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..although one of the more dangerous for the advertiser. Weighted down with taboos and volatile attitudes, sex is a Code Red advertising technique." For markets, sexuality can have biological, emotional, physical and spiritual effects on the consumers. The biological aspect represents the reproductive mechanism, including the basic, hormonally-controlled, biological drive that most species exhibit.
Other than the products, attitudes regarding sex are sold, such as when couples are used, and ideas about partnerships are implied -- dominance, roles, etc. The effect this has on a maturing adolescent is clear based on the amount of hours spent by this demographic watching television. Furthermore, new fields in science, such as neuromarketing, teach us that consumers, who respond positively to an advertisement, do so because they identify with the advertisement. Sexuality is particularly effective because it has a biological base in each individual, and speaks to human's innate need to reproduce.
Accessed March 2010 at: http://www.gallup-robinson.com/essay1.html
6. American Academy of Pediatrics. "Sexuality, Contraception, and the Media, Policy statement parent pages." PEDIATRICS Vol. 107 No. 1 January 2001, pp. 191-194.
Accessed March 2010 at: http://aappolicy.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/pediatrics;107/1/191
sex in advertising. The writer takes the reader on an exploratory journey into the use of sex in advertising. There were 10 sources used to complete this paper.
The world is becoming an increasingly competitive place. While the globalization process moves forward, and teenagers grow up faster than ever before marketing departments are scrambling to discover the secret to targeting the markets for their clients. Marketing departments have a very demanding position in the world of advertising. They must study many aspects of society in order to come up with and present in the best possible light the products they have been charged with selling. It is something that requires a deep understanding of human nature, a grasp on different markets, ages and interests, and the understanding of where the lines are drawn between offensive and alluring. The use of sex in advertising is not a new concept but its…
Jones, Marilyn Y.; Stanaland, Andrea J.S.; Gelb, Betsy D., Beefcake and cheesecake: insights for advertisers.. Vol. 27, Journal of Advertising, 06-22-1998, pp 33(19).
Tone, Andrea, Contraceptive consumers: gender and the political economy of birth control in the 1930s.. Vol. 29, Journal of Social History, 03-01-1996, pp 485(22).
Reichert, Tom; Heckler, Susan E, The effects of sexual social marketing appeals on cognitive processing and persuasion., Journal of Advertising, 04-01-2001, pp 13.
Thompson, Craig J. And Elizabeth C. Hirschman (1995), "Understanding the Socialized Body: A Poststructuralist Analysis of Consumers' Self- Conceptions, Body Images, and Self-Care Practices," Journal of Consumer Research. 22 (September), 139-153.
Ethics: Sex in Advertising
Advertising in general has become absurd; in many cases, viewers aren't even sure what the commercial was trying to sell. With advertising companies running low on new ideas, and competition in the marketplace fiercer than ever, it's no wonder so many businesses will stoop to the use of sex to sell their products, whether those products have anything to do with sex or not. But there are more serious ethical issues at stake. First of all, some experts believe the ubiquitous images of sex in the media lead young people to view sex as glamorous and casual, rather than risky and worthy of serious consideration. Beautiful men and women engaging in sexual behaviors in print and television ads do not suffer consequences for their loose morals; there are no follow-up commercials showing the unwanted pregnancy, the abortion, the broken relationship, the "dumped" man or woman who…
Kilbourne, J. (2003). Advertising and Disconnection. In T. Reichert, & J. Lambiase, Sex in Advertising: Perspectives on the Erotic Appeal (pp. 173-180). Mahwah, NJ: awrence Erlbaum Associates. Place of Publication: Mahwah, NJ. Publication Year: 2003.
Meganck, S. (2010). Sex and Violence in Advertising: How Commodifying and Sexualizing Women Leads to Gender Violence. Retrieved 02-20, 2011, from Ramsites: http://ramsites.net/~megancksl/assets/Text/Sex%20and%20Violence%20in%20Advertising.pdf
Moore, J. (2002, 03-29). Women and Advertising: The Social Cost of Commercial Culture. Retrieved 02-23, 2011, from The Socialist Alternative: http://www.socialistalternative.org/literature/womensrights/advertising.html
Against Sex in Advertising
Many advertisers know the power of using sex in advertising. Sex sells. Pretty female models in bathing suits are used in car ads. Years ago, a pretty blonde woman was in a shaving cream commercial on television urging men to take it all off. omen are used as sex objects more frequently than men.
There is basis in psychological theory to validate the use of sex in ads. One is the theory of classical conditioning. (eiten, ayne. 195-196). In advertising, this would pair the product, such as a car, with a stimulus designed to elicit a pleasant emotional response, an attractive woman in order to sell the vehicle.
This is overt advertising.
There is also covert sex in advertising. This uses subliminal techniques, which are supposed to reach the subconscious to sell the product.
The first experiment in the use of these techniques was done at…
Case, William. "Sex, Drugs and Exploitation: How Advertisers Promote Addiction." http://www.kissing.com/sex.html . Keyes, WilliamBryan. Media Sexploitation. New York: Signet Classics. 1977.Show Some Discretion. http://www.girlpossw.com/flip_side/past_flip_side/usingsextosell/appealtobrain/appealtobrain.html. Taflinger, RichardF. "Taking Advantage: You and Me Babe: Sex and Advertising." 5/28/96. http://Www.wsu.edu:8080/~taflinge/sex.html. Tunick, Britt."Sex and Wall Street A Fine Line." Investment Dealers' Digest. Vol. 68, Issue
2, pp 52-53Weiten, Wayne. Psychology: Themes and Variations. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole Publishing
As a result, ads for ethnicities such as blacks and Hispanics are limited to media designed to target only these audiences.
Steinem rues the advertiser's power over her magazine. She regrets the use of a feminist magazine to sell products that are bad for women, but explains the financial necessity for doing so. Cigarette and alcohol ads provide a disproportionate amount of advertising support and can't be forfeited without threatening the survival of the magazine. In fact, ads themselves begin to compete with content for space, changing the content to ad ration from 60/40 to 50/50. The following statement by Steinen reflects her degree of despair:
There is hardly a night when I don't wake up with sweaty palms and pounding heart, scared that we won't be able to pay the printer or the post office; scared most of all that closing our doors will hurt the women's movement." (Steinem,…
Steinem, Gloria. "Sex, Lies & Advertising." MS Magazine Jul./Aug. 1990. Available:
http://www.publishingbiz.com/html/articlebysteinem.html (Accessed 6 Jun 2005).
This is related to the need for prominence, which advertisers play on by suggesting that respect is attendant on use of the product. Instead of being looked up to, being looked on is the goal of the need for attention, and then the need for autonomy allows advertisers to suggest freedom is associated with their product. This is also often associated with the need to escape, whether in the company of others or not. Security or the need to feel safe does not apply to every product, but advertisers can invoke it in the right instances by offering security. Lastly, the need to satisfy curiosity and the fulfillment of basic physiological needs can also be touched on by advertisers in order to sell a product.
Beyond these fifteen appeals, there are also identifiable styles of advertising. The use of celebrities as spokespersons and merely for their presence is one common…
Fowles, Jib. "Advertising's Fifteen Basic Appeals." Writing and Reading Across the Curriculum. Ed. Laurence Behrens and Leonard J. Rosen. 10th ed. New York: Pearson Longman. 2005. 657-74.
Advertising Effectiveness and Consumer Memory
The relationship between psychology and advertising is not a new one -- in fact, it is fundamental to the birth of modern advertising in America. Edward Bernays, the father of marketing, was the nephew of none other than Sigmund Freud, and used Freud's sense that "man was motivated by passion" to manipulate the senses of consumers and plant seeds of desire within consumer memory (Jones, 2000, p. 283). Since the days of Bernays, all evidence indicates that marketers have utilized cognitive psychology in order to assist advertising effectiveness in relation to consumer memory. This paper will discuss this evidence and research surrounding this association and critically analyze and discuss it.
A Complex elationship
Developing brand awareness and brand loyalty are two of the biggest factors in successful marketing. Establishing either requires an effective campaign that essentially implants the brand in the mind of the consumer…
Aaker, D, Biel, A (2013) Brand Equity and Advertising: Advertising's Role in Building
Strong Brands, NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates.
Bloemer, J, Kasper, H (1995) The complex relationship between consumer satisfaction and brand loyalty, Journal of Economic Psychology, 16(2): 311-329.
Festinger, L (1957) A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance, CA: Stanford University Press.
