Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly
Organization of a Sheriff's Office
The sheriff's office is in a non-competitive environment, with each county having its own sheriff's office to serve the needs of that county. It is a largely political institution at the top; most sheriffs are elected (though not all of them, as it depends on the rules of the county), with a team of deputy employees underneath the sheriff. There is no competition with a sheriff's office, so looking at outside forces that may compete with it is not so much of an issue. However, the sheriff's office does need to understand the forces under which it works, the community in which it operates, and other factors regarding its local environment in order to determine how to serve its community in the best possible way and to fulfill its mission statement of protecting and serving the people of the county.
The sheriff's office…
Huselid, Mark A. And Becker, Brian E. (2005). The Workforce Scorecard: Managing Human Capital to Execute Strategy. Cambridge: Harvard Business Review Press.
Porter, Michael E. (1998). Competitive Strategy: Techniques for Analyzing Industries and Competitors. New York: Free Press.
Ulrich, David. (2005). The HR Value Proposition. Cambridge: Harvard Business Review Press.
Watson, William Henry. (1994). A Practical Treatise on the Office of Sheriff: Comprising the Whole of the Duties, Remuneration, and Liabilities of Sheriffs. New York: Fred G. Rothman and Company.
The Magna Charta is apparently responsible for limiting the power of sheriffs in England, meant to lessen the number of abuse cases involving a sheriff physically harming royal subjects with the purpose of collecting taxes. If the colonists had not taken it in the U.S. In the seventeenth century it is likely that the sheriff profession would have ended in England.
hile sheriffs in England were perceived as merciless lawmen willing to apply any measure in order to be in agreement with the king's requirements, those in the U.S. were seen as noble men who risked their lives in order to protect the law. U.S. citizens appeared to be supportive regarding the sheriffs in their jurisdiction. Thomas Jefferson was particularly interested in supporting sheriffs in their endeavor to perform their duties, as his book, "The value of Constitutions" states that "there is no honorable law enforcement authority in Anglo-American law…
1. Arado, Matt, "Sheriff Investigating Death of Epileptic Restrained by Police," Daily Herald (Arlington Heights, IL) 24 Feb. 2000: 4.
2. Glenn, Russell W. Panitch, Barbara R. Dionne Barnes-Proby, Williams, Elizabeth Christian, John Lewis Matthew W. Gerwehr, Scott and Brannan, David W. Training the 21st Century Police Officer: Redefining Police Professionalism for the Los Angeles Police Department / (Santa Monica, CA: Rand, 2003).
3. "HISTORY OF THE SHERIFF," Retrieved September 13, 2010, from the Camden County Website: http://www.camdencounty.com/sheriff/History%20Of%20The%20Sheriff.htm
Sheriff's Department Organization
The rewards system in a sheriff's department is organized in much the same way as in other business organizations. While a sheriff's department is distinctly different from your traditional corporate business, as it is a government entity, many of its rewards and benefits are the same as in any other job. There are also a few important differences.
For full-time employees of a sheriff's department, these people can expect a wide range of benefits, from the typical health and life insurance coverage offered at most jobs, to paid time off, vacation days, personal days, family leave, and more. There won't be stock options or a 401K, since this is a government job and not a private sector job. However, sheriff's office employees may participate in a government employee's pension fund and may invest in a 403B (which is similar to a 401K, but it is…
Huselid, Mark A. And Becker, Brian E. (2005). The Workforce Scorecard: Managing Human Capital to Execute Strategy. Cambridge: Harvard Business Review Press.
Ulrich, David. (2005). The HR Value Proposition. Cambridge: Harvard Business Review Press.
Watson, William Henry. (1994). A Practical Treatise on the Office of Sheriff: Comprising the Whole of the Duties, Remuneration, and Liabilities of Sheriffs. New York: Fred G. Rothman and Company.
efficiency and effectiveness. Is it possible for an agency to exhibit one but not the other?
Most law enforcement agencies seek to be both efficient and effective because the two can go hand in hand when things are done correctly. It is possible, though, to be highly effective but in inefficient ways (e.g., reducing the number of violent crimes in the community by using enormous amounts of overtime without conducting basic research to determine where the most of the crimes are being committed) and likewise it is possible to be highly efficient without ever accomplishing anything (e.g., recording the number of violent crimes accurately and conducting research to identify problem areas without implementing any interventions).
What political consequences might result from an unfavorable opinion of your department?
Sheriffs' offices depend a great deal on the support and goodwill of the general public. Even the hint of corruption or inefficiency could…
Black's law dictionary. (1991). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
DeCrescenzo, D. (2005). Early detection of the problem officer. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin,
74(7), 14-17. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/204141156?accountid
police departments and sheriff departments vary in terms of their layout, length, and specific content. However, they share some core elements in common such as the commitment to the community. This paper analyses three sheriff department mission statements, seeking their commonalities as well as differences. Building on this analysis, a proper mission statement tailored for my department will be presented. The proper mission statement will take into account the size and composition of the local community served, the makeup of the personnel, and the goals and priorities of the community.
The first department's mission statement to be evaluated is the Atlantic County Sheriff's Office in New Jersey. The Atlantic County Sheriff's Office organizes its mission statement into sections. The first section is an overview, followed by sections on professional responsibility, community responsiveness, integrity, dedication, cooperation, innovation, fiscal management, and office goals. These sections make the Atlantic County Sheriff's Office mission…
Atlantic County Sheriff's Office (2014). Retrieved online: http://www.acsheriff.org/main/aboutus/mission.asp
Boulder County Sheriff's Office (2014). Retrieved online: https://www.bouldercounty.org/dept/sheriff/pages/shmission.aspx
Cook County Sheriff's Office (2014). Retrieved online: http://cookcountysheriff.com/MisionStatement.html
Some sheriffs kept multiple deputies on hand and this system became the foundation for the modern county police force still found in some counties.
As these western towns became more populated and organized, the town governments were able to organize more traditional city police departments. These city police departments were sometimes given authority over some of the duties traditionally left to sheriffs. Sheriffs were then relied on for regulation of affairs outside city limits such as maintenance of roads. However, even these inter-city duties came to be assigned to State law enforcement bodies such as the highway patrol.
Presently, the relationship between sheriffs, city police departments, and state police bodies vary widely from state to state and even county to county. In some situations, sheriffs serve as the leaders of a consolidated city and county police department. In other situations, city police departments with have their own police chiefs and…
In the United States, a sheriff is generally, but
Organizational Model of Ft. end County Sheriff's Office
The Sheriff's Office in Fort end County, Texas, is operated under the same model as many Sheriff's departments throughout the country, and, particularly, like many sheriff's offices in the state of Texas. The position of Sheriff is an elected position, so that the Sheriff is elected by the public and serves for a specific-term. The current elected official is Milton Wright. However, the elected sheriff does not play the day-to-day role that he might in another county. This is largely due to the immense size of Fort end County, which is not only already one of the largest counties in the nation, but is also growing rapidly. In 2010, the county's population was 585,375, about half of them white, 21.5% black, 17% Asian, and 23.7% Hispanic, 23.3% foreign-born, with a median income of $80,548 but with 7.5% below the poverty level poverty…
Description: have to describe an organizational model of any police agency outside of New York State. Students will describe the nature and function of each subunit and the personnel resources dedicated to it. Students will also describe the demographics and geographic of the area served. sources and information must be cited.
Please login to your Writer Control Panel to manage this assignment.
Medina, J. (2013). U.S. Charges 18 Sheriff's Officers in Inquiry Into Misconduct at Los Angeles Jails. Nytimes.com. Retrieved 24 May 2017, from http://www.nytimes.com/2013/12/10/us/18-charged-in-inquiry-into-los-angeles-sheriffs-office.html
Per a single 2013 story, nearly twenty people were charged with offenses relating to misconduct and direct abuse of prisoners. I do agree with the general sentiment that jail should "feel" like punishment when it comes to restriction of freedom, activities and so forth. At the same time, prisoners should not be mistreated and assaulted just by virtue of being there. If they initiate a fight or otherwise engage in violence, they should indeed be subdued. On the flip side, if they are treated like animals, they will often respond in kind. Some offenders that enter jail are already institutionalized and are otherwise conditioned to be used to jail and act in a violent and depraved manner. Gang members are a good and common example. However, creating…
Social Engineering and Information Security
We are in an age of information explosion and one of the most critical problems facing us is the security and proper management of information. Advanced hardware and software solutions are being constantly developed and refined to patch up any technical loopholes that might allow a hacker attack and prevent consequent breach of information security. While this technical warfare continues, hackers are now pursuing other vectors of attack. Social engineering refers to the increasing employment of techniques, both technical and non-technical, that focus on exploiting the cognitive bias in humans as the weakest link in computer security. What is shocking is the fact that in spite of the great vulnerability to human exploitation, there prevails a seemingly careless attitude in this regard in the corporate world. While more and more money is spent on beefing up hardware security and in acquiring expensive software solutions, little…
1) Christopher Hadnagy (2011), 'Social Engineering: The Art of Human Hacking', Wiley Publishing Inc.
2) Greg Sandoval, (Feb 2007), 'FTC to Court: Put an end to pretexting operations', Retrieved Mar 5th 2011 from, http://news.cnet.com/FTC-to-court-Put-an-end-to-pretexting-operations/2100-7348_3-6159871.html?tag=lia;rcol
3) Mindi McDowell, (Oct 2009), 'National Cyber Alert System: Avoiding Social Engineering and Phishing attacks', retrieved Mar 5th 2011 from, http://www.us-cert.gov/cas/tips/ST04-014.html
4) Sonja Ryst, (July, 2006), ' The Phone is the latest Phishign Rod', retrieved Mar 5th 2011 from, http://www.businessweek.com/technology/content/jul2006/tc20060710_811021.htm
Overarching theme of the Democratic-epublican National Committee
Statement of the purpose of the exercise
The objective of the table top stimulus has been to replicate as practically as one possibly can the likeliest circumstances that the actual work-team task force might experience throughout the DNC, in addition to a worst-case scenario.
Participating entities and their roles
A few of the entities included within the table top conference consist of: Major Susan Barker, the commander of the Crime Scene Investigations Bureau related to the Miami-Dade Police Department (MDPD) together with professionals coming from the Miami-Dade Police Crime Lab, the Broward County Sheriff's Workplace Crime Scene Investigations Bureau, the town of Miami PD Crime Scene Section, Jackson Memorial Hospital, the FBI's Hazardous Material esponse Unit, the Miami-Dade Police Bomb Squad, the Miami-Dade Healthcare Examiner's Office, the 44th Civil Support Team related to the Florida National Guard, along with Miami-Dade Fire escue's Urban…
Corley, J., and Lejerskar, D. (2003). Simulation for Emergency Response: Homeland Defense Center Network - Capitalizing on Simulation, Modeling and Visualization for Emergency Preparedness, Response and Mitigation. In Proceedings of the 35th Conference on Winter Simulation: Driving Innovation (New Orleans, LA). Winter Simulation Conference, 1061-1067.
DHS (Department Of Homeland Security). (2004). Fact Sheet: National Incident Management System (NIMS). http://www.dhs.gov/xnews/releases/press_release_0363.shtm.
Frishberg, L. (2005). Looking Back at Plan AHEAD™: Exercising User-Centered Design in Emergency Management. In CHI '05 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems (Portland, OR). ACM Press, New York, NY, 988-1003.
Jain, S., and Mclean, C. 2003. Simulation for Emergency Response: A Framework for Modeling and Simulation for Emergency Response. In Proceedings of the 35th Conference on Winter Simulation: Driving Innovation (New Orleans, LA). Winter Simulation Conference, 1068-1076.
Law enforcement and corrections can be influenced by several external threats. These consist of external communication gaps and many environmental influences. One of the key external threats that impacts both corrections and law enforcement is politics. In delineation, politics is the art of wielding one's authority and power over the government or public affairs. In particular, political action can give rise to the imposition of one's interests within the government, in positions of leadership within the government, with regard to the control over resources, as well as in terms of holding government office. Politics influence law enforcement and corrections by impacting the individuals that will hold different positions in criminal justice, for instance the police, judges, prosecutors as well as correctional executives. Law enforcement, administration, and corrections are linked with politics on various extents and levels. Prevailing political philosophy and ideology influence the structure, organization, as well as anticipation of…
Should Sherriff's be Elected?
Across the nation popular election is the almost standardized means of selection of the sheriff. Sheriffs are elected to four-year terms in forty one states, two-year terms in three states, a three-year term in one state and a six-year term in one state. The races are on a partisan ballot in forty states and on a non-partisan basis in six states. A small number of states do not have the office of sheriff. "There are no sheriffs in Alaska and that office was essentially abolished in the year 2000 in Connecticut. Hawaii does not have the position traditionally associated with the office of sheriff. In hode Island, the governor appoints the sheriff. In two Colorado counties and Dade County, Florida, sheriffs are appointed by the county executive" (Elected office of the sheriff, n.d.). Some jurisdictions have explored switching to a system of appointed sheriffs…
Dan Smith - Bell County Sheriff. (n.d.). Retreived from http://www.co.bell.tx.us/Sheriff/03aboutthesheriff.htm
Elected office of the sheriff. (n.d.). Retreived from http://www.sheriffs.org/sites/default/files/tb/The_Elected_Office_of_Sheriff
Killeen Police Department. (2012). Retreived from http://www.killeentexas.gov/index.php?section=226
Agency Politics Within the Vbso
Persons wishing to become police officers in the United States must first pass a battery of tests designed to eliminate those who fail to meet the minimum standards (Thomas & Barringer, 2012, p. 1600-1601). Thus begins the indoctrination process for those that enter the academy and survive long enough to be offered a position within a policing agency. One of the first value systems the recruits face is that of police culture, which does not always align with the official mission statement of the sponsoring policing agencies. The continued indoctrination of green officers is the responsibility of senior training officers and any resistance to becoming a member of the agency's culture would likely result in elimination of the officer from field training.
As Thomas and Barringer (2012) note, the effectiveness of a policing agency depends on the ability of its members to recognize…
Adams, K. (2013 September 15). Ex-VA. Beach sheriff's captain files federal bias lawsuit. Virginia-Pilot. Retrieved 3 May 2014 from http://hamptonroads.com/2013/09/exva-beach-sheriffs-captain-files-federal-bias-lawsuit .
Balzer, A.J. (1996). International police cooperation: Opportunities and obstacles. Retrieved 3 May 2014 from https://www.ncjrs.gov/policing/int63.htm .
City Manager. (2014a). Police Chief Jim A. Cervera. Retrieved 2 May 2014 from http://www.vbgov.com/government/departments/city-manager/Form-of-Government/Pages/police.aspx .
City Manager. (2014b). Form of government. Retrieved 2 May 2014 from http://www.vbgov.com/government/departments/city-manager/Form-of-Government/Pages/default.aspx .
man who was apparently fired from his job for a Facebook 'like'. The person in question works for a sheriff's department, and liked the page of his boss' challenger in the election. hen his boss won re-election, the staffer was fired for supporting the challenger. In this case, the circuit court judge ruled that a Facebook 'like' was insufficient speech to be considered protected under the First Amendment. I am taking the position that this is protected speech under the First Amendment and the staffer should not have been fired. The Sheriff's Office committed a violation of the law and an even more serious violation of ethics in firing the staffers for expressing their opinions online.
The first issue that needs to be addressed in the article is the legality of the issue. The deputy sheriff holds an unelected staff position within the sheriff's office, while the sheriff is elected…
DiMicco, J.; Millen, D.; Geyer, W.; Dugan, C.; Brownholtz, B.; Muller, M. (2008). Motivations for social networking at work. IBM Research. Retrieved October 23, 2012 from http://www.umsl.edu/~sauterv/5800/p711-dimicco.pdf
Erickson, M. (2012). ACLU and Facebook say Facebook "like" button = free speech. Social Networking Law Blog. Retrieved October 23, 2012 from http://www.socialnetworkinglawblog.com/2012/08/aclu-facebook-say-facebook-like-button.html?pfstyle=wp
Kelleher, D. (2009). Social networking at work: Fear not Facebook, Myspace? IT World. Retrieved October 23, 2012 from http://www.itworld.com/internet/63062/social-networking-work-fear-not-facebook-myspace
US Constitution, Amendment 1. Retrieved October 23, 2012 from http://www.usconstitution.net/xconst_Am1.html
If this is indeed the case, Leach is within his rights to appeal for an overturn of his conviction. The Fourth Amendment protects travellers from unwarranted police searches, which appears to be what happened in this case.
The Fourth Amendment then protects the rights of individuals to reasonable expectation of privacy. While Archibald Leach voluntarily yielded his luggage for investigation, the search itself was not conducted in a legal manner if there was neither warrant, reasonable suspicion or probable cause. The case does not mention any of these, based upon which the conclusion can be that Leach has sound grounds for appeal.
Criminal Law Lawyer ource. (2009). earch Warrant. http://www.criminal-law-lawyer-source.com/terms/search-warrant.html
Farlex, Inc. (2009). Probable Cause. The Free Dictionary. http://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Probable+cause 'Lectric Law Library's Lexicon. (2009). "Confession." http://www.lectlaw.com/def/c274.htm
Rice, Beverly. (2009). When can the police stop and frisk you on the street? upreme Court Articles. http://www.legalzoom.com/legal-articles/when-police-frisk-you.html
Walker, Jayme . (1998, Dec…
Criminal Law Lawyer Source. (2009). Search Warrant. http://www.criminal-law-lawyer-source.com/terms/search-warrant.html
Farlex, Inc. (2009). Probable Cause. The Free Dictionary. http://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Probable+cause 'Lectric Law Library's Lexicon. (2009). "Confession." http://www.lectlaw.com/def/c274.htm
Rice, Beverly. (2009). When can the police stop and frisk you on the street? Supreme Court Articles. http://www.legalzoom.com/legal-articles/when-police-frisk-you.html
Walker, Jayme S. (1998, Dec 1). Moving and touching stowed or checked luggage: Fourth Amendment considerations. The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin. http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G1-53590199.html
History U.S. Criminal Justice Systems/Police
It is undeniable that criminal justice and police activities are integral parts of every relatively peaceful nation in the world. ithout the actions and standards set forth by the agencies that "protect and serve" many wrongs would go not only unpunished but possibly unnoticed as well.
The basic purposes of policing in democratic societies are: 1. To prevent and investigate crimes; 2. To apprehend offenders; 3. To help ensure domestic peace and tranquility; and 4. To enforce and support the laws (especially the criminal laws) of the society of which the police are a part." (Schmalleger Chapter 5 Summary)
Though the developmental history of modern policing and criminal justice there have been many changes, changes in focus and standard, and even crime and justice. The very term professionalism has completely evolved across the board, more so in the policing industry than almost anywhere else. A…
Downer L.J. Legis Henrici Primi Abstract Retrieved April 25, 2004 at http://www.powellschicago.com/html/reprints/16560.html.
Fagin, James A. Criminal Justice New York, NY Allyn & Bacon, 2003.
Hirschel, J. David, and William Wakefield. Criminal Justice in England and the United States. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1995.
corpse strangled with the rope still around his neck, the first thing I wanted to do was to remove the rope. Because the look on the dead body's face was horrible, and obviously the rope was what was responsible for the death, and also for the horrible look on the corpse's face, with bulging bloodshot eyes and the tongue sticking out. But Harry went and looked at the body to make sure that he was dead, and then basically Harry told me that this was a crime scene, so we shouldn't disturb any possible evidence. So we didn't take the rope off, and instead we went to talk to the victim's wife. She hadn't moved from the last time we saw her; she was just motionless in her chair. I asked her if she had told anybody about her husband's death, and in a weirdly non-emotional way she said that…
Protecting Police & Engaging Citizens
he nature of police work must ensure that is as adaptable, sophisticated, networked, and transnational as the criminals and terrorists it fights. A modern approach to policing must contain elements of traditional, mainstream efforts to fight crime along with a set of tools for carrying out an effective community policing approach. his paper provides a brief discussion about what such a hybrid model looks like in practice and touches on elements of complexity of police work in an increasingly global arena.
Addressing Escalated hreat Levels.
Some dynamics of society seem inevitably linked, moving in tandem as though some invisible lynch-pin had been driven through their respective cores. Poverty and crime. Violence and counter-violence. Wealth and indifference. Frustration and destruction. Fanaticism and irrationality. Naturally, there are exceptions. Some Buddhists live in poverty but are peaceful and law-abiding. Where culture or religion calls for acceptance of one's…
There is an inherent tension between a retreat from the tenