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Sexism Against Women
Sexism is the unfair preference of one gender and its capabilities over the other gender. (Gotz, 1999) Sexism is not a bias that just comes out of nowhere and is present in the world today. This tradition or problem in fact is present in the society's culture since thousands of years. (Gotz, 1999) The Marxist view believed that sexism is basically a form of radical feminism. That is to say that the capitalistic structure our society is molded in today gives rise to sexism in the work place, society and even in politics. (Gotz, 1999) The stereotypical roles that are present in almost every social practice today are very firm and will require radical changes for them to be reversed.
Why exactly is their sexism present in the workforce today? Experts argue that the stem of sexism grows from the female stereotype. There are two stereotypes of…
Barrett, G. And Morris, S. (1993). The American Psychological Association's amicus curiae brief in Price Waterhouse v. Law and Human Behavior, 17 pp.201-215.
Catalyst.org (2012). Knowledge Center | Catalyst.org. [online] Retrieved from: http://www.catalyst.org/knowledge/women-financial-services [Accessed: 18 Dec 2012].
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (2004). EEOC litigation statistics, FY 1992 through FY 2003. [report].
Gotz, I. (1999). The Culture of Sexism. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
Maltby Lauren E., Elizabeth Lewis, and Tamara Anderson. "Women and Work: Supporting Female Colleagues in Psychology." Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 28.3 (2009): 72-79. Print.
In this particular article, the authors revisit the subject of gender discrimination and the various obstacles working class women face. In so doing, they also highlight the plight of working mothers. In their own words, sexism or "gender discrimination occurs whenever a person or persons are put at a disadvantage compared to other groups because of their gender." In that regard therefore, sexism could include gender and sexual harassment, discriminatory hiring (and firing) decisions, etc.
According to the authors, sexism is a common phenomenon in many places of work. Indeed, many women as the authors point out report discriminatory practices against them and many other structural obstacles in their places of work. Some of those giving their views on this particular topic cite a…
Nadler, Joel T. And Margaret Stockdale. "Workplace Gender Bias: Not Just Between Strangers." North American Journal of Psychology, 14.2. (2012). Print.
This article seeks to advance the view that at the workplace, women are the most disadvantaged employees. The authors also explore the various reasons as to why women are still disadvantaged in this day and age. They conclude that there is sufficient evidence linking discrimination and prejudice to sex role stereotypes. In that regard therefore, it is the said stereotypes that must be addressed to rein in sexism in the workplace.
In basic terms, women bear the brunt of sexism at the workplace. As the authors of this particular article point out, past research has indicated that in most places of work, gender differences do indeed exist in pay and promotion rates, career choices, etc. In the words of the authors, "all of these differences negatively impact women in the workplace." For instance, although women make up 47% of the workforce in the U.S., only 16% of women serve on the boards of Fortune 500 companies. The perpetrators of sexism in this case could be hiring committees, disciplinary committees, etc.
For example, on page 247 he says in the "traditional male role" a "real man" is one who "wears the pants around the house." This is an old-fashioned concept and has little to do with a man being "sexist" except for the fact that the writer himself seems to have chauvinistic ideas about the man-woman genre.
Meanwhile, some of the arguments spelled out by Laurence Thomas have value, but others are completely innocuous. How can he say that "sexism" is "unlike racism" because it "lends itself to a morally unobjectionable description"? Both sexism and cultural bigotry are morally objectionable. Both are examples of the cultural confusion in our country.
Also, he could have taken the position that blacks are culturally biased against white people because many blacks were raised in families that don't trust white people. Blacks in some cases show hatred for whites in the same way whites show…
Thomas, Laurence. (1980). "Sexism and Racism: Some Conceptual Differences." Ethics, 90,
Sexism in the Context Of American Racial Identity
"That's sexist." The term 'sexism' is often used by both feminist and anti-feminist writers as a way of constructing men and women as opposite entities. Sexism presumes an inherent difference between the genders as a matter of course. In the usual dichotomies constructed by a 'sexist' mentality, women are perceived as weaker and less capable then men, while men are associated with the more intellectual, active essence of what is human. Males are the neutral and the positive forces of culture, in sexist ideology, while women are what is negative, physical, and weaker that 'the male' or 'the human.'
However, such a construction of sexism when race is 'thrown into the picture' of the sexist ideology, of men vs. women, renders sexism more complicated. Firstly, the construction of men as powerful in relation to women denies the marginal status of Black men…
Collins, Patricia Hill. (2004) "Mammies, Matriarchs, and Other Controlling Images." Race, Gender, and Sexuality: Philosophical Issues of Identity and Justice. Jami L. Anderson, Editor. New York: Pearson.
All constructed groups have shown a certain jealousy of the rights and privileges accorded to others. For instance, the legal rational of Michael M. v. Superior Court of Sonoma County rested upon the fact that male and female sexuality in cases of statutory rape should be equal, and to make male and female distinctions was unfair to males, and also to male homosexual couples. The case of Rostker v. Goldberg was put forth after a number of men challenged the constitutionality of the draft as discriminatory -- should not both women and men be forced to defend their country, under equal onus of the law.
Women thus have the freedom and privilege not to serve in the military by compulsion, and to receive extra protections via their sexuality when young -- privileges often used against them. Homosexual couples have the privilege of not having to engage in public affirmations or…
Sexism and racism both involve imposing a set of expectations on groups in society. Sexism has not been eliminated from American life any more than racism has. Sexism exists because we teach our children sex-role stereotyping, and children learn from their parents the conception of "feminine" and "masculine." Much about these conceptions is not biological at all but cultural. The way we tend to think about men and women and their gender roles in society constitute the prevailing paradigm that influences our thinking. In her book omen's Magazines 1940-1960, Nancy A. alker notes how these women's magazines packaged a set of behaviors, roles, expectations, attitudes, and values related to domesticity and which, of followed, would enclose women in a relatively narrow range of choices. In writing about blacks and how they are treated in American society, Richard right in his book Black Boy also suggests ways in which blacks are…
Walker, Nancy A. (ed.). Women's Magazines 1940-1960: Gender Roles and the Popular Press. New York: Bedford/St. Martin's, 1998.
Wright, Richard. Later Works. New York: Library of America, 1991.
As such many are forced to choose between one or the other.
Sexist attitudes can propagate inequality and a work environment that is hostile particularly toward women. Attitudes in the workplace often promote gender inequality and are usually the result of cultural factors or stereotypes prevalent in the workplace. Preconceived notions regarding a man or woman's ability to perform well in a role, based on their gender alone, qualify as sexist attitudes or stereotyping. Many women are faced with these attitudes particularly when attempting to assert their authority or rise to executive level positions in fields or organizations that are predominately male dominated (such as in the science and technology field).
Overcoming Sexist Attitudes in the Workforce
To overcome these barriers it is important that organizations first recognize the extent to which sexism might exist within the organization, address any real disparities that exist whether with regard to pay or…
EEOC. "Federal laws prohibiting job discrimination." EEOC. Available:
Sexism." (2000). American Heritage Dictionary of English Language, Fourth Edition.
Sexism in the Workplace
The idea that men and women are treated differently in the workplace has been around ever since both genders began organized work. However, it is important to explore how much of that difference is sensible and due to actual differences between the way genders handle work and process information, and how much of it equates to actual sexism. This is an important issue, as it relates to interaction between the genders and also to fairness when it comes to pay and treatment in the workplace, as well as hiring practices. There have been plenty of stories heard over the years of "women's work" and "men's work," but much of that has gone by the wayside in recent times. The majority of that has come from women's demand for equal rights, as well as men's increasing interest in some types of jobs (such as nursing and related…
Atwell, M.W. (2002). Equal protection of the law?: Gender and justice in the United States. NY: P. Lang.
Bojarska, K (2012). Responding to lexical stimuli with gender associations: A cognitive -- cultural Model. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 32: 46.