Advertising and public relations serve to communicate ideas and convince the audience of something. Politicians are among the most prolific advertising spenders during election campaigns and can have enormous public relations machines. This is especially true of Presidential candidates, who must first run for their party's nomination and then must run for President. We know that Hillary Clinton went from frontrunner to loser in the race for the Democratic Presidential nomination in 2008. There are lessons to be learned about the different factors that contribute to selling an idea, in this case Clinton as President, to different audiences. This case study will evaluate Clinton's campaign leading up to the Democratic primary using the OSTE model. The OSTE model focuses on research, objectives, strategies, tactics and evaluation.
The Hillary Clinton campaign at the time of the case was a large organization. It featured both extensive advertising and public relations, backed…
Cree, C. (2008). Hillary Clinton's approach to social media killed her campaign. Success Creations. Retrieved November 7, 2013 from http://successcreeations.com/339/hillary-clintons-approach-to-social-media-killed-her-campaign/
Gawiser, S. & Witt, G. (2012). 20 questions a journalist should ask about poll results. National Council on Public Polls. Retrieved November 7, 2013 from http://www.ncpp.org/?q=node/4
Murray, M. (2008). The primary vs. general election fallacy. NBC News. Retrieved November 7, 2013 from http://www.nbcnews.com/id/23591347/
OpenSecrets.org. (2008). Hillary Clinton. Retrieved November 7, 2013 from http://www.opensecrets.org/pres08/summary.php?cid=N
Example 1. The two ads are both targeted towards women and appeared in fashion magazines. The visuals for this ad reflect the transition from prickly to smooth, which mirrors the copy. The ad was placed in Glamour, which has a more lifestyle approach, so the food metaphors seem apropos for the audience. The ad is a bit disjointed, in that the image is a bit sloppy and the metaphors in the text seem weak, like the allusion to spaghetti straps, which makes sense and at the same time is a clumsy attempt to tie food into this. All told, however, the ad engages the audience, attempts to be clever, and the visual should catch the attention of readers.
Ad "B" was placed in Cosmo, which skews younger and more strictly fashion-oriented, but the copy and visuals do not seem congruent with that. The layout of the ad is the…
Exposure to Sex in Commercials
The adage, "sex sells," is nothing new, in fact, more than a century ago advertisers were using women in advertising campaigns for tobacco and soaps (Erotic pp). During the 1940's, George Petty became famous with his Petty girls, who were so popular in advertising for bathing attire and cigarettes that students at Princeton University selected Petty as their favorite artist in 1947, while Rembrandt came in second (Erotic pp). The sexual revolution of the 1960's became a catalyst for the use of sexual and erotic ads for just about anything and everything (Erotic pp). In 1966, Swedish model and former Miss Sweden, Gunilla Knutson, appearing in a television commercial for shaving cream encouraged men to "take it all off" to the tune of David Rose's popular hit "The Stripper" (Erotic pp). This ad created enormous attention and heralded in a new era for sex in…
Erotic advertising. Retrieved June 17, 2005 from Fanny Hill Web site:
Sex in advertising. Retrieved June 17, 2005 from Wikipedia Web site:
Embedded Communication in Advertising
"There is no evidence that advertising can get people to do things contrary to their self-interest." -- JI Fowles, in Advertising's Fifteen asic Appeals
"Good advertising does not just circulate information. It penetrates the public mind with desires and belief." -- Leo urnett, Advertising Executive and Creator of the Marlboro Man
"The ability to attract new smokers and develop them into a young adult franchise is key to brand development." 1999 Philip Morris report
When the preceding collection of opinions regarding the influence of modern advertising are considered in conjunction with the iconic advertising image shown above, it becomes quite clear that, much like advertising itself, forming an informed position on this ubiquitous aspect of modern marketing is simply a matter of perception and perspective (elch 120). Corporate conglomerates and other private enterprises ascribe tremendous value to the persuasive power of advertising, bombarding the general public…
Altman, David G., Michael D. Slater, Cheryl L. Albright, and Nathan Maccoby. "How an unhealthy product is sold: Cigarette advertising in magazines, 1960 -- 1985." Journal of Communication 37, no. 4 (1987): 95-106.
Belch, George E., Michael A. Belch, and Angelina Villarreal. "Effects of advertising communications: Review of research." Research in marketing (1987).
Bovee, Courtland L., and William F. Arens. "The Indictments Against Advertising." Writing and Reading Across the Curriculum. Laurence Behrens and Leonard J. Rosen. New York, NY: Pearson Higher Education, 2008. 685-691. Print.
De Gregorio, Federico, and Yongjun Sung. "Understanding attitudes toward and behaviors in response to product placement." Journal of Advertising 39, no. 1 (2010): 83-96.
It is through these facets of every "Sex" woman character that makes the show meaningful and realistic enough to make it audiences believe that they, too, can attain the personalities and triumphs in love, sex, and career lives of Carrie, Samantha, Charlotte, and Miranda.
Indeed, love, sex, and career as depicted in "Sex" is actually embedded in the show's women characters. The close relationship of the women with each other symbolically represents the intertwined relationship of love, sex, and career, wherein each factor is representative of a woman character in "Sex." Through its characters, "Sex" has managed to cultivate and maintain the ideology of liberal thinking in matters concerning love, sex, and career -- an ideology that proves essential for women, in order to further strengthen their personalities and individualities without resorting to radical expressions of femininity, a fault that feminists often suffer from.
As Richards (2003) discusses in her…
Fairley, J. (2002). Cash in the city: Affording Manolos, martinis, and manicures on a working girl's salary. NY: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
Kamen, P. (2000). Her Way: Young women remake the Sexual Revolution. NY: New York University Press.
Nussbaum, E. (January 4, 2004). "Carrie Bradshaw's Final Reckoning." New York Times on the web.
Orenstein, C. (September 5, 2003). "What Carrie could learn from Mary." New York Times on the web.
advertising on male vs. female buying behavior. Many studies indicate that men and women shop and buy differently. Men tend to shop less and simply buy what they need, regardless of price, while women tend to shop more, comparing prices and quality. Gender definitely affects how you buy and what you buy, as studies consistently show.
Consumerism is rampant in America, even with the current recession. etailers have products Americans need and want, and they need to know how to market them successfully to make their businesses grow and prosper. They need to know that men and women have very different buying behaviors, and they need to know how to attract them effectively. As one study notes, "When it comes to shopping, women are from Nordstrom's and men are from Sears" ("Men Buy"). Women do a majority of the food and clothing shopping for families. Another Web site notes, "…
Editors. "Men and Women's Buying Habits." BharatBook.com. 2009. 18 Dec. 2009.
Editors. "Men Buy, Women Shop." University of Pennsylvania. 2009. 18 Dec. 2009.
The video's director explains that the intention was not to create racy content for its own sake, but rather that "the process was to express Lady Gaga's desire to reveal her heart and bear her soul" (Kreps). The provocative imagery thus serves to challenge the viewer over whether the video expresses bad taste or high art.
Equally important to lyrics are Gaga's overall image and the discussion she generates over her interests, including avant-garde fashion and gay rights. She is known for being scantily-clad; one magazine called her appearance "bizarre," stating that her style of dress is "archly futuristic…reveals a lot of skin but is never sexy" (Callahan and Stewart). The conflict inherent in her blatant sexuality also arises when one considers the discussion that her gender once generated, as "Is Lady Gaga a man?' 'was AskJeeves.com's thirdmost-asked question of 2009" (Juzwiak). Ever the provocateur, Lady Gaga addressed the question…
Alejandro. Dir. Steven Klein. Perf. Lady Gaga. YouTube. 08 June 2010. Web. 02 Apr.
Callahan, Maureen, and Sara Stewart. "Who's That Lady?" NYPost.com. 21 Jan. 2010.
Web. 03 Apr. 2011. .
From her conspicuous consumption of product-related merchandise it is safe to assign her firmly to the upper middle class. Gender stereotypes and messages abound in this ad, as in many others. One example is the woman-as-food or woman-as-product message; she is something to be eaten or consumed like any other fast-moving consumer good, which sets a dangerous precedent. "Turning a human being into a thing, an object, is almost always the first step toward justifying violence against that person." (Kilbourne, p. 278).
The implied consequence for buying the product is becoming desirable as an extraordinary female. Those who fail to buy the product must resign themselves to a passionless life full of mediocrity. Extraordinary females are those whose lives are saturated with the product. Pozner (p. 51) gives evidence of this actually happening when she says, "What disturbs me is not that I prefer the taste of Snapple (I do),…
Barbie doll top ten viral commercials as of 2013 rely mostly on You Tube, Dailymotion, Facebook and Twitter.
