Sexism Essays (Examples)

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Love Got to Do With

Words: 1464 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75779460

The only thing that is missing is the freedom to make that choice, the freedom to do it without pain or sacrifice. But freedom always comes with a price, especially for women. In the process of gaining her choice, Ada loses a finger, loses her piano, and almost loses her life.

We have to also look at history in the film. The Piano seems historically correct because women didn't have the right to choose their mates during this time. Love almost always came at some price. Ada chose to express her love the only way she knew how -- through her piano. But she is not making the right choice, because in the process she is sacrificing herself. She is unable to stand up for what is right because the pain is too great and too lonely to bear.

While I think Hook's view of male supremacy seems somewhat harsh, I think she has a point. There is clearly male domination in the film; Ada was dominated by her husband, father, and her lover -- by every male she came to love. But this is also where we can discuss money as being the motive for everything. It seems to…… [Read More]

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American Labor Movement History of Labor Movement

Words: 1431 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83699111

American Labor Movement

The "labor question," its origins, components, and whether or not it is still relevant.

The "labor question" is the foundation of the American Labor Movement. Drawing from our classwork and paraphrasing Rosanne Currarino's modern restatement of the "labor question(s)": "What should constitute full participation in American society? What standard of living should citizens expect and demand?" (Currarino 112). Concerned with the ideal of an industrial democracy, including a more equitable society with social and financial betterment of working class people, the "labor question" arose during and in response to America's 19th Century (Second) Industrial Revolution. America's Industrial Revolution occurred within the "Gilded Age," named by Mark Twain (Mintz), and lasting roughly from the end of the U.S. Civil War until the beginning of World War I (D.C. Shouter and RAKEN Services). Fueled in part by refined coal and steam power, the American Industrial Revolution transformed America from an agrarian society to an industrialized society and gave rise to significantly wealthy railroad barons such as Jay Gould, banking princes such as Jay Cooke, oil kings such as John D. Rockefeller and industrial tycoons such as Andrew Carnegie (D.C. Shouter and RAKEN Services).

While the Industrial Revolution created enormous…… [Read More]

Works Cited

AFL-CIO. Samuel Gompers (1850-1924). 2012. Web. 7 February 2012.

Currarino, Rosanne. The Labor Question in America: Economic Democracy in the Gilded Age. Urbana, Chicago and Springfield, IL: University of Illinois Press, 2011. Print.

D.C. Shouter and RAKEN Services. "The Gilded Age - Industrial Revolution in America." 2011. Web site. Web. 7 February 2012., LLC. Xenophobia. 2012. Web. 7 February 2012.
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Gender and Sexuality

Words: 1638 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24731886

Gender and Sexuality

Define sex.

The term sex means those characteristics, biological as well as physiological, that define men and women. Sex is better defined by categorizing sexes such as make and females. Major characteristic of sex is that its aspects do not considerably change within different societies. To further explain, specific sex related examples are that women menstruate and have breasts developed capable of lactation. Such characteristics are absent in male sex. Male sex on the other hand has testicles and carries stronger bones. Such is not the case with female sex (WHO).

Define gender.

Gender is different from sex and is generally referred as socially constructed roles, behaviors, activities, and expectation societies that are associated with male and female sex. The gender roles are usually the construction that a society gives to male and female roles. For instance women in the U.S. earn significantly less money than male role. This is due to the role (male as breadwinner) that American society has assigned to respective genders. In Saudi Arabia, women are not allowed to drive whereas men are and in Vietnam more men as compared to women smoke. It is the society in which the women live that…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Adriaens, Andreas, and de Block Adriaens. "The evolution of a social construction: the case of male homosexuality." Perspectives in biology and medicine. 49.4 (2006): 570-585. Web. 1 Mar. 2013.

Allan, Elizabeth J. "Hazing and gender: Analyzing the obvious." The hazing reader (2004): 275-294.

Fennell, Julie Lynn. "Men Bring Condoms, Women Take Pills: Men's and Women's Roles in Contraceptive Decision Making" Gender & Society 25(4):496-521. 2011.

Hooks, Bell. Feminism is for everybody: Passionate politics. Cambridge: South End Press, 2000. Vii-ix. Print.
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Othello by William Shakespeare With

Words: 1687 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82659293

He had sent all the servants for a leave with an excuse that it was carnival time, though his intention was to conceal his action (Rawls 54). He managed to convince Fortunato to put on a cloak so that nobody would recognize him on the way and this was another way of concealing the intended action.

Some of the remarks that Fortunate made on the way hurt Montresor making him to justify and accomplish his mission. At one time Fortunato told Montresor that he does not remember Montresor's court of arms. He tried to illustrate as containing a human foot that crushes a serpent with words such as no one that has impunity that can attack. The illustration and the message was a way of showing that Montresor's family was always on revenge mission. Montresor considered it as an insult and triggered his urge to revenge. On the way, they discovered catacombs where relatives who had died long time ago were buried (Rawls 56). When Fortunato went to get it he was locked inside by Montresor, and did not realize what was happening since he was too drunk.


Both writers illustrate sexism in their stories at different instances. A…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Rawls, John. A Theory of Justice. Cambridge, Mass: Belknap Press of Harvard Univ. Press, 1999. Print.

Sandel, Michael J. Justice: What's the Right Thing to Do? New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2010. Print.
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Media Review the Black Swan

Words: 1689 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56412145

Her day's routine and life merely revolved around these characters that cause her to think or act differently. All of these characters have quite an influential pressure on her that the Nina eventually becomes an amalgamation of thoughts. Pretty soon she gives into the evil desires that she cannot distinguish reality from illusions.

Stone and Church (1989) have called adolescence a very vulnerable period. According to them, adolescence is full of continuous feeling of emotional volatility, rebelliousness and intense idealism. It is seen that adolescence needs to develop a tough inside full of security and confidence. Only if they are sure about themselves and their abilities, these adolescents will go on to take the different problems in life. Rebellion and intense idealism is quite prominent during this stage. The adolescent wants to do things and hopes to aspire activities that will make him or her better than everybody else. If the adolescent is not given independence, he or she attains through any means possible.

Thus all these assertions are quite apparent in the movie. We see that Nina is put through different tests and trials to gain personal independent and freedom. She shows hesitation, rebelliousness and confusion to be the…… [Read More]


Black Swan (2010). [DVD] Darren Aronofsky.

Hall, G. (1904). Adolescence. Englewood Cliffs, N.J: Prentice Hall..

Stangor, C. (2011). Introduction to psychology. Flat World Knowledge.

Stone, L., and Church, J. (1989). Childhood and Adolescence. McGraw-Hill.
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Social Studies a Person's Background Is Largely

Words: 803 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52643623

Social Studies

A person's background is largely determined by the respective individual's interactions and heritage, taking into account that he or she is practically shaped by the way that a series of ideas come together in a life-like form. When considering events that shaped who I am today and my background, I believe that concepts like race and ethnicity have had a strong influence. I've experienced change and development in accordance with the environments that I've interacted with, as they practically made me who I am today. Even with the fact that nature played an important role in shaping my personality, nurture was essential in making it possible for me to develop particular attitudes.

When considering the modernization theory, it appears that one can find a series of ideas making it possible for the respective person to gain a more complex understanding of his or her background and of his or her personal development. The fact that members of my family perceived development as a concept that could not be achieved as long as they invested a great deal of resources in the process encouraged me to develop a particular set of attitudes with regard to life in general.

The…… [Read More]


Jones, P. (2011). "Introducing Social Theory." Polity.

O'Donoghue, K. (2005). "Social Work Theories in Action." Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

Stinchcomb, A.L. (1987). "Constructing Social Theories." University of Chicago Press.
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Diversity and Multicultural Education

Words: 1215 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12480421


Using Power Point: Understanding Diversity answer the below questions

How could prejudice affect a person's ability to learn and work?

Prejudice could affect the person's self-esteem and self-confidence. Teachers and peers might treat the student differently than they would without the prejudice, even if the prejudice is "positive," such as prejudice toward Asian students in a math class. Prejudice might impede a person's ability to learn and work, because it impacts the reactions of both teachers and students.

How important is the issue of diversity in your daily life?

Diversity is hugely important in my daily life. I do not like being in homogeneous places, because they are not reflective of the world at large. The world is diverse, filled with people with differing points-of-view and backgrounds. My views and outlooks change when I interact with different people, and I like that diversity makes me think more critically and creatively.

At your school or job, do you think more training should be given on the philosophies behind understanding diversity?

I do believe that more diversity training is necessary. Many people do not realize that they have prejudices, and do not see how their stereotyping is harmful. However, most minorities…… [Read More]

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Practice Consider How Research and or Practices That

Words: 706 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70821349


Consider how research and/or practices that are focused on gender issues might be effectively and creatively employed as tools of social change in the service of sexism or homophobia. Also describe ethical implications related to the action purpose.

Throughout the decades, sexism has been a major challenge for women to overcome. Part of the reason for this, is because of various barriers that have been in place to limit any kind opportunities or social advancements for them. This is problematic, because these kinds of restrictions have made it difficult for women to deal with these issues. While at the same time, being able to: move forward and live independent lives. To address these challenges many different practices have been implemented that are designed to tackle the problem head on. To fully understand the effect of these efforts requires: examining the how these kinds of programs are influencing these views and the long-term impact that it is having on society at large. Once this occurs, it will provide the greatest insights as to how different practices that are focused on gender issues have been transforming the debate.

Today sexism is continuing to be a major issue that is having a…… [Read More]


Forget Chocolate on Valentine's Day. (2011). Reaction Watch. Retrieved from:

Savage, R. (1997). Doctor's Attitudes to Women in Medicine. Journal of Royal College of Practioneers, 27, 363- 365.

Spender, D. (2000). Routledge International Encyclopedia of Women. New York, NY: Taylor and Francis.
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Power and Riches Like Restrictive Chains or

Words: 708 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79229755

power and riches like restrictive chains or are they like keys to freedom and happiness?

There is an old adage that states money does not buy happiness and there is certainly something to that. At the same time, money can prevent unhappiness. When a person is poor and has no power, this station certainly contributes to their level of unhappiness. Living in poverty forces people into a cycle where they have to work to survive. They lose out on opportunities for education and social advancement. In that sense, poverty is a prison and freedom from poverty is a key to more happiness than one might have otherwise.

How does postfeminism relate to second- and third-wave goals?

Second-wave feminist goals focused on inequalities in pay and power, particularly in passing legislation to protect the equal rights of women (Gamble 2001). Third-wave feminism incorporated the differing viewpoints of women who were also members of minority groups. Post-feminism takes into account all of these dynamics while also taking up positions and perspectives that were neglected by these earlier waves of feminism. It is also responsive to the societal backlash that occurred during the period between and after the waves (Wright 2000). It endeavors…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Gamble, S. (2001). The Routledge Companion to Feminism and Postfeminism. Routledge.

Parra, E.G. (2009). "Cultural distance" among speakers of the same language. Sens Public.

Retrieved from

Strauss, L. (1953). Natural Right and History. University of Chicago Press: Chicago, IL. 92-95.
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Gender Stratification Talk About Gender

Words: 1228 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55579689

While the issue has become a states' issue, the main objection to narrowly construing marriage as a union between a man and a woman (as the Defense of Marriage Act, 1996 does) is based on substantive due process available under the 14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution

. Therefore most of the efforts in this regard are aimed at re-establishing these parameters.

3. Talk about sexism in the workplace. Have you ever experienced discrimination based on your gender. (female)

As a woman I have had some nasty run-ins with sexism in my brief employment history. As a part time clerk in Blockbuster I was often ostracized by my male colleagues who would be in a world of their own cracking sexist jokes at my expense. I reported this to my manager but he told me to suck it up and he did so with such relish. Over the summer I worked briefly as a waitress at Hooters and it was as if I was a prostitute. After one too many nasty advances, I left the job never to return.