Dick, P. (2013). The politics of experience: A discursive psychology approach to understanding different accounts of sexism in the workplace. Human Relations, 66(5), 645-669.
Hurst, C. (2007). Social inequality: Forms, causes, and consequences, (6th ed.).
Others argue that it is paternalistic sexism to prohibit women from making a living with their bodies, though men are not prohibited from engaging in their most profitable forms of physical labor. There is no ideal answer regarding the question of the commoditization of sexuality. On the contrary, "both commodification and noncommodification may be harmful...under our current social conditions." Therefore, the issue becomes; which option is more likely to lead to more ideal social conditions? The fact is that, while some individual prostitutes may be better able to attain de facto equality if allowed to pursue prostitution, because it is their best available financial option, prostitution, on the whole, perpetuates the idea of women as "things." n addition, while some people claim that prostitution is a victimless crime, even when prostitutes are truly consenting sex partners, the crime does have victims. Wives, girlfriends, and children of johns are victimized by…
Intimate Partner Violence, 1993-2001. Washington: Bureau of Justice.
Maguigan, H. (1991). Battered women and self-defense: myths and misconceptions in current reform proposals.
U. Pa. L. Rev., 14, 382-387, 457-458.
Fear of socialism has gripped the United States so badly that the inefficiency of classist laws are not even discussed in a reasonable manner. The priorities of the nation are skewed because the super-rich are valued more than working class Americans.
2. Isensee, L. (2010). Union leaders protest Hialeah layoffs. Miami Herald. April 29, 2010. Retrieved 30 April 2010 from http://www.miamiherald.com/2010/04/29/1605454/union-leaders-protest-hialeah.html
Labor unions are not strong in the United States, but they still support the rights of workers. When workers are laid off, unions often create media attention such as this instance in Hialeah, Florida. Instead of re-evaluating the budget of the city, it is contributing to the problem of poverty.
3. "Hillary Swank had lonely childhood." The Times of India. April 9, 2010. Retrieved April 30, 2010 from http://toi.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/entertainment/hollywood/news-interviews/Hillary-Swank-had-lonely-childhood/articleshow/5776828.cms
Actress Hillary Swank grew up in a poor household, and experienced discrimination as a result. Parents did not want their…
Origins of Prejudice
In order to understand the assertion made by many sociologists regarding the origination of prejudice or foredeeming, it is essential to understand the meaning of prejudice and the differences between prejudice and discrimination. Prejudice is defined as an unfavorable feeling or opinion formed beforehand or without reason, thought or knowledge. Prejudice is further defined as "any unreasonable attitude that is unusually resistant to rational influence (osnow 1972, p. 53). Individuals are said to regularly make judgments or formulate opinions about other individuals without taking the time to examine all of the information. Whether the information is correct or incorrect, is provided to us through books, media, television, direct or indirect communication or any other source, this information is asserted to be not taken into account when considering the notion of prejudice.
It is important to note with the aforementioned widely accepted definitions and notions regarding prejudice,…
Blackwell, J., Smith, M., & Sorenson, J. (2003). Culture of prejudice: arguments in critical social science. Toronto: Broadview.
Dovidio, J., Glick, P., & Rudman, L. (2005). On the nature of prejudice. Malden:
Blackwell Publishing Company.
Garth, T. (1925). A review of racial psychology. Psychological Bulletin, 22, 342-364.
children's stories can also express complex feelings meant to instruct young individuals regarding attitudes that they need to employ in order to integrate society as healthy persons. In addition to providing their readers with intriguing events, writers also focus on introducing social issues with the purpose of having their readers acknowledge the fact that society has a tendency to discriminate particular individuals or groups. While Robert Munsch's "The Paper ag Princess" displays the difficult relationship between an intelligent princess and her sexist prince, Peter Parnell and Justin Richardson's "And Tango Makes Three" goes at proving that a couple does not necessarily have to adapt to social norms in order for it to experience happiness.
One of the first things that someone is likely to think about when considering children's books would be that they are essentially meant to assist young people as they try to understand society. However, while these…
Munsch, Robert N. "The paper bag princess," (Annick Press, 2003)
Richardson, Justin, and Parnell, Peter, "And Tango Makes Three," (Simon and Schuster, 2005)
Society's Views Of The Aging Populace
This is not an undisclosed secret that the contemporary society is obsessed with beauty and perfection. A world in which no one ever gets sick, crops and animals grow faster and better and parents choose the physical features of their children sounds great. This perfect way of life has been made possible due to the advancements in genetic engineering. However, this technological modification has both strong and weak points. Not only it can improve our way of life in a considerable manner but it could also have overwhelming consequences beyond the control of an individual ("Imagine a Perfect World," 2011, p. NA).
The American society today has turned out to be one that maintains a stereotypic and negative perception of the elderly individuals. This kind of negativism or stereotypic view of aging and aged individuals is readily obvious and noticeable in their language, media,…
Imagine a Perfect World; Is Our Society Obsessed with Beauty and Perfection? Three of Our Year 9 Girls Offer Their Perspectives. (2011, November 1). Daily Examiner (Grafton, Australia), p. NA. Retrieved July 13, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5051575671
Mcguire, S.L. (1993). Promoting Positive Attitudes toward Aging: Literature for Young Children. Childhood Education, 69(4), 204+. Retrieved July 14, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002192697
Redburn, D.E., & McNamara, R.P. (1998). Social Gerontology. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group Inc. Retrieved July 14, 2012 from http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=RrnMQIyF4aEC&printsec=frontcover&dq=social+gerontology&hl=en&sa=X&ei=ayUBUJ2pH4nZiget7IGbCA&ved=0CDYQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=social%20gerontology&f=false
The Quest for Beauty; from Nose Jobs to Tummy Tucks, More and More People Are Going to Extreme Lengths to Achieve the So-Called Perfect Look. Karen Price Discovers How Photographer Zed Nelson Captured the Worrying Trend for His New Exhibition. (2010, August 27). Western Mail (Cardiff, Wales), p. 10. Retrieved July 13, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5044481446
Frederic's character is somewhat stereotypical through the fact that he is determined to achieve glory by getting actively engaged in warfare. It is only consequent to becoming acquainted to Catherine and her thinking that he acknowledges the meaning of life and how his previous approach to dealing with it was irrational. Considering that Frederic gradually comes to accept that one cannot simply live by a set of immoral rules as a result of his encounter with Catherine, it is obvious that Hemingway was not discriminatory toward women in this novel. Instead, the author addressed a series of prejudices relating to women with the purpose of demonstrating that Catherine was capable of being equal and even better than Frederic. This is a reference to how women are not inferior to men.
In the end of the novel, Catherine's death has no connection whatsoever with Frederic, as Hemingway apparently wants to support…
1. Barlowe-Kayes, Jamie. "Re-Reading Women: the Example of Catherine Barkley," Seven Decades of Criticism, ed. Linda Wagner-Martin. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press, 1998. - Book
2. Bloom, Harold ed., Ernest Hemingway's a Farewell to Arms. Philadelphia: Chelsea House, 1987. - Book
3. Fetterley, Judith. The Resisting Reader: A Feminist Approach to American Fiction. Bloomington, in: Indiana University Press, 1978. - Book
4. Fiedler, Leslie a. Love and Death in the American Novel, Rev. ed. New York: Stein and Day, 1966. - Book
Sexism in Video Games
Video game characters are iconic in youth popular culture. Their influence goes far outside of the realm of the game, so that even youth who do not play games are exposed to video game characters. For example, it is common for products to use video game characters in their marketing campaigns when targeting young adults. Moreover, it is not unusual for there to be an overlap between video games and other forms of popular culture. Video games may be spun off into books, cartoons, films, and television shows. There is nothing inherently wrong with the presence of video game characters in so much youth-oriented popular culture. However, while video games may seem like harmless fun, it is important to understand the content of those video games and the message that content sends to young players, in order to understand the potential negative impact of these games.…
Cass Communications. "Student Robert Parungao Finds Video Games Rife with Stereotypes."
