 1985. Pediatric sexology and hermaphroditism. Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy 11(3), pp. 139-156.
This is especially true with Sethe. She realizes more self-awareness when knows she is free. Her selfishness is finally right in her eyes and this sense of power allows her to discover different aspects of life, including passion. She comes to realize beauty and love. She even learn to let go of her past and she tells Beloved, "You got to learn more sense than that" (130). Sethe does let go and then she understands that she is strong enough to survive and l be her own good thing. hen Sethe tells Beloved how she tended to her as a baby, Beloved does not believe and was "uncomprehending everything except that Sethe was the woman who took her face away, leaving her crouching in a dark, dark place, forgetting to smile" (296). hile this scene is tragic, we see how it forces characters to realize certain truths about themselves. Once…
Morrison, Toni. Beloved. New York: Signet Books. 1987.
Interestingly other sociologists take a different approach, noting social identity is many things, inclusive of the foundational "aspects of ones selfhood" (Brubaker & Cooper, 2000: 8). Self-identity seems the opposite note Brubaker & Cooper (2000) of solidarity and rather is more the result of "interactive development" amongst people that share similar beliefs, experiences and opinions.
It is important to note however when one reflect on self-identity the many contexts in which the term is utilized. True understanding suggests one must first have an idea of self, about what that self is, how well the self functions and how much the self is similar to and different from the world at large (Jenkins, 2004; Brubaker & Cooper, 2000). Also posed is the question of meaning when one refers to the self, and whether the self means the same for those attempting to define it. Most people would define the self as…
Brubaker, R. (1984). The limits to rationality: An essay on the social and moral thought of Max Weber, London: George Allen and Unwin.
Jenkins, R. (2004). Social Identity. New York: Routledge.
Lesko, W.A. (2002), Readings in social psychology: General, classic & contemporary selections (5th Edition). Boston: Allyn & Bacon
TenHuisen, E. & Standish, a.M. (2004). Caregivers Interventions, Child Life
90s American Popular Culture and Self-Identity Formation
Popular culture is the main force in America; it reaches our classrooms, cars and, even homes and influences what people think, watch, listen to, wear, and buy. Popular culture can be quite addictive, annoying, offensive, controversial, and pleasurable. It can also be difficult and almost impossible to avoid. In many cases it is challenging for us to differentiate between popular culture and the rest of our lives, because it is so entrenched in our day-to-day patterns. Given the significant role of popular culture in the American society, I propose in this paper that it should be looked at as a cultural practice, with its own power to bring about social change -- to transform social factors, and the foundations themselves of people's lives. This essay particularly discusses the manner in which popular culture can help youth to make a society more democratic, in…
Barker, C., & Galasi-ski, D. (2001). Cultural studies and discourse analysis: A dialogue on language and identity. London: SAGE Publications Ltd.
Bryman, A. (2004) Social Research Methods, (revised edition), Oxford: Oxford University Press
Bucholz, M. (2002). Youth and Cultural Practice, Annual Review of Anthropology, 31, 525-552.
Dearn, L.K. (2013). Young People And Popular Music Culture The Impact Of Popular Music Within The Everyday Lives Of Children Aged 10-16. Masters By Research University Of York
The conclusion of the story leads us to believe that he has found a single memory that he can identify with as he watched J.P. And his wife reconcile. The single moment of happiness he remembers is enough to compel him to try to communicate with his wife and girlfriend and become the man he used to be and the man he wants to be. He can recover who he is by reaching out to those in his life. Individuality is often destroyed with alcoholism because alcoholics tend to feel that they cannot exist without a drink. The fact that the narrator wants to try to improve signals that he has rediscovered a strong sense of identity and as ready to live without alcohol.
here I'm Calling From" is also a story of hope. At the end of the story, we have hope that the narrator and J.P. might actually…
Carver, Raymond. "Where I'm Calling From." Where I'm Calling From: Stories. New York: Vintage Contemporaries. 1989.
Cheesman (2002) conducted a study on Karen identity in the Union of Myanmar with regards to historical and social conditions. The study found that Karen identity is a relatively difficult identity because individuals from this ethnic background do not have a common language, material attributes, religion and culture. While most of the existing assessments of this ethnic identity have been carried out in Thailand, it is largely influenced by historical and social conditions in the Union of Myanmar. Based on a review of contemporary Myanmar, people of Karen identity are seemingly virtuous, illiterate (uneducated), and oppressed. Many aspects relating to this identity appear to emphasize inferiority and subordination mostly because of mythology and modifications by the elite. Similar to the Union of Myanmar, Karen identity was brought by political dynamics and created by elite groups in the society.
The information provided in the article is accurate with regards to the…
According to Phinney and Alipuria (1987), ethnic self-identity is the sense of self that an individual feels; being a member of an ethnic group, along with the behavior and attitudes with that feeling (p. 36). The authors point out that the development of ethnic identity is an evolution from the point of an ethnic identity that is not examined through an exploration period, so as to resonate with a specified and attained ethnic identity (p. 38).
Ethnic identity refers to a feeling, attitude and identification of one with the behavior and character of people of a specified culture and cultural ethos. They often have a common origin, values, beliefs, practices, customs and other commonalities. Therefore, as opposed to the race concept in which the physical traits are the main controlling factor, ethnicity relates to the common values, beliefs and concepts help by a group of people (Yeh & Huang,…
In essence I am a very gregarious person with many friends. I enjoy the company of others and I am especially devoted to my family. I feel that family life is the core of the positive aspects of modern civilization. On the other hand I am also very concerned about social ills, homelessness and the contravention of basic human rights that occur daily in our word. Another area of concern that defines me as a person is my concern for the environment and the damage that has been done to our ecosystems by what I see as the exploitation and greed of a few.
In short, I am a concerned individual who views personal growth and identity as something that carries with it a responsibility towards others and the world around us. I feel that while it is important to be personally ambitious, success should not come at the expense…
Identity quotes. Retrieved from http://thinkexist.com/quotations/identity/
Sebald, H. (1977). A Social Psychological Analysis.
Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Most Elizabethans believed their self-identity was wrapped up in a cosmic paradigm of fate and destiny, and were somehow controlled by the stars and planets and had a power over the baser side of man -- tools of God, but with certain amounts of free will. Thus, a very central idea in Shakespeare is this central view that an individual's identity is set by God, the Planets, the Universe, the Gods, and Nature. But in contrast, the idea of free will for the individual -- or even a single utterance or decision, can change forever the destiny of the individual. A superb example of this is in Romeo and Juliet.
Fate and chance surround the identities of the major and minor characters in RJ almost from the opening scene. Because the audience already believed that their destiny was predetermined, they saw the characters as having very little choice in their…
Racism and Society -- Literature Response
Race and Identity as Functions of Societal Labeling and Expectations
Two pieces of 20th century literature exemplify the alienation felt by African-Americans in the United States. One of those works, authored by Zora Neal Hurston in 1928, is the essay How It Feels to Be Colored Me, which vividly illustrates the degree to which the identity of a black person in the pre-Civil Rights era was defined by white society. More importantly, Hurston's work also illustrates how much of a conflict and perpetual struggle African-Americans experienced internally if they tried to maintain their own self-identity. hereas many blacks of that era bought into the expectations foisted on them by white society, others resisted this artificial identity that was imposed on them. Hurston clearly was shaped by this dynamic and bitterly resisted the self-identity that she was expected to have accepted and reflected to get…
Ehrenreich, B. (2009). Nickel and Dimed: on (Not) Getting by in America. New York,
NY: Henry Holt and Company, LLC.
Hurston, Z.N. (1928). How It Feels to Be Colored Me.
Staples, B. (1986). Just Walk on By.
