..although one of the more dangerous for the advertiser. Weighted down with taboos and volatile attitudes, sex is a Code Red advertising technique." For markets, sexuality can have biological, emotional, physical and spiritual effects on the consumers. The biological aspect represents the reproductive mechanism, including the basic, hormonally-controlled, biological drive that most species exhibit.
Other than the products, attitudes regarding sex are sold, such as when couples are used, and ideas about partnerships are implied -- dominance, roles, etc. The effect this has on a maturing adolescent is clear based on the amount of hours spent by this demographic watching television. Furthermore, new fields in science, such as neuromarketing, teach us that consumers, who respond positively to an advertisement, do so because they identify with the advertisement. Sexuality is particularly effective because it has a biological base in each individual, and speaks to human's innate need to reproduce.
1. O'Barr…… [Read More]
sex in advertising. The writer takes the reader on an exploratory journey into the use of sex in advertising. There were 10 sources used to complete this paper.
The world is becoming an increasingly competitive place. While the globalization process moves forward, and teenagers grow up faster than ever before marketing departments are scrambling to discover the secret to targeting the markets for their clients. Marketing departments have a very demanding position in the world of advertising. They must study many aspects of society in order to come up with and present in the best possible light the products they have been charged with selling. It is something that requires a deep understanding of human nature, a grasp on different markets, ages and interests, and the understanding of where the lines are drawn between offensive and alluring. The use of sex in advertising is not a new concept but its…… [Read More]
Ethics: Sex in Advertising
Advertising in general has become absurd; in many cases, viewers aren't even sure what the commercial was trying to sell. With advertising companies running low on new ideas, and competition in the marketplace fiercer than ever, it's no wonder so many businesses will stoop to the use of sex to sell their products, whether those products have anything to do with sex or not. But there are more serious ethical issues at stake. First of all, some experts believe the ubiquitous images of sex in the media lead young people to view sex as glamorous and casual, rather than risky and worthy of serious consideration. Beautiful men and women engaging in sexual behaviors in print and television ads do not suffer consequences for their loose morals; there are no follow-up commercials showing the unwanted pregnancy, the abortion, the broken relationship, the "dumped" man or woman who…… [Read More]
Against Sex in Advertising
Many advertisers know the power of using sex in advertising. Sex sells. Pretty female models in bathing suits are used in car ads. Years ago, a pretty blonde woman was in a shaving cream commercial on television urging men to take it all off. omen are used as sex objects more frequently than men.
There is basis in psychological theory to validate the use of sex in ads. One is the theory of classical conditioning. (eiten, ayne. 195-196). In advertising, this would pair the product, such as a car, with a stimulus designed to elicit a pleasant emotional response, an attractive woman in order to sell the vehicle.
This is overt advertising.
There is also covert sex in advertising. This uses subliminal techniques, which are supposed to reach the subconscious to sell the product.
The first experiment in the use of these techniques was done at…… [Read More]
As a result, ads for ethnicities such as blacks and Hispanics are limited to media designed to target only these audiences.
Steinem rues the advertiser's power over her magazine. She regrets the use of a feminist magazine to sell products that are bad for women, but explains the financial necessity for doing so. Cigarette and alcohol ads provide a disproportionate amount of advertising support and can't be forfeited without threatening the survival of the magazine. In fact, ads themselves begin to compete with content for space, changing the content to ad ration from 60/40 to 50/50. The following statement by Steinen reflects her degree of despair:
There is hardly a night when I don't wake up with sweaty palms and pounding heart, scared that we won't be able to pay the printer or the post office; scared most of all that closing our doors will hurt the women's movement." (Steinem,…… [Read More]
This is related to the need for prominence, which advertisers play on by suggesting that respect is attendant on use of the product. Instead of being looked up to, being looked on is the goal of the need for attention, and then the need for autonomy allows advertisers to suggest freedom is associated with their product. This is also often associated with the need to escape, whether in the company of others or not. Security or the need to feel safe does not apply to every product, but advertisers can invoke it in the right instances by offering security. Lastly, the need to satisfy curiosity and the fulfillment of basic physiological needs can also be touched on by advertisers in order to sell a product.
Beyond these fifteen appeals, there are also identifiable styles of advertising. The use of celebrities as spokespersons and merely for their presence is one common…… [Read More]
Advertising Effectiveness and Consumer Memory
The relationship between psychology and advertising is not a new one -- in fact, it is fundamental to the birth of modern advertising in America. Edward Bernays, the father of marketing, was the nephew of none other than Sigmund Freud, and used Freud's sense that "man was motivated by passion" to manipulate the senses of consumers and plant seeds of desire within consumer memory (Jones, 2000, p. 283). Since the days of Bernays, all evidence indicates that marketers have utilized cognitive psychology in order to assist advertising effectiveness in relation to consumer memory. This paper will discuss this evidence and research surrounding this association and critically analyze and discuss it.
A Complex elationship
Developing brand awareness and brand loyalty are two of the biggest factors in successful marketing. Establishing either requires an effective campaign that essentially implants the brand in the mind of the consumer…… [Read More]
Advertising and public relations serve to communicate ideas and convince the audience of something. Politicians are among the most prolific advertising spenders during election campaigns and can have enormous public relations machines. This is especially true of Presidential candidates, who must first run for their party's nomination and then must run for President. We know that Hillary Clinton went from frontrunner to loser in the race for the Democratic Presidential nomination in 2008. There are lessons to be learned about the different factors that contribute to selling an idea, in this case Clinton as President, to different audiences. This case study will evaluate Clinton's campaign leading up to the Democratic primary using the OSTE model. The OSTE model focuses on research, objectives, strategies, tactics and evaluation.