4. Talk about the status of women in our culture; how is it possible that women still make less for performing…… [Read More]

Homophobia is extremely widespread in American society and most of us do not realize when it happens or when we overstep those boundaries. For example in almost every sitcom on TV there is always a character that is straight but fits some of the gay stereotypes. To elucidate that point consider Ted in "How I met your mother?" Throughout the adventures of Ted Mosby and his friends, someone or the other accuses Ted of being gay and Ted is hard pressed to prove otherwise. One of my close friends tried really hard not to be homophobic, but the very expression on her face when she saw same sex couples gave away years of continuous religious propaganda against homosexuality.

For more on this see Roscoe, Will (2000). Changing Ones: Third and Fourth Genders in Native North America. Palgrave Macmillan

55 U. Chi. L. Rev. 1161 (1988) Sexual Orientation and the Constitution: A Note on the Relationship between Due Process and Equal Protection; Sunstein, Cass R.
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Integrate Writing Make a Connection Link Readings Use

Words: 645 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60044634

integrate writing. Make a connection/link readings. Use proper citation. Font 12, Double-spaced, MLA format "Doing Something Different": Throughout discuss things people counter everyday sexism.

In spite of the fact that the social order saw much progress during recent years, sexism is a common occurrence and it seems that it is going to be long before people actually accept each other as equal with no regard to skin color, ethnicity, or gender. While female pioneers in the past managed to produce much controversy by doing things as simple as wearing pants, it is currently required to adopt a more complex attitude in order to have the general public acknowledge the fact that women and men should be considered equal.

The fact that I am somewhat experienced in working with cars made it possible for me to express interest in learning more about mechanics. The moment when I saw that a local auto shop was searching for someone to train in the field was the moment when I realized that this was a chance to improve my educational experience. Certainly, I was well-aware with the looks I would get as a result of wanting to learn more about mechanics, but this did…… [Read More]


Gillespie, Rosemary, Childfree and Feminine: Understanding the Gender Identity of Voluntarily Childless Women, Gender and Society, Vol. 17, No. 1, (Feb., 2003), pp. 122-136

Roberts, Dorothy E., The Future of Reproductive Choice for Poor Women and Women of Color
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Social Psychology Rosewood the Movie

Words: 3825 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23102082

Rosewood is a film particularly suitable and interesting for the application of social psychology. It concerns the story of a black community in early 20th-century Florida. The community was rather a-typical of the time, since black people were wealthy landowners. The neighboring company town of Sumner on the other hand, was occupied by poor white people, who were jealous of the wealth they observed in Rosewood. This setting provides a backdrop for social psychological analysis concerning ingroups and outgroups, and how racism leads to escalating tension.

Prejudice and Racism

Prejudice, according to Brehm, Kassin & Fein (147), can be unintentional. It also means the stereotyping of a certain group of people on the irrational grounds of a perceived threat, exacerbated by the fact that little personal information is available about the target of prejudice. In the film, prejudice against black people is a paradigm of the historical time. The likelihood of prejudice against the inhabitants of Rosewood is particularly strong, as a gap exists between the financial status of the whites in Sumner and the blacks in Rosewood. The blacks are thus perceived as a threat, "stealing" the financial resources available in the country.

Brehm, Kassin & Fein (151) further…… [Read More]


Brehm, Sharon S., Kassin, Saul M. And Fein, Stephen. Social Psychology. 5th Edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2002.

Singleton, John. Rosewood, 1997.
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Marianne Villanueva and Gilda Cordero-Fernando Write About

Words: 591 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1365935

Marianne Villanueva and Gilda Cordero-Fernando write about their native Philippines through the eyes of daughters. Villanueva's "Lizard" encapsulates a girl's alienation and lack of self-determination. Cordero-Fernando's "Bushouse" provides poignant insight into nearly the opposite dynamic, as the narrator discovers a sense of belonging within the community in spite of sexism, racism, and classism. The point-of-view of a daughter enables a rich, multifaceted, and nuanced perspective on issues related to race, gender, social status, and especially power.

While the two stories share in common a cultural milieu, they differ widely in terms of tone, style, and diction. The last lines of each story provide particularly rich insight into the differential motives of their authors, through the voices of their respective narrators. Wito of Villanueva's "Lizard" ends her story with a negative realization about sexism, racism, and power structures in society. Power is meted out according to sharp patriarchal norms, which are as inflexible as a lizard's "long, pointed teeth." The phallic imagery of these "long, pointed teeth" corresponds with the ancient animal symbol that a lizard represents: thus, something immutable and unchangeable. Wito suggests that patriarchy and outmoded social codes are ingrained in society; they are as timeless as the lizard.…… [Read More]

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Human Nature Comparison of Hindu

Words: 1899 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12835968

In human beings dharma is extra and special." (p.1) Brahmeshananada states that dharma is "restraint by moral rules" and that there are two types of dharma:

(1) pravrtitti-lakshana; and (2) nivritti-lakshana. (Brahmeshananada, nd, p.1)

When one, observing the moral codes of conduct applicable to one's station in life and society performs actions for enjoyment (kama) and acquisition of wealth (artha) one is said to be following pravritti dharma." (Brahmeshananada, nd, p.1) However, the time comes "when one gets disgusted with sense-enjoyments and acquisition of wealth and aspires for final emancipation (moksah)." (Brahmeshananada, nd, p.1) It is at this time that the self embraces nivritti dharma "characterized by a renunciation of all worldly desires and selfish actions, and resorting to spiritual practice to attain liberation." (Brahmeshananada, nd, p.1) When the man "…rises from animal to human level by accepting pravritti dharma, i.e. By observing social injunctions" then man is able to ascend to godhood and to become divine through having embraced the nivritti dharma. (Brahmeshananada, nd, paraphrased)

According to Brahmeshananada when the Hindus "say that man is divine, this means that all men and women are divine. When by following the discipline of yoga, one starts realizing that one is divine…… [Read More]


Brahmeshananda, Swami (nd) The Nature of Man According to Hinduism. Nature of Man -- Understanding Hinduism. Online available at: 

Coward, H.G. (2008) The Perfectibility of Human Nature in Eastern and Western Thought. SUNY press 2008.

Hadley, M.L. (2001) The Spiritual Roots of Restorative Justice. SUNY Press, 2001.