Identity Themes in Praisesong for the idow by Paule Marshall and Confessions of a Mask by Mishima
As marginalized people from around the world gain their voice in print, contemporary interpretations of identity become especially timely and relevant. Indeed, in an increasingly globalized world where multiculturalism is the norm rather than the exception, an analysis of how identity is perceived by these diasporic peoples is timely and relevant. To this end, this paper provides a comparative analysis of the identity themes in Praisesong for the idow by Paule Marshall and Confessions of a Mask by Mishima, including an examination of these issues in the peer-reviewed and scholarly literature. Finally, a summary of the research concerning these identity themes and important findings are presented in the conclusion.
Review and Analysis
Praisesong for the idow by Paule Marshall
Although people form an individual sense of identity over time, this sense change can…
Alexander, Simone A. Mother Imagery in the Novels of Afro-Caribbean Women. Colombia, MO:
University of Missouri Press, 2001.
Butler, Judith. Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. New York: Routledge,
Self and Social Psychology
Social psychology is a relatively new field of study in modern science. Its focus is on the identity of the "Self" -- the sense of individuality: the component parts that make up who one "is" and the meaning of the "whole" Self. This paper acts as a referenced for individuals unfamiliar with the general principles of social psychology. It aims to provide the reader with a basic overview of the field and to define key principles often used by social psychologists.
Discovering the Self
Self-Concept, Awareness, and Self-Schemas
Discovering the Self in social psychology can seem as simple as posing the question, "Who am I?" (Myers, 2010, p. 13). But answering the question is where the discovery of Self really begins. One's sense of identity, sense of self, sense of gender, race, categorical social grouping all factor into the answer. "Who am I?" raises the issue…
Aronson, E., Wilson, T., Akert, R. (2012). Social Psychology. NY: Pearson.
Hewitt, J.P. (2009). Oxford Handbook of Positive Psychology. Oxford University
Jung, C. (1921). Psychological Types. Zurich: Rascher Verlag.
Each outside label has an affect on that individuals own conception of them, effectively rising or lowering self-image. These categories allow individuals of the same label to sometimes band together in order to further develop their own unique identities away from the labeling and discrimination from the larger group who may view them as abnormal, (Oxoby & McLeish, 2007: 13). Once inside a more specific group, these individuals have the capacity to flourish, and gain more and more self-esteem, (Handler, 1991: 223). However, when placed outside of these smaller groups into the larger population, this identity is once again viewed in a discriminatory manner, (Taylor & Moghaddam, 1994: 134). This occurs mainly due to the xenophobia each group portrays towards other groups, which then creates a hostile environment for the establishment of strong individual identities.
One way to examine the formations of deaf and queer identities using the Social Identity…
Adam, B. 2000. "Love and Sex in Constructing Identity Among Men Who Have Sex
With Men." International Journal of Sexuality and Gender Studies 5(4).
Barry, P. (2002). Lesbian and gay criticism. Beginning Theory: An Introduction to Literary and Cultural Theory. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Bourdieu, P. & Passeron, J.-C. (1977) Reproduction in Education, Culture and Society,
I think I could definitely say that if one's personality were completely changed, then one would cease to function as the same identity and would instead be someone new, even in the same body. And -- to head you off before you ask -- yes, I believe the reverse is also true: the same personality (that is, the same mind) transferred over to a new body would retain the same identity that had previously occupied the original body.
BOB: Now you've complicated things -- is identity of the personality or the mind? Or is the mind the seat of the personality, and also identity? In our first supposition of one who suffers a trauma and undergoes a personality change, suppose also that the memory is unaffected. Would identity have changed here, even though the two personalities share a consistent history?
CIN: Yes, I think that would be a fair assessment…
Still, Mason indicates that the opposite is often true in public education settings, where educators, parents and institutions collectively overlook the implications of research and demands imposed by law. Indeed, "despite the IDEA requirements, research results, teacher perceptions, and strong encouragement from disabilities rights advocate, many youth have been left out of IEP and self-determination activities. For example, 31% of the teaches in a 1998 survey reported that they wrote no self-determination goals, and 41% indicated they did not have sufficient training or information on teaching self-determination." (Mason et al., 442)
This is a troubling finding, and one which implicates the needed paradigm shift discussed already in the research endeavor. Clearly, as the matter is framed by Mason et al., educators and researchers have already acknowledged the value in the strategies addressed here. By contrast, institutional change has been hard won, with schools and administrators balking at making broad-based alterations…
Beresford, B. (2004). On the Road to Nowhere? Young Disabled People and Transition. Child: Care, Health and Development, 30(6).
Department of Education (DOE). (2007). Guide to the Individualized Education Program. United States Department of Education. Online at http://www.ed.gov/parents/needs/speced/iepguide/index.html .
Katsiyannis, A.; deFur, S. & Conderman, G. (1998). Transition Services -- Systems Change for Youth with Disabilities? A Review of State Practices? The Journal of Special Education, 32(2), 55-61.
Mason, C.; Field, S. & Sawilowsky, S. (2004). Implementation of self-determination activities and student participation in IEPs. Council for Exceptional Children, 70(4), 441-451.
According to David Scott (2009) traditionally, White men, as well as other men, are socialized to equate self-worth with economic terms. They are taught to function at all costs and to be in control. These power issues are linked to the salience of their race and gender. In American culture people are ranked on their proximity to the normal referents of society: White, male, middle-class, Christian, heterosexual, and able-bodied persons. The current economic conditions, along with the constant pressure to live up to the masculine stereotype, such as no emotions and family provider continue to be ripe for ongoing oppression and racism by White men in the work place. As unemployment rises, White men are losing jobs and finding it harder to secure employment. These conditions can lead to frustration and anger by White men who are becoming disillusioned by the American dream. This paper will be an…
Howard, J.A. (2000). Social psychology of identities. Annual review of sociology, Vol. 26, Issue 1, 367- 393. Retrieved September 5, 2011, from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=9d41e83e-4e0b-4b27-8fe3-a0aa7ed2dc5c%40sessionmgr111&vid=4&hid=127
Newman, D.M. (2005) Identities and inequalities: Exploring the intersections of race, class, gender and sexuality, 7th ed. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies.
Scott, D.A. (2009) White male identity development and the world of work: Using the key model. In G.R. Walz, J.C. Bleuer, & R.K. Yep (Eds.), Compelling counseling interventions. VISTAS 2009. 21-29. Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association. Retrieved September 5, 2011, from http://counselingoutfitters.com/vistas/vistas09/Article_3_Scott.pdf
The practices significantly support the development of the immigrant children. The research indicates of the children experiencing interactions that are complex. This is with the respective peers when engaging in creative activities inclusive of gross motor and language arts (Donald et al., 2007). The creative activities reflect on open-ended aspects with the resultant stratification in shaping the initial academic progress of the immigrant children possibility. The application of the developmentally suitable practices in the primary setting of the immigrant children society positively influences the outcomes of the children (Donald et al., 2007).
The challenge faced in defining the developmentally fit strategies emphasizes on the child-centered approaches. The approaches relate to the developmental theory with the society directed instructions originating from the behaviorist perspective of the immigrant children. As a result of the theoretical course from which the child-centered practices derives, they reflects on the synonymous view with the appropriate practices.…
Bornstein, Marc H. And Cote, Linda R. (2004). Mothers' Parenting Cognitions in Cultures of Origin, Acculturating Cultures, and Cultures of Destination. Child Development,
January/February 2004, Volume 75, Number 1, Pages 221 -- 235. Retrieved from http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals/pp/01650254.html
Capps, R., Kenny, G., & Fix, M. (2003). Health insurance coverage of children in mixedstatus immigrant families (Snapshots of America's Children, No. 12).
Washington, DC: The Urban Institute.