The Hillary Clinton campaign at the time of the case was a large organization. It featured both extensive advertising and public relations, backed…… [Read More]
Example 1. The two ads are both targeted towards women and appeared in fashion magazines. The visuals for this ad reflect the transition from prickly to smooth, which mirrors the copy. The ad was placed in Glamour, which has a more lifestyle approach, so the food metaphors seem apropos for the audience. The ad is a bit disjointed, in that the image is a bit sloppy and the metaphors in the text seem weak, like the allusion to spaghetti straps, which makes sense and at the same time is a clumsy attempt to tie food into this. All told, however, the ad engages the audience, attempts to be clever, and the visual should catch the attention of readers.
Ad "B" was placed in Cosmo, which skews younger and more strictly fashion-oriented, but the copy and visuals do not seem congruent with that. The layout of the ad is the…… [Read More]
Exposure to Sex in Commercials
The adage, "sex sells," is nothing new, in fact, more than a century ago advertisers were using women in advertising campaigns for tobacco and soaps (Erotic pp). During the 1940's, George Petty became famous with his Petty girls, who were so popular in advertising for bathing attire and cigarettes that students at Princeton University selected Petty as their favorite artist in 1947, while Rembrandt came in second (Erotic pp). The sexual revolution of the 1960's became a catalyst for the use of sexual and erotic ads for just about anything and everything (Erotic pp). In 1966, Swedish model and former Miss Sweden, Gunilla Knutson, appearing in a television commercial for shaving cream encouraged men to "take it all off" to the tune of David Rose's popular hit "The Stripper" (Erotic pp). This ad created enormous attention and heralded in a new era for sex in…… [Read More]
Embedded Communication in Advertising
"There is no evidence that advertising can get people to do things contrary to their self-interest." -- JI Fowles, in Advertising's Fifteen asic Appeals
"Good advertising does not just circulate information. It penetrates the public mind with desires and belief." -- Leo urnett, Advertising Executive and Creator of the Marlboro Man
"The ability to attract new smokers and develop them into a young adult franchise is key to brand development." 1999 Philip Morris report
When the preceding collection of opinions regarding the influence of modern advertising are considered in conjunction with the iconic advertising image shown above, it becomes quite clear that, much like advertising itself, forming an informed position on this ubiquitous aspect of modern marketing is simply a matter of perception and perspective (elch 120). Corporate conglomerates and other private enterprises ascribe tremendous value to the persuasive power of advertising, bombarding the general public…… [Read More]
It is through these facets of every "Sex" woman character that makes the show meaningful and realistic enough to make it audiences believe that they, too, can attain the personalities and triumphs in love, sex, and career lives of Carrie, Samantha, Charlotte, and Miranda.
Indeed, love, sex, and career as depicted in "Sex" is actually embedded in the show's women characters. The close relationship of the women with each other symbolically represents the intertwined relationship of love, sex, and career, wherein each factor is representative of a woman character in "Sex." Through its characters, "Sex" has managed to cultivate and maintain the ideology of liberal thinking in matters concerning love, sex, and career -- an ideology that proves essential for women, in order to further strengthen their personalities and individualities without resorting to radical expressions of femininity, a fault that feminists often suffer from.
As Richards (2003) discusses in her…… [Read More]
advertising on male vs. female buying behavior. Many studies indicate that men and women shop and buy differently. Men tend to shop less and simply buy what they need, regardless of price, while women tend to shop more, comparing prices and quality. Gender definitely affects how you buy and what you buy, as studies consistently show.
Consumerism is rampant in America, even with the current recession. etailers have products Americans need and want, and they need to know how to market them successfully to make their businesses grow and prosper. They need to know that men and women have very different buying behaviors, and they need to know how to attract them effectively. As one study notes, "When it comes to shopping, women are from Nordstrom's and men are from Sears" ("Men Buy"). Women do a majority of the food and clothing shopping for families. Another Web site notes, "…… [Read More]
The video's director explains that the intention was not to create racy content for its own sake, but rather that "the process was to express Lady Gaga's desire to reveal her heart and bear her soul" (Kreps). The provocative imagery thus serves to challenge the viewer over whether the video expresses bad taste or high art.
Equally important to lyrics are Gaga's overall image and the discussion she generates over her interests, including avant-garde fashion and gay rights. She is known for being scantily-clad; one magazine called her appearance "bizarre," stating that her style of dress is "archly futuristic…reveals a lot of skin but is never sexy" (Callahan and Stewart). The conflict inherent in her blatant sexuality also arises when one considers the discussion that her gender once generated, as "Is Lady Gaga a man?' 'was AskJeeves.com's thirdmost-asked question of 2009" (Juzwiak). Ever the provocateur, Lady Gaga addressed the question…… [Read More]
From her conspicuous consumption of product-related merchandise it is safe to assign her firmly to the upper middle class. Gender stereotypes and messages abound in this ad, as in many others. One example is the woman-as-food or woman-as-product message; she is something to be eaten or consumed like any other fast-moving consumer good, which sets a dangerous precedent. "Turning a human being into a thing, an object, is almost always the first step toward justifying violence against that person." (Kilbourne, p. 278).
The implied consequence for buying the product is becoming desirable as an extraordinary female. Those who fail to buy the product must resign themselves to a passionless life full of mediocrity. Extraordinary females are those whose lives are saturated with the product. Pozner (p. 51) gives evidence of this actually happening when she says, "What disturbs me is not that I prefer the taste of Snapple (I do),…… [Read More]
Barbie doll top ten viral commercials as of 2013 rely mostly on You Tube, Dailymotion, Facebook and Twitter.
