339+ documents containing “sex in advertising”.
..although one of the more dangerous for the advertiser. Weighted down with taboos and volatile attitudes, sex is a Code Red advertising technique." For markets, sexuality can have biological, emotional, physical and spiritual effects on the consumers. The biological aspect represents the reproductive mechanism, including the basic, hormonally-controlled, biological drive that most species exhibit.
Other than the products, attitudes regarding sex are sold, such as when couples are used, and ideas about partnerships are implied -- dominance, roles, etc. The effect this has on a maturing adolescent is clear based on the amount of hours spent by this demographic watching television. Furthermore, new fields in science, such as neuromarketing, teach us that consumers, who respond positively to an advertisement, do so because they identify with the advertisement. Sexuality is particularly effective because it has a biological base in each individual, and speaks to human's innate need to reproduce.
1. O'Barr M. William.….
Accessed March 2010 at: http://www.gallup-robinson.com/essay1.html
6. American Academy of Pediatrics. "Sexuality, Contraception, and the Media, Policy statement parent pages." PEDIATRICS Vol. 107 No. 1 January 2001, pp. 191-194.
Accessed March 2010 at: http://aappolicy.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/pediatrics;107/1/191
sex in advertising. The writer takes the reader on an exploratory journey into the use of sex in advertising. There were 10 sources used to complete this paper.
The world is becoming an increasingly competitive place. While the globalization process moves forward, and teenagers grow up faster than ever before marketing departments are scrambling to discover the secret to targeting the markets for their clients. Marketing departments have a very demanding position in the world of advertising. They must study many aspects of society in order to come up with and present in the best possible light the products they have been charged with selling. It is something that requires a deep understanding of human nature, a grasp on different markets, ages and interests, and the understanding of where the lines are drawn between offensive and alluring. The use of sex in advertising is not a new concept but its….
Jones, Marilyn Y.; Stanaland, Andrea J.S.; Gelb, Betsy D., Beefcake and cheesecake: insights for advertisers.. Vol. 27, Journal of Advertising, 06-22-1998, pp 33(19).
Tone, Andrea, Contraceptive consumers: gender and the political economy of birth control in the 1930s.. Vol. 29, Journal of Social History, 03-01-1996, pp 485(22).
Reichert, Tom; Heckler, Susan E, The effects of sexual social marketing appeals on cognitive processing and persuasion., Journal of Advertising, 04-01-2001, pp 13.
Thompson, Craig J. And Elizabeth C. Hirschman (1995), "Understanding the Socialized Body: A Poststructuralist Analysis of Consumers' Self- Conceptions, Body Images, and Self-Care Practices," Journal of Consumer Research. 22 (September), 139-153.
Ethics: Sex in Advertising
Advertising in general has become absurd; in many cases, viewers aren't even sure what the commercial was trying to sell. With advertising companies running low on new ideas, and competition in the marketplace fiercer than ever, it's no wonder so many businesses will stoop to the use of sex to sell their products, whether those products have anything to do with sex or not. But there are more serious ethical issues at stake. First of all, some experts believe the ubiquitous images of sex in the media lead young people to view sex as glamorous and casual, rather than risky and worthy of serious consideration. Beautiful men and women engaging in sexual behaviors in print and television ads do not suffer consequences for their loose morals; there are no follow-up commercials showing the unwanted pregnancy, the abortion, the broken relationship, the "dumped" man or woman who feels….
Kilbourne, J. (2003). Advertising and Disconnection. In T. Reichert, & J. Lambiase, Sex in Advertising: Perspectives on the Erotic Appeal (pp. 173-180). Mahwah, NJ: awrence Erlbaum Associates. Place of Publication: Mahwah, NJ. Publication Year: 2003.