Aspects of identity that might have been denied or denigrated because of colonial mentalities can resurface and be admired. Discourse on gender and social class has also deepened and enabled identity constructions to flourish outside the confines of proscribed gender roles. Culture changes, and so too does identity. The values placed on identity aspects like religion have shifted too, making religion a less salient part of people's identity. On the other hand, sexual orientation and gender identity have both become more important. Gender roles have changed to such a great degree as to transform the definition and meaning of family, love, or sex.
Therefore, a number of issues affect the way we understand and create identities. Academia reflects broader changes in social values and norms. In some cases, academia inspires those social and political transformations. Regardless of the directions of the relationship between academia and social values, the two interact…
Indeed, Bandura (1997) writes, "The way in which adolescents develop and exercise their personal efficacy during this period can play a key role in setting the course their life paths take" (pg. 177). Because society is made up of people, people who have higher levels of self-efficacy in large numbers tend to change society, making it more proactive, productive, and progressive. In addition, the opposite of this is also true. Indeed, larger groups with lower levels of self-esteem and self-efficacy tend to create societies that are less motivated to change, or at least pockets within this society who have motivated the laissez-faire mentality. Furthermore, one's self-esteem, self-concept, and self-efficacy help determine how one sees one's self in society. Those who see themselves as unproductive and who believe they will be burdens to society can account for many of those who make up society's prisons and areas of social assistance.
Alvarez, J.M. (2009). Self-Concept. Retrieved August 2, 2009, from Child Development
Reference Volume 7: http://social.jrank.org/pages/554/Self-Concept.html
Bandura, A. (1994). Self-efficacy. In V.S. Ramachaudran (Ed.), Encyclopedia of human behavior (Vol. 4, pp. 71-81). New York: Academic Press. Retrieved August 2, 2009, from Emory University: http://www.des.emory.edu/mfp/BanEncy.html
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-Efficacy. New York: Macmillan.
The causes of human actions and behavior are generally sought for in the psyche of the individual or in the social environment.
Ewen obert B. ( 1998) An Introduction to Theories of Personality. 5th ed. Mahwah,
NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Boeree C. ABAHAM MASLOW: 1908 -1970. etrieved from http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/maslow.html
Guy T.M. (2004) Freud's Theory of Culture: Eros, Loss, and Politics. Journal of Phenomenological Psychology; 3/22/2004. etrieved from http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-125869018.html
Jantzen, Grace M.(2004) Death and the Displacement of Beauty. New York: outledge.
McKeachie W. And Doyle C. ( 1971) Psychology. New York: Addison-Wesley.
athna I. Ethics in the practice of clinical psychology. etrieved from http://www.issuesinmedicalethics.org/172ar69.html
oth. M. Conflict and Culture. etrieved from http://www.loc.gov/loc/lcib/9810/freud.html
Strachey, James, ed. (1961) Civilization and Its Discontents. 1st ed. New York W.W. Norton.
The Final Struggle and Victory of Science - Pinel and Tuke. etrieved from http://www.cscs.umich.edu/~crshalizi/White/insanity/pinel.html
The Genetic Self. etrieved from http://www.trans4mind.com/transformation/transform7.1.htm
The Scope Of Psychology.…
Ewen Robert B. ( 1998) An Introduction to Theories of Personality. 5th ed. Mahwah,
NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Boeree C. ABRAHAM MASLOW: 1908 -1970. Retrieved from http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/maslow.html
Guy T.M. (2004) Freud's Theory of Culture: Eros, Loss, and Politics. Journal of Phenomenological Psychology; 3/22/2004. Retrieved from http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-125869018.html
Biases in Person Perception-Self-Verification
Biases in Self-Perception
"O wad some Pow'r the giftie gie us ... To see ourselves as others see us," wrote Scotland's bard obert Burns, asserting the oft-believed truism that we would all like to have the power to know exactly what it is that other people are saying and thinking about us. And yet, as the poet continues on to say, the more we think about this idea the less wholeheartedly we might well be to embrace it: Thinking about how others see us (and especially if they so precipitate as to tell us their precise thoughts) carries a very high degree of social and psychological risk. The high degree of risk so incurred arises in no small part from the fact that when we consider the idea that other people know what we are "really" like rather than the self-deception with which we cloak ourselves…
London, M. (2003). Antecedents and consequences of self-verification: Implications for individual and group development. Human Resource Development Review 2(3), 273-293.
Pasupathi, P. & Rich, B. (2005) Inattentive listening undermines self-verification in personal storytelling. Journal of personality 73(4).
Swann, W.B. & Ely, R. (1984). A battle of wills: Self-verification vs. behavioral confirmation. Journal of personality and social psychology 46(6), 1287-1302.
His rejected and criticized Montaigne's self-indulgence. He stressed the need to be concerned for others and to temper one's self-expression so that it more closely resembled an ordered society.
Reading these three authors gives the reader a feeling for the changes in society that dictated a sense of identity and self from the 16th to 18th Centuries. Society went through some radical changes during this time that can be characterized by the ability and acceptability of indulging in self-expression. During the 16th century, one was free to express themself in almost any way possible. By the 18th Century, one had to temper what they had to say so that it fit within society's rules.
The rebellious self-indulgence of the 16th century was confined to within certain limits by the 18th century. As time progressed, even these limits were tightened and society dictated more of what a persons was allowed to…
Addison, Joseph. "The Spectator No. 476." 1712. Quotidiana. Ed. Patrick Madden. 12 Mar 2007. http://essays.quotidiana.org/addison/spectator_no_476/ . Accessed June 2, 2008.
Addison, Joseph. "The Spectator No. 562." Google Books. http://books.google.com/books?id=loE0AAAAMAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=+the+Spectator+no.+562&source=gbs_similarbooks_r&cad=2_1#PPA214,M1 .
Montaigne, (2005) Saggi ii, Milano, Adelphi, pp. 1543-1544.
Montaigne. The Complete Essays of Montaigne. Donald M. Frame (trans). Stanford University Press. 1958.
Jewish Identity in Modern Times: Jonathan Sacks, in an article Love, Hate and Jewish Identity appropriately sums up the dilemma of Jewish self-identity in modern times by stating: "Until the beginning of the 19th century, Jews defined themselves as the people loved by God. Since then most Jews...have defined themselves as the people hated by Gentiles." This is probably because in pre-modern times, the Jewish child felt no significant 'identity conflict' as he grew up into adulthood in isolated, self-contained Jewish communities. This state of relatively secure Jewish 'self-identity' was, however, severely disrupted by the advent of enlightenment in modern times, which forced the Jewish community to interact with the political, cultural, and economic forces outside their limited, self-contained Jewish society.
Jewish self-identity in modern times, however, is not as simplistic as stated by Sacks. According to Michael a. Meyer, apart from enlightenment (which is an ongoing process), the other…
History of the Jews." (n.d.) History World. Retrieved on April 5, 2007 at http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?groupid=413&HistoryID=aa42
Meyer, M.A. (1990). Jewish Identity in the Modern World. Seattle: University of Washington Press.
Sacks, J. (1997, November). "Love, Hate and Jewish Identity." First Things: A Monthly Journal of Religion and Public Life 26+.
The negative Jewish identity also gave rise to Jewish self-hatred; Karl Marx, himself a Jew, once wrote that Judaism was not a religion or a peoplehood but the egoistic desire for gain, and the love of money. (Meyer, 40)
Firstly, males tend to base their self-worth on what they have accomplished as individuals. This is an "independent self-concept." Females on the other hand, tend to judge themselves more in terms of an "interconnected self-concept," meaning that they assess themselves in terms of how they interact with other people. esearch has also demonstrated however that in countries like the United States, which are considered to be relatively individualistic, the independent self-concept prevails. However in countries in which community is valued higher than individualism, such as it is in numerous countries in Asia, South America and Africa, the interconnected self-concept is much more prominent. This demonstrates that socialization plays a major role in a person's concept of self because if these concepts were innate, then males and females in all cultures would view themselves by inherently devised standards as opposed to socially determined ones.