The third doll brand, subject to this study is Bratz. As evidenced from the four commercials assessed in the course of this study, Bratz deploys a slightly different mode of advertising, which involves marketing adult entertainment to kids. Social psychologists have argued that this strategy is very effective within the realm of modern-day material culture. Adult entertainment, which often involves depiction of violence, sex, strong language and obscenity, has become very popular among children
. For Bratz, one of the most popular commercials involves cowgirls in Texas fighting crime modelled along the risque film group Charlie's Angels. The use of guns to depict violence is central to this commercial, which has since increased the brand's digital reach through pervasive advertising on TV and in the internet. In a similar commercial, Bratz acquired…… [Read More]
Advertising's most fundamental function is to sell products, but in order to do so, advertising must also shape the values and norms of the culture. One of the most obvious ways advertising shapes social norms and cultural values is through the representations of gender and sexuality. Few products other than adult toys, condoms, and others of an overtly sexual nature offer as much potential to shape, play with, and manipulate gender and sexuality than undergarments. In an advertisement for its line of men's underwear, the company Under Armour promotes an ordinary product by claiming that it has an erotic appeal. The fine print of the advertisement states mainly that the underwear is comfortable and can keep the wearer "cool and dry," but the image speaks more about the way the underwear will confer grand sexual prowess and status on the males who wear it. Although the Under Armour advertisement is…… [Read More]
Marketing Shampoo -- Selling sex with soap suds
Shampoo's main function as a product may be to clean hair, but when it comes to advertising, no form of marketing succeeds more potently to sell this cleansing product to women than the marketing of feminine sex appeal. 'Buy the product, and be a sexy woman/girl.' This may not always come across as good clean fun in the eyes of the consumer, but, even if us not strictly dirty advertising, the need to sell sex as part of the image to the typical female consumer of shampoo cannot be underestimated. hat else will distinguish what is otherwise a fairly indistinguishable product, other than the promise of sensuality via the right kind of soaping and suds?
hile much of Chapter 7 of Reading Culture by Diana George and John Trimbur makes much of how the female body has been used as an image…… [Read More]
Media Advertising: Posting an Ad on Facebook
Social media advertising provides a great platform for enhancing a brand message's reach and influencing prospects at the buying cycle's middle-of-the-funnel or evaluation stage. Facebook presents a unique marketing plan for advertisers; one that entirely focuses on middle-of-the-funnel offers as a way of influencing buyer decisions. This is quite logical since it is at the evaluation stage that a buyer i) clarifies exactly what they need, and then embarks on the search for a satisfying provider, and ii) is most likely to share information through their established network though a 'like' (Social Media Today, 2013).
In order to take advantage of this aspect, Sushi Fashions, a dealer in ladies wear, handbags and accessories intends to put up an ad regarding its Super Bowl sale, in which buyers could get up to 50% off on the conventional prices - over the entire product range.…… [Read More]
This phenomenon objectifies women by suggesting (at least implicitly) that only the opinions and sensibilities of the most attactive females, such as the models featued in advetisements, ae wothwhile. The mee absence of females of aveage and less-than-aveage elative physical attactiveness fom commecial advetising conditions eveyone in society to ignoe women unless they ae paticulaly sexually attactive. Besides being unfai to women who happen not to look like the models in commecial advetising, this also devalues any legitimate talents and the intelligence and meaningful contibutions of women who do happen to be elatively attactive. It ceates the natual infeence that attactive women who ae successful achieved thei success by vitue of thei physical appeaance instead of thei othe attibutes.
In addition to objectifying women as though they ae nothing moe than thei elative level of physical attactiveness, the ovewhelming focus on sexuality and female attactiveness in commecial advetising also denigates…… [Read More]
This advertisement, a commercial on cable television, advertised an insurance company. The advertisement featured a typical couple driving down the road chatting, when a car sideswiped them without any warning. The advertisement was intended to educate the public as to the importance of insurance because of life's unpredictability, but the shock tactic used in the commercial has negative effects on the watchers. Like news shows, the advertisement is meant to inspire fear, which creates a negative social environment.
But advertisements don't necessarily have to create a negative environment in order to be ethically and socially negative. Neither do they have to offend target markets with less than tasteful techniques or shock tactics. They can be deceptive, convincing consumers to purchase products they don't need. One type of advertising particularly guilty of this offense is paid programming, or television length commercials that appear on home shopping networks or traditional networks at…… [Read More]
psychological approach to sex and its use during advertising. Whether it is used in the proper context to promote the product or is aimed at a systemic way to get the viewer to watch the advertisement.
The use of psychology in advertising is well established. The use of sexual advertising has been seen in a variety of products from cars to ice cream aimed at a wide range of target audiences spread across the demographic ranges. The use of sexuality, which, may include visual or audio images and can be presented in different formats, including nudity, sexual innuendo, or even with humour. The main aim of the advertising is to target the processing of the information regarding the advertisement rather the concentration on the brand. The idea is that the images and feeling they create may then be associated with the product that is being sold, increasing its'…… [Read More]
If children are repeatedly exposed to certain portrayals of an ethnic group, they may develop corresponding beliefs about the group" (Horgan, et. al., 2001)
Because there are very few advertisements that use the minority groups as the product endorsers, children are made to believe that these minority groups are not part of the "elites" and are just second-class citizen. This then cultivates the idea to children that minority groups do not deserve to receive the same attention that what other citizens are receiving, thus a clear indication of racism.