Arts Wire. 13 May 2010. Web. 6 Dec. 2011.
Dill, Karen. "Do Anti-Social Video Games Foster Sexism and Violence against Women?
Research on Sexist and Pro-Rape Attitudes among Gamers." Wordpress. 2008. Web. 6 Dec. 2011.
Sexism and the Media
There are numerous examples of sexism in advertising: from Britney Spears’ advertisements for her perfume Curious, in which she strips down to her underwear for the camera, to Victoria’s Secret’s models like Chrissy Teigen undergoing both plastic surgery and photoshopping (because stripping down to her underwear doesn’t do enough to convey the right body image) for the company’s lingerie ads, women are routinely objectified for the “male gaze,” as Laura Mulvey put it (Turow, 2009, p. 195). While sexism can take many forms—such as the stereotype of women as homemakers ever ready to please their husbands that was promoted in mid-20th century advertisements—in advertising today, sexism is most readily displayed by way of objectification, as seen in Go Daddy ads, Victoria’s Secrtet ads, beer commercials, and so on, where women’s bodies are like commodities.
Feminism challenged the notion of this objectification of women for a time,…
The only thing that is missing is the freedom to make that choice, the freedom to do it without pain or sacrifice. But freedom always comes with a price, especially for women. In the process of gaining her choice, Ada loses a finger, loses her piano, and almost loses her life.
We have to also look at history in the film. The Piano seems historically correct because women didn't have the right to choose their mates during this time. Love almost always came at some price. Ada chose to express her love the only way she knew how -- through her piano. But she is not making the right choice, because in the process she is sacrificing herself. She is unable to stand up for what is right because the pain is too great and too lonely to bear.
While I think Hook's view of male supremacy seems somewhat harsh,…
American Labor Movement
The "labor question," its origins, components, and whether or not it is still relevant.
The "labor question" is the foundation of the American Labor Movement. Drawing from our classwork and paraphrasing Rosanne Currarino's modern restatement of the "labor question(s)": "hat should constitute full participation in American society? hat standard of living should citizens expect and demand?" (Currarino 112). Concerned with the ideal of an industrial democracy, including a more equitable society with social and financial betterment of working class people, the "labor question" arose during and in response to America's 19th Century (Second) Industrial Revolution. America's Industrial Revolution occurred within the "Gilded Age," named by Mark Twain (Mintz), and lasting roughly from the end of the U.S. Civil ar until the beginning of orld ar I (D.C. Shouter and RAKEN Services). Fueled in part by refined coal and steam power, the American Industrial Revolution transformed America from…
AFL-CIO. Samuel Gompers (1850-1924). 2012. Web. 7 February 2012.
Currarino, Rosanne. The Labor Question in America: Economic Democracy in the Gilded Age. Urbana, Chicago and Springfield, IL: University of Illinois Press, 2011. Print.
D.C. Shouter and RAKEN Services. "The Gilded Age - Industrial Revolution in America." 2011. Raken.com Web site. Web. 7 February 2012.
Dictionary.com, LLC. Xenophobia. 2012. Web. 7 February 2012.
He had sent all the servants for a leave with an excuse that it was carnival time, though his intention was to conceal his action (Rawls 54). He managed to convince Fortunato to put on a cloak so that nobody would recognize him on the way and this was another way of concealing the intended action.
Some of the remarks that Fortunate made on the way hurt Montresor making him to justify and accomplish his mission. At one time Fortunato told Montresor that he does not remember Montresor's court of arms. He tried to illustrate as containing a human foot that crushes a serpent with words such as no one that has impunity that can attack. The illustration and the message was a way of showing that Montresor's family was always on revenge mission. Montresor considered it as an insult and triggered his urge to revenge. On the way, they…
Rawls, John. A Theory of Justice. Cambridge, Mass: Belknap Press of Harvard Univ. Press, 1999. Print.
Sandel, Michael J. Justice: What's the Right Thing to Do? New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2010. Print.
Montano urges a rigorous critical examination of children's literature for racism, linguicism, sexism, and bias. The importance of critical examination is to empower teachers, students, and parents to recognize the root causes of bias, prejudice, and stereotype. The function is not simply to point out obvious instances of racism, linguicism, sexism, and other biases. Moreover, it is not enough to include literature written from multicultural perspectives in classroom syllabi. As Gonzalez & Montano (2008) point out, it is important to recognize bias in all its forms: "The mere inclusion of multicultural literature is not enough to disrupt privilege or injustice. Nor is it enough to ask teachers to deconstruct stereotypes in texts and images if teachers are unaware of the subtle biases that exist therein," (p. 77). Montano calls the process of analysis critical literacy.
The process by which critical literacy can be attained varies but Montano provides…
Baum, F. (1900). The Wonderful Wizard of Oz.
Gonzalez, R. & Montano, T. (2008) "Critical analysis of Chicana/o children's literature: Moving from cultural differences to sociopolitical realities," Journal of Praxis in Multicultural Education: Vol. 3: Iss. 1, Article 6. DOI: 10.9741/2161-2978. Available at: http://digitalscholarship.unlv.edu/jpme/vol3/iss1/6
Herge. (1930). Tin in the Congo.
Riorden, R. (2007). The Titan's Curse.
Her day's routine and life merely revolved around these characters that cause her to think or act differently. All of these characters have quite an influential pressure on her that the Nina eventually becomes an amalgamation of thoughts. Pretty soon she gives into the evil desires that she cannot distinguish reality from illusions.
Stone and Church (1989) have called adolescence a very vulnerable period. According to them, adolescence is full of continuous feeling of emotional volatility, rebelliousness and intense idealism. It is seen that adolescence needs to develop a tough inside full of security and confidence. Only if they are sure about themselves and their abilities, these adolescents will go on to take the different problems in life. ebellion and intense idealism is quite prominent during this stage. The adolescent wants to do things and hopes to aspire activities that will make him or her better than everybody else. If…
Black Swan (2010). [DVD] Darren Aronofsky.
Hall, G. (1904). Adolescence. Englewood Cliffs, N.J: Prentice Hall..
Stangor, C. (2011). Introduction to psychology. Flat World Knowledge.
Stone, L., and Church, J. (1989). Childhood and Adolescence. McGraw-Hill.
Using Power Point: Understanding Diversity answer the below questions
How could prejudice affect a person's ability to learn and work?
Prejudice could affect the person's self-esteem and self-confidence. Teachers and peers might treat the student differently than they would without the prejudice, even if the prejudice is "positive," such as prejudice toward Asian students in a math class. Prejudice might impede a person's ability to learn and work, because it impacts the reactions of both teachers and students.
How important is the issue of diversity in your daily life?
Diversity is hugely important in my daily life. I do not like being in homogeneous places, because they are not reflective of the world at large. The world is diverse, filled with people with differing points-of-view and backgrounds. My views and outlooks change when I interact with different people, and I like that diversity makes me think more critically and…
Maya Angelou is one of the most renowned and influential voices in the recent time. She is a celebrated poet, novelist, actor and filmmaker. In her early life, she experienced the brutality of racial discrimination based on the situation at the time (Goodman 21). Her experiences in life had an influence in her work as she touched on the issues of racism and sexism over the years. Her poems, in particular, have prioritized on the themes of racism and sexism to reveal some of the issues that affect the society today. This paper looks at the manifestation of the theme of racism in Maya Angelou's poems.
It emerges from her poems that despite being her being a good writer, she was discriminated against and was not given the credit she deserves all because she was black. In her poem, 'Still I Rise', she declares:
You may write me down in…
Consider how research and/or practices that are focused on gender issues might be effectively and creatively employed as tools of social change in the service of sexism or homophobia. Also describe ethical implications related to the action purpose.