It is generally accepted that gender socialization…
Cross, S.E., & Madson, L. (1997). Models of the self: Self-construals and gender. Psychological Bulletin, 122, 5 -- 37
Good, G.E., Dell, D.M., & Mintz, L.B. (1989). Male role and gender role conflict: Relations to help seeking in men. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 36, 295-300.
Sanchez, F.J. & Vilain, E. (2009) Collective self-esteem as a coping resource for male-to- female transsexuals. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 56(1), 202-209
Sharpe, M.J., & Heppner, P. P (1991). Gender role, gender role conflict, and psychological well-being in men, Journal of Counseling Psychology, 38(3), 323-330
Social conformity inhibits the individuals' referentiality that was an intrinsic governance of the self. Although neither Durkheim nor Giddens arguments are without merit, it would seem, therefore, as Elias argued, neither society nor the individual can exist in total isolation from the other. In many ways they are defined by each other and the actions of the collective. Society can serve as the barometer by which individual identity is measured, and the converse is true. Interdependencies exist between individuals and society.
Bourdieu, P 1977, Outline of a Theory of practice, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Cleaver, F 2007, 'Understanding Agency in Collection Action' Journal of Human Development, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 223.
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Elias, N 1995, 'Introduction: Figuration and Process Sociology' Culture
and Economics, vol. 34.
Elias, N 1996, 'Problems of Involvement and Detachment', British…
Bourdieu, P 1977, Outline of a Theory of practice, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Cleaver, F 2007, 'Understanding Agency in Collection Action' Journal of Human Development, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 223.
Cuff, E, Sharrock, W, & Francis, D 1984, Perspectives in Sociology, 3rd edition, London,
Tame a Wild Tongue
Language and Identity in Anzaldua How to Tame a Wild Tongue
How to Tame a Wild Tongue is a fascinating internal expose of the evolution and development of language among immigrants of Spanish linguistic heritage. Gloria Anzaldua recognizes herself as a "blended" individual who speaks and contributes to a myriad of native and blended languages that are all varied and regionally expressive of both native Mexican and other "Chicano" immigrants as well as many of this heritage which were born in the U.S. To new immigrants or second generation immigrants to the U.S. Or even some who were isolated linguistically from their mother tongue by political borders. The work is powerful and expressive; it also lends itself to an internalized (externalized) idea of self. Anzaldua specifically discusses the cultural connections and disconnections that are created by language and its evolution and also addresses issues of internal…
Anzaldua, G. (1993). "How To Tame a Wild Tongue." Ways of Reading: An Anthology for Writers. Eds. David Bartholomae and Anthony Petrosky. Boston: Bedford, 39-48. Print.
Fought, C. (2008). "On the borderlands of communities: Taking linguistic research to la frontera." Plenary talk at-New Ways of Analyzing Variation 37?(NWAV-37), 8 November, Houston, Texas. Retrieved December 10, 2010 from: http://nwav37.rice.edu/abstracts/Fought_Preston.pdf.
Lynch-Biniek, A. (Summer/Fall 2009) Filling in the blanks: They say, I say, and the persistence of formalism. The CEA Forum 38 (2) Retrieved December 10, 2010 from: http://www2.widener.edu/~cea/382lynchbiniek.htm.
Emerson, he believed resistance to conformity and exploration of self, led to a kind of self-reliance that permeated the inner workings and imaginings of the human soul. What began as a simple analysis of self-explored concepts, took on the form of universal philosophy. This essay will examine Emerson's work, "Self-eliance" in a way that will not only analyze themes, but also provide a closer look into the context surrounding Emerson at the time as well as possible meanings behind the text.
alph Waldo Emerson wrote an 1841 essay titled "Self-eliance". An American essayist and transcendentalist philosopher, Emerson provides his most thorough statement of one of his ongoing themes: the avoidance of false consistency and conformity. Meaning, Emerson preached for people to follow their own ideas and instincts instead of relying on society's imposed rules and standards. His famous quote, "A foolish consistency is the hobgoblin of little minds, adored by…
Andrew C. Hansen. (2008). Reading Sonic Culture in Emerson's "Self-Reliance". Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 11(3), 417-437. doi:10.1353/rap.0.0053
Bloom, H. (2009). Ralph Ellison's Invisible man. New York, NY: Infobase Publishing.
Brown, L. R. (1997). The Emerson museum: Practical romanticism and the pursuit of the whole. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Emerson, R. W. (2012). Self-Reliance and Other Essays. Dover Publications.
The diverse nature of the world we live in provides both a source of inspiration and challenge. The challenging aspects of diversity are heightened within a counseling environment where the crossroads of identity and culture meet and intersect. To be successful in any counseling attempt the psychic power of empathy must be employed in order to reach out and communicate to the one seeking help.
The concept of the self becomes very important in developing new behavioral habits that can be funneled in a constructive manner that aligns with the greater societal needs and blends, in harmony, the internal ideals of the self. ace and ethnicity are important factors in understanding oneself and holds key information about how one can realize their true self within the presence and context of others.
The purpose of this essay is to explain the synthesis of both race and ethnicity into the…
Christopher, J.C., Wendt, D.C., Marecek, J., & Goodman, D.M. (2014). Critical Cultural Awareness: Contributions to a Globalizing Psychology.
Cohen, L. (2011). The Psychology of Prejudice and Racism. Psychology Today, 24 Jan 2011. Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/handy-psychology - answers/201101/the-psychology-prejudice-and-racism
Hardin, E.E., Robitschek, C., Flores, L.Y., Navarro, R.L., & Ashton, M.W. (2014). The Cultural Lens Approach to Evaluating Cultural Validity of Psychological Theory.
Mabus, L. et al. (2011). A Look at the Ethical, Legal, and Clinical Issues Associated with Information Technology. Psychiatric Times, 28 June 2011. Retrieved from http://www.psychiatrictimes.com/risk-assessment-0/look-ethical-legal-and-clinical - issues-associated-information-technology
Betrayed by the American compatriots whom he helped, he languished in England in his climactic years, poor and lodged by a prostitute aided by a former student, until he died on a sea voyage back home. His death was mysterious in that shortly before his death he demonstrated signs of both depression and optimism.
Reasons for his depression were unclear. His optimism may have been due to the fact that he had prospects on the horizon.
Why then did he commit suicide, as details seemed to indicate? Or was he killed by his friend who was a double spy? There are numerous details of his life that will forever be unknown since they remain beyond our lens of experience.
Another story that is riddled with mystery is that of Mary Rogers.
In 1841, Mary Cecilia Rogers, a 21-year-old beautiful Connecticut-born girl disappeared from her mother's new York City boarding house.…
Davidson JW & Lytle, MH. The strange death of Silas Deane, 1992
Srebnick, Amy Gilman. The Mysterious Death of Mary Rogers. Oxford University Press, 1995.