Intentionally or not, controversial advertisements do affect the psychological, emotional, physical and sociological state of the children. Children are very susceptible to various effects presented by the advertisements because they can easily be swayed to change their perceptions and even their behaviors. This is the very reason why there must be strict control over the contents and implication of the…… [Read More]
It is also important to identify to what extent such advertisements play on human emotions to evoke positive purchase decisions. Other ethical issues would include the extent to which such DTC advertising encourages consumers to circumvent the physician-patient relationship. In other words, to the extent that such DTC advertising encourages "drug-shopping" behaviors among healthcare consumers is likely the extent to which such advertising could be regarded as unethical.
Most sick people are scared, many are in pain, and some of them may grasp at any claims from marketers concerning a potential cure. Conversely, denying these very same healthcare consumers with as much information about the current choices that are available to them also appears to be unethical, assuming that the targeted populations are in a position to make informed decisions.
What are the costs and benefits of marketing prescription drugs directly to physicians?
The costs of marketing prescription drugs…… [Read More]
Gender, Consumption and Ideology: A Look at Three Ads
When the nephew of Sigmund Freud, Edward Bernays became the father of advertising, he used a simple trick that he learned from his uncle: sex sells. Bernays understand, as Freud did, that sex is one of the most powerful motivating forces of human nature (Jones). Sex and gender thus took center stage in advertising over the years. In this paper, the way that gender, consumption and ideology are tied together in advertising will be shown. This paper argues that sex and gender stereotypes persist in advertising media and that sexuality has become more provocative over time. This has happened in spite of feminist movements. Today, sexuality is something that women feel they can use to dominate men. These ads show that sex and gender in advertising is still a powerful force no matter what ideology is held by men and…… [Read More]
Corporate Social Responsibility: Its Extension to Consumer Advertising Imagery
The last few decades have seen the emergence of two trends that have important implications for the field of consumer advertising. The first trend, as indicated in Gulas and Mckeage's literature review, is a growing body of research evidence that the imagery projected in consumer advertising has psychological and sociological effects.
This indicates that consumer advertising imagery is now being measured for its possible effect on consumer psychology and social behavior. The second trend, which is related to the first, can be seen in the widely acknowledged public demand that businesses need to demonstrate their social responsibility and conscience in all forms of organizational activity. These two trends make it evident that advertisers and their agencies can no longer defend socially irresponsible advertising imagery by using the traditional argument that consumer advertising merely mirrors society. Instead, as this paper will establish,…… [Read More]
These include phone conference call groups, web-based groups; or as a substitute use telephone depth interviews. (You don't get the group interaction, but the results can be better than group settings.)
Rule 3 - Request that the moderator use a non-directive approach. (A non-directive approach is one that constructs questions for the group that encourages participants to be free flowing with their descriptions)
Projective techniques are often useful in easing participants out of an analytical mode. One projective technique, asks, "If this company were an animal what animal would it be? What would the competitors be?" In this way, they talk about brand image without being peppered with a series of brand questions.
Use advance written questionnaires. This primes respondents on key issues to be discussed, and it gives them a reference for the group discussion, thus making it easier for the unpopular viewpoint to be mentioned. ("Well, no one…… [Read More]
1. Propose a type of message appeal to be used in the advertising, making sure to explain the rationale behind the appeal
Advertising message appeals purpose to impact the manner in which consumers perceive themselves and how purchasing particular products can end up being advantageous to them. The message communicated through advertising appeals impacts the buying decisions and patterns of consumers. The type of message appeal to be used in the advertising is the masculine/feminine appeal. This appeal is deemed to be the most ideal for the reason that it seeks particularly to depict the ideal male or female to consumers who aspire to attain society’s and their individual ideal view of being a man or woman. Secondly, this appeal is particularly common when the product being sold, such as this one is purposed to either men or women. In addition, more often than not, this appeal has a tendency…… [Read More]
Theme: The use of popular entertainment figures in print, on television, and on the Internet to sell sugar to children
Print Advertising: Kellogg's Star Wars Pop Tarts
Who could be more worthy of one's trust than the wise, kindly figure of Star Wars' young bi Won Kenobi (embodied by the actor Ewan MacGregor) when he is fighting the Dark Forces of destruction embodied by the mature, black-mask encased Darth Vader? A recent advertising campaign for Kellogg's pop tarts deployed just such a popular media figure to sell Pop Tarts to children. "Toast up this Jedi Snack!" It shouted from the printed page. In the advertising campaign for the pop tarts, the name of Star Wars is not merely invoked to make Kellogg's Pop Tarts seem more attractive or tasty for breakfast. Rather the new 'Wildberry' flavor of the tart and the images movie are melded into one, erroneously…… [Read More]
advertising geared to the gay and lesbian communities. Specifically, it will discuss advertising in the context of gay and lesbian culture, and how particular ad campaigns are significant to the gay and lesbian communities. While society has become more accepting of the gay and lesbian lifestyle, there are still many aspects of culture and society that disapprove of the gay/lesbian experience. Traditionally, mainstream advertising has not courted gays and lesbians, but some advertisers have recognized the size and dimensions of the market, and are beginning to break down the barriers in advertising to gays and lesbians in mainstream markets. In the last decade, advertising has become more open, and the gay lifestyle has become more accepted. Advertisers will continue to create new markets to create new opportunities for business and industry, and the gay/lesbian market is still waiting to be fully tapped.
The gay and lesbian lifestyle has existed for…… [Read More]
Media Misrepresent omen?