The third doll brand, subject to this study is Bratz. As evidenced from the four commercials assessed in the course of this study, Bratz deploys a slightly different mode of advertising, which involves marketing adult entertainment to kids. Social psychologists have argued that this strategy is very effective within the realm of modern-day material culture. Adult entertainment, which often involves depiction of violence, sex, strong language and obscenity, has become very popular among children
. For Bratz, one of the most popular commercials involves cowgirls in Texas fighting crime modelled along the risque film group Charlie's Angels. The use of guns to depict violence is central to this commercial, which has since increased the brand's digital reach through pervasive advertising on TV and in the internet. In a similar commercial, Bratz acquired…
Meyers, Laurie. "Dangerous dolls? Psychologists push back against market forces and products that sexualize young girls." American Psychological Association September 2006, Vol 37, No. 8
Eglinton, Kristen Ali Youth Identities, Localities, and Visual Material Culture: Making Selves, Making Worlds New York: Springer, 2013
Doeschka, J. Anschutz and Rutger, C.M.E. Engels. "The Effects of Playing with Thin Dolls on Body Image and Food Intake in Young Girls" U.S. National Library of Medicine
Advertising's most fundamental function is to sell products, but in order to do so, advertising must also shape the values and norms of the culture. One of the most obvious ways advertising shapes social norms and cultural values is through the representations of gender and sexuality. Few products other than adult toys, condoms, and others of an overtly sexual nature offer as much potential to shape, play with, and manipulate gender and sexuality than undergarments. In an advertisement for its line of men's underwear, the company Under Armour promotes an ordinary product by claiming that it has an erotic appeal. The fine print of the advertisement states mainly that the underwear is comfortable and can keep the wearer "cool and dry," but the image speaks more about the way the underwear will confer grand sexual prowess and status on the males who wear it. Although the Under Armour advertisement is…
Kilbourne, Jean. Killing Us Softly. Film.
Kilbourne, Jean. "Two Ways a Woman Can Get Hurt."
Solomon, Jack. "Masters of Desire: The Culture of American Advertising." From The Signs of Our Times. Putnam, 1988.
Marketing Shampoo -- Selling sex with soap suds
Shampoo's main function as a product may be to clean hair, but when it comes to advertising, no form of marketing succeeds more potently to sell this cleansing product to women than the marketing of feminine sex appeal. 'Buy the product, and be a sexy woman/girl.' This may not always come across as good clean fun in the eyes of the consumer, but, even if us not strictly dirty advertising, the need to sell sex as part of the image to the typical female consumer of shampoo cannot be underestimated. hat else will distinguish what is otherwise a fairly indistinguishable product, other than the promise of sensuality via the right kind of soaping and suds?
hile much of Chapter 7 of Reading Culture by Diana George and John Trimbur makes much of how the female body has been used as an image…
Garnier Fructis. Official Website. 2005. Retrieved 14 Mar 2005 at http://www.garnierfructis.com/
George, Diana and John Trimbur. Reading Culture. New York: Pearson Learning, 2004.
Herbal Essences. Official Website. 2005. Retrieved 14 Mar 2005 at http://www.herbalessences.com/us/home.asp
Moran, Barbara. Crafting Multimedia Text: Websites and Presentations. New York: Pearson, 2005.
Media Advertising: Posting an Ad on Facebook
Social media advertising provides a great platform for enhancing a brand message's reach and influencing prospects at the buying cycle's middle-of-the-funnel or evaluation stage. Facebook presents a unique marketing plan for advertisers; one that entirely focuses on middle-of-the-funnel offers as a way of influencing buyer decisions. This is quite logical since it is at the evaluation stage that a buyer i) clarifies exactly what they need, and then embarks on the search for a satisfying provider, and ii) is most likely to share information through their established network though a 'like' (Social Media Today, 2013).
In order to take advantage of this aspect, Sushi Fashions, a dealer in ladies wear, handbags and accessories intends to put up an ad regarding its Super Bowl sale, in which buyers could get up to 50% off on the conventional prices - over the entire product range.…
Catholic Democrats. (2008). Step-by-Step Instruction to Place a Facebook Ad. Catholic Democrats. Retrieved from http://catholicdemocrats.org/contribute/Facebook%20Instructions.pdf
Social Media Today. (2013). Enhance your MOFU: 10 Ways to Advertise on Social Media. Social Media Today Community. Retrieved from http://socialmediatoday.com/seanroyer/1444696/enhance-your-mofu-10-ways-advertise-social-media >
VanHoose, D. (2011). E-Commerce Economics (2nd ed.). New York: Taylor & Francis.
This phenomenon objectifies women by suggesting (at least implicitly) that only the opinions and sensibilities of the most attactive females, such as the models featued in advetisements, ae wothwhile. The mee absence of females of aveage and less-than-aveage elative physical attactiveness fom commecial advetising conditions eveyone in society to ignoe women unless they ae paticulaly sexually attactive. Besides being unfai to women who happen not to look like the models in commecial advetising, this also devalues any legitimate talents and the intelligence and meaningful contibutions of women who do happen to be elatively attactive. It ceates the natual infeence that attactive women who ae successful achieved thei success by vitue of thei physical appeaance instead of thei othe attibutes.
In addition to objectifying women as though they ae nothing moe than thei elative level of physical attactiveness, the ovewhelming focus on sexuality and female attactiveness in commecial advetising also denigates…
references and euphemisms for "penis" such as "special part of male anatomy" in an apparent attempt to comply with the letter if not the spirit of laws that prohibit dishonest statements in advertising. Likewise, they include very obscure printed language at the bottom of the screen advising that the product is designed "for entertainment purposes only."
Second, the ExtenZe commercials purposely create the false impression that the production is a talk show called "Sex Talk" rather than a paid hour-long advertisement. Third, the commercials feature attractive young female models and actresses who are paid for their participation and dressed in sexually provocative attire to capture male attention and suggest that these are the types of women to whom users of the product will become more attractive and desirable. Fourth, the advertisement series also denigrates women by suggesting that all they want from men is a large penis. In that regard, the main topic of the scripted dialogue among the female models pertains to their specific preference for men who are "bigger and wider." One of the women complains that she waited her entire life for a man with a large and wide enough penis to satisfy her and recounts her disappointment at having begun a relationship only to discover that her man failed to "measure up." The obvious intent of the commercials (and the entire commercial venture) is obviously to exploit females while simultaneously exploiting the common male insecurity about relative penis size. In so doing, the commercials manage to insult the worth of females, the self-esteem of males, and the value of their relationships.
psychological approach to sex and its use during advertising. Whether it is used in the proper context to promote the product or is aimed at a systemic way to get the viewer to watch the advertisement.
The use of psychology in advertising is well established. The use of sexual advertising has been seen in a variety of products from cars to ice cream aimed at a wide range of target audiences spread across the demographic ranges. The use of sexuality, which, may include visual or audio images and can be presented in different formats, including nudity, sexual innuendo, or even with humour. The main aim of the advertising is to target the processing of the information regarding the advertisement rather the concentration on the brand. The idea is that the images and feeling they create may then be associated with the product that is being sold, increasing its'…
Grazer, William F. And Garland Keesling (1995), The Effect of Print Advertising's Use of Sexual Themes on Brand Recall and Purchase Intention: A Product Specific Investigation of Male Responses, Journal of Applied Business Research, 11(3), 47-58
MacInnis, Deborah J., Christine Moorman and Bernard J. Jaworski (1991, October), Enhancing and Measuring Consumers' Motivation, Opportunity, and Ability to Process Brand Information From Ads, Journal of Marketing, 55 (), 32-53.
Severn, Jessica, George E. Belch and Michael A. Belch (1990), The Effects of Sexual and Non-Sexual Advertising Appeals and Information Level on Cognitive Processing and Communication Effectiveness, Journal of Advertising, 19(1), 14-22.
It is also important to identify to what extent such advertisements play on human emotions to evoke positive purchase decisions. Other ethical issues would include the extent to which such DTC advertising encourages consumers to circumvent the physician-patient relationship. In other words, to the extent that such DTC advertising encourages "drug-shopping" behaviors among healthcare consumers is likely the extent to which such advertising could be regarded as unethical.
Most sick people are scared, many are in pain, and some of them may grasp at any claims from marketers concerning a potential cure. Conversely, denying these very same healthcare consumers with as much information about the current choices that are available to them also appears to be unethical, assuming that the targeted populations are in a position to make informed decisions.
What are the costs and benefits of marketing prescription drugs directly to physicians?
The costs of marketing prescription drugs…
Advertising prescription drugs. (n.d.). Decision point, 335.