Self-Made Man and the Recipient of Divine Grace:
Benjamin Franklin vs. Jonathan Edwards
Despite the fact that both Benjamin Franklin and Jonathan Edwards are honored as two of the greatest authors of colonial America, they could not be more different in their ideological orientations. Edwards (1703-1758) is perhaps most famous for penning the image of the human soul as a spider in the hand of a merciful God, suspended above the flames of hell in his sermon "Sinners in the Hand of an Angry God." All human beings, Edwards implied in his image, were essentially fallen beings. A true Puritan, Edwards believed there was no way for hard work to win divine favor; one could only hope to be the recipient of divine grace. In contrast, Franklin (1706-1790), despite living during roughly the same time period as Edwards, was the consummate self-made man. As well as being credited as one…
Edwards, Jonathan. "A divine and supernatural light." CCEL. Web. 16 Dec 2013. http://www.ccel.org/e/edwards/sermons/supernatural_light.html
Franklin, Benjamin. "From Chapter VIII of The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin." The
American Tradition in Literature. Perkins & Perkins (Ed). McGraw Hill.
self-service technology (SST) and its effect on customer service. The essay reviews six articles, the results of their SST research, and talks about what the findings mean for companies and their relationships with consumers.
Self-service technology, which allows consumers to produce services for themselves without help from a company's employees, is becoming more and more important to companies. Beatson, Lee & Coote (2007) studied how consumers feel about SST. Their research tried to explain how SST affects consumer satisfaction and consumer commitment.
One of the challenges for companies considering SST is to understand its affect on customer retention. Companies cannot survive without repeat business, so they need to be sure that SST does not affect the loyalty of their customers. They need to be sure that the advantages of SST outweigh the disadvantages (Beatson et al., 2007).
The possible advantages of using SST include faster service, reduced labor costs, increased…
Dabholkar, P.A., & Bagozzi, R.P. (2002). An attitudinal model of technology-based self-service: Moderating effects of consumer traits and situational factors. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, (30)3, 184-201.
Dabholkar, P.A., Bobbitt, L.M., & Lee, E.J. (2003). Understanding consumer motivation and behavior related to self-scanning in retailing. International Journal of Service Industry Management, (14)1, 59-95.
Meuter, M.L., Bitner, M.J., Ostrom, A.L., & Brown, S.W. (2005). Choosing among alternative service delivery modes: An investigation of customer trial of self-service technologies. Journal of Marketing, 69(2), 61-83.
When Brian Graetz began to write about class and inequality, he opened his work by quoting: "Australia is the most egalitarian of countries..." (153) As it turns out, this claim does not say much in the absolute sense, for Graetz (like others before and after him) continues on to prove vast and terrible inequalities in Australia's capitalist system. It appears that, popular opinion non-withstanding, there exists in Australia a strong and self-reproducing class system, by which the accident of birth may dictate the entire future of a man or woman. Unfortunately, academics do not appear to be entirely certain as to how this system is comprised, or by what function it reproduces. It appears that the class system somewhat resembles the ancient conception of wind -- that which is all about us, and moves us, and yet cannot be pinned down, captured, or dissected. Social scientists from Marx to…
The world changes, and we must change with the world, and that is a good thing, as talents we took for granted suddenly seem more remarkable, if we develop them and they are recognized and nurtured by others.
I also believe that education, when embarked upon at a later date, can quite frequently be more enriching, given the greater self-knowledge that comes with age. As an adolescent, avoiding homework is a frequent act of childish rebellion. But the adult knows that time is finite and making the most of the here and now means embracing rather than avoiding work. An adult also knows better what he or she likes and dislikes, what are his or her strengths and weaknesses, and so the can better cope with these deficits and compensate for them.
Yet an adult may fear to take more risks, unlike the child that joyously learns to walk by…
This is all he cares to know about Sonny because knowing anymore might be painful for him. It is also worth noting that the protagonist in this tale has gone on to become successful and live a somewhat respectable life, unlike his brother. The protagonist does everything he can to escape the street life that held no future, no promise. He fled the pain and darkness of those streets and Sonny was just a painful reminder of his past. Donald Murray writes that there is "no escape from the darkness for Sonny and his family" (Murray 354) and the only way to cope is by finding another way to survive with the darkness.
Sonny's brother could not have chosen a more different path in life to take. He is a teacher and feels a certain amount of superiority over Sonny. Sonny was not in the least bit inclined to become…
It therefore follows that if a young woman has a poor sense of self-esteem as a result of prescribed ideals about body image, then this will also affect self-representation and even behavior patterns; for example, the woman may react negatively in an attempt to meet social norms about self-image and become Anorexic.
However, the literature also makes a clear distinction between personal self-image and esteem and group esteem and expectations. One would expect that groups that are discriminated against in society would have low level of self-esteem. This is not always the case. In fact as a study by Verkuyten ( 1989) shows, high levels of personal self-esteem may result in groups that have a low social level of esteem and acceptance. "The presumption of lower self-esteem among minority youth, given their confrontation with discrimination, disregards the perspectives of minorities themselves" (Verkuyten, 1998, p. 479). This refers to "The…
Bornman, E. (1999). Self-Image and Ethnic Identification in South Africa. Journal of Social Psychology, 139(4), pp.411-425
Fiske S.T. (2004) Social Beings. Ho Boken, NJ: Wiley.
Klein, H.A. (1995). Self-Perception in Late Adolescence: An Interactive Perspective. Adolescence, 30(119), 579+.
Monteath, S.A., & McCabe, M.P. (1997). The Influence of Societal Factors on Female Body Image. Journal of Social Psychology, 137(6), pp. 708-727. Retrieved June 21, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=97807666
This construction gave credence to the concept of class consciousness. Class consciousness is really class identity; it is the way entire groups of people conceive themselves as belonging to a whole. This understanding permeates the corpus and unites the initiated into a common group think. This group or class view is reinforced through the economic determinants that are at the foundation of the group's position. These determinants reinforce inequalities and class identities.
The challenge to class as a locus of identity formation; results from the assertion that contemporary society is too layered and complex for class identity to be relevant. The discussion centers not on the existence of inequalities but the explanation of those inequalities. In the postmodern context the inequalities that exist are not anchored in an a priori formulation of class structure. This formulation considers the development of a classless society. This is not to be interpreted as…
Becker H.S. (2003).The Politics of Presentation: Goffman and Total Institutions Symbolic
Interaction, 26 (4):659-669.
Bottero, W. (2004). Class Identities and the Identity of Class. Sociology 38 (5): 985-1003.
Burnhill, P., Garner, C., McPherson, a. (1990). Parental Education, Social Class and Entry to Higher Education 1976-86. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series a (Statistics
The key to flexibility of motivation is intrinsically conflicting motivational structures. The self as defined by Jung is the core or central component that keeps these opposing forces operating as an integrated whole. To what closing stages does this process manage? It was formed by evolution and so survival is the architect but it is survival not just of the next generation but into an unclear future. The self as described by Jung is the psychic image of this limitless potential for prospect development. For itself it focuses on the various dimensions of human functioning that put in to survival including ingenuity in all its forms.
Sensing the self as something irrational, as an impalpable existent, to which the ego is neither opposed nor subject, but simply attached, and about which it spins very much as the earth does round the sun, accordingly the goal of individuation is reached. The…
Cavell, M. (1993). The Psychoanalytic Mind: From Freud to Philosophy. Cambridge, MA:
Deigh, J. (1996). The Sources of Moral Agency: Essays in Moral Psychology and Freudian
Theory. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press,
Geller, L. (1984). Another look at self-actualization. Journal of humanistic psychology, 24:100
e., physically), socially, and morally. In cognitive development, the individual learns how to think for himself/herself, and create decisions, judgments, and thoughts that are uniquely his/hers. Social development, meanwhile, is reinforced through one's recognition of gender identity. Through gender identity, the individual is able to determine and reinforce the role and status that society has given him or her as a man or woman. In effect, the individual becomes part of the society's institutions and structure because of the reinforcement of one's gender identity. Lastly, moral development takes place when the individual, based on his own cognitive and social experiences, is able to formulate his/her "personal philosophy," value judgment that s/he uses to create his/her beliefs, opinions, and feelings about life in general.