Meganck, S. (2010). Sex and Violence in Advertising: How Commodifying and Sexualizing Women Leads to Gender Violence. Retrieved 02-20, 2011, from Ramsites: http://ramsites.net/~megancksl/assets/Text/Sex%20and%20Violence%20in%20Advertising.pdf
Moore, J. (2002, 03-29). Women and Advertising: The Social Cost of Commercial Culture. Retrieved 02-23, 2011, from The Socialist Alternative: http://www.socialistalternative.org/literature/womensrights/advertising.html
Against Sex in Advertising
Many advertisers know the power of using sex in advertising. Sex sells. Pretty female models in bathing suits are used in car ads. Years ago, a pretty blonde woman was in a shaving cream commercial on television urging men to take it all off. omen are used as sex objects more frequently than men.
There is basis in psychological theory to validate the use of sex in ads. One is the theory of classical conditioning. (eiten, ayne. 195-196). In advertising, this would pair the product, such as a car, with a stimulus designed to elicit a pleasant emotional response, an attractive woman in order to sell the vehicle.
This is overt advertising.
There is also covert sex in advertising. This uses subliminal techniques, which are supposed to reach the subconscious to sell the product.
The first experiment in the use of these techniques was done at the movie theater. The designer….
Case, William. "Sex, Drugs and Exploitation: How Advertisers Promote Addiction." http://www.kissing.com/sex.html . Keyes, WilliamBryan. Media Sexploitation. New York: Signet Classics. 1977.Show Some Discretion. http://www.girlpossw.com/flip_side/past_flip_side/usingsextosell/appealtobrain/appealtobrain.html. Taflinger, RichardF. "Taking Advantage: You and Me Babe: Sex and Advertising." 5/28/96. http://Www.wsu.edu:8080/~taflinge/sex.html. Tunick, Britt."Sex and Wall Street A Fine Line." Investment Dealers' Digest. Vol. 68, Issue
2, pp 52-53Weiten, Wayne. Psychology: Themes and Variations. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole Publishing
As a result, ads for ethnicities such as blacks and Hispanics are limited to media designed to target only these audiences.
Steinem rues the advertiser's power over her magazine. She regrets the use of a feminist magazine to sell products that are bad for women, but explains the financial necessity for doing so. Cigarette and alcohol ads provide a disproportionate amount of advertising support and can't be forfeited without threatening the survival of the magazine. In fact, ads themselves begin to compete with content for space, changing the content to ad ration from 60/40 to 50/50. The following statement by Steinen reflects her degree of despair:
There is hardly a night when I don't wake up with sweaty palms and pounding heart, scared that we won't be able to pay the printer or the post office; scared most of all that closing our doors will hurt the women's movement." (Steinem, 1990).
This is related to the need for prominence, which advertisers play on by suggesting that respect is attendant on use of the product. Instead of being looked up to, being looked on is the goal of the need for attention, and then the need for autonomy allows advertisers to suggest freedom is associated with their product. This is also often associated with the need to escape, whether in the company of others or not. Security or the need to feel safe does not apply to every product, but advertisers can invoke it in the right instances by offering security. Lastly, the need to satisfy curiosity and the fulfillment of basic physiological needs can also be touched on by advertisers in order to sell a product.
Beyond these fifteen appeals, there are also identifiable styles of advertising. The use of celebrities as spokespersons and merely for their presence is one common style.….
Advertising Effectiveness and Consumer Memory
The relationship between psychology and advertising is not a new one -- in fact, it is fundamental to the birth of modern advertising in America. Edward Bernays, the father of marketing, was the nephew of none other than Sigmund Freud, and used Freud's sense that "man was motivated by passion" to manipulate the senses of consumers and plant seeds of desire within consumer memory (Jones, 2000, p. 283). Since the days of Bernays, all evidence indicates that marketers have utilized cognitive psychology in order to assist advertising effectiveness in relation to consumer memory. This paper will discuss this evidence and research surrounding this association and critically analyze and discuss it.
A Complex elationship
Developing brand awareness and brand loyalty are two of the biggest factors in successful marketing. Establishing either requires an effective campaign that essentially implants the brand in the mind of the consumer in a way….