For a long period of time, hundreds of commercials, movies, as well as TV shows have in one way or another misrepresented women by either objectifying them or presenting them as the weaker sex. It is important to note from the onset that the media plays a significant role in our lives. In addition to shaping our politics, the media also influences the way we think and relate with one another. In the final analysis therefore, how women are represented in the media matters a lot with regard to how they are viewed and/or treated in the real world.
There are numerous instances of women misrepresentation in the media. This is particularly the case in advertising. It is important to note that people are shaped by not only the culture but also the environment in which they are brought up. Today's advertisements bombard our kids with images…… [Read More]
If police, along with others in society, perceive high risk sex offenders as humans who possess the potential to be rehabilitated, then incidences of possible discrimination against these individuals might decrease. This in turn, the researcher contends, could contribute to incidences of sexual offences being prevented and/or reduced. Even though the researcher never generally cared about how high risk sex offenders felt, the conviction that discrimination is wrong over-rode the researcher's non-committal, and in turn, spurred the determination to expose the problem of discrimination in this area. Not only does the researcher hope to expose the problem of discrimination shrouding a population the majority in society would prefer not to deal with, the researcher also hopes to perhaps offer a possible solution; a tinge of hope for a brighter future of fewer incidents of sexual offences against young ones in society.
esearch Design and Methodology
The following five chapters constitute…… [Read More]
The two researchers, Nichols and Good, continue, "Teen pregnancies are an acute national problem because when young girls have children, the risk of poor developmental outcomes, such as poverty or lost career and educational opportunities, increases substantially for both mother and child" (Nichols, and Good 101). Thus, the cycle of poverty could continue through generations, all because of teen pregnancy. Many minority women do not have the resources to get birth control, which is another cause of teen pregnancy in minorities and poverty-stricken areas. This is one area that society could intervene, and create more awareness for teens in poverty-stricken areas, and create more educational opportunities for new, young mothers, so they can continue their education and break the cycle of poverty. Another social problem of teen sex is that studies show it can lead to decreased interest in school and other activities. Another author notes, "Early teen sex is…… [Read More]
Dangers of Alcohol Advertising
A growing body of literature shows that alcohol advertising is an important factor related to alcohol consumption among youth. Research has now established that alcohol advertisements target youth, result in increased alcohol consumption and add to morbidity and mortality. America's youth are overwhelmed with mass media messages. Today's youth is bombarded by not only apparent advertising but also hidden messages. The fact that the entertainment industry presents alcohol as a glamorization also does not help reduce underage usage. Let's face it, the message is everywhere. The fact that the alcohol industry specifically targets this demographic with enticing fruity and soda-based concoction is appalling. Today the average teen spends too much time exposing themselves to such media instead of other activities such as sports and music. Before graduating high school, students will spend about 18,000 hours in front of the television -- more time than they will…… [Read More]
Adolescents & Advertising Media Messages
Examination of a Commercial
The advertisement chosen for examination in this brief study is Britney Spears Pepsi commercial in 2010, which was part of the advertising during the World Cup. The intended audience for the advertisement is the general audience and specifically male and female young people. The ad features Brittney Spears singing, drinking Pepsi, and volley a ball. Brittney appears beautiful and sexy in this commercial and gives the appearance that drinking Pepsi will make everyone athletic and sexy. This ad would be interpreted of course by each gender differently as the male gender would interpret the commercial to mean that drinking Pepsi would ensure that they attract sexy girls and females would view the commercial as appealing to them to drink Pepsi to ensure that they are hot and sexy like Brittney Spears. This ad is not accurate in its portrayal of body…… [Read More]
Race and Advertising
Virginia Slims and Virgin Boef
Easy to Swallow Social Poison and a Mad Cow Solution)
Popular media today is driven by the advertisements that fund it, and our society is significantly influenced by the images that are found within those advertisements. It is said that the popular consumer is both the producer and the product of social inequality and this can be seen as strongly in the portrayal and interpretation of gender and race stereotypes as in any other example. Advertisements have been shown to exaggerate cultural differences between genders and races. (Coltrane, Messineo) hile the unfair caricatures of certain groups may not be as blatantly cartoonish and obvious as those of decades past, there still remains a very definite stereotypical set of boundaries into which different groups, especially minorities, must fall in order to be featured in the majority of popular media. These kinds of portrayals,…… [Read More]
Business & Advertising Strategy of Time Inc.'s Pathfinder.com
The site www.pathfinder.com is a Time Inc. site that provides online users and subscribers of Time Inc. products and services access to its roster of magazines. This list of magazines offers a wide array of information about the following general topics or areas of interest: entertainment, business, news, and lifestyle and health. Thus, because of its variety, Time Inc., in general, caters to the general public, which covers all socio-demographic categories, such as differences in sex, age, socio-economic class and sector the people belong to. For example, TeenPeople.com and Time for Kids cater to the youth, while Parenting.com and business- and news-related sites such as TIME, People, Fortune, and Entertainment Weekly aims at the adult market, from ages (at least) 18 and above. Furthermore, Time Inc.'s services extend towards either the business or agricultural sector, as shown in its offering of information…… [Read More]
Sexism and the Media
There are numerous examples of sexism in advertising: from Britney Spears’ advertisements for her perfume Curious, in which she strips down to her underwear for the camera, to Victoria’s Secret’s models like Chrissy Teigen undergoing both plastic surgery and photoshopping (because stripping down to her underwear doesn’t do enough to convey the right body image) for the company’s lingerie ads, women are routinely objectified for the “male gaze,” as Laura Mulvey put it (Turow, 2009, p. 195). While sexism can take many forms—such as the stereotype of women as homemakers ever ready to please their husbands that was promoted in mid-20th century advertisements—in advertising today, sexism is most readily displayed by way of objectification, as seen in Go Daddy ads, Victoria’s Secrtet ads, beer commercials, and so on, where women’s bodies are like commodities.