Santrock, J. (2001). Psychology. NY: McGraw-Hill ook Co.
Santrock, J. (2001). Psychology. NY: McGraw-Hill Book Co.
cultures and identities in today's world. The author explores the different dimensions that influence individuals and identities and how it impacts the way society operates in the world. There were five sources used to complete this paper.
As the world continues to evolve, societal changes are taking place. Globalization contributes to the melting pot called earth and as societal barriers come down, people have a chance to learn about other cultures throughout the globe. Wars, religions, education aspirations and other elements of daily life are impacted by one's identity. Whether one wants to be a scientist, housewife, rabbi or actor their personal identity has an impact on that desire being developed. Another important factor in how identity develops is the culture in which one is raised. Cultural differences play a strong part in the development of identity. They are similar yet different as their individual elements overlap and separate to…
The reasons behind Iraq's rebellion; The Iraqis felt liberated, not defeated, and there is a powerful Muslim reluctance to be ruled by non-Muslims
Jewish Advocate, The; April 22, 2004; Pipes, Daniel
The Middle East: some new realities and old problems.
International Social Science Review; June 22, 2003; Bargeron, Carol L.
Do I choose things that are primarily in my best interest or do I choose based in what is best for society and then trust that the end result will be in my best interest?
There are so many choices in life and I do at times become nervous about making the right choices, however, I think with the right education and spiritual guidance I will find the path that allows me to be my best self while at the same time making the world a better place for others as well as me.
Like osa Parks, and countless others who daily make choices that produce change, it is those who will dare to dream of a better life, those who will risk failure, those who will make the right choices who will change themselves, their families, their businesses and organizations and yes, even their world! The ability to choose…
Here is something very refreshing indeed:
March 3, 2000 Bush Is Catching the Spiritual Wave by Larry Kudlow
Names are important and so this has been proved in countless ways in different societies. In some traditional societies, for example, names are believed to have some connection with a child's destiny or future. If he is given a name with good meanings, he is believed to grow up being just that- a good person. There may be little truth in this connection of names with character or destiny, still naming is an art that every society wants to excel in. some people are of the view that if we rename an object or person, there is a chance that he or she might start acting differently, as if they had suddenly developed a new personality. This happens to Santha in 'By any other name' whose name is changed to Cynthia in an English school thereby giving birth to a new changed person who felt she was living in…
Cliff Thompson - Article Title: Inventing our names, our selves. Magazine Title: Commonweal. Volume: 122. Issue: 6. Publication Date: March 24, 1995
Santha Rama Rau, By any other name, Borzoi College Reader, page 146-151
identity, and how that is related to place. The articles are, well, they are interesting in that they all seem to start from a specific straw man narrative about the big evil dominant culture. Yosso (2005) begins with the assumption that everybody only thinks the dominant culture has capital, in order to argue her point that other cultures have capital, too. The underlying assumption that there is a research lens that has a deficit view of "communities of color" as places of cultural poverty is one I, as a person who comes from a very multicultural place, have not heard in a long time. So she is right that all cultures have capital, and that it would benefit everybody to respect and tap into that capital, she falls into a couple of intellectual traps. First, she assumes a monolithic dominant culture that defines everything for everybody -- not in the…
self" is difficult to define but usually involves the inner life of the individual, the psychological dimension of human existence as opposed to the outward, physical form. The self is conceived as a creature of consciousness, a mind capable of thought and able to engage in deliberate action. A self is capable of self-consciousness, which means it recognizes its own ability to think and to contain first-person thoughts. The question is, however, is there a Self or not, and if there is, what is its nature? This has been argued in philosophy since the time of the Greeks and has been answered differently by philosophers, religious leaders, and psychologists at different times in history. Leslie Stevenson notes that the "question of the ultimate nature of such mental states is a philosophical problem which is left open by our everyday language about them" (Stevenson 74). This common language is often challenged…
Hume: Knowledge That There Is an External World and Knowledge of the Mind." Lesson 7 (Handout).
Lavine, T.Z. From Socrates to Sartre: The Philosophic Quest. New York: Bantam, 1984.
Stevenson, Leslie. Seven Theories of Human Nature. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.
Hamlet, however, is full of hesitation. He does not experience the type of confidence Antigone does and suffers because of it. These characters are not abnormal; they are exaggerated or comical in a way audiences cannot relate to them. They are uniquely human and that is why they are still popular today -- because they are real enough that audience members feel as though they have known these types of personalities before. Through these characters, the playwrights show the audience how important it is to be true to self above all else. From Creon, who loses his sense of self when he sells out to power to Hamlet, who loses his sense of self when he falls into depression, to Antigone, who gladly gives her life for what she believes, we see the power of the sense of self and the importance of how it should be respected.
Blits, Jan. Introduction to Deadly Thought: 'Hamlet' and the Human Soul, pp. 3-21. Lanham:
Lexington Books, 2001. Information Retrieved July 01, 2010.
Sophocles. Antigone. Three Theban Plays: Antigone, Oedipus the King, Oedipus and Colonus.
Robert Fagles, trans. New York: Penguin Books. 1980.
Chodorow and Reproduction of Mothering
In, "A Room Of Her Own," the feminist novelist and author, Virginia Woolf demonstrated that one of the reasons why women writers were in overwhelmingly low numbers than their male counterparts was because of the lack of economic opportunity. (Woolf, 1991) Victorian perceptions also saddled women with the responsibilities of motherhood and domesticity. This took away the opportunity for women (except for a few) to truly come into their own. Nancy Chodorow, a preeminent social scientist addresses the issue. (Chodorow, 1999) She does not get caught up in the traditional feminist or socialization mindset. Even psychologists, Chodorow avers, have not pursued the matter at a higher granularity. All can agree that, explicitly or implicitly, women have been subjugated. Chodorow addresses the problem using psychoanalysis. She believes that the second-class status of women is associated with the issues of mothering, childbearing and childrearing -- aspects which…
Asimov, I. "Armies of God." Roving Mind. New York: Prometheus Books, 1997.
Beauvoir, S. d., and Parshley, H.M. The Second Sex. A limited ed. Franklin Center, Pa.: Franklin Library, 1979.
Chodorow, N. "Gender Personality and the Reproduction of Mothering." The Reproduction of Mothering: Psychoanalysis and the Sociology of Gender: With a New Preface. Ed. N. Chodorow. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999. 120-24.
Pinker, S. The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature. New York: Viking, 2002.
His final thoughts at the conclusion of the essay are significant because we know with certainty that Theresa would have accepted him had he been honest with her and himself. The narrator thinks of how things might have turned out between the two of them and, with a little sarcasm, he considers the meals they might have concocted had they remained friends over the years. Theresa is seared into the narrator's mind because she is the one that first uttered anything to him about being gay and, in doing so, she prodded the narrator into facing the truth about himself. This honesty about himself is more difficult to face that the narrator can imagine and this is why Theresa is important. Had she never said anything to him, he might have tried to mask the truth longer, stalling the process of discovering himself. Theresa was a catalyst for truth and…
Cooper, Bernard. "A Clack of Tiny Sparks: Remembrances of a Gay Boyhood." Literature: The Human Experience. New York: Bedford St. Martin's. 2006.
In addition, he perceived a direct "split" in his personality between his "self" and his "personality," something that many other patients experienced. They felt they were two people, split into two parts if you will, and that they could not effectively communicate this with others. In some people, this showed up as a feeling they were outside their own body, looking in. As Laing notes, "The body may go on acting in an outwardly normal way, but inwardly it is felt to be acting on its own, automatically" (Laing 83). Clearly, this would affect how the person viewed the world around him or her, and how they communicated as well. This dreamlike state is difficult to put into words, even in "sane" individuals.