Aaker, D, Biel, A (2013) Brand Equity and Advertising: Advertising's Role in Building
Strong Brands, NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates.
Bloemer, J, Kasper, H (1995) The complex relationship between consumer satisfaction and brand loyalty, Journal of Economic Psychology, 16(2): 311-329.
Festinger, L (1957) A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance, CA: Stanford University Press.
Advertising and public relations serve to communicate ideas and convince the audience of something. Politicians are among the most prolific advertising spenders during election campaigns and can have enormous public relations machines. This is especially true of Presidential candidates, who must first run for their party's nomination and then must run for President. We know that Hillary Clinton went from frontrunner to loser in the race for the Democratic Presidential nomination in 2008. There are lessons to be learned about the different factors that contribute to selling an idea, in this case Clinton as President, to different audiences. This case study will evaluate Clinton's campaign leading up to the Democratic primary using the OSTE model. The OSTE model focuses on research, objectives, strategies, tactics and evaluation.
The Hillary Clinton campaign at the time of the case was a large organization. It featured both extensive advertising and public relations, backed by substantial….
Cree, C. (2008). Hillary Clinton's approach to social media killed her campaign. Success Creations. Retrieved November 7, 2013 from http://successcreeations.com/339/hillary-clintons-approach-to-social-media-killed-her-campaign/
Gawiser, S. & Witt, G. (2012). 20 questions a journalist should ask about poll results. National Council on Public Polls. Retrieved November 7, 2013 from http://www.ncpp.org/?q=node/4
Murray, M. (2008). The primary vs. general election fallacy. NBC News. Retrieved November 7, 2013 from http://www.nbcnews.com/id/23591347/
OpenSecrets.org. (2008). Hillary Clinton. Retrieved November 7, 2013 from http://www.opensecrets.org/pres08/summary.php?cid=N
Example 1. The two ads are both targeted towards women and appeared in fashion magazines. The visuals for this ad reflect the transition from prickly to smooth, which mirrors the copy. The ad was placed in Glamour, which has a more lifestyle approach, so the food metaphors seem apropos for the audience. The ad is a bit disjointed, in that the image is a bit sloppy and the metaphors in the text seem weak, like the allusion to spaghetti straps, which makes sense and at the same time is a clumsy attempt to tie food into this. All told, however, the ad engages the audience, attempts to be clever, and the visual should catch the attention of readers.
Ad "B" was placed in Cosmo, which skews younger and more strictly fashion-oriented, but the copy and visuals do not seem congruent with that. The layout of the ad is the same as….
Exposure to Sex in Commercials
The adage, "sex sells," is nothing new, in fact, more than a century ago advertisers were using women in advertising campaigns for tobacco and soaps (Erotic pp). During the 1940's, George Petty became famous with his Petty girls, who were so popular in advertising for bathing attire and cigarettes that students at Princeton University selected Petty as their favorite artist in 1947, while Rembrandt came in second (Erotic pp). The sexual revolution of the 1960's became a catalyst for the use of sexual and erotic ads for just about anything and everything (Erotic pp). In 1966, Swedish model and former Miss Sweden, Gunilla Knutson, appearing in a television commercial for shaving cream encouraged men to "take it all off" to the tune of David Rose's popular hit "The Stripper" (Erotic pp). This ad created enormous attention and heralded in a new era for sex in….
Embedded Communication in Advertising
"There is no evidence that advertising can get people to do things contrary to their self-interest." -- JI Fowles, in Advertising's Fifteen asic Appeals
"Good advertising does not just circulate information. It penetrates the public mind with desires and belief." -- Leo urnett, Advertising Executive and Creator of the Marlboro Man
"The ability to attract new smokers and develop them into a young adult franchise is key to brand development." 1999 Philip Morris report
When the preceding collection of opinions regarding the influence of modern advertising are considered in conjunction with the iconic advertising image shown above, it becomes quite clear that, much like advertising itself, forming an informed position on this ubiquitous aspect of modern marketing is simply a matter of perception and perspective (elch 120). Corporate conglomerates and other private enterprises ascribe tremendous value to the persuasive power of advertising, bombarding the general public with television commercials, radio….