Feminism challenged the notion of this objectification of women for a time,…… [Read More]
images boys girls offered today's advertising media.
The images of boys and girls as offered by today's advertising media
Even with the fact that boys and girls are born genetically and hormonally different, the information they learn is decisive in influencing them to take on gender roles. Gender is also something that people learn as they grow up, as it does not only involve a person's physical nature. As children develop they are bombarded with information regarding how it would be socially acceptable for them to behave. Devices like the media are influential in this situation as they pressure children in getting a limited definition concerning their role.
The Media Environment
Media devices promoting a simple expression such as "big boys don't cry" can influence some parents in developing less tolerant attitudes toward boys who cry. Some parents might be influenced to believe that it is unnatural for a boy…… [Read More]
Public hysteria or "sex panic" involving the "sexualisation" of children may be getting a decent outing in Australia at the present moment, but it is certainly nothing new: fifty years ago it was Elvis Presley's hips that portended imminent moral collapse, two hundred and fifty and a dance craze called the "waltz" was considered immodest and the "emo kids" of the late eighteenth century were committing suicide after reading The Sorrows of Young Werther. The more recent alarmism -- typified by Emma Rush and Andrea La Nauze's discussion paper on the "sexualisation of children" in the media, or Miranda Devine's predictable whipping-up of outrage over the 2008 ill Henson photo exhibition -- is nothing new in this regard. (At this point, the new youth-related sex scandals can barely keep up with advances in technology, as the Saint Kilda's schoolgirl suddenly resorts to apologizing via YouTube, after conducting a…… [Read More]
Western Sexual Mores and Fundamental Beliefs about omantic Love:
Beyond the unfair effect of gender-based differential sexual socialization on sexually liberated women in dating relationships, another component of American social psychology often undermines romantic happiness. Specifically, the many messages about romance and marriage that help shape the American view of love suggest that: (1) sexual desire between couples who love each other is exclusive; (2) sexual desire for others indicates a failure of a relationship (or lack of character or sincerity of one's partner); and (3) sexual jealousy is an indication of romantic love (Branden 2002).
Sexual jealousy is practically universal in romantic love within Western society (Buss 2000), but the fact of the matter is, at least in human beings, it is a learned reaction that is virtually unknown in several known aboriginal societies (Barash & Lipton 2001).
Despite the fact that psychologists consider sexual fidelity a matter of…… [Read More]
The concentration on action and violence draws larger audiences, yet is not effective in selling products Pechmann, Levine, Loughlin, Leslie, 2005).
esearchers have also found that the brains of pre-adolescents and adolescents have low levels of inhibitory control and therefore pursue reckless and risky activities due to their judgment not being fully developed (Cauffman, Steinberg, 2000). Adolescents who have seen reckless and risky behavior online or on television advertising are 80% more likely to engage in the behavior (Trimpop, udiger, Kerr, Kirkcaldy, 1999). The lack of inhibitory controls when combined with the an abundance of violent content leads quickly to replication of viewed acts of violence, especially in pre-adolescents, as verified through research completed (Trimpop, udiger, Kerr, Kirkcaldy, 1999).
Ethically this raises the question of whether the advertisers are more adept at the selling of violent acts than products, as the brains of the audience members they are selling products…… [Read More]
This view is evident in this earlier advertisement for United Airlines; which uses the female stereotypes of nature to convey its message of care and stability.
The following advertisement from a magazine cover from the 1940's also strongly suggests female stereotypes associated with food and family. Note as well the title of the magazine - Everywoman - which suggests a stereotypical ideal that women should strive for.
Many contemporary advertisements still tend to use male and female stereotypes but this usage in the media has become more sophisticated and subtle in terms of the way that it is encoded in the style and the visual language of the advertisement. The following comparison clearly shows this aspect.
Fig.3 Davidoff Cool ater-oman
Fig.4 Davidoff Cool ater - Man
Source: Introduction: Advertising & Gender
In the above advertisements, both figures three and four display the same style of photography…… [Read More]
The role of sex in advertising is even more blatant in a food advertisement of an ejaculating Tabsco sauce bottle over a split bake potato -- hot and spice as a metaphor for intercourse.
Sex sells: a woman wants to be desired by a man which requires the perfect figure, in the perfect low-cut dress with the perfectly matching nail polish, and a man can only be desired by a woman if he drives a BMW, wears a olex watch and has on a alph Lauren suit (which is not a Polo suit but the higher end and much more expensive Purple Label suit). Media's objectification of women and the fact that sex does sell has lead to the "sexification" of young girls and teens. Kilboure makes her point with magazine covers and television spots, including JonBenet in full makeup for a toddler beauty pageant, a teenage Brittney Spears displayed…… [Read More]
, 2001). Based on the proliferation of the Internet and the near-ubiquity of personal computers in many affluent homes, these rates can reasonably be expected to have increased even further in subsequent years.