Each of these people communicated differently, but they were all using their communications to indicate their loneliness, fear, and isolation. Because they live in a world of…
Laing, R.D. The Divided Self: An Existential Study in Sanity and Madness. London: Tavistock Publications, 1960.
Smith may dislike the stereotype, but she cannot help internalizing it. She feels unfinished because she is regarded as unfinished, and even members of her community urge her to straighten her hair. This is completely different from the joyous, affirmative sigh "I am complete" at the end of Morales' poem. Just as Morales admits that all experiences with racism and discrimination are different, Smith's poem demonstrates how African-American women frequently lack assurance of their sense of self and that their physical qualities are regarded as alien to what is considered 'good' and 'American.' (The young Smith's wearing white to cover up one's tallness seems an attempt to mask blackness and presumed 'badness' with clothing). Morales' instability of identity lies in multiplicity of national cultures, but Smith, even as a young, black girl, but carefully balance her sense as an American and African-American with even greater care and psychological discomfort that…
Bolano, Roberto. (2000). Literature and Exile. The Nation. Retrieved August 9, 2011 at http://www.thenation.com/article/157695/literature-and-exile
Daniels, Lenore Jean. (2009). What is the image of black women today? Philly IMC.
Retrieved August 9, 2011 at http://www.phillyimc.org/en/what-image-black-women-today
Doughty, Julia. (1995). Testimonies of survival: Notes from an interview with Aurora Levins
" (p.15) but his father cannot stop criticizing his son, even the way Tommy eats and looks at the breakfast table. Just like the camera was critical of Tommy, so is the unsparing gaze of his father. His father continues to call him by his old name, ilky, which Tommy has rejected. Tommy, once attractive enough to solicit the attention of a Hollywood scout, has become overweight and lethargic, and has trouble breathing because of the great, oppressive weight of the past that is now pressing down upon him. Rather than being reborn anew, Tommy is drowning in the sea of misery he has created for himself.
Erasing his father by changing his name, fleeing back to his father -- nothing works. Tommy says that he fears he will spend "second half" of "life recovering from the mistakes of the first half," but really this attempt to start anew is…
Bellow, Saul. Seize the Day. Originally published 1957. New York: Penguin Reissue,
She was greatly disturbed by the hite Buffalo deer hunting party because she identified and sympathised with the deer. Unlike the rash temper Bernard Jr. displayed in times of conflict, Meteke was almost silent in her pain and anguish, to the point that her husband begged her to talk to him, resorting to offers for tea, food, and foot massages to ease her tensions and cheer her (Raboteau, Professor's 72). Professor Lester was fairly clueless about what ailed her, as she chose to steer around his questioning rather than answer him directly. One evening in bed she turned away from him, and when he asked why she seemed upset she responded "I'm tired," rather than confiding in him her fear for the dear (Raboteau, Professor's 83). The reader saw very little of who Meteke was before she married Professor Lester, so her identity was only really articulated in her response…
Bardelson, Susanne, and Jackie Gropman. "The Professor's Daughter: A Novel." School
Library Journal Sep 2005: 244-245. Academic Search Premier. 2010. EBSCO
Industries Inc. 4 Dec. 2010
Identity in Emerging Adulthood
Title an exploration of employment selection behaviors and the link to identity development.
Area of study
This study considers the employment selection behaviors of emerging adults. Employment selection is a critical element of the development process. It influences and structures the ability to take care of oneself in the present and the future. However, more significantly employment is an indicator of independence and display of the ability to commit to a usually a long-term experience. Independence and commitment are skills that in adulthood can establish the way in which one lives. In this framework, employment can be viewed as one of the indicators that reflect an individual's development in these areas. This is beyond the individuals self-perception that they are not adults (Nelson et al. 2000).
In the modern context, self-determination requires the individual to have some form of employment and access to legitimate forms…
Arnett, J.J. Emerging (2000). Adulthood: A Theory of Development From the Late Teens
Through the Twenties American Psychologist 55(5):469-480. DOI: 10.1037//0003-
Nelson L.J., Padilla-Walker, L.M., Carroll J.S. Madsen, S.D. Barry, C.M. & Badger, S.
it's made me who I am, the reason is I have had to work so much harder. I would take it again, gladly. It has taught me to take good and bad, and to change the bad into good. It gives you a sense of motivation, fight for yourself, it gives you that perseverance to carry on. I have succeeded and am still succeeding" (Klompas & oss, 2004, p. 300).
Blood, G.W., Blood, I.M., Tellis, G.M., & Gabel, .M. (2003). A preliminary study of self-esteem, stigma, and disclosure in adolescents who stutter. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 28(2), 143. doi:10.1016/S0094-730X (03)00010-X
Daniels, D.E., & Gabel, .M. (2004). The Impact of Stuttering on Identity Construction. Topics in Language Disorders, 24(3), 200.
Greenberg, J. (2008). Understanding the Vital Human Quest for Self-Esteem. Perspectives on Psychological Science (Wiley-Blackwell), 3(1), 48-55. doi:10.1111/j.1745-6916.2008.00061.x
Howell, P., Davis, S., & Williams, . (2008). Late childhood stuttering. Journal…
Blood, G.W., Blood, I.M., Tellis, G.M., & Gabel, R.M. (2003). A preliminary study of self-esteem, stigma, and disclosure in adolescents who stutter. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 28(2), 143. doi:10.1016/S0094-730X (03)00010-X
Daniels, D.E., & Gabel, R.M. (2004). The Impact of Stuttering on Identity Construction. Topics in Language Disorders, 24(3), 200.
Greenberg, J. (2008). Understanding the Vital Human Quest for Self-Esteem. Perspectives on Psychological Science (Wiley-Blackwell), 3(1), 48-55. doi:10.1111/j.1745-6916.2008.00061.x
Howell, P., Davis, S., & Williams, R. (2008). Late childhood stuttering. Journal of Speech, Language & Hearing Research, 51(3), 669-687.
Formation of Self
The central unifying theme for the readings analyzed for this particular assignment is the effects of culture on the individual. Moreover, culture specifically affects a number of crucial cognitive, emotional, and motivational factors for people (Markus and Kitayam, 1991, p. 225), as they pertain to an individual's perception of (his or her) self. Some of the facets of culture include "a distinct language; a distinct customs…and distinct beliefs" (Galotti, 2007, p. 574). Personally, I can identify with many of the concepts introduced in the readings pertaining to what essentially is how an individual defines his or her self. I am fairly fiercely attached to my own individuality, and was pleased to read a number of works which essentially discussed varying factors that contribute to individuality. However, it is somewhat of a paradox to consider the fact that culture specifically contributes to individuality, since one of the precursors…
Akechi, H., Senju, A., Uibo, H., Kikuchi, Y., Hasegaw, T., Hietanen, J.K. (2013). Attention to eye contact in the west and east: Autonomic responses and evaluative ratings. PLoS One. 8(3), 1-10.
Furuya, S. (2013). Dual-task interference. Saybrook University.
Furuya, S. (2013). The accuracy of memory. Saybrook University.
Furuya, S. (2013). Unconscious mental contexts. Saybrook University.
A widely quoted and interesting functioning definition has been provided by Geert Hofstede who suggests that culture should be considered as software of a person's mind. He is reported to have said that each individual possesses certain patterns and forms of contemplation, emotions and possible acting that they have probably acquired during their life (Hofstede and Hofstede, 2005).
Most of these patterns have been obtained through their early childhood experiences as those are the time when an individual is most likely to acquire learning and build on it. Just the way a computer regards its "thought processes" and functioning as its software, the patterns or formations of thinking, experiencing and carrying out psychological processes in an individual can be referred to as the software program of the mind (Hofstede and Hofstede, 2005).