Altman, David G., Michael D. Slater, Cheryl L. Albright, and Nathan Maccoby. "How an unhealthy product is sold: Cigarette advertising in magazines, 1960 -- 1985." Journal of Communication 37, no. 4 (1987): 95-106.
Belch, George E., Michael A. Belch, and Angelina Villarreal. "Effects of advertising communications: Review of research." Research in marketing (1987).
Bovee, Courtland L., and William F. Arens. "The Indictments Against Advertising." Writing and Reading Across the Curriculum. Laurence Behrens and Leonard J. Rosen. New York, NY: Pearson Higher Education, 2008. 685-691. Print.
De Gregorio, Federico, and Yongjun Sung. "Understanding attitudes toward and behaviors in response to product placement." Journal of Advertising 39, no. 1 (2010): 83-96.
It is through these facets of every "Sex" woman character that makes the show meaningful and realistic enough to make it audiences believe that they, too, can attain the personalities and triumphs in love, sex, and career lives of Carrie, Samantha, Charlotte, and Miranda.
Indeed, love, sex, and career as depicted in "Sex" is actually embedded in the show's women characters. The close relationship of the women with each other symbolically represents the intertwined relationship of love, sex, and career, wherein each factor is representative of a woman character in "Sex." Through its characters, "Sex" has managed to cultivate and maintain the ideology of liberal thinking in matters concerning love, sex, and career -- an ideology that proves essential for women, in order to further strengthen their personalities and individualities without resorting to radical expressions of femininity, a fault that feminists often suffer from.
As Richards (2003) discusses in her research,….
Fairley, J. (2002). Cash in the city: Affording Manolos, martinis, and manicures on a working girl's salary. NY: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
Kamen, P. (2000). Her Way: Young women remake the Sexual Revolution. NY: New York University Press.
Nussbaum, E. (January 4, 2004). "Carrie Bradshaw's Final Reckoning." New York Times on the web.
Orenstein, C. (September 5, 2003). "What Carrie could learn from Mary." New York Times on the web.
The video's director explains that the intention was not to create racy content for its own sake, but rather that "the process was to express Lady Gaga's desire to reveal her heart and bear her soul" (Kreps). The provocative imagery thus serves to challenge the viewer over whether the video expresses bad taste or high art.
Equally important to lyrics are Gaga's overall image and the discussion she generates over her interests, including avant-garde fashion and gay rights. She is known for being scantily-clad; one magazine called her appearance "bizarre," stating that her style of dress is "archly futuristic…reveals a lot of skin but is never sexy" (Callahan and Stewart). The conflict inherent in her blatant sexuality also arises when one considers the discussion that her gender once generated, as "Is Lady Gaga a man?' 'was AskJeeves.com's thirdmost-asked question of 2009" (Juzwiak). Ever the provocateur, Lady Gaga addressed the question….
From her conspicuous consumption of product-related merchandise it is safe to assign her firmly to the upper middle class. Gender stereotypes and messages abound in this ad, as in many others. One example is the woman-as-food or woman-as-product message; she is something to be eaten or consumed like any other fast-moving consumer good, which sets a dangerous precedent. "Turning a human being into a thing, an object, is almost always the first step toward justifying violence against that person." (Kilbourne, p. 278).
The implied consequence for buying the product is becoming desirable as an extraordinary female. Those who fail to buy the product must resign themselves to a passionless life full of mediocrity. Extraordinary females are those whose lives are saturated with the product. Pozner (p. 51) gives evidence of this actually happening when she says, "What disturbs me is not that I prefer the taste of Snapple (I do),….