In fact, it would appear that the more people of both sexes are using the Internet for these purposes, the more ways they are finding to do so. In this regard, Green and her associates point out that, "The fact that one can access sexually related materials and interact with others anonymously on the Internet has opened the doors even wider. Using anonymous screen names, individuals can explore and express their sexual interests with little fear that friends, coworkers, or even spouses will discover their activities" (2001, p. 303). Furthermore, the individuals who participate in these encounters can do so with other anonymous individuals without the risks typically associated with face-to-face relationships; if an anonymous online relationship…… [Read More]
Business Plan for Green Tongues
Environmental and Industry Analysis
Products or Services
Marketing esearch and Evaluation
Manufacturing and Operations Plan
Critical isks and Assumptions
Benefits to the Community
Green Tongues is an advertising company that provides environmentally friendly advertising solutions to all those companies that value their environment and want to give back to the society in which they exist. Green Tongues envisions itself to be the premier advertising company in the near future in the entire Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) region as consumers and businesses in this region are slowly beginning to realize the importance of environmental conservation. The six member states that comprise the GCC (i.e., Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates) are shown to be well situated to take advantage of their political and economic clout in ways that promote environmentally…… [Read More]
The Inextricable Correlation between Human Trafficking and Prostitution
Despite ongoing efforts by the international community, human trafficking remains a global problem today. Tens of thousands of men, women and children are routinely exploited by human traffickers each year, and the practice generates billions of dollars in criminal proceeds at home and abroad. In fact, after drugs and gun-running, sex trafficking is the largest source of money for criminal organizations in the United States. Given the enormity of the problem and the vast sums of money that are involved, it is not surprising that the international community has not been successful in eliminating this practice. To determine the facts, this paper provides an analysis of the relevant literature concerning the correlation between prostitution and human trafficking to demonstrate that the two have an inextricable but difficult to quantify effect on each other. A summary of the research and important findings…… [Read More]
Wall, Tapies, and Goldin: Photography and Painting From the Theoretical Perspective of Susan Sontag
The relationship between photography and painting, according to Susan Sontag, is that neither is really "capturing" the world that each attempts to depict. Rather they are capturing or depicting a perspective and the reality remains elusive. They are, in other words, projections of the artist's viewpoint; they are filtered through a particular zeitgeist -- and it is the zeitgeist that needs to be interpreted at root, not the painting or the picture. Painting and photography are merely means of identifying the spirit or ideology of a particular culture in a particular time and place. [footnoteRef:1] This paper will use Sontag's theoretical framework to analyze the relationship between photography and painting by examining three different works: A Sudden Gust of Wind (1993), photographed by Jeff Wall, Composition with Figures (1945), painted by Antoni Tapies, and Misty and…… [Read More]
However, women are also objectified without any sort of sales involved, as well. The notion of perfection which is virtually unattainable and which most conceptions of female beauty in the United States revolves upon, and which is consistently seen in media outlets such as television and film, also serves to objectify women. In this respect, women receive messages from some of the most powerful media around that they should be tall, thin, have inordinately large breasts and other body parts -- the sum of which effectively "dehumanizes" them. This form of objectification is most dramatically demonstrated by America the Beautiful, in which Roberts talks to a group of plastic surgeons about the popularity of this cosmetic procedure which is used to reinforce a false beauty that is virtually impossible to have under completely natural circumstances.
Plastic surgery, or the self-mutilation of one's body, is just one of the many myriad…… [Read More]
There is plenty of anecdotal evidence to support this theory -- several prominent school shootings have been ostensibly linked to video game playing -- but real scientific evidence is also emerging that suggests a more subtle but similar effect. In one study, college-age participants who had spent time playing olfenstein 3D, a first person shooter computer game, "punished" their opponents by subjecting them to loud noises of high intensity more frequently and for longer periods of time than participants that had played a non-violent computer game. In the words of Dr. Craig Anderson, one of the psychologists and researchers who conducted the study, "violent video games provide a forum for learning and practicing aggressive solutions to conflict situations."
Basically, time spent playing violent video games is time spent learning life skills that could be detrimental and counter-productive in real world situations, and could even replace more socially valuable skills sets…… [Read More]
Applying Goffman to Modern Advertisements
Goffman and Gender Commercials
Goffman contends that the selection of commercial pictures in advertisements is intentional and serves a specific agenda that is not in service to consumers' well-being or natural interests. He argues this facet of culture is ripe for analysis with respect to topics such as sexuality, gender, power, the means of production, and social reality, among others. His strongest assertions concerns how analysis of the selection of commercial pictures reveals keen insights when comparing them to behavioral practices as experience in everyday interactions. Goffman grounds his hypotheses in concrete methodological practices, with primary aims to locate and define discovery, proof, and presentation. Grounding is his research in established methodology keeps opposition from arguing that his findings and conclusions are wild-eyed, paranoid theories that undermine American culture or the American way of life. He claims that the kind of analysis he proposes…… [Read More]
hereas another image is showing, a bean bag in contrast to a retro office chair. These differences are designed to reach out to younger, middle age and older demographics. The way that this is taking place is to use images that are culturally neutral. Yet, they inspire a sense of joy and happiness. ("Blackberry")
Moreover, the differences between the various frames are showing intelligence and glamour. This is supposed to reach out to all audiences by highlighting trendiness and elegance. hen someone sees this they will feel that there is a social desire to become of part of what they are seeing. In the future, they will use this as a way to identify and create specific feelings automatically. ("Blackberry") (Cialdini)
According to Cialdini (2009), this is a tool that all advertisers will utilize to identify with a larger demographic of consumers. Commenting about how this occurs he said, "In…… [Read More]
On the one side are those who argue against advertisements aimed at children due to a belief that children are uniquely susceptible, and on the other side are those who sell advertisements and advertising, such as ad agencies and business school textbook authors, out of a belief that advertising is able to effect product preference in any meaningful way. In short, both of these groups are incorrect, because advertising, and animated characters in particular, actually have fairly little influence on product preference and purchasing decisions. They can generate recognition and positive emotional connections between the audience and the product, but these connections do not necessarily translate into actual purchases. However, in order to demonstrate why this is the case, one must examine some relevant scientific research on the subject and attempt to inject some reasonable skepticism into the hyperbolic claims of parents' groups and advertising cheerleaders.