Gender, Consumption and Ideology: A Look at Three Ads
When the nephew of Sigmund Freud, Edward Bernays became the father of advertising, he used a simple trick that he learned from his uncle: sex sells. Bernays understand, as Freud did, that sex is one of the most powerful motivating forces of human nature (Jones). Sex and gender thus took center stage in advertising over the years. In this paper, the way that gender, consumption and ideology are tied together in advertising will be shown. This paper argues that sex and gender stereotypes persist in advertising media and that sexuality has become more provocative over time. This has happened in spite of feminist movements. Today, sexuality is something that women feel they can use to dominate men. These ads show that sex and gender in advertising is still a powerful force no matter what ideology is held by men and…
Corporate Social Responsibility: Its Extension to Consumer Advertising Imagery
The last few decades have seen the emergence of two trends that have important implications for the field of consumer advertising. The first trend, as indicated in Gulas and Mckeage's literature review, is a growing body of research evidence that the imagery projected in consumer advertising has psychological and sociological effects.
This indicates that consumer advertising imagery is now being measured for its possible effect on consumer psychology and social behavior. The second trend, which is related to the first, can be seen in the widely acknowledged public demand that businesses need to demonstrate their social responsibility and conscience in all forms of organizational activity. These two trends make it evident that advertisers and their agencies can no longer defend socially irresponsible advertising imagery by using the traditional argument that consumer advertising merely mirrors society. Instead, as this paper will establish,…
"The Alcoholic Beverage Industry's Commitment to Responsible Drinking." Black
Enterprise. March 1994, 24.8, 79+. Available: Questia; http:/ / www.questia.com (May 13, 2005).
Bates, Clive, and Pauline Doyle. "Tobacco Explained: Advertising." Action on Smoking and Health. Available: Internet; http://www.ash.org.uk/html/conduct/html/tobexpld4.html (March 19, 2005).
Biocca, Frank A., and Philips N. Myers, Jr. "The Elastic Body Image: The Effect of Television Advertising and Programming on Body Image Distortions in Young Women." Journal of Communication 42.3 (1992): 108 -- 130. Available: Questia; http://www.questia.com (March 19, 2005).
These include phone conference call groups, web-based groups; or as a substitute use telephone depth interviews. (You don't get the group interaction, but the results can be better than group settings.)
Rule 3 - Request that the moderator use a non-directive approach. (A non-directive approach is one that constructs questions for the group that encourages participants to be free flowing with their descriptions)
Projective techniques are often useful in easing participants out of an analytical mode. One projective technique, asks, "If this company were an animal what animal would it be? What would the competitors be?" In this way, they talk about brand image without being peppered with a series of brand questions.
Use advance written questionnaires. This primes respondents on key issues to be discussed, and it gives them a reference for the group discussion, thus making it easier for the unpopular viewpoint to be mentioned. ("Well, no one…
Marketing Research (2006) United States Small Business Association Online available at ( http://www.sba.gov/starting_business/marketing/research.html )
Marketing Research (2006) Wikipedia. Online available at ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marketing_research )
Thomas, Jerry W. (1997) Hang the Innocent. Decision Analyst. Online at: www.decisionanalyst.com.
Thomas, Jerry W. (1994) New Products. Decision Analyst. Online at: www.decisionanalyst.com.
1. Propose a type of message appeal to be used in the advertising, making sure to explain the rationale behind the appeal
Advertising message appeals purpose to impact the manner in which consumers perceive themselves and how purchasing particular products can end up being advantageous to them. The message communicated through advertising appeals impacts the buying decisions and patterns of consumers. The type of message appeal to be used in the advertising is the masculine/feminine appeal. This appeal is deemed to be the most ideal for the reason that it seeks particularly to depict the ideal male or female to consumers who aspire to attain society’s and their individual ideal view of being a man or woman. Secondly, this appeal is particularly common when the product being sold, such as this one is purposed to either men or women. In addition, more often than not, this appeal has a tendency…
Theme: The use of popular entertainment figures in print, on television, and on the Internet to sell sugar to children
Print Advertising: Kellogg's Star Wars Pop Tarts
Who could be more worthy of one's trust than the wise, kindly figure of Star Wars' young bi Won Kenobi (embodied by the actor Ewan MacGregor) when he is fighting the Dark Forces of destruction embodied by the mature, black-mask encased Darth Vader? A recent advertising campaign for Kellogg's pop tarts deployed just such a popular media figure to sell Pop Tarts to children. "Toast up this Jedi Snack!" It shouted from the printed page. In the advertising campaign for the pop tarts, the name of Star Wars is not merely invoked to make Kellogg's Pop Tarts seem more attractive or tasty for breakfast. Rather the new 'Wildberry' flavor of the tart and the images movie are melded into one, erroneously…
Of course, to be fair to the Kellogg's company, in print, its popular television cereal advertising is also hardly guilt-free in its targeting of children, either in terms of the sugar rush it purports to provide, or its supposed health. Kellogg's in print promises Jedi strength in a cake masquerading as breakfast. Kellogg's on the television promises the strength and fortitude of a tiger to children, as it depicts Tony the Tiger roaring away, fighting rapids with strength and dexterity, fueled by the morning power of corn flakes spackled with sugar. This advertisement has become even more deceitful because the company has been stressing that the cereal now contains less sugar. But merely because the sugar is reduced does not mean that the levels of sugar consumed in a meal of Frosted Flakes are on par with the sugar levels that are acceptable for young children in the morning to have a good and healthy start for their school day, much less navigating white water rapids at camp. The roaring, powerfully endowed Tony, one might add, is even funnier to contemplate when one considers that tigers and cats are carnivores, animals that eat other animals for protein in the morning, hardly sugary grains. (http://www.kelloggs.com/brand/ttt/flash.html) The healthy breakfast pictured in the advertisements on television contain milk and juice not contained within the box, and the cereal is not nearly as well fortified with vitamins and minerals, even compared with more adult cereal products made by the same company.
Internet advertising: A sweet tooth is encouraged online
Finally, even the Internet has come to bear in encouraging children to eat poorly nourishing food that contains sugar, without any information about the likely consequences of such a diet, even in terms of the children's morning energy levels. The use of the Internet to advertise the children-targeted cereals of Kellogg's is perhaps most insidious of all, as it contains tie-ins to popular 'play book' promotional advertisements. (http://www.kelloggsfunktown.com/funktown/NoFlash.htm) The viewer is told that he or she can earn his or her Frosted Flake tiger stripes, by buying as many boxes of cereal as he or she can, and thus become like soccer star Mia Ham, or other popular athletes endorsing the product. By implying that athletes find a healthy breakfast in the form of a bowl of sugar encrusted cereal, children receive a confused, mixed message about nutrition at best, and at worst, the information misleads them from real data about truly healthy substances that could nourish their growing bodes. Children's palates are thus formulated at an early age to prefer sugar, encouraged to surf the Internet for fake competitions bought by eating cereal rather than exercising their bodies athletically outdoors, and the act of eating more for tiger stripes and points is encouraged, rather than eating to grow healthy bones, or not eating when one is not hungry.
advertising geared to the gay and lesbian communities. Specifically, it will discuss advertising in the context of gay and lesbian culture, and how particular ad campaigns are significant to the gay and lesbian communities. While society has become more accepting of the gay and lesbian lifestyle, there are still many aspects of culture and society that disapprove of the gay/lesbian experience. Traditionally, mainstream advertising has not courted gays and lesbians, but some advertisers have recognized the size and dimensions of the market, and are beginning to break down the barriers in advertising to gays and lesbians in mainstream markets. In the last decade, advertising has become more open, and the gay lifestyle has become more accepted. Advertisers will continue to create new markets to create new opportunities for business and industry, and the gay/lesbian market is still waiting to be fully tapped.
The gay and lesbian lifestyle has existed for…
Author not Available. "Mainstream/B2B Advertising Best Practices." CommercialCloset.org. 2004. 19 July 2004. http://www.commercialcloset.org/cgi-bin/iowa/index.html?page=best
Boyce, David B. "Coded Desire in 1920's Advertising." Gay & Lesbian Review Worldwide 7.1 (2000): 26-30.
Buford, Howard. "Understanding Gay Consumers." Gay & Lesbian Review Worldwide 7.2 (2000): 26-28.
Burnett, John J. "Gays: Feelings about Advertising and Media Used." Journal of Advertising Research (2000): 75.
Media Misrepresent omen?
For a long period of time, hundreds of commercials, movies, as well as TV shows have in one way or another misrepresented women by either objectifying them or presenting them as the weaker sex. It is important to note from the onset that the media plays a significant role in our lives. In addition to shaping our politics, the media also influences the way we think and relate with one another. In the final analysis therefore, how women are represented in the media matters a lot with regard to how they are viewed and/or treated in the real world.