Barbie doll top ten viral commercials as of 2013 rely mostly on You Tube, Dailymotion, Facebook and Twitter.
The third doll brand, subject to this study is Bratz. As evidenced from the four commercials assessed in the course of this study, Bratz deploys a slightly different mode of advertising, which involves marketing adult entertainment to kids. Social psychologists have argued that this strategy is very effective within the realm of modern-day material culture. Adult entertainment, which often involves depiction of violence, sex, strong language and obscenity, has become very popular among children
. For Bratz, one of the most popular commercials involves cowgirls in Texas fighting crime modelled along the risque film group Charlie's Angels. The use of guns to depict violence is central to this commercial, which has since increased the brand's digital reach through pervasive advertising on TV and in the internet. In a similar commercial, Bratz acquired the….
Meyers, Laurie. "Dangerous dolls? Psychologists push back against market forces and products that sexualize young girls." American Psychological Association September 2006, Vol 37, No. 8
Eglinton, Kristen Ali Youth Identities, Localities, and Visual Material Culture: Making Selves, Making Worlds New York: Springer, 2013
Doeschka, J. Anschutz and Rutger, C.M.E. Engels. "The Effects of Playing with Thin Dolls on Body Image and Food Intake in Young Girls" U.S. National Library of Medicine
Business - Advertising
..although one of the more dangerous for the advertiser. Weighted down with taboos and volatile attitudes, sex is a Code Red advertising technique." For markets, sexuality can have biological,…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Advertising
sex in advertising. The writer takes the reader on an exploratory journey into the use of sex in advertising. There were 10 sources used to complete this paper. The…Read Full Paper ❯
Women's Issues - Sexuality
Ethics: Sex in Advertising Advertising in general has become absurd; in many cases, viewers aren't even sure what the commercial was trying to sell. With advertising companies running low on…Read Full Paper ❯
Women's Issues - Sexuality
Against Sex in Advertising Many advertisers know the power of using sex in advertising. Sex sells. Pretty female models in bathing suits are used in car ads. Years ago, a…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Advertising
As a result, ads for ethnicities such as blacks and Hispanics are limited to media designed to target only these audiences. Steinem rues the advertiser's power over her magazine.…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Advertising
This is related to the need for prominence, which advertisers play on by suggesting that respect is attendant on use of the product. Instead of being looked up to,…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Advertising
Advertising Effectiveness and Consumer Memory The relationship between psychology and advertising is not a new one -- in fact, it is fundamental to the birth of modern advertising in America.…Read Full Paper ❯
Communication - Journalism
Advertising and public relations serve to communicate ideas and convince the audience of something. Politicians are among the most prolific advertising spenders during election campaigns and can have enormous…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - College
Advertising Example 1. The two ads are both targeted towards women and appeared in fashion magazines. The visuals for this ad reflect the transition from prickly to smooth, which mirrors…Read Full Paper ❯
Women's Issues - Sexuality
Exposure to Sex in Commercials The adage, "sex sells," is nothing new, in fact, more than a century ago advertisers were using women in advertising campaigns for tobacco and…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Advertising
Embedded Communication in Advertising "There is no evidence that advertising can get people to do things contrary to their self-interest." -- JI Fowles, in Advertising's Fifteen asic Appeals "Good advertising does…Read Full Paper ❯
Women's Issues - Sexuality
It is through these facets of every "Sex" woman character that makes the show meaningful and realistic enough to make it audiences believe that they, too, can attain…Read Full Paper ❯
The video's director explains that the intention was not to create racy content for its own sake, but rather that "the process was to express Lady Gaga's desire…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Women
From her conspicuous consumption of product-related merchandise it is safe to assign her firmly to the upper middle class. Gender stereotypes and messages abound in this ad, as…Read Full Paper ❯
Barbie doll top ten viral commercials as of 2013 rely mostly on You Tube, Dailymotion, Facebook and Twitter. The third doll brand, subject to this study is Bratz. As…Read Full Paper ❯