However, this does not imply, most definitely that individuals are supposed to function or behave as a computer…
Valentine, V. (1995). Opening up the Black Box: Switching the Paradigm of Qualitative Research. ESOMAR Seminar, Paris, 6-8th December, 25-47. Corbu, N. (2010). Cultural Identity as a System: Toward the Crystallization of a European Cultural Identity. Romanian Journal of Communication and Public Relations. 12(1), 121-132.
Waterman, a.S. (1999). Identity, the identity statuses, and identity status development: A contemporary statement. Developmental Review, 19, 591 -- 621. Taken from SETH, J.H., et al. (2010). The Relationships of Personal and Cultural Identity to Adaptive and Maladaptive Psychosocial Functioning in Emerging Adults. The Journal of Social Psychology, 150(1), 1 -- 33
Williams, R. (1976), Keywords: A Vocabulary of Culture and Society, Fontana, London. Corbu, N. (2010). Cultural Identity as a System: Toward the Crystallization of a European Cultural Identity. Romanian Journal of Communication and Public Relations. 12(1), 121-132.
Sensibility omen's Identities Are Determined and Limited by the Expectations of Their Societies
Literature written by and about women lends itself very well to feminist interpretative approaches of various kinds. Such approaches often examine the literature of earlier centuries for signs of discontent with or subversive suggestions against aspects of a society in which men have exclusive control of power. Such an approach is especially fruitful to use when examining Jane Austen's novels since she was writing in a cultural climate that did not accept direct opposition to the status quo. Only through an indirect critique could she publish views critical of the prevailing laws and conditions under which women of her time were forced to live.
By 1811, when Sense and Sensibility was published, an intense backlash against the women's rights fiction of the 1790s had made the publication of blatantly feminist works impossible in England. Yet the women's…
Austen, Jane. Sense and Sensibility. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1989.
Cosslett, Tess. Woman to Woman: Female Friendships in Victorian Fiction. Atlantic Heights: Humanities P, 1988.
Chodorow, Nancy. The Reproduction of Mothering. Berkeley: U. Of California P, 1978.
Defoe, Daniel. Moll Flanders. Ed. And Introduction by David Blewett. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1989.
62), a society with "shallow-rooted" norms (p. 177), a "meager and difficult place" as opposed to the expansive way Ruth wishes to grow as a woman. (p. 178) Helen's storm inside, this mother's crisis of identity, has parallels not with Baldwin's women, but with characters such as the Reverend Henry, whose anger at hite society can only be expressed in a eulogy over his beloved son's casket. Extremity in both the apparently placid Henry and Helen brings forth rage and despair, but while at least Henry's male rage is life-affirming, urging his community to go on in the face of the death of a young person, Helen's actions are regressive, infantile, returning to her father, and do not occur as an act of social protest.
The gendered constructions of mourning and identity formulation for Helen's daughters Ruth and Lucille also indicate the limited repertoire the Housekeeping society provides for women…
Baldwin, James. "Blues for Mister Charlie." New York: Vintage, 2001.
Robinson, Marilynn. Housekeeping. New York: Farrar, Strauss, and Giroux, 1981.
As a result Cuypere et al. conducted a study which evaluated the physical and sexual health of individuals that received reassignment surgery. The participants were 107 Dutch speaking participants that had the surgery between 1986 and 2001 (Cuypere et al. 2005).
The results demonstrate that those participants going form Female-to-males had more problems establishing a secure relationship following the transition (Cuypere et al. 2005). In fact the study found that a third of the female-to-males did not have a sexual partner following the surgery even though their sexual drives were intact (Cuypere et al. 2005). The results also found that in spite of the fact that participants had masculine presentations and sex organs, many of them steered clear of a relationship with a potential partner. This avoidance was present because he participants were not yet confident in their maleness (Cuypere et al. 2005). The study also found that when transsexual…
Bartlett N.H., Bukowski W.M., Vasey P.L. (2002) Is Gender Identity Disorder in Children a Mental Disorder? Sex Roles: A Journal of Research. Page Number: 753.
Bodlund, O., & Kullgren, G. (1996). Transsexualism -- General outcome and prognostic factors: A five-year follow-up study of nineteen transsexuals in the process of changing sex. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 25, 303-316.
Carroll L. & Gilroy P.J.(2002) Transgender issues in Counselor preparation.
Cuypere G.D., Beerten R., Sutter P.D., Hoebeke P., Monstrey S., Rubens R., Selvaggi G., T'Sjoen G., Vansteenwegen Al. (2005) - Sexual and Physical Health after Sex Reassignment Surgery. Archives of Sexual Behavior. Volume: 34. Issue: 6. Page Number: 679.
What Concepts Seem Especially Relevant to You as A Social Worker?
Social work initiatives across the nation aid us, as social workers, in preparing for a number of problematic content areas which social workers come across in the course of their career. But 'gender identity' subject is often dismissed in spite of its relevance in all people's lives. In fact, social workers encounter several clients who experience gender identity struggles, to some extent, in life (Irvin & Mckay, 2013). The social work profession entails working with people; another comparable definition stresses "social" significance and, simultaneously, recognizes individuals' gender identity receptiveness to broader influential systems (Hawkes and Scott 2005, 7).
Expression of gender is socially-built, based on cultural expectations and standards. For instance, several people would agree on the fact that little girls do not innately love all things "pink" and wish to dress dolls. These things are taught to them…
al. 11). In the same way that European colonialism itself depended on a limited view of the world that placed colonial subjects under the rule of their masters, European theory was based on a view of literature and identity that had no place for the identities and literature of colonized people. Postcolonial theory is the ideal basis for this study, because in many ways the process of developing a new, hybrid identity born out of the conflicting experiences of first and second-generation immigrants is analogous to the process of developing postcolonial theory in the first place.
In particular, this paper draws most heavily on the notion of hybrid identity, a complicated subject that has arisen within postcolonial studies. The term is difficult to define precisely due to the fact that hybridity itself suggests something complicated and heterogeneous, and at the same time, "if hybrid identity is seen as formed at…
Ashcroft, Bill, Gareth Griffiths, and Helen Tiffin. The Empire Writes Back: Theory and Practice
in Post-Colonial Literatures. New York: Routledge, 2002.
Ball, John. Satire and the Postcolonial Novel. New York: Routledge, 2003.
Bhabha, Homi. Nation and Narration. London: Routledge, 1990.
Gender and Identity
Perhaps the most important question facing any human, be they male or female, is that of the discovery of their own identity. The majority of child development theories, from Freud onward, have dealt with the way in which children must learn to disengage their own identity from that of their parents (mothers in particular) and discover who they are as adults. Yet this process is far from over when one reaches physical maturity, and one may even see many other psychological theories, from Maslow to the existentialists, as exploring the stages through which one continues to define one's true identity as distinct not only from one's parents but also from one's biological and social circumstances. It is somewhat ironic that the word identity which was originally used to note categories of same-ness and unity (Connell 2002) is now so vitally bound up with defining distinctness. At the…
Bessant, J. And Watts, R. (1999) 'Sex and Gender in Australia' (Chapter 7) in J. Bessant and R. Watts (eds) Sociology Australia, Sydney: Allen and Unwin, pp. 164-193
Connell, R.W. (2002) Gender, Oxford: Blackwell. (Chapters 1, 2 and 5).
Connell, R.W. (1995) 'The Social Organization of Masculinity' (Chapter 3) in R.W. Connell (ed) Masculinities, Sydney: Allen and Unwin. pp. 67-86.
Kidd, W. (2002) 'Feminism, Gender, and Sexuality' (Chapter 11) in W. Kidd (ed) Culture and Identity, New York: Palgrave. pp. 171-189.