There are numerous instances of women misrepresentation in the media. This is particularly the case in advertising. It is important to note that people are shaped by not only the culture but also the environment in which they are brought up. Today's advertisements bombard our kids with images…
Carilli, Theresa, and Campbell, Jane, Eds. Women and the Media: Diverse Perspectives. University Press of America, 2005. Print.
Klenke, Karin. Women in Leadership: Contextual Dynamics and Boundaries. Emerald Group Publishing, 2011. Print.
Lester, Deborah. "Social Media: Changing Advertising Education." Online Journal of Communication and Media Technologies, 2.1 (2012): 116-125. Print.
The two researchers, Nichols and Good, continue, "Teen pregnancies are an acute national problem because when young girls have children, the risk of poor developmental outcomes, such as poverty or lost career and educational opportunities, increases substantially for both mother and child" (Nichols, and Good 101). Thus, the cycle of poverty could continue through generations, all because of teen pregnancy. Many minority women do not have the resources to get birth control, which is another cause of teen pregnancy in minorities and poverty-stricken areas. This is one area that society could intervene, and create more awareness for teens in poverty-stricken areas, and create more educational opportunities for new, young mothers, so they can continue their education and break the cycle of poverty. Another social problem of teen sex is that studies show it can lead to decreased interest in school and other activities. Another author notes, "Early teen sex is…
Editors. "U.S. Teen Sexual Activity." Kaiser Family Foundation. 2005. 18 Nov. 2008. http://www.kff.org/youthhivstds/upload/U-S-Teen-Sexual-Activity-Fact-Sheet.pdf
Nichols, Sharon L., and Thomas L. Good. America's Teenagers -- Myths and Realities: Media Images, Schooling, and the Social Costs of Careless Indifference. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2004.
Sabia, Joseph J. "Early Adolescent Sex and Diminished School Attachment: Selection or Spillovers?" Southern Economic Journal 74.1 (2007): 239+.
Teen Sex Linked to Early Friendships." USA Today (Society for the Advancement of Education) Apr. 2003: 7+.
Dangers of Alcohol Advertising
A growing body of literature shows that alcohol advertising is an important factor related to alcohol consumption among youth. Research has now established that alcohol advertisements target youth, result in increased alcohol consumption and add to morbidity and mortality. America's youth are overwhelmed with mass media messages. Today's youth is bombarded by not only apparent advertising but also hidden messages. The fact that the entertainment industry presents alcohol as a glamorization also does not help reduce underage usage. Let's face it, the message is everywhere. The fact that the alcohol industry specifically targets this demographic with enticing fruity and soda-based concoction is appalling. Today the average teen spends too much time exposing themselves to such media instead of other activities such as sports and music. Before graduating high school, students will spend about 18,000 hours in front of the television -- more time than they will…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Notice to Readers: Alcohol Involvement in Fatal Motor-Vehicle Crashes -- United States, 1999-2000." MMWR Weekly 5 July 2005. .
Columbia University Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse. Teen tipplers: America's underage drinking epidemic. New York, NY: Columbia University Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse; 2002.
Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation and the National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University. "Substance Abuse and Risky Behavior: Attitudes and Practices Among Adolescents and Young Adults." Survey Snapshot 5 July 2005.
Adolescents & Advertising Media Messages
Examination of a Commercial
The advertisement chosen for examination in this brief study is Britney Spears Pepsi commercial in 2010, which was part of the advertising during the World Cup. The intended audience for the advertisement is the general audience and specifically male and female young people. The ad features Brittney Spears singing, drinking Pepsi, and volley a ball. Brittney appears beautiful and sexy in this commercial and gives the appearance that drinking Pepsi will make everyone athletic and sexy. This ad would be interpreted of course by each gender differently as the male gender would interpret the commercial to mean that drinking Pepsi would ensure that they attract sexy girls and females would view the commercial as appealing to them to drink Pepsi to ensure that they are hot and sexy like Brittney Spears. This ad is not accurate in its portrayal of body…
(13) Kaiser Family Foundation (2005). Generation M: Media in the lives of eight to eighteen-year-olds. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from http://www.kff.org/entmedia/entmedia030905pkg.cfm .
(14) How to Magazines Effect Body Image (2008) Center on Media and Child Health. Education.com. Retrieved from: http://www.education.com/reference/article/how-magazines-affect-body-image/
(15) Ransohoff, J. (2010) Teens and the Media. Palo Alto Medical Foundation. Retrieved from: http://www.pamf.org/teen/life/bodyimage/media.html
Race and Advertising
Virginia Slims and Virgin Boef
Easy to Swallow Social Poison and a Mad Cow Solution)
Popular media today is driven by the advertisements that fund it, and our society is significantly influenced by the images that are found within those advertisements. It is said that the popular consumer is both the producer and the product of social inequality and this can be seen as strongly in the portrayal and interpretation of gender and race stereotypes as in any other example. Advertisements have been shown to exaggerate cultural differences between genders and races. (Coltrane, Messineo) hile the unfair caricatures of certain groups may not be as blatantly cartoonish and obvious as those of decades past, there still remains a very definite stereotypical set of boundaries into which different groups, especially minorities, must fall in order to be featured in the majority of popular media. These kinds of portrayals,…
Coltrane, Scott and Messineo, Melinda. "The Perpetuation of Subtle Prejudice: Race and Gender Imagery in 1990s Television Advertising." Sex Roles: A Journal of Research. March 2000. http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m2294/2000_March/63993940/p1/article.jhtml
Nephwrack. "Virgin Boef. http://www.bookofcruxshadows.com/orc/art/brightercover.jpg
Virginia Slims. "Find Your Voice." http://www.media-awareness.ca english/resources/educational/handouts/tobacco_advertising/images/62775041.jpg
Business & Advertising Strategy of Time Inc.'s Pathfinder.com
The site www.pathfinder.com is a Time Inc. site that provides online users and subscribers of Time Inc. products and services access to its roster of magazines. This list of magazines offers a wide array of information about the following general topics or areas of interest: entertainment, business, news, and lifestyle and health. Thus, because of its variety, Time Inc., in general, caters to the general public, which covers all socio-demographic categories, such as differences in sex, age, socio-economic class and sector the people belong to. For example, TeenPeople.com and Time for Kids cater to the youth, while Parenting.com and business- and news-related sites such as TIME, People, Fortune, and Entertainment Weekly aims at the adult market, from ages (at least) 18 and above. Furthermore, Time Inc.'s services extend towards either the business or agricultural sector, as shown in its offering of information…
Sexism and the Media
There are numerous examples of sexism in advertising: from Britney Spears’ advertisements for her perfume Curious, in which she strips down to her underwear for the camera, to Victoria’s Secret’s models like Chrissy Teigen undergoing both plastic surgery and photoshopping (because stripping down to her underwear doesn’t do enough to convey the right body image) for the company’s lingerie ads, women are routinely objectified for the “male gaze,” as Laura Mulvey put it (Turow, 2009, p. 195). While sexism can take many forms—such as the stereotype of women as homemakers ever ready to please their husbands that was promoted in mid-20th century advertisements—in advertising today, sexism is most readily displayed by way of objectification, as seen in Go Daddy ads, Victoria’s Secrtet ads, beer commercials, and so on, where women’s bodies are like commodities.
Feminism challenged the notion of this objectification of women for a time,…
images boys girls offered today's advertising media.
The images of boys and girls as offered by today's advertising media
Even with the fact that boys and girls are born genetically and hormonally different, the information they learn is decisive in influencing them to take on gender roles. Gender is also something that people learn as they grow up, as it does not only involve a person's physical nature. As children develop they are bombarded with information regarding how it would be socially acceptable for them to behave. Devices like the media are influential in this situation as they pressure children in getting a limited definition concerning their role.