Aside from market research…… [Read More]
Advertising Controversy and Assessment Overview
Stage 1 Controversial Advertising
The advertisement in this controversial case aimed to actually cause some sort of stir by having models pose in proactive poses. These marketing techniques are directed at young women aged 16- 35 and fashion conscious men who are seeking to say in step with the current fashions of the day. The advertisement in this case was very effective for several reasons. The first reason for its effectiveness is because the picture is very risque and promotes a challenge to sexual and violent taboos. This cutting edge style certainly appeals to a demographic that looks to set itself apart by pushing the social envelope using sex and violence as a tool to stir emotions. The scale of the controversy also depicts the success of the ad campaign and created a definite buzz amongst the fashion industry. This ad could be…… [Read More]
Selling (to) Kids: Advertising, Children, Youth and Commercial Culture
Advertising for children and youth has always had a special appeal. Gen X’ers remember the Toys ‘R’ Us song, “I don’t want to grow up, I’m a Toys ‘R’ Us kid,” and link it to their childhood—even if they never went to a single Toys ‘R’ Us store. They invariably saw the commercials multiple times if they had a TV in their home. The commercials showed children blissfully happy because they had toys galore—and the aim of the ad campaign was to get kids interested in consumerism. On the surface, it seems like a harmless engagement. However, from the standpoint of critical theory, turning kids into consumers perpetuates the power structure of the capitalist system in the U.S.—that is how the Frankfurt School would argue it. This paper will use critical theory—the idea of the Frankfurt School that media can be…… [Read More]
Popular culture defines what is desired by any given sociological group based on pressure by peers. Every moment of the day, we are saturated by culture. hen we turn on the television, not only are we watching the programs but we are inundated by advertisers trying to convince the viewer that there is some new product that needs to be purchased or a new movie that needs to be seen or a new service that is essential to the happiness of the consumer. On the Internet, each inquiry provides banner headlines where we are also bombarded with advertisements and attitudes. Similarly, there are billboards and ads on cars and radio commercials while we drive to and from work. It is characteristic of a capitalistic society that so much of our culture has to do with the consumption of goods and services (Yar, Lecture 2, slide 2). Everywhere someone or something…… [Read More]
Life lessons, relationship lessons, even artistic, music, and performance sharing could take place (imagine, a NeoPet "Grease" production using a global cast)?
Conclusions and Implications -- NeoPets obviously provides a niche about which some consumers are excited. Like many technological entertainment devises, though, there is certainly potential for abuse. One would not necessarily want their children to sit in front of a NASCA racing program, replete with ads, for hours at a time and never have any physical activity. It is not the place of technology to mandate other behavior, but the wisdom of parents and society to create a balance. Ensuring that this will not be a fad is quite simple -- continue to evolve, to grow, to become more sophisticated in content and interaction. In a similar way, funding could come from private foundations that might sponsor a segment (e.g. Boeing on history of flight; Microsoft on computing…… [Read More]
Consumer Behavior for Marketing
Understanding Consumer Behavior
Understanding consumers' perceptions is critical to marketing and advertising. Consumers are increasingly selective with regard to the advertising that they pay attention to and mass marketing is fast losing its effectiveness and appeal. There is any number of strategies that marketers can employ to increase positive consumer perception of their brands. Several suggestions follow: (1) Engage in socially responsible investing in causes that can reasonably associated with the company or the brand: Examples of this strategy can be seen in programs that Starbucks has established to give back to domestic communities and to engage in foreign communities in need. Sale of Ethos water provides a portion of the revenue to be used for infrastructure changes to communities that do not have reliable sources of clean water. The ed program -- a collaborative effort which extended to other firms -- used a portion of…… [Read More]
E-Commerce Marketing Plan
Nielsen Media esearch was founded in the 1920s by Arthur Nielsen and it focused on assessing the success of advertisements within the consumer markets. During the following decade, the organization commenced to assess the success and popularity of radio programs. The means in which the organization assessed the ratings of television programs evolved and these were eventually applied to compute the ratings of television programs. Today, Nielsen is evolving to assess the ratings, popularity as well as other elements regarding radio and television programs, but also online efforts. Additionally, the company is also measuring ratings on novel equipments, such as TiVos. This very evolution of Nielsen and its ability to quickly adapt and ensure rating measurement on a variety of media creates its unique selling proposition. "You know you are a powerful research company when your results change the face of television programming. The king of TV…… [Read More]
ole of Marketing in Business
Over the last several years, the role of marketing in business has been increasingly brought to the forefront. This is because a host of strategies have been introduced which are designed to improve the efficiency of firms. For marketing departments, this can result in drastic cuts in the sales force and funding. This is problematic, as it is making companies less productive. (Importance of Marketing 2005) (Farrell 2005)
However, there are theories which support these kinds of changes. This is because many proponents will argue that marketing efforts must be focused. The only way this can be achieved is through monitoring the results they are providing to the firm. This means eliminating unproductive employees. These conflicting views have led to heated discussions about the importance of the marketing department. To fully understand the role that they are playing in the success of a business requires…… [Read More]