Throughout the decades, sexism has been a major challenge for women to overcome. Part of the reason for this, is because of various barriers that have been in place to limit any kind opportunities or social advancements for them. This is problematic, because these kinds of restrictions have made it difficult for women to deal with these issues. While at the same time, being able to: move forward and live independent lives. To address these challenges many different practices have been implemented that are designed to tackle the problem head on. To fully understand the effect of these efforts requires: examining the how these kinds of programs are influencing these views…
Forget Chocolate on Valentine's Day. (2011). Reaction Watch. Retrieved from: http://retractionwatch.wordpress.com/2011/04/06/forget-chocolate-on-valentines-day-try-semen-says-surgery-news-editor-retraction-resignation-follow/
Savage, R. (1997). Doctor's Attitudes to Women in Medicine. Journal of Royal College of Practioneers, 27, 363- 365.
Spender, D. (2000). Routledge International Encyclopedia of Women. New York, NY: Taylor and Francis.
power and riches like restrictive chains or are they like keys to freedom and happiness?
There is an old adage that states money does not buy happiness and there is certainly something to that. At the same time, money can prevent unhappiness. hen a person is poor and has no power, this station certainly contributes to their level of unhappiness. Living in poverty forces people into a cycle where they have to work to survive. They lose out on opportunities for education and social advancement. In that sense, poverty is a prison and freedom from poverty is a key to more happiness than one might have otherwise.
How does postfeminism relate to second- and third-wave goals?
Second-wave feminist goals focused on inequalities in pay and power, particularly in passing legislation to protect the equal rights of women (Gamble 2001). Third-wave feminism incorporated the differing viewpoints of women who were also…
Gamble, S. (2001). The Routledge Companion to Feminism and Postfeminism. Routledge.
Parra, E.G. (2009). "Cultural distance" among speakers of the same language. Sens Public.
Retrieved from http://sens-public.org/spip.php?article653&lang=fr
Strauss, L. (1953). Natural Right and History. University of Chicago Press: Chicago, IL. 92-95.
Rosewood is a film particularly suitable and interesting for the application of social psychology. It concerns the story of a black community in early 20th-century Florida. The community was rather a-typical of the time, since black people were wealthy landowners. The neighboring company town of Sumner on the other hand, was occupied by poor white people, who were jealous of the wealth they observed in Rosewood. This setting provides a backdrop for social psychological analysis concerning ingroups and outgroups, and how racism leads to escalating tension.
Prejudice and Racism
Prejudice, according to rehm, Kassin & Fein (147), can be unintentional. It also means the stereotyping of a certain group of people on the irrational grounds of a perceived threat, exacerbated by the fact that little personal information is available about the target of prejudice. In the film, prejudice against black people is a paradigm of the historical time. The likelihood…
Brehm, Sharon S., Kassin, Saul M. And Fein, Stephen. Social Psychology. 5th Edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2002.
Singleton, John. Rosewood, 1997.
Marianne Villanueva and Gilda Cordero-Fernando write about their native Philippines through the eyes of daughters. Villanueva's "Lizard" encapsulates a girl's alienation and lack of self-determination. Cordero-Fernando's "Bushouse" provides poignant insight into nearly the opposite dynamic, as the narrator discovers a sense of belonging within the community in spite of sexism, racism, and classism. The point-of-view of a daughter enables a rich, multifaceted, and nuanced perspective on issues related to race, gender, social status, and especially power.
While the two stories share in common a cultural milieu, they differ widely in terms of tone, style, and diction. The last lines of each story provide particularly rich insight into the differential motives of their authors, through the voices of their respective narrators. Wito of Villanueva's "Lizard" ends her story with a negative realization about sexism, racism, and power structures in society. Power is meted out according to sharp patriarchal norms, which are…
4. JOURNAL ARTICLE
Hativa, N. (19, Fall). Computer-based drill and practice in arithmetic: Widening the gap between high and low achieving students. American Education Research Journal 35(3) pp. 366-397.
5. CHAPTER IN A BOOK
Sapp, M.E. (19). In the best interest of children: returning play to its pace. In Dimidjian, V.J. (Ed.), Play's pace in public education of young children. (pp49-61).
6. TABLE AND FIGURE
Mean Mood Scores Before and After Physical Aactivity
Figure 1. Record ofweekly truancy behavior
Williams and Jensen (1992) demonstrated the same effect. Neither of the books was available in the library. The team achieved improvement in its scores after undergoing training. The team achieved a 3% improvement in its scores after undergoing training. Successful problem solvers were both more adept at representing the problem and using heuristics.
The participants were introduced to each of the following trainers but were not allowed to…
Williams and Jensen (1992) demonstrated the same effect. Neither of the books was available in the library. The team achieved improvement in its scores after undergoing training. The team achieved a 38% improvement in its scores after undergoing training. Successful problem solvers were both more adept at representing the problem and using heuristics.
The participants were introduced to each of the following trainers but were not allowed to choose their own trainers. Post tests were administered to the third grade students. Of the schools that participated, twelve were elementary, six were middle schools, and four were high school.
Ca's agument also addesses the limits of the ange of unethical business conduct. Specifically, many unethical business pactices do not necessaily involve deception, pe se. The case of "legally" selling ca keys to ca thieves is an example of that. In fact, thee ae many instances of decidedly unethical deception in business that ae not illegal and that do not involve lying, necessaily. A stong agument could be made that the use of paid celebity endoses of consume poducts is unethical fo at least two easons. Fist, paid celebity endoses do not necessaily use the poducts they ecommend to consumes; they ente contacts to ead scipts and the law pemits those scipts to be vey libeal in tems of liteal accuacy, if not necessaily tuth. Second, the entie concept may be unethical pecisely because it takes advantage of human social psychology to follow o emulate well-known individuals. Simila foms of…
references is not unethical because it produces no harm.
Meanwhile, other types of business deception are as unethical as cheating in poker. Concealing the material truth about a product or about the details of a business arrangement to induce another entity to do something he would not do with full awareness is unethical deception and is analogous to playing with an extra card that is not part of the deck. Examples of that principle would include concealing major repairs to a vehicle offered for sale and a dishonest answer to a direct question asking whether the vehicle had ever suffered major damage.
Carr's argument also addresses the limits of the range of unethical business conduct. Specifically, many unethical business practices do not necessarily involve deception, per se. The case of "legally" selling car keys to car thieves is an example of that. In fact, there are many instances of decidedly unethical deception in business that are not illegal and that do not involve lying, necessarily. A strong argument could be made that the use of paid celebrity endorsers of consumer products is unethical for at least two reasons. First, paid celebrity endorsers do not necessarily use the products they recommend to consumers; they enter contracts to read scripts and the law permits those scripts to be very liberal in terms of literal accuracy, if not necessarily truth. Second, the entire concept may be unethical precisely because it takes advantage of human social psychology to follow or emulate well-known individuals. Similar forms of advertising actually are illegal, such as subliminal messaging, although it is not clear why the latter is any "worse" or more unethical to consumers than the former approach.
In that regard, Carr's comparison of unethical poker strategies that are not part of the game (such as distracting opponents) also have analogs in business. For example, it may not be illegal to bombard a competitor with paperwork for strategic purposes to distract them, but it is unethical just the same as distracting poker opponents. Law firms, and corporate litigants battling opponents with tighter budgets in particular, do this all the time, precisely because they know that it increases the legal work (and the expense associated with it) and can result in a settlement earlier than allowing the opposing party to keep legal fees down. It is unethical but legal and does not involve explicit lies.
Ultimately, lying in business is illegal and unethical in some cases; it is legal but unethical in others; and it is legal and not necessarily unethical in still others. The analogy with legal bluffing in poker, legal but unethical distraction in poker, and outright cheating in poker holds up logically.
contrary, indications of a definite gender pay gap seem to persist. Wanzenreids (2008), for instance, conducted a large-scale study of 108,628 observations on 26,047 executives and 2,598 firms, between the years 1992 to 2003, and showed that women are working for smaller, less profitable firms than men and that female executives earn 14% less than their male colleagues. More so, the gender pay gap is higher towards the upper end of the pay distribution. As recently as 2002, women who worked more than thirty-five hours per week for fifty-two weeks per year earned only 78% as much as men (Giddens, Duneir, & Applebaum, 2003).
Most sociologists (e.g. Alksnis, Desmarais, & Curtis, 2008) seem to think that sexism is the determining factor for the differnce in gender wage, but it may just be that other, less innocuous, reasons may explain the disparity.
These include (1) self-selection by women into female-dominated industries,…
Alksnis, C., Desmarais, S., & Curtis, J. (2008), Workforce segregation and the gender wage gap, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 38, 1416-1441.
Giddens, A., Duneir, M. & Applebaum, R. (2003) Introduction to Sociology, London: Norton & Co.
Wanzenreid, G. (2004). How feminine is corporate America? J. Econ. Inequal, 6, 185-209.
Gender-Specific Therapy for Women Prisoners
ESEACH QUESTION AND JUSTIFICATION
On average, women make up about 7% of the total federal and state incarcerated population in the United States. This has increased since the 1980s due to stricter and more severe laws that focus on recreational drug use, a lack of community programs, and fewer treatment centers available for outpatients (Zaitow and Thomas, eds., 2003). According to the National Women's Law Centers, women prisoners report a higher than statistically normal history of domestic violence in their immediate past, and the fastest growing prison population with a disproportionate number of non-Whites forming over 60% of the population. In fact, over 30% of women in prison are serving sentences for murder involving a spouse or partner. The incarceration of women presents far different cultural and sociological issues than those of men -- issues with children, family, sexual politics and more (NWLC, 2012).
Ethical Research Guidelines. (2012). Marketing Research Association. Retrieved from: http://www.marketingresearch.org/
National Women's Law Center. (2012). retrieved from: http://www.nwlc.org/our-issues
Total U.S. Correctional Population. (2010, December 11). Retrieved from Office of Justice Programs: http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index.cfm?ty=tp&tid=11
Women in the Criminal Justice System. (2012). The Sentencing Project. Retrieved from:
In addition, stratification contributes to cultural determinism, which again, alludes to when a person's position or class within a stratified society determines their culture, what kind of labor they will have the opportunity to have, what quality of education they may have access to, and other aspects (or limitations) of a particular culture.
When social stratification becomes too extreme and tensions within a culture rise too high, there is a distinct possibility for cultural differentiation. This occurs in societies where the tensions and imbalances are apparent and transparent. In many countries, such as the United States, the media helps to minimize class imbalances. The media is often used as an institution that will communicate and distribute the dominant ideology and specific hegemony. Hegemony is a form of social control and ideology is the greater societal structure of which hegemony is a tool or strategy. Hegemony may is often skewed or…
Understanding Race and Ethnic Relations, 4th Edition. Chapter 3 -- Understanding Race and Culture. Print. Provided.
I hope all is well with you and your family. It's been a while since I've written; forgive me as I've been busy with school, work and life in general. Over the past few weeks, I've become quite interested in the life and triumphs of Clara Barton, a 19th century nurse, teacher and pioneer who was by my account, a woman way ahead of her time. Clara Barton is a true hero, this letter is to give you a glimpse of her life and successes and how she contributed to nursing as we know it today. During Ms. Bartons' era women were largely shut out of working in certain professions or if they were allowed to work at all -- they were not allowed to climb the ladder to be promoted to other positions. There also lacked an institution that provided aid to those affected by disaster.…
Ardalan, C. (2010). Clara Barton's 1898 Battles in Cuba: A Reexamination of Her Nursing Contributions. Florida Atlantic Comparative Studies Journal, 12, 1-20.
Maikell-Thomas, B. "Discovered Historical Documents Uncover The First Official Missing Persons Investigator, Clara Barton" National Association of Investigative Specialists. http://www.pimall.com/nais/n.barton.html
Tooker, J. (2007). Antietam: Aspects of Medicine, Nursing and the Civil War. Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association, 118, 215-223.
Gender Portrayals in Media
Since the advent of the television during the latter part of 1920s, men and women have been portrayed differently in movies, television, radio, music videos, news, and social media. Stereotyping men and women aided in developing sustainability strategies for marketing and advertising efforts. Essentially, it is about appeal and influencing the consumer. Unfortunately, the various mediums are fraught with sexism and racial disparities, which are difficult to overcome since the mediums are controlled by those in power. This level of control may be disguised as marketing techniques for certain target groups. By devising an appealing image for a consumer in which he or she may identify, advertisers establish a connection, thus building loyalty and developing a following. Hence, gender portrayals are fundamental practices to reach a large group of consumers by creating categorical images.
Gender Socializer: Television
Several of the popular radio soap operas made the…
Gender and Society
Sexism in the Media: Portrayal of Female Athletes in Media Coverage
Sexist portrayal of men's versus women's athletic events and sporting events has prevailed in the media for some time. Armstrong and Hallmark (1999) note that until very recently, women in profession NCAA Division I women's basketball teams, though popular, had received "virtually no television exposure" during key station segments; women also suffered unfavorable practice times and "hand me down uniforms" (p. 1). Perhaps no other area of media portrayal reveals as much gender inequality as the portrayal of women athletes. This is not because of a lack of interest in female sports necessarily. More and more women are participating in sports formerly considered male only. However the media portrayal or lack of adequate portrayal of women's events has contributed to the perceived lack of enthusiasm and interest in following women's events. The media utilizes sexist attitudes,…
Alexander, S. (1994). "Newspaper coverage of athletics as a function of gender." Women's Studies International Forum, 17 (6), 655-662
Armstrong, Richard N; Hallmark, James R. "Gender Equity in Televised Sports: A Comparative Analysis of Men's and Women's NCAA Division I Championship Broadcasts, 1991-1995). Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, Vol. 43, 1999.
Blinde, E.M., Greendorder, S.L., & Shenker, R.J. (1991). "Differential media coverage of men's and women's intercollegiate basketball: Reflection of gender and ideology." Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 15, (2), 98-114
Bryant, J. (1980). "A two-year selective investigation of the female athlete in sport as reported in the paper media." Arena Review, 4, 32-44
Like other forms of discrimination and bigotry in the United States, racism has thankfully started to tail off and reduce over the years and generations. However, this is happening at a pace that is frustratingly slow and plodding. Court decisions and new laws passed throughout the 20th and 21st centuries have led to more inclusion and less institutional racism and other bigotry. However, de facto racism and other forms of bigotry still remain present and problematic. This report shall cover a lot of the facets of all of this including how Brown vs. Board of Education changed things, what President Kennedy perhaps should have done at the time of his Presidency to address racism head-on and more adeptly, examples of how things have gotten better, stayed the same or gotten worse, detailed reasons why it is important to keep a keen eye on society and what is going…
Diversity in Organizations
The Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI) provides a tool to assess the attitudes and expectations of individuals in relation gender stereotypes and to generate a quantifiable score measuring the degree of latent gender hostility based on those scores. More specifically, there are two measures generated by this instrument: the first is a score of hostile sexism that corresponds to negative feelings toward women; the send is benevolent sexism that corresponds to those aspects of attitudes about gender that could be considered positive. The meaning of the hostile sexism measure is obvious and straightforward; however, benevolent sexism is also related to hostility simply because it is a product of differential expectations based on gender. Therefore, even ostensibly positive aspects of gender-oriented attitudinal difference correspond to hostility, especially in connection with deviations from gender-based roles and expectations.
Naturally, ASI scores are likely to vary considerably from culture to culture…
Healey, J.F. (2009). Race, Ethnicity, Gender, and Class: The Sociology of Group
Conflict and Change. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge.
Henslin, J.M. (2008). Essentials of Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach. Boston:
Language's Role In Sustaining Inequality etween The Sexes
Although it is disputed whether language causes sexism or sexism causes certain language, language does play a part in sexism (Wikipedia). Given that the development of society has gone hand in hand with the development of language, it is unlikely that the causation will ever be determined. However, whether language causes sexism or sexism causes certain language, it is clear that language plays a key role in sustaining inequality between the sexes.
At its most basic, language is a system of symbols used by human beings to communicate with each other. However, language is not simply how humans communicate with one another, but also how humans communicate within themselves. Therefore, if language is sexist, then the actions, and even the thoughts, that it describes are sexist (West). For example, words with gender-based connotations imply that the attributes necessary to perform the duties…
Bartlett, K. (1993) Gender and Law: Theory, Doctrine, and Commentary, New York: Little,
Brown & Company (1993).
Feitz, A. (1999) 'Feminist Scholarship: A Classic Oxymoron?', in Enterstageright.com: Enter
Stage Right. http://www.enterstageright.com/archive/articles/1099femspeak.htm accessed on January 5, 2005.
"For example, the more women considered prejudice to occur across a variety of contexts, the more they reported depression, anxiety, and decreased self-esteem." (Foster & Dixon, 2002, p.1)
These findings about the limits of group conciousness hint that perhaps, rather than focusing on a generalized female conciousness raising outside of the workplace, focusing on specific managerial objectives of female advancement within specific industries and workplaces might be more beneficial. Change the conciousness of managers, specifically male managers, through diversity workshops and penalizing sexism, rather than focus on changing female's perceptions of their competance alone. Create a sense of 'it's everywhere,' one also runs the risk of creating a sense that 'there is nothing I can do' and of learned helplessness in the hearts of female workers. Even from my own unwitting beneficical experience of sexism, I know how difficult it is to be confrontational as an entry-level employee, when one…
Anthis, Kristine. "The role of sexist discrimination in adult women's identity development." Sex Roles: A Journal of Research. November 2002, p.1-4. Retrived from Find Articles at http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2294/is_2002_Nov/ai_97728461/pg_1
Mindi D. Foster and Kenneth L. Dion. "The role of hardiness in moderating the relationship between global/specific attributions and actions against discrimination." Sex Roles: A Journal of Research. August 2004, p.1-5. Retrived from Find Articles at http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2294/is_3-4_51/ai_n6212699
Renzetti, Claire M. & Daniel Curran, Women, Men, and Society. Fifth Edition. New York: Allyn & Bacon, 2002
For example, one of the interesting points that grabbed my attention was Dill's discussion of gender relations among African slaves. Slave men and women had a more egalitarian relationship than free white men and women. That is because slave men did not possess the power and authority of free men. So, power is inherently corrupting? At least, this is what Dill's description of gender relations in antebellum America suggest.
I wish, as a professor of sociology, Dill could have made more direct relations with the present (describing history just for the sake of history is the job of historians). I also wish, she could have allotted as much space to the story of Chinese-Americans that she does to White, African-American, and Chicano families. But I still admired this essay because it powerfully tells how society often subjects women to double or triple burdens. In colonial and antebellum America, the society…
Andersen, M.L, & Collins, P.H. (2010) Race, Class & Gender: An Anthology, 7th Edition. Wadsworth Publishing.
In those days prior to 2003, TADOC gave recruits nut-and-bolt basics, then sent the new Soldiers to their units where the real training started....nTo achieve "Soldier" status, recruits now spend 21 days in the field during basic training. The training focus has changed dramatically from what was primarily a standards, discipline and soldierization process to one of intensive combat skills. (Leipold, 2009)nHowever, such changes have tended to come about without any sort controlled, rigorous study. There is nothing wrong about changes that come from within and that grow organically out of the requirements of an organization. However, a controlled experiment offers certain key advantages because it can cast off old attitudes and biases.nI have already described the control group in this experiment. The three experimental groups add different elements to the equation. The first of these experimental groups is actually one that I predict will reduce the overall fitness of…
References\nEvans, M. (2005). Women pay painful price for equal military training. The Times, retrieved 9 February 2010 from http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/article434024.ece .\nhttp://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20100121052640AAZ1xPL \nhttp://www.military.com/military-fitness/fitness-test-prep/physical-fitness-test-anxiety \nLeipold, J. (2009). Not your father\'s basic, anymore, retrieved 8 February 2010 from \nhttp://usmilitary.about.com/od/armyjoin/a/newarmybasic.-u5p.htm.\nO\'Reilly, K. (1981). Dick and Jane in basic training. Newsweek. \nhttp://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,953209-\n2,00.html#ixzz0fYEyTybe \nRichards, T. (n.d.) What is comprehensive cognitive-behavioral therapy? \nRetrieved 10 \nFebruary 2010 from \nhttp://www.socialanxietyinstitute.org/ccbtherapy.html.\nSegura, L. (2009). Veterans Decry Institutional Sexism in Military, retrieved 11 February 2010 \nfrom http://www.alternet.org/reproductivejustice/79877/ .
Cyber Feminism, Gender and Technology
Cyberfeminism, Gender and Technology
Feminist movement found on the internet is known as Cyberfeminism. In recent times, the term has gained controversial status. Cyberfeminism, a fundamental issue from the feminist perspective, is mostly ignored by researchers and academics. It concentrates on empowerment of women through the cyberspace. Furthermore, it deals with female enlightenment and concentrates on creating awareness on how the digital technologies can influence the rights and social status of women. The digital technologies act as a medium of re-embodying the issue of racism and gender. Internet is the new medium used to erase the identity of women; that is; women are the erased race. However, the internet has played a significant role in promoting Cyberfeminism by pointing out that several feminist studies and internet activities are done by the online media. It cannot be denied that technology plays an important role in promoting…
1. Chon, Margaret. Erasing Race? A Critical Race Feminist View of Internet Identity Shifting, 1999.
2. Nakamura, Lisa. Digitizing Race: Visual Cultures of the Internet. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2008.
3. Nakamura, Lisa. Cybertypes: Race, Ethnicity, and Identity on the Internet. London: Routledge, 2002.
4. Wilding, Faith. Where is Feminism in Cyberfeminism?. 28 March 2006. Cyberfeminist International. 4 June 2011.
Gender of a Baby:
The issue on whether parents should be allowed to choose the sex of their baby has been a major controversial issue in the recent past that has attracted huge debates between proponents and opponents of such practice. This issue has received huge attention because of long-term use of Assisted eproductive Technology (AT) to help pregnant women in the United States and across the globe. This technology basically involves the transfer of fertilized human embryos into a woman's uterus through in vitro fertilization (IVF). Advances in Assisted eproductive Technology have contributed to various innovations such as Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis, which enables parents to choose prenatally the sex of their offspring (Bumgarner, 2007, p.1289). This technology enables parents to select the sex of their babies through the use of medical techniques. While it is considered as a major breakthrough in reproductive health, Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis has been surrounded…
Bumgarner, A. (2007, June 18). A Right to Choose? Sex Selection in the International Context.
Duke Journal of Gender Law & Policy, 14(1289), 1289-1309. Retrieved from http://c-fam.org/docLib/20100421_SSAdukelaw.pdf
Bhatia, R. (2010). Constructing Gender from the Inside Out: Sex-Selection Practice in the United
States. Feminist Studies, 36(2), 260-291.
139). When she is "taken for a man," she is "not fat," because of the different gendered social norms related to body size (Bergman, 2009, p. 139). Thinness is also a type of privilege, as is external or socially acceptable beauty. Beauty ideals and norms are also tied in with race, culture, and class. Economic class and social class often determine access to healthy food, which is why low-income people are more likely to be obese and have related problems. Although generally, African-American women have healthier body images than white women, white cultural hegemony has started to infiltrate black culture, especially in what iley (n.d.) calls "bourgeois black families," (p. 358). iley's (n.d.) experiences reveal the interconnectedness, or intersectionality, between race, class, and gender. Just as it is important to recognize different gendered identities for women from different cultural backgrounds, it is also important to acknowledge that not all women…
A, Ijeoma. (n.d.). Because you're a girl.
Bergman, S.B. (2009). Part-time fatso. In The Fat Studies Reader. Eds. Ester Rosenblum and Sandra Solvay. NYU Press.
Douglas, S. (2010). Enlightened sexism.
"Examples of Institutional Heterosexism." Appendix 9H
By being born a man or a woman signals to bearing certain clear sexual characteristics. Socialization takes individuals through a path that inculcates certain norms and codes of conduct depending on whether one is born a male or a female. In other words, the rules that one adopts and follows are guided by whether they are biologically male or female. Therefore, one’s communication, expression and behavior is shaped by the preexisting cultural and social norms including non-verbal language. Consequently, people’s behavior may differ because they are shaped by cultural and social norms from varying socio-ethnic and cultural setups. All these forces define gender; which is effectively a social construction of one’s biological sex. It allows for the recognition and distinction between men and women. According to Lippman (1922), stereotypes were important because they were an offshoot of a people’s ideas and heritage and, thus, served important purposes. Stereotypes helped…
Discrimination and Madness: Examining Motifs in the Short Stories of Faulkner and Gillman
"The Yellow Wallpaper," by Charlotte Perkins Gillman and "A ose for Emily," by William Faulkner, though remarkably different in style and voice, feature stories where women are the main characters. Both of these stories take the reader through a raucous trip through time and sanity leaving the reader constantly guessing. In the midst of these vivid journeys through the narrative, both short stories showcase their female protagonists in fictional worlds where various pertinent social issues fester in the background.
"The Yellow Wallpaper" tells a story written in the first person of a vivacious, imaginative woman who explains that she suffers from a temporary nervous depression colored by a bit of hysteria. Her husband, a doctor, who the narrator tells us is extremely practical, believes she is not sick and rents a colonial mansion for the summer so…
Faulkner, William. A Rose for Emily. 1930. In LitWeb the Norton Introduction to Literature Website. Retrieved from http://www.wwnorton.com/college/english/litweb05/workshops/fiction/faulkner1.asp
Gillman Perkins, Charlotte. The Yellow Wallpaper. 1891. In LitWeb the Norton
Introduction to Literature Website. Retrieved from http://www.wwnorton.com/college/english/litweb05/workshops/fiction/gilman1.asp
true since we were children and we were told by adults that "words will never hurt us." A good many of us would most likely have preferred the sticks and stones because physical injuries often heal far more quickly and far more effectively than psychological ones.
And yet, even as we must all acknowledge the basic principle that words can do real harm, many people continue to insist that sexist language is a trivial concern. This paper looks at the reasons why it is important to be careful about the language that we use. It is all too easy for opponents of care in language to toss off concerns about bias as "political correctness." But it is important that the rest of us insist that "political correctness" can be viewed another way: As basic courtesy and civility.
Because language is one of the most powerful forces that there is, anyone…
Cameron, D. (1990). The feminist critique of language. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. http://www.friesian.com/language.htm l
Spender, D. (1985). Man-made language. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Tannen, D. (1990). You just don't understand. New York: William Morrow.
Meanwhile in the journal Du Bois Review (Parker, et al., 2009, p. 194) the authors point to racism and patriotism as key themes for the 2008 Democratic primary election. "Race was a consistent narrative" used by those opposed to Obama, Parker explains (p. 194). Both Clinton and the Republicans "used racial references" to attack Obama, including the attacks on Obama "for his perceived inability to connect to 'real working Americans'" (p. 194).
The Republican sideshow called "Joe the plumber" attacked Obama with the charge that Obama was "seeking to take money from hardworking 'real Americans' to give it to 'those people'" (p. 194). Clinton questioned Obama's patriotism suggesting that he was not a "real" American. Parker notes that when Governor Dukakis ran for president as a Democrat, he was attacked but no one questioned whether he was "a real American as they did with Obama" (p. 195).
The authors present…
Alter, Jonathan. "Leading Democrats to Bill Clinton: Pipe Down." Newsweek. (2008).
Retrieved March 17, 2010, from http://www.newsweek.com.
Balz, Dan, and Johnson, Hanes. The Battle for American 2008: The Story of an Extraordinary
Election. New York: Viking, 2009.
Coker's article (published in a very conservative magazine in England) "reflected unease among some of his colleagues" about that new course at LSEP. Moreover, Coker disputes that fact that there is a female alternative to male behavior and Coker insists that "Whether they love or hate humanity, feminists seem unable to look it in the face" (Smith quoting Coker, p. 58).
If feminists are right about the female nature being more peaceful and "less aggressive" than men, then women pose a "far greater danger than men…" to the world and to international relations Coker continued. It was a less aggressive attitude toward international relations that "prevented us from deterring Hitler," Coker went on, referencing (without naming) Neville Chamberlain, England's Prime Minister who reportedly appeased Hitler rather than take a strong stand against the Third Reich.
On page 58 Steve Smith explains that in cases where feminine concerns are being…
Carpenter, R. Charli, 2005, 'Women, Children, and Other Vulnerable Groups: Gender, Strategic Frames and the Protection of Civilians as a Transnational Issue', International Studies Quarterly, vol. 49, 295-334.
Elshtain, Jean Bethke, 1995, Women and War, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Goldstein, Joshua S., 2003, War and Gender: How Gender Shapes the War System and Vice Versa. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Hooper, Charlotte, 2001, Manly States: Masculinities, International Relations, and Gender Politics. New York: Columbia University Press.
Talking down to a female coworker is like speaking to a child. The tone of voice and language used is filled with kindness and therefore seems innocent. Yet speaking to a coworker like a child is not an innocent act. The method of communication is degrading and assumes that the female is a less advanced human being, a person that needs to be coddled and cared for like a baby. Because women have been taught to expect and accept such tones of voice in daily communications, they might ignore or be ignorant of sexist language.
Making fun of or criticizing females in positions of power is another way that sexism remains present in professional communications. Females in positions of power are held to a double standard that men are not held to. For example, women in positions of power are expected to be stereotypically feminine while at the same time…
Education and Society About Gender
The Perception of Gender Value Among Children
In Myra Sadker's book, Failing at Fairness, gender issues in the classroom are studied to evaluate how sexism is presented and to what extent it impacts female self-esteem. In a study entitled, "Help Me, God. I'm a Girl," the response to the hypothetical consideration of gender change was examined for eleven hundred Michigan children between 1988 and 1990. When asked what life would be like if they experienced a change to the opposite sex, the general conclusion that was drawn found that both girls and boys recognized weaknesses with the female sex as compared to males. This raises concern over the social impact of sexism that appears to exist even at a young age as the value of the female gender is compromised by views that males present the more advantageous sex. Thus, the evidence of sexism among…
Sadker, Myra. "Help Me, God. I'm a Girl." Failing at Fairness. New York: Scribner, 1994.
The book, 'Aren't I a Woman?' explores the challenges that women faced in the antebellum America. The author has focused to address the challenges of sexuality and racism that affected many women of this age. The author, Deborah Gray is a Professor at Scott University, who has focused her study in examining the issues of justice and social inequality in society. She is interested in this study as she attempts to explain the challenges of sexuality and racism that has affected the women from minority races in the United States. Her focus is to lead the readers of her work to begin understanding the challenges that women have faced from the antebellum America to the current day. Through a better understanding of these issues, better remedies may be developed to help the affected women in the society. Indeed, without an in-depth understanding of the issues of sexuality, and racism,…
White, Deborah, 1985, Aren't I a Woman? Female Slaves in the Plantation South. New York:
W.W. Norton and Company. Print
Cultural bias implies an emphasized distinction or preferential status that indicates a predilection for one culture, over another. It is often discriminative, and is characterized by an absence of integration in a group, in terms of social principles, codes of conduct, and beliefs. Cultural partisanship introduces the accepted behaviors of one group as superior, and more valued, than those of another lesser-respected cultural group. In my surroundings, most of the residents, and hence, patients are white, making us (Afro-Americans and Asians) minorities, feel different if not isolated. Such deferential factors are responsible for establishing where specific individuals live, and what opportunities are available to them, in the healthcare and educational context (Sue et al., 2009)
The presence of cultural bias within the context of healthcare-related recommendations and decision-making gives rise to significant challenges. Well-documented inequalities in health status of different racial and ethnic communities, in addition to nationally-publicized…
Resources and Services Administration (http://www.hrsa.gov/culturalcompetence/)
American Psychiatric Association's Steering Committee to Reduce Disparities in Access to Psychiatric Care (2004) (Natl. Assoc. Social Workers 2007).
These and many more substantive readings from research are listed by the author for assimilating culture-centric education. (Sue, Zane, Nagayama Hall, & Berger, 2009)
As a Counselor, I will need to be aware that being culturally aware implies delivering services in a manner consistent with the recipient's culture, through regards to linguistic variation and cultural discussion. I would seek to be more sensitive to unaccultured ethnic minority clients. In addition, I would use discretion in cases where patients of a particular community or ethnicity are prone to certain clinical problems (for which I would study the ethnic group and its history in more depth) and if certain ethnic groups respond poorly to EBT (Evidence-based Treatment). (Sue et al., 2009)
Indeed, the heightened emphasis on standardized testing and other practices related to No Child Left Behind has created a condition wherein the principal is found to be largely at the center of an array of very inflexible demands. The result is that the principal's performance evaluation is directly connected to the capacity of the school and its students to comport with the standards created by such legislation. Therefore, principals are increasingly finding it necessary to take a hands-on approach to providing leadership in public schools. The degree to which the experience and insight of the mentor can be instrumental in facilitating this capacity is significant.
As Lave & enger (2005) contend, there is a distinctly beneficial impact to the developing educational leader in exposure to a well-suited mentor. This is true at every level of education, where the challenges that can be disruptive are approached with strategies that have been…
Conway, C.M. (2006). Navigating Through Induction: How a Mentor Can Help. Music Educators Journal, 92(5), 56-60.
Cook, E.P., Heppner, M.J., & O'Brien, K.M. (2005). Multicultural and gender influences in women's career development: An ecological perspective. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 33.
Craig, T. (2008). Spotlight on Mentoring Programmes. Peronnel Today.
Daresh, J. (2001). What is Mentoring and Why Is it So Important. Leaders Helping Leaders.
Foot binding may have been one of the most powerful reminders of misogyny, as the practice placed irreversible physical limitations on females and restricted their role in society. As if other biological markers like breast size or genitalia were insufficient to denote gender, contorted feet serves a disturbing reminder of how females have been thoroughly subjugated. The practice of binding, remind Steele and Major, meant that women could barely walk. Their movements can of course be controlled and scrutinized; their freedoms overtly limited. That women still wanted their feet bound shows a lack of ability to conceive of a world any different than the one in which they lived. Neo-Confucian values permeated Chinese society and so few women would have been so bold as to question the validity of female inferiority or the morality of foot binding.
Foot binding was "never mandated by any Chinese government" (p. 182). The practice…
It is essential that such risks be managed in an appropriate and targeted way.
One way in which to mitigate the risk of problematic interpersonal relationships within the workplace is by means of both formal and informal gatherings. Informal gatherings are beneficial in terms of helping employees to become familiar with each other in a context other than work. Work parties and lunches can for example be used in this way. This kind of informal gathering is perhaps best instituted when there is not a large amount of tension between workers.
For greater tension levels, more formal measures can be taken. Seminars presented by human relations experts can for example help to teach employees the importance of functioning within a diverse environment. Such seminars should be presented in such a way as to not threaten employees or their attitudes, but rather to gradually change their attitudes. Seminars can for example…
Nonetheless, Lu sees some hope for transgressive representations of Asian women in media, particularly in those films which actively seek to explode stereotypes regarding Asian women not simply by fulfilling the desires of a white, patriarchal society but rather by demonstrating full-fledged, unique characters whose Asian and female identity is only one constituent part of their personality and whose expression is not limited to the roles prescribed for Asian women in American media (24-26).
Lu, Lynn. "Critical Visions: The Representation and Resistance of Asian omen." Dragon
Ladies: Asian-American Feminists Breathe Fire. 1st ed. Cambridge, MA: South End
Press, 1999. 184-189. Print.
Mihesuah, David Abbot. "Feminists, Tribalists, or Activists?" Indigenous American omen:
Decolonization, Empowerment, Activism. 1st ed. Omaha, NE: University of Nebraska
Press, 2003. 115-123. Print.
Smith, Andrea. "Sexual Violence as a Tool of Genocide." Conquest: Sexual Violence and American Indian Genocide. 1st ed. Cambridge, MA: South End Press,…
Lu, Lynn. "Critical Visions: The Representation and Resistance of Asian Women." Dragon
Ladies: Asian-American Feminists Breathe Fire. 1st ed. Cambridge, MA: South End
Press, 1999. 184-189. Print.
Mihesuah, David Abbot. "Feminists, Tribalists, or Activists?" Indigenous American Women:
Far beyond the "ideal" female form in the minds of many, modelling creates a paradigm not only of impossible perfectionism in terms of face and posture, but also in terms of size. As such, modelling is not about being "sexy," but rather about the common misconception that thin is also necessarily beautiful. This tends to be a female-focused paradigm rather than a sexist one, where one might define sexism as a male-imposed paradigm upon the female body.
In this light, I do not believe that the "Tyra Banks is Fat" scandal is so much racially or even sexism-informed as it is informed by the generally human paradigm of enjoying the flaws in a person who was previously assumed to be "perfect." Models are envied, mostly by women, for their lack of body fat. This is an ideal that women tend to strive for, generally encouraged by media images of the…
Another distinction central to the Black feminist's thoughts is the alienation she suffers due to the omission of her presence in history. This omission is not only found in traditional examples of history, but also in Eurocentric feminist views of history. The following quotation from Lorde in her letter to Daly shows the frustration and lack of understanding about the reason such an omission is propagated even among those of her same sex. "…why doesn't Mary deal with Afreket as an example? hy are her goddess-images only white, western-european, judeo-christian…here are the warrior-goddesses of the Vodun, the Dohomeian Amazons and the warrior-women of Dan…Mary has made a conscious decision to narrow her scope and to deal only with the ecology of western-european women (Lorde, 1979, p. 94)." The exclusion of African goddesses from Daly's text, which described the historical roots of women's power, is only a slight example of the…
1. Carby, H. (1982) "White Woman Listen! Black Feminism and the Boundaries of Sisterhood" in Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies The Empire Strikes Back: Race and Racism in 70s Britain. London: Hutchinson.
2. hooks, b. (1981) Aint I a Woman: Black Women and Feminism. Boston: South End Press.
3. hooks, b. (1990) Yearning: Race, Gender and Cultural Politics. Boston: South End Press.
4. Lourde, A. (1981) "An Open Letter to Mary Daly" in Moraga C. And Azadula G. This Bridge Called My Back: Writings by Radical Women of Colour. Watertown: Persephone Press.
4. I'd like to ask Johnson if the thinks it is possible to ever fully get rid of prejudice.
1. In chapter 5, Johnson begins to lay the groundwork to get rid of the problems -- and complications -- of privilege in earnest. His basic starting point is simple, and seems to make sense. The key to addressing the issue of privilege is to engage both groups, those which have been traditionally dominant or "privileged," as well as those who have been traditionally underprivileged, to attempt to formulate an understanding as to how to get past this invisible barrier. Without work and compromise from both sides, it will be difficult for change to occur. The key is for dominant groups to not take offense at their privileges, and to be able to see it as a problem. Many members of such populations, however, don't see being privileged as a problem,…