Wallace, A. (2003) Buddhism & Science: Breaking New Ground. Columbia University Press 2003.
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Notations for Books or Periodicals

Words: 342 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81377470



Hativa, N. (1988, Fall). Computer-based drill and practice in arithmetic: Widening the gap between high and low achieving students. American Education Research Journal 35(3) pp. 366-397.


Sapp, M.E. (1988). In the best interest of children: returning play to its pace. In Dimidjian, V.J. (Ed.), Play's pace in public education of young children. (pp49-61).


Mean Mood Scores Before and After Physical Aactivity

Figure 1. Record ofweekly truancy behavior


Williams and Jensen (1992) demonstrated the same effect. Neither of the books was available in the library. The team achieved improvement in its scores after undergoing training. The team achieved a 38% improvement in its scores after undergoing training. Successful problem solvers were both more adept at representing the problem and using heuristics.

The participants were introduced to each of the following trainers but were not allowed to choose their own trainers. Post tests were administered to the third grade students. Of the schools that participated,…… [Read More]


Williams and Jensen (1992) demonstrated the same effect. Neither of the books was available in the library. The team achieved improvement in its scores after undergoing training. The team achieved a 38% improvement in its scores after undergoing training. Successful problem solvers were both more adept at representing the problem and using heuristics.

The participants were introduced to each of the following trainers but were not allowed to choose their own trainers. Post tests were administered to the third grade students. Of the schools that participated, twelve were elementary, six were middle schools, and four were high school.
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Culturally Relative Ethics vs Objective

Words: 1858 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14331779

Carr's argument also addresses the limits of the range of unethical business conduct. Specifically, many unethical business practices do not necessarily involve deception, per se. The case of "legally" selling car keys to car thieves is an example of that. In fact, there are many instances of decidedly unethical deception in business that are not illegal and that do not involve lying, necessarily. A strong argument could be made that the use of paid celebrity endorsers of consumer products is unethical for at least two reasons. First, paid celebrity endorsers do not necessarily use the products they recommend to consumers; they enter contracts to read scripts and the law permits those scripts to be very liberal in terms of literal accuracy, if not necessarily truth. Second, the entire concept may be unethical precisely because it takes advantage of human social psychology to follow or emulate well-known individuals. Similar forms of advertising actually are illegal, such as subliminal messaging, although it is not clear why the latter is any "worse" or more unethical to consumers than the former approach.

In that regard, Carr's comparison of unethical poker strategies that are not part of the game (such as distracting opponents) also have…… [Read More]

references is not unethical because it produces no harm.

Meanwhile, other types of business deception are as unethical as cheating in poker. Concealing the material truth about a product or about the details of a business arrangement to induce another entity to do something he would not do with full awareness is unethical deception and is analogous to playing with an extra card that is not part of the deck. Examples of that principle would include concealing major repairs to a vehicle offered for sale and a dishonest answer to a direct question asking whether the vehicle had ever suffered major damage.

Carr's argument also addresses the limits of the range of unethical business conduct. Specifically, many unethical business practices do not necessarily involve deception, per se. The case of "legally" selling car keys to car thieves is an example of that. In fact, there are many instances of decidedly unethical deception in business that are not illegal and that do not involve lying, necessarily. A strong argument could be made that the use of paid celebrity endorsers of consumer products is unethical for at least two reasons. First, paid celebrity endorsers do not necessarily use the products they recommend to consumers; they enter contracts to read scripts and the law permits those scripts to be very liberal in terms of literal accuracy, if not necessarily truth. Second, the entire concept may be unethical precisely because it takes advantage of human social psychology to follow or emulate well-known individuals. Similar forms of advertising actually are illegal, such as subliminal messaging, although it is not clear why the latter is any "worse" or more unethical to consumers than the former approach.

In that regard, Carr's comparison of unethical poker strategies that are not part of the game (such as distracting opponents) also have analogs in business. For example, it may not be illegal to bombard a competitor with paperwork for strategic purposes to distract them, but it is unethical just the same as distracting poker opponents. Law firms, and corporate litigants battling opponents with tighter budgets in particular, do this all the time, precisely because they know that it increases the legal work (and the expense associated with it) and can result in a settlement earlier than allowing the opposing party to keep legal fees down. It is unethical but legal and does not involve explicit lies.

Ultimately, lying in business is illegal and unethical in some cases; it is legal but unethical in others; and it is legal and not necessarily unethical in still others. The analogy with legal bluffing in poker, legal but unethical distraction in poker, and outright cheating in poker holds up logically.
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Problem in Society

Words: 941 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43570695

contrary, indications of a definite gender pay gap seem to persist. Wanzenreids (2008), for instance, conducted a large-scale study of 108,628 observations on 26,047 executives and 2,598 firms, between the years 1992 to 2003, and showed that women are working for smaller, less profitable firms than men and that female executives earn 14% less than their male colleagues. More so, the gender pay gap is higher towards the upper end of the pay distribution. As recently as 2002, women who worked more than thirty-five hours per week for fifty-two weeks per year earned only 78% as much as men (Giddens, Duneir, & Applebaum, 2003).

Most sociologists (e.g. Alksnis, Desmarais, & Curtis, 2008) seem to think that sexism is the determining factor for the differnce in gender wage, but it may just be that other, less innocuous, reasons may explain the disparity.

These include (1) self-selection by women into female-dominated industries, which pay less (2) self-selection by women out of the workforce periodically (e.g., to raise children), which fragments their work history and thereby reduces their income potential and (3) men's internalized status beliefs that makes them more likely to feel worthy of higher pay. Men, more assertive than women, are…… [Read More]


Alksnis, C., Desmarais, S., & Curtis, J. (2008), Workforce segregation and the gender wage gap, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 38, 1416-1441.

Giddens, A., Duneir, M. & Applebaum, R. (2003) Introduction to Sociology, London: Norton & Co.

Wanzenreid, G. (2004). How feminine is corporate America? J. Econ. Inequal, 6, 185-209.
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Gender-Specific Therapy for Women Prisoners Research Question

Words: 3099 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52728944

Gender-Specific Therapy for Women Prisoners


On average, women make up about 7% of the total federal and state incarcerated population in the United States. This has increased since the 1980s due to stricter and more severe laws that focus on recreational drug use, a lack of community programs, and fewer treatment centers available for outpatients (Zaitow and Thomas, eds., 2003). According to the National Women's Law Centers, women prisoners report a higher than statistically normal history of domestic violence in their immediate past, and the fastest growing prison population with a disproportionate number of non-Whites forming over 60% of the population. In fact, over 30% of women in prison are serving sentences for murder involving a spouse or partner. The incarceration of women presents far different cultural and sociological issues than those of men -- issues with children, family, sexual politics and more (NWLC, 2012).

The rapid increase of female prisoners in a male-dominated system has left fewer adequate resources available for women. In addition, most research shows that women's prison experiences differ drastically from those of men because their relationships inside and outside prison tend to shape the culture then enter into in prison.

Women…… [Read More]


Ethical Research Guidelines. (2012). Marketing Research Association. Retrieved from: 

National Women's Law Center. (2012). retrieved from:

Total U.S. Correctional Population. (2010, December 11). Retrieved from Office of Justice Programs:

Women in the Criminal Justice System. (2012). The Sentencing Project. Retrieved from:
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Cultures Sociology the Historical Development

Words: 898 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39617294

In addition, stratification contributes to cultural determinism, which again, alludes to when a person's position or class within a stratified society determines their culture, what kind of labor they will have the opportunity to have, what quality of education they may have access to, and other aspects (or limitations) of a particular culture.

When social stratification becomes too extreme and tensions within a culture rise too high, there is a distinct possibility for cultural differentiation. This occurs in societies where the tensions and imbalances are apparent and transparent. In many countries, such as the United States, the media helps to minimize class imbalances. The media is often used as an institution that will communicate and distribute the dominant ideology and specific hegemony. Hegemony is a form of social control and ideology is the greater societal structure of which hegemony is a tool or strategy. Hegemony may is often skewed or distorted and perpetuates imbalances/stratifications, such as sexism, ageism, and racism.

Non-cultural factors such as geography and population additionally affect the historical development of cultures. Cultures with a large number of people are able to fight off invaders or those who would try conquer or imperialize them. Conversely, a culture with…… [Read More]


Understanding Race and Ethnic Relations, 4th Edition. Chapter 3 -- Understanding Race and Culture. Print. Provided.
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Historical Figure in Nursing

Words: 1143 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71837833


Dear Casey,

I hope all is well with you and your family. It's been a while since I've written; forgive me as I've been busy with school, work and life in general. Over the past few weeks, I've become quite interested in the life and triumphs of Clara Barton, a 19th century nurse, teacher and pioneer who was by my account, a woman way ahead of her time. Clara Barton is a true hero, this letter is to give you a glimpse of her life and successes and how she contributed to nursing as we know it today. During Ms. Bartons' era women were largely shut out of working in certain professions or if they were allowed to work at all -- they were not allowed to climb the ladder to be promoted to other positions. There also lacked an institution that provided aid to those affected by disaster. It's difficult for me to imagine what we would have done without FEMA or The Red Cross when Katrina hit and other disasters in recent history. Clara Barton recognized the need for these institutions U.S., and worked until it came to fruition. She actually founded the American Red Cross! Being…… [Read More]


Ardalan, C. (2010). Clara Barton's 1898 Battles in Cuba: A Reexamination of Her Nursing Contributions. Florida Atlantic Comparative Studies Journal, 12, 1-20.

Maikell-Thomas, B. "Discovered Historical Documents Uncover The First Official Missing Persons Investigator, Clara Barton" National Association of Investigative Specialists. 

Tooker, J. (2007). Antietam: Aspects of Medicine, Nursing and the Civil War. Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association, 118, 215-223.
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Gender in Television

Words: 773 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53121479

Gender Portrayals in Media

Since the advent of the television during the latter part of 1920s, men and women have been portrayed differently in movies, television, radio, music videos, news, and social media. Stereotyping men and women aided in developing sustainability strategies for marketing and advertising efforts. Essentially, it is about appeal and influencing the consumer. Unfortunately, the various mediums are fraught with sexism and racial disparities, which are difficult to overcome since the mediums are controlled by those in power. This level of control may be disguised as marketing techniques for certain target groups. By devising an appealing image for a consumer in which he or she may identify, advertisers establish a connection, thus building loyalty and developing a following. Hence, gender portrayals are fundamental practices to reach a large group of consumers by creating categorical images.

Gender Socializer: Television

Several of the popular radio soap operas made the transition to television, with many new ones created for the medium which would eventually eclipse radio in audience numbers. As with their radio predecessors, these shows were programmed for the daytime hours, and they featured commercials aimed at the housewives who were described as the stereotype of the post-war American…… [Read More]

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Sexist Language in the Media

Words: 1477 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44820255

Gender and Society

Sexism in the Media: Portrayal of Female Athletes in Media Coverage

Sexist portrayal of men's versus women's athletic events and sporting events has prevailed in the media for some time. Armstrong and Hallmark (1999) note that until very recently, women in profession NCAA Division I women's basketball teams, though popular, had received "virtually no television exposure" during key station segments; women also suffered unfavorable practice times and "hand me down uniforms" (p. 1). Perhaps no other area of media portrayal reveals as much gender inequality as the portrayal of women athletes. This is not because of a lack of interest in female sports necessarily. More and more women are participating in sports formerly considered male only. However the media portrayal or lack of adequate portrayal of women's events has contributed to the perceived lack of enthusiasm and interest in following women's events. The media utilizes sexist attitudes, language and images often when portraying women's sporting events, and these habits have contributed to the lack of popularity of women's sports. This idea is explored in greater detail below.

According to Armstrong and Hallmark, Zavoina (1999) visual imagery bombards our perception of what we see in the media, thus…… [Read More]


Alexander, S. (1994). "Newspaper coverage of athletics as a function of gender." Women's Studies International Forum, 17 (6), 655-662

Armstrong, Richard N; Hallmark, James R. "Gender Equity in Televised Sports: A Comparative Analysis of Men's and Women's NCAA Division I Championship Broadcasts, 1991-1995). Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, Vol. 43, 1999.

Blinde, E.M., Greendorder, S.L., & Shenker, R.J. (1991). "Differential media coverage of men's and women's intercollegiate basketball: Reflection of gender and ideology." Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 15, (2), 98-114

Bryant, J. (1980). "A two-year selective investigation of the female athlete in sport as reported in the paper media." Arena Review, 4, 32-44
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Diversity in Organizations

Words: 972 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93670970

Diversity in Organizations

The Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI) provides a tool to assess the attitudes and expectations of individuals in relation gender stereotypes and to generate a quantifiable score measuring the degree of latent gender hostility based on those scores. More specifically, there are two measures generated by this instrument: the first is a score of hostile sexism that corresponds to negative feelings toward women; the send is benevolent sexism that corresponds to those aspects of attitudes about gender that could be considered positive. The meaning of the hostile sexism measure is obvious and straightforward; however, benevolent sexism is also related to hostility simply because it is a product of differential expectations based on gender. Therefore, even ostensibly positive aspects of gender-oriented attitudinal difference correspond to hostility, especially in connection with deviations from gender-based roles and expectations.


Naturally, ASI scores are likely to vary considerably from culture to culture and from society to society since our attitudes, values, beliefs, and expectations are substantially products of the messages the individual absorbs from society (Henslin, 2008; Macionis, 2007). Nevertheless, every individual is different because his or her attitudes and values also reflect the messages received from the nuclear family, the local…… [Read More]


Healey, J.F. (2009). Race, Ethnicity, Gender, and Class: The Sociology of Group

Conflict and Change. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge.

Henslin, J.M. (2008). Essentials of Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach. Boston:

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Analytical and Comparative

Words: 2040 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72592936

immigrant women in Canada

Several eminent authors have composed various masterpieces or performed intensive research on the bittersweet experiences as well as the treatment of immigrant women in Canada. In the following passages of our analytical research paper, we will discuss in detail a particular group, that is the Chinese and the Hong Kong women settled in Canada. Firstly this paper provides an account of the progress of the immigration policies in Canada since its origin until today and its effects on the entryway of Chinese immigrant women in Canada. The paper then presents the effect of standardized policies regarding race and sex on Chinese immigrant women. Last but not the least, this research report and analytical essay looks into the institutional processes including employment and unemployment as well as the organizational processes including the relationships between family members, child care, household chores and social life which affected the lives of skilled Chinese women who migrated from China and Hong Kong and are settled in Canada. In the end, the paper summarizes and concludes with a brief critical analysis, putting all together. The paper further appends a reference page based on four outside sources.


In early 1990s, the Canadian…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Man G.Racism, sexism, and experience of Chinese Immigrant. Available at (March 10, 2003)

Man G. The experience of Middle-class Women in Recent Hong Kong Chinese Immigrant Families in Canada. Available at:  (March 10, 2003)

Man G. Globalization and the Erosion of the welfare state: Effects on Chinese

Immigrant Women. Available at (March 10, 2003)
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Language's Role in Sustaining Inequality Between the

Words: 3164 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3658115

Language's Role In Sustaining Inequality Between The Sexes

Although it is disputed whether language causes sexism or sexism causes certain language, language does play a part in sexism (Wikipedia). Given that the development of society has gone hand in hand with the development of language, it is unlikely that the causation will ever be determined. However, whether language causes sexism or sexism causes certain language, it is clear that language plays a key role in sustaining inequality between the sexes.

At its most basic, language is a system of symbols used by human beings to communicate with each other. However, language is not simply how humans communicate with one another, but also how humans communicate within themselves. Therefore, if language is sexist, then the actions, and even the thoughts, that it describes are sexist (West). For example, words with gender-based connotations imply that the attributes necessary to perform the duties related to those words are limited to only one gender (West).

Language perpetuates inequality in a variety of manners. The most dramatic example of language-based sexism is when gender or sex related words are used in a pejorative manner. Less obviously sexist is when gender-linked words are used to reinforce…… [Read More]


Bartlett, K. (1993) Gender and Law: Theory, Doctrine, and Commentary, New York: Little,

Brown & Company (1993).

Feitz, A. (1999) 'Feminist Scholarship: A Classic Oxymoron?', in Enter

Stage Right.  accessed on January 5, 2005.
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Gendered Experience in the Workplace

Words: 1793 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53086658

"For example, the more women considered prejudice to occur across a variety of contexts, the more they reported depression, anxiety, and decreased self-esteem." (Foster & Dixon, 2002, p.1)

These findings about the limits of group conciousness hint that perhaps, rather than focusing on a generalized female conciousness raising outside of the workplace, focusing on specific managerial objectives of female advancement within specific industries and workplaces might be more beneficial. Change the conciousness of managers, specifically male managers, through diversity workshops and penalizing sexism, rather than focus on changing female's perceptions of their competance alone. Create a sense of 'it's everywhere,' one also runs the risk of creating a sense that 'there is nothing I can do' and of learned helplessness in the hearts of female workers. Even from my own unwitting beneficical experience of sexism, I know how difficult it is to be confrontational as an entry-level employee, when one needs a job, thus to expect empowerment from the bottom up may be both unfair, unrealistic, and ultimately unproductive.… [Read More]

Works Cited

Anthis, Kristine. "The role of sexist discrimination in adult women's identity development." Sex Roles: A Journal of Research. November 2002, p.1-4. Retrived from Find Articles at

Mindi D. Foster and Kenneth L. Dion. "The role of hardiness in moderating the relationship between global/specific attributions and actions against discrimination." Sex Roles: A Journal of Research. August 2004, p.1-5. Retrived from Find Articles at

Renzetti, Claire M. & Daniel Curran, Women, Men, and Society. Fifth Edition. New York: Allyn & Bacon, 2002
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Race Class & Gender Color-Blind

Words: 1805 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32893564

For example, one of the interesting points that grabbed my attention was Dill's discussion of gender relations among African slaves. Slave men and women had a more egalitarian relationship than free white men and women. That is because slave men did not possess the power and authority of free men. So, power is inherently corrupting? At least, this is what Dill's description of gender relations in antebellum America suggest.

I wish, as a professor of sociology, Dill could have made more direct relations with the present (describing history just for the sake of history is the job of historians). I also wish, she could have allotted as much space to the story of Chinese-Americans that she does to White, African-American, and Chicano families. But I still admired this essay because it powerfully tells how society often subjects women to double or triple burdens. In colonial and antebellum America, the society was racist. But nonwhite women bore a double burden. As she explains, the harsh economic conditions forced nonwhite women to work in the occupations reserved for men, which means these women had to help their men in earning livelihood but also do the household chores. Moreover, it was considered immoral…… [Read More]


Andersen, M.L, & Collins, P.H. (2010) Race, Class & Gender: An Anthology, 7th Edition. Wadsworth Publishing.
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Training Women for the Military

Words: 3228 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76933795

In those days prior to 2003, TRADOC gave recruits nut-and-bolt basics, then sent the new Soldiers to their units where the real training started....nTo achieve "Soldier" status, recruits now spend 21 days in the field during basic training. The training focus has changed dramatically from what was primarily a standards, discipline and soldierization process to one of intensive combat skills. (Leipold, 2009)nHowever, such changes have tended to come about without any sort controlled, rigorous study. There is nothing wrong about changes that come from within and that grow organically out of the requirements of an organization. However, a controlled experiment offers certain key advantages because it can cast off old attitudes and biases.nI have already described the control group in this experiment. The three experimental groups add different elements to the equation. The first of these experimental groups is actually one that I predict will reduce the overall fitness of women soldiers and decrease their chances of joining the armed forces. Why would one want to do this as a researcher? The short answer is that all data are useful: Seeking out the factors that make a situation worse is another route to finding out what makes things better. (For…… [Read More]

References\nEvans, M. (2005). Women pay painful price for equal military training. The Times, retrieved 9 February 2010 from\n \n \nLeipold, J. (2009). Not your father\'s basic, anymore, retrieved 8 February 2010 from \n\nO\'Reilly, K. (1981). Dick and Jane in basic training. Newsweek. \n,9171,953209-\n2,00.html#ixzz0fYEyTybe \nRichards, T. (n.d.) What is comprehensive cognitive-behavioral therapy? \nRetrieved 10 \nFebruary 2010 from \n\nSegura, L. (2009). Veterans Decry Institutional Sexism in Military, retrieved 11 February 2010 \nfrom
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Cyberfeminism Digitizing Race and Internet Media

Words: 5587 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5990833

Cyber Feminism, Gender and Technology

Cyberfeminism, Gender and Technology

Feminist movement found on the internet is known as Cyberfeminism. In recent times, the term has gained controversial status. Cyberfeminism, a fundamental issue from the feminist perspective, is mostly ignored by researchers and academics. It concentrates on empowerment of women through the cyberspace. Furthermore, it deals with female enlightenment and concentrates on creating awareness on how the digital technologies can influence the rights and social status of women. The digital technologies act as a medium of re-embodying the issue of racism and gender. Internet is the new medium used to erase the identity of women; that is; women are the erased race. However, the internet has played a significant role in promoting Cyberfeminism by pointing out that several feminist studies and internet activities are done by the online media. It cannot be denied that technology plays an important role in promoting feminism in the cyber world. The terms technology, feminism and racism are interconnected and cannot be separated. This indicates that technology is important in today's time and thus, the consequences are not alone dependent on technology but also depend on the social, political and institutional structure together with user perception.…… [Read More]

Work Cited:

1. Chon, Margaret. Erasing Race? A Critical Race Feminist View of Internet Identity Shifting, 1999.

2. Nakamura, Lisa. Digitizing Race: Visual Cultures of the Internet. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2008.

3. Nakamura, Lisa. Cybertypes: Race, Ethnicity, and Identity on the Internet. London: Routledge, 2002.

4. Wilding, Faith. Where is Feminism in Cyberfeminism?. 28 March 2006. Cyberfeminist International. 4 June 2011.
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Choosing the Sex of an Offspring

Words: 1702 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34832499

Gender of a Baby:

The issue on whether parents should be allowed to choose the sex of their baby has been a major controversial issue in the recent past that has attracted huge debates between proponents and opponents of such practice. This issue has received huge attention because of long-term use of Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) to help pregnant women in the United States and across the globe. This technology basically involves the transfer of fertilized human embryos into a woman's uterus through in vitro fertilization (IVF). Advances in Assisted Reproductive Technology have contributed to various innovations such as Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis, which enables parents to choose prenatally the sex of their offspring (Bumgarner, 2007, p.1289). This technology enables parents to select the sex of their babies through the use of medical techniques. While it is considered as a major breakthrough in reproductive health, Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis has been surrounded with bioethical concerns and debate.

Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis:

As previously mentioned, Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) is a by-product of advances in Assistive Reproductive Technology that allows parent to select the sex of their offspring through medical techniques. Preimplantation processes basically occur before the embryo or sperm is set up into…… [Read More]


Bumgarner, A. (2007, June 18). A Right to Choose? Sex Selection in the International Context.

Duke Journal of Gender Law & Policy, 14(1289), 1289-1309. Retrieved from

Bhatia, R. (2010). Constructing Gender from the Inside Out: Sex-Selection Practice in the United

States. Feminist Studies, 36(2), 260-291.
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Women Prior to Taking This

Words: 1948 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26470927

139). When she is "taken for a man," she is "not fat," because of the different gendered social norms related to body size (Bergman, 2009, p. 139). Thinness is also a type of privilege, as is external or socially acceptable beauty. Beauty ideals and norms are also tied in with race, culture, and class. Economic class and social class often determine access to healthy food, which is why low-income people are more likely to be obese and have related problems. Although generally, African-American women have healthier body images than white women, white cultural hegemony has started to infiltrate black culture, especially in what Riley (n.d.) calls "bourgeois black families," (p. 358). Riley's (n.d.) experiences reveal the interconnectedness, or intersectionality, between race, class, and gender. Just as it is important to recognize different gendered identities for women from different cultural backgrounds, it is also important to acknowledge that not all women subscribe to the same notions of beauty.

Women's studies also embrace the difficult dialogue related to gender and sexuality in ways that are not discussed in other departments. Gender and sexuality are related topics, but it is important to remember that gender does not determine sexuality any more than biological…… [Read More]


A, Ijeoma. (n.d.). Because you're a girl.

Bergman, S.B. (2009). Part-time fatso. In The Fat Studies Reader. Eds. Ester Rosenblum and Sandra Solvay. NYU Press.

Douglas, S. (2010). Enlightened sexism.

"Examples of Institutional Heterosexism." Appendix 9H
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Interpretation and Analysis

Words: 1677 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11323478

Discrimination and Madness: Examining Motifs in the Short Stories of Faulkner and Gillman

"The Yellow Wallpaper," by Charlotte Perkins Gillman and "A Rose for Emily," by William Faulkner, though remarkably different in style and voice, feature stories where women are the main characters. Both of these stories take the reader through a raucous trip through time and sanity leaving the reader constantly guessing. In the midst of these vivid journeys through the narrative, both short stories showcase their female protagonists in fictional worlds where various pertinent social issues fester in the background.

"The Yellow Wallpaper" tells a story written in the first person of a vivacious, imaginative woman who explains that she suffers from a temporary nervous depression colored by a bit of hysteria. Her husband, a doctor, who the narrator tells us is extremely practical, believes she is not sick and rents a colonial mansion for the summer so that she can rest and gain weight. The narrator remarks that the house seems a bit odd as if it were haunted and that she is staying in the nursery on the top floor, a room covered with yellow wallpaper that is torn off in places. Forbidden to do anything…… [Read More]


Faulkner, William. A Rose for Emily. 1930. In LitWeb the Norton Introduction to Literature Website. Retrieved from

Gillman Perkins, Charlotte. The Yellow Wallpaper. 1891. In LitWeb the Norton

Introduction to Literature Website. Retrieved from
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True Since We Were Children and We

Words: 2062 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69071477

true since we were children and we were told by adults that "words will never hurt us." A good many of us would most likely have preferred the sticks and stones because physical injuries often heal far more quickly and far more effectively than psychological ones.

And yet, even as we must all acknowledge the basic principle that words can do real harm, many people continue to insist that sexist language is a trivial concern. This paper looks at the reasons why it is important to be careful about the language that we use. It is all too easy for opponents of care in language to toss off concerns about bias as "political correctness." But it is important that the rest of us insist that "political correctness" can be viewed another way: As basic courtesy and civility.

Because language is one of the most powerful forces that there is, anyone who is concerned with issues of equity in society must be concerned with issues of fairness in language:

One of the basic principles of feminism is that society has been constructed with a bias which favors males; one of the basic principles of feminists who are concerned with language is…… [Read More]


Cameron, D. (1990). The feminist critique of language. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. l

Spender, D. (1985). Man-made language. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Tannen, D. (1990). You just don't understand. New York: William Morrow.

Spender 14.
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2008 Democratic Presidential Primary --

Words: 7199 Length: 21 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46180969

Meanwhile in the journal Du Bois Review (Parker, et al., 2009, p. 194) the authors point to racism and patriotism as key themes for the 2008 Democratic primary election. "Race was a consistent narrative" used by those opposed to Obama, Parker explains (p. 194). Both Clinton and the Republicans "used racial references" to attack Obama, including the attacks on Obama "for his perceived inability to connect to 'real working Americans'" (p. 194).

The Republican sideshow called "Joe the plumber" attacked Obama with the charge that Obama was "seeking to take money from hardworking 'real Americans' to give it to 'those people'" (p. 194). Clinton questioned Obama's patriotism suggesting that he was not a "real" American. Parker notes that when Governor Dukakis ran for president as a Democrat, he was attacked but no one questioned whether he was "a real American as they did with Obama" (p. 195).

The authors present two faces of racism that Obama had to deal with, "symbolic racism" and "laissez-faire racism." But Parker claims in the article that there is another approach to racism and it is one "that connects national pride to racial antipathy: patriotism" (p. 196). Symbolic racism is the feeling among some white…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Alter, Jonathan. "Leading Democrats to Bill Clinton: Pipe Down." Newsweek. (2008).

Retrieved March 17, 2010, from .

Balz, Dan, and Johnson, Hanes. The Battle for American 2008: The Story of an Extraordinary

Election. New York: Viking, 2009.
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Gender and International Relations International

Words: 10127 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58775378


Coker's article (published in a very conservative magazine in England) "reflected unease among some of his colleagues" about that new course at LSEP. Moreover, Coker disputes that fact that there is a female alternative to male behavior and Coker insists that "Whether they love or hate humanity, feminists seem unable to look it in the face" (Smith quoting Coker, p. 58).

If feminists are right about the female nature being more peaceful and "less aggressive" than men, then women pose a "far greater danger than men…" to the world and to international relations Coker continued. It was a less aggressive attitude toward international relations that "prevented us from deterring Hitler," Coker went on, referencing (without naming) Neville Chamberlain, England's Prime Minister who reportedly appeased Hitler rather than take a strong stand against the Third Reich.

On page 58 Steve Smith explains that in cases where feminine concerns are being expressed on the public state, people like Coker either feel "rather humble and embarrassed or feel attacked personally." if, like professor Coker, they feel that their patriarchal position has been threatened, they "react aggressively" (Smith, p. 58). The other problem relating to adverse male responses vis-a-vis women entering the international…… [Read More]


Carpenter, R. Charli, 2005, 'Women, Children, and Other Vulnerable Groups: Gender, Strategic Frames and the Protection of Civilians as a Transnational Issue', International Studies Quarterly, vol. 49, 295-334.

Elshtain, Jean Bethke, 1995, Women and War, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Goldstein, Joshua S., 2003, War and Gender: How Gender Shapes the War System and Vice Versa. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Hooper, Charlotte, 2001, Manly States: Masculinities, International Relations, and Gender Politics. New York: Columbia University Press.