The Media Environment
Media devices promoting a simple expression such as "big boys don't cry" can influence some parents in developing less tolerant attitudes toward boys who cry. Some parents might be influenced to believe that it is unnatural for a boy…
Cardwell, M., and Flanagan, C., "Psychology A2: The Complete Companion," (Nelson Thornes, Sep 1, 2003)
Gurian, M., "Boys and Girls Learn Differently! A Guide for Teachers and Parents: Revised 10th Anniversary Edition," (John Wiley & Sons, Aug 26, 2010)
Klein, S., "Handbook for Achieving Gender Equity Through Education," (Routledge, May 22, 2007)
Wood, J.T., "Gendered Media: The Influence of Media on Views of Gender," Retrieved February 18, 2013, from the University of Delaware Website: http://www.udel.edu/comm245/readings/GenderedMedia.pdf
Public hysteria or "sex panic" involving the "sexualisation" of children may be getting a decent outing in Australia at the present moment, but it is certainly nothing new: fifty years ago it was Elvis Presley's hips that portended imminent moral collapse, two hundred and fifty and a dance craze called the "waltz" was considered immodest and the "emo kids" of the late eighteenth century were committing suicide after reading The Sorrows of Young Werther. The more recent alarmism -- typified by Emma Rush and Andrea La Nauze's discussion paper on the "sexualisation of children" in the media, or Miranda Devine's predictable whipping-up of outrage over the 2008 ill Henson photo exhibition -- is nothing new in this regard. (At this point, the new youth-related sex scandals can barely keep up with advances in technology, as the Saint Kilda's schoolgirl suddenly resorts to apologizing via YouTube, after conducting a…
Crews, Frederick. (1995). The Memory Wars: Freud's Legacy in Dispute. New York: New York Review of Books Editions.
Devine, Miranda. (2008). "Moral Backlash Over Sexing Up Of Children." Sydney Morning Herald 22 May 2008.
Egan, R. Danielle and Gail Hawkes. 2008. "Endangered Girls and Incendiary Objects: Unpacking the Discourse on Sexualization." Sexuality and Culture (December 2008) 12.4: 291-311.
Western Sexual Mores and Fundamental Beliefs about omantic Love:
Beyond the unfair effect of gender-based differential sexual socialization on sexually liberated women in dating relationships, another component of American social psychology often undermines romantic happiness. Specifically, the many messages about romance and marriage that help shape the American view of love suggest that: (1) sexual desire between couples who love each other is exclusive; (2) sexual desire for others indicates a failure of a relationship (or lack of character or sincerity of one's partner); and (3) sexual jealousy is an indication of romantic love (Branden 2002).
Sexual jealousy is practically universal in romantic love within Western society (Buss 2000), but the fact of the matter is, at least in human beings, it is a learned reaction that is virtually unknown in several known aboriginal societies (Barash & Lipton 2001).
Despite the fact that psychologists consider sexual fidelity a matter of…
Ackerman, D. (1994) a Natural History of Love. New York: Vintage.
Baker, R., Elliston, F. (2002) Philosophy & Sex. Buffalo: Prometheus
Barash, D.P., Lipton, J.E. (2001) the Myth of Monogamy: Fidelity and Infidelity in Animals and People. New York: Henry Holt.
Branden, N. (2002) the Psychology of Romantic Love.
The concentration on action and violence draws larger audiences, yet is not effective in selling products Pechmann, Levine, Loughlin, Leslie, 2005).
esearchers have also found that the brains of pre-adolescents and adolescents have low levels of inhibitory control and therefore pursue reckless and risky activities due to their judgment not being fully developed (Cauffman, Steinberg, 2000). Adolescents who have seen reckless and risky behavior online or on television advertising are 80% more likely to engage in the behavior (Trimpop, udiger, Kerr, Kirkcaldy, 1999). The lack of inhibitory controls when combined with the an abundance of violent content leads quickly to replication of viewed acts of violence, especially in pre-adolescents, as verified through research completed (Trimpop, udiger, Kerr, Kirkcaldy, 1999).
Ethically this raises the question of whether the advertisers are more adept at the selling of violent acts than products, as the brains of the audience members they are selling products…
Charlie Cray (2001). Booze for kids. Multinational Monitor, 22(6), 4. Retrieved February 22, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 74131265).
Cauffman, Elizabeth and Laurence Steinberg (2000), "(Im)maturity of Judgment in Adolescence: Why Adolescents May Be Less Culpable Than Adults," Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 18 (6), 741-60.
Glenn Cummins (2007). Selling Music with Sex: The Content and Effects of Sex in Music Videos on Viewer Enjoyment. Journal of Promotion Management, 13(1/2), 95. Retrieved February 23, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1398611091).
Matthew C. Farrelly, Kevin C. Davis, M Lyndon Haviland, Peter Messeri, Cheryl G. Healton. (2005). Evidence of a Dose-Response Relationship Between "truth" Antismoking Ads and Youth Smoking Prevalence. American Journal of Public Health, 95(3), 425-31. Retrieved February 26, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 820162831).
This view is evident in this earlier advertisement for United Airlines; which uses the female stereotypes of nature to convey its message of care and stability.
The following advertisement from a magazine cover from the 1940's also strongly suggests female stereotypes associated with food and family. Note as well the title of the magazine - Everywoman - which suggests a stereotypical ideal that women should strive for.
Many contemporary advertisements still tend to use male and female stereotypes but this usage in the media has become more sophisticated and subtle in terms of the way that it is encoded in the style and the visual language of the advertisement. The following comparison clearly shows this aspect.
Fig.3 Davidoff Cool ater-oman
Fig.4 Davidoff Cool ater - Man
Source: Introduction: Advertising & Gender
In the above advertisements, both figures three and four display the same style of photography…
Controlling Advertising ? ASA Schools and Colleges resources No 1. December
Dolls. December 20, 2007. http://www.ltcconline.net/lukas/gender/pages/dolls.htm
Garst J. And Bodenhausen G. Advertising's effects on men's gender role attitudes. Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, May, 1997. December 20, 2007. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2294/is_n9-10_v36/ai_19647328
The role of sex in advertising is even more blatant in a food advertisement of an ejaculating Tabsco sauce bottle over a split bake potato -- hot and spice as a metaphor for intercourse.
Sex sells: a woman wants to be desired by a man which requires the perfect figure, in the perfect low-cut dress with the perfectly matching nail polish, and a man can only be desired by a woman if he drives a BMW, wears a olex watch and has on a alph Lauren suit (which is not a Polo suit but the higher end and much more expensive Purple Label suit). Media's objectification of women and the fact that sex does sell has lead to the "sexification" of young girls and teens. Kilboure makes her point with magazine covers and television spots, including JonBenet in full makeup for a toddler beauty pageant, a teenage Brittney Spears displayed…
Keith, Thomas. 2008. Tough Guise: Violence, Media & the Crisis in Masculinity. Available at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DP1ACIUHhp4&feature=related , parts 1-9.
Keith, Thomas. 2008. GENERATION M: Misogyny in Media & Culture. Available at http://www.mediaed.org/cgi-bin/commerce.cgi?preadd=action&key=234&template=PDGCommTemplates/HTN/Item_Preview.html
Kilbourne, Jean. Date unknown. Killing Us Softly 3: Advertising's Image of Women. Available at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9zudgbjFvvo&feature=related
Moore, Alecia Beth (AKA Pink). 2006. Stupid Girls. Lyrics available at www.lyricstop.com/s/stupidgirls-pink.html. Music available at iTunes.com.
, 2001). Based on the proliferation of the Internet and the near-ubiquity of personal computers in many affluent homes, these rates can reasonably be expected to have increased even further in subsequent years.
In fact, it would appear that the more people of both sexes are using the Internet for these purposes, the more ways they are finding to do so. In this regard, Green and her associates point out that, "The fact that one can access sexually related materials and interact with others anonymously on the Internet has opened the doors even wider. Using anonymous screen names, individuals can explore and express their sexual interests with little fear that friends, coworkers, or even spouses will discover their activities" (2001, p. 303). Furthermore, the individuals who participate in these encounters can do so with other anonymous individuals without the risks typically associated with face-to-face relationships; if an anonymous online relationship…
Benotsch, E.G., Cage, M., & Kalichman, S. (2002). Men who have met sex partners via the Internet: Prevalence, predictors, and implications for HIV prevention. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 31(2), 177.
Giuseppe, R., Tiziana, T., & Anolli, L. (2003). The use of the Internet in psychological research: Comparison of online and offline questionnaires. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 6(1), 73.
Green, A., Katelyn, S., Mckenna, Y.A., & Smith, P.K. (2001). Demarginalizing the sexual self. The Journal of Sex Research, 38(4), 302.
Hill, R.J. (2005, Spring). Poz-itively transformational: Sex workers and HIV / AIDS education. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, 105, 74.
Business Plan for Green Tongues
Environmental and Industry Analysis
Products or Services
Marketing esearch and Evaluation
Manufacturing and Operations Plan
Critical isks and Assumptions
Benefits to the Community
Green Tongues is an advertising company that provides environmentally friendly advertising solutions to all those companies that value their environment and want to give back to the society in which they exist. Green Tongues envisions itself to be the premier advertising company in the near future in the entire Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) region as consumers and businesses in this region are slowly beginning to realize the importance of environmental conservation. The six member states that comprise the GCC (i.e., Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates) are shown to be well situated to take advantage of their political and economic clout in ways that promote environmentally…
Bains, K. (2008, January 9). Solar powered billboards in San Francisco, Africa, and Canada.
Solar Power Authority. Retrieved from http://solarpowerauthority.com/solar-powered-billboards-in-san-francisco-africa-and-canada/ .
Blanche, E. (2011, February). Gulf rail network: The dream becomes reality. The Middle East,
The Inextricable Correlation between Human Trafficking and Prostitution
Despite ongoing efforts by the international community, human trafficking remains a global problem today. Tens of thousands of men, women and children are routinely exploited by human traffickers each year, and the practice generates billions of dollars in criminal proceeds at home and abroad. In fact, after drugs and gun-running, sex trafficking is the largest source of money for criminal organizations in the United States. Given the enormity of the problem and the vast sums of money that are involved, it is not surprising that the international community has not been successful in eliminating this practice. To determine the facts, this paper provides an analysis of the relevant literature concerning the correlation between prostitution and human trafficking to demonstrate that the two have an inextricable but difficult to quantify effect on each other. A summary of the research and important findings…
Wall, Tapies, and Goldin: Photography and Painting From the Theoretical Perspective of Susan Sontag
The relationship between photography and painting, according to Susan Sontag, is that neither is really "capturing" the world that each attempts to depict. Rather they are capturing or depicting a perspective and the reality remains elusive. They are, in other words, projections of the artist's viewpoint; they are filtered through a particular zeitgeist -- and it is the zeitgeist that needs to be interpreted at root, not the painting or the picture. Painting and photography are merely means of identifying the spirit or ideology of a particular culture in a particular time and place. [footnoteRef:1] This paper will use Sontag's theoretical framework to analyze the relationship between photography and painting by examining three different works: A Sudden Gust of Wind (1993), photographed by Jeff Wall, Composition with Figures (1945), painted by Antoni Tapies, and Misty and…
Barthes, Roland. "Rhetoric of the Image." Georgetown.edu. Web. 26 Nov 2015.
Baudrillard, Jean. "Photography, or the Writing of Light," The European Graduate
School. Web. 28 Oct 2015
Butler, Judith. Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. NY:
However, women are also objectified without any sort of sales involved, as well. The notion of perfection which is virtually unattainable and which most conceptions of female beauty in the United States revolves upon, and which is consistently seen in media outlets such as television and film, also serves to objectify women. In this respect, women receive messages from some of the most powerful media around that they should be tall, thin, have inordinately large breasts and other body parts -- the sum of which effectively "dehumanizes" them. This form of objectification is most dramatically demonstrated by America the Beautiful, in which Roberts talks to a group of plastic surgeons about the popularity of this cosmetic procedure which is used to reinforce a false beauty that is virtually impossible to have under completely natural circumstances.
Plastic surgery, or the self-mutilation of one's body, is just one of the many myriad…
Kilbourne, Jean. "Two Ways a Woman Can Get Hurt."
America the Beautiful. Dir. Darryl Roberts. 2007.
There is plenty of anecdotal evidence to support this theory -- several prominent school shootings have been ostensibly linked to video game playing -- but real scientific evidence is also emerging that suggests a more subtle but similar effect. In one study, college-age participants who had spent time playing olfenstein 3D, a first person shooter computer game, "punished" their opponents by subjecting them to loud noises of high intensity more frequently and for longer periods of time than participants that had played a non-violent computer game. In the words of Dr. Craig Anderson, one of the psychologists and researchers who conducted the study, "violent video games provide a forum for learning and practicing aggressive solutions to conflict situations."
Basically, time spent playing violent video games is time spent learning life skills that could be detrimental and counter-productive in real world situations, and could even replace more socially valuable skills sets…
American Psychological Association. "Violence in the Media - Psychologists Help Protect Children from Harmful Effects." Accessed 13 July 2009. http://www.psychologymatters.org/mediaviolence.html
Gunter, Barrie. The Effects of Video Games on Children. Wiltshire: Sheffield Academic Press Ltd., 1998.
Jenkins, henry. "Congressional Testimony on Media Violence." Accessed 13 July 2009. http://web.mit.edu/comm-forum/papers/jenkins_ct.html
Kirsh, Steven J. Children, Adolescents, and Media Violence. London: Sage Publications, 2006.
Applying Goffman to Modern Advertisements
Goffman and Gender Commercials
Goffman contends that the selection of commercial pictures in advertisements is intentional and serves a specific agenda that is not in service to consumers' well-being or natural interests. He argues this facet of culture is ripe for analysis with respect to topics such as sexuality, gender, power, the means of production, and social reality, among others. His strongest assertions concerns how analysis of the selection of commercial pictures reveals keen insights when comparing them to behavioral practices as experience in everyday interactions. Goffman grounds his hypotheses in concrete methodological practices, with primary aims to locate and define discovery, proof, and presentation. Grounding is his research in established methodology keeps opposition from arguing that his findings and conclusions are wild-eyed, paranoid theories that undermine American culture or the American way of life. He claims that the kind of analysis he proposes…
hereas another image is showing, a bean bag in contrast to a retro office chair. These differences are designed to reach out to younger, middle age and older demographics. The way that this is taking place is to use images that are culturally neutral. Yet, they inspire a sense of joy and happiness. ("Blackberry")
Moreover, the differences between the various frames are showing intelligence and glamour. This is supposed to reach out to all audiences by highlighting trendiness and elegance. hen someone sees this they will feel that there is a social desire to become of part of what they are seeing. In the future, they will use this as a way to identify and create specific feelings automatically. ("Blackberry") (Cialdini)
According to Cialdini (2009), this is a tool that all advertisers will utilize to identify with a larger demographic of consumers. Commenting about how this occurs he said, "In…
"Blackberry." You Tube, 2012. Web. 22 Oct. 2012
Cialdini, Robert. Influence Science and Practice. Boston: Pearson, 2009. Print.
Robbins, Anthony. Awaken the Giant Within. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1991. Print.
O'Guinn, Chris. Advertising and Integrated Brand Promotion. Mason: Cengage Learning, 2011. Print.
On the one side are those who argue against advertisements aimed at children due to a belief that children are uniquely susceptible, and on the other side are those who sell advertisements and advertising, such as ad agencies and business school textbook authors, out of a belief that advertising is able to effect product preference in any meaningful way. In short, both of these groups are incorrect, because advertising, and animated characters in particular, actually have fairly little influence on product preference and purchasing decisions. They can generate recognition and positive emotional connections between the audience and the product, but these connections do not necessarily translate into actual purchases. However, in order to demonstrate why this is the case, one must examine some relevant scientific research on the subject and attempt to inject some reasonable skepticism into the hyperbolic claims of parents' groups and advertising cheerleaders.
Aside from market research…
Altstie, T, and J. Grow, Advertising strategy: creative tactics from the outside/in, SAGE,
Thousand Oaks, 2006.
Callcott, MF, and W. Lee, "A content analysis of animation and animated spokes-characters,"
Journal of Advertising, vol. 23, no. 4, 1994, pp. 1-12.
Advertising Controversy and Assessment Overview
Stage 1 Controversial Advertising
The advertisement in this controversial case aimed to actually cause some sort of stir by having models pose in proactive poses. These marketing techniques are directed at young women aged 16- 35 and fashion conscious men who are seeking to say in step with the current fashions of the day. The advertisement in this case was very effective for several reasons. The first reason for its effectiveness is because the picture is very risque and promotes a challenge to sexual and violent taboos. This cutting edge style certainly appeals to a demographic that looks to set itself apart by pushing the social envelope using sex and violence as a tool to stir emotions. The scale of the controversy also depicts the success of the ad campaign and created a definite buzz amongst the fashion industry. This ad could be…
Alden, D. L., Steenkamp, J. B. E., & Batra, R. (1999). Brand positioning through advertising in Asia, North America, and Europe: The role of global consumer culture. The Journal of Marketing, 75-87.
Campbell, C., Pitt, L. F., Parent, M., & Berthon, P. R. (2011). Understanding consumer conversations around ads in a Web 2.0 world. Journal of Advertising,40(1), 87-102.
Clarke, I., & Honeycutt, E. D. (2000). Color usage in international business-to-business print advertising. Industrial Marketing Management, 29(3), 255-261.
Ehrenberg, A., Barnard, N., Kennedy, R., & Bloom, H. (2002). Brand advertising as creative publicity. Journal of Advertising Research, 42(4), 7-18.
Selling (to) Kids: Advertising, Children, Youth and Commercial Culture
Advertising for children and youth has always had a special appeal. Gen X’ers remember the Toys ‘R’ Us song, “I don’t want to grow up, I’m a Toys ‘R’ Us kid,” and link it to their childhood—even if they never went to a single Toys ‘R’ Us store. They invariably saw the commercials multiple times if they had a TV in their home. The commercials showed children blissfully happy because they had toys galore—and the aim of the ad campaign was to get kids interested in consumerism. On the surface, it seems like a harmless engagement. However, from the standpoint of critical theory, turning kids into consumers perpetuates the power structure of the capitalist system in the U.S.—that is how the Frankfurt School would argue it. This paper will use critical theory—the idea of the Frankfurt School that media can be…
Popular culture defines what is desired by any given sociological group based on pressure by peers. Every moment of the day, we are saturated by culture. hen we turn on the television, not only are we watching the programs but we are inundated by advertisers trying to convince the viewer that there is some new product that needs to be purchased or a new movie that needs to be seen or a new service that is essential to the happiness of the consumer. On the Internet, each inquiry provides banner headlines where we are also bombarded with advertisements and attitudes. Similarly, there are billboards and ads on cars and radio commercials while we drive to and from work. It is characteristic of a capitalistic society that so much of our culture has to do with the consumption of goods and services (Yar, Lecture 2, slide 2). Everywhere someone or something…
Yar, Majid. "Sociology of Popular Culture: Lecture 2: Popular Culture, Ideology, and Capitalism: Critique of the 'Culture Industry'"
Yar, Majid. "Sociology of Popular Culture: Lecture 3: Reading the Popular: Culture as a System
Yar, Majid. "Sociology of Popular Culture: Lecture 5: Popular Culture and Gender Identities"
Life lessons, relationship lessons, even artistic, music, and performance sharing could take place (imagine, a NeoPet "Grease" production using a global cast)?
Conclusions and Implications -- NeoPets obviously provides a niche about which some consumers are excited. Like many technological entertainment devises, though, there is certainly potential for abuse. One would not necessarily want their children to sit in front of a NASCA racing program, replete with ads, for hours at a time and never have any physical activity. It is not the place of technology to mandate other behavior, but the wisdom of parents and society to create a balance. Ensuring that this will not be a fad is quite simple -- continue to evolve, to grow, to become more sophisticated in content and interaction. In a similar way, funding could come from private foundations that might sponsor a segment (e.g. Boeing on history of flight; Microsoft on computing…
REFERENCES and WORKS CONSULTED
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Ireton, D. (2003), Internet-Based Market Research, Advanced Systems Development.
Ha, K. (September 14, 2004). "Neopets site for children stirs Controversy." the
San Jose Mercury News. Cited in:
Consumer Behavior for Marketing
Understanding Consumer Behavior
Understanding consumers' perceptions is critical to marketing and advertising. Consumers are increasingly selective with regard to the advertising that they pay attention to and mass marketing is fast losing its effectiveness and appeal. There is any number of strategies that marketers can employ to increase positive consumer perception of their brands. Several suggestions follow: (1) Engage in socially responsible investing in causes that can reasonably associated with the company or the brand: Examples of this strategy can be seen in programs that Starbucks has established to give back to domestic communities and to engage in foreign communities in need. Sale of Ethos water provides a portion of the revenue to be used for infrastructure changes to communities that do not have reliable sources of clean water. The ed program -- a collaborative effort which extended to other firms -- used a portion of…
Cherry K (2012) Classical vs. Operant Conditioning. Retrieved http://psychology.about.com/od/behavioralpsychology/a/classical-vs.-operant-conditioning.htm
Pavlov IP. (1927) Conditioned reflexes. London: Oxford University Press.
Skinner BF (1953) Science and Human Behavior. New York: Macmillan.
E-Commerce Marketing Plan
Nielsen Media esearch was founded in the 1920s by Arthur Nielsen and it focused on assessing the success of advertisements within the consumer markets. During the following decade, the organization commenced to assess the success and popularity of radio programs. The means in which the organization assessed the ratings of television programs evolved and these were eventually applied to compute the ratings of television programs. Today, Nielsen is evolving to assess the ratings, popularity as well as other elements regarding radio and television programs, but also online efforts. Additionally, the company is also measuring ratings on novel equipments, such as TiVos. This very evolution of Nielsen and its ability to quickly adapt and ensure rating measurement on a variety of media creates its unique selling proposition. "You know you are a powerful research company when your results change the face of television programming. The king of TV…
Hoeger, W.K., Hoeger, S.A., 2008, Lifetime physical fitness and wellness: a personalized program, 10th edition, Cengage Learning
2010, Hoovers, http://www.hoovers.com last accessed on December 6, 2010
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ole of Marketing in Business
Over the last several years, the role of marketing in business has been increasingly brought to the forefront. This is because a host of strategies have been introduced which are designed to improve the efficiency of firms. For marketing departments, this can result in drastic cuts in the sales force and funding. This is problematic, as it is making companies less productive. (Importance of Marketing 2005) (Farrell 2005)
However, there are theories which support these kinds of changes. This is because many proponents will argue that marketing efforts must be focused. The only way this can be achieved is through monitoring the results they are providing to the firm. This means eliminating unproductive employees. These conflicting views have led to heated discussions about the importance of the marketing department. To fully understand the role that they are playing in the success of a business requires…
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Farrell, O 2011, Marketing Strategy, South Western, Mason.
Steele, W 1991, 'Perceptions and Marketing Positioning,' Administration and Policy, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 81 -- 92.
Because males were typically depicted as participating in some sort of action, men viewing advertisements most likely saw the action as superior to the men's looks, suggesting pressure to excel at professions, sports, or family life, instead of pressure to perfect their bodies.
In advertisements featuring men today, however, it is clear that men are being used solely for their looks. There is no clearer testimony to this than the following billboard advertisement for clothing brand Abercrombie and Fitch ("Billboards Archives"):
On this billboard, the male model displays his chest and has his hands positioned in an almost sexual posture suggesting that his body is otherwise perfected. The fact that his head is cut out of the picture leaves no room for argument as to whether or not this is an advertisement that uses the make model to suggest beauty or physical aesthetics alone. Clearly, the model is featured in…
"Abercrombie Ad." Interesting Ads. 7 May 2007. Xanga. 20 April 2009.
"Billboards Archives." Racked: New York. 27 Dec. 2007. 20 April 2009.
Females are the target group for both the advertisements and the needs to achieve financial security, independence, or freedom from traditional gender roles are expressed in the DeVry and ITT Tech advertisements. Words like "You can become..." introduce the consumer to the idea that they can change who they are by enrolling in the private school. The need to achieve is powerful, because of our culture's emphasis on social status.
However, the Chamberlain School of Nursing and the ITT Tech advertisements differ in how they appeal to the need to achieve. The Chamberlain School of Nursing appeals to the need to achieve educational and professional goals in a traditional way, whereas the ITT Tech advertisement appeals to the need to achieve educational and professional goals in an untraditional way. Therefore, the ITT Tech advertisement appeals more to the need for autonomy, and the need to dominate. A female who is…
Biagi, S. (nd). Advertising's 15 Basic Appeals, by Jib Fowles. Retrieved Oct 23, 2008 at http://www.frankwbaker.com/fowles
De Vry University's Chamberlain School of Nursing. Advertisement: viewed in local newspaper Oct 20, 2008.
ITT Tech's School of Information Technology. Advertisement: viewed in local newspaper Oct 20, 2008.
TV and Magazine Ads. There are five references used for this paper.
Americans see numerous advertisements on TV and in magazines, all aim at getting them to spend their money. It is interesting to look at five such ads and who their target audience is.
The Libmen Company offers a wide array of products for cleaning the home. Their newest product is the Nitty Gritty Roller Mop which is targeted for the middle-class, homemaker.
The ad promises the product will "get to the nitty, gritty of cleaning a floor (Libmen)."
The company demonstrates this benefit by showing the consumer bristles on the mop, as well as the roller portion.
The consumer is shown the mop being used, further successfully illustrating the virtues of the product.
Odor Eaters has a product called Odor Eaters Plus. The product is aimed mainly at middle-class athletes or workers who may…
AT&T Text Messaging Ad. (observed 02 September, 2002 at 1:20 P.M.).
Jeep Grand Cherokee Ad. Time. (2003): 10 February.
Liberman Nitty Gritty Mop Ad. (observed 02 September, 2003 at Noon).
Odor Eaters Plus Ad. (observed 02 September, 2003 at 12:45 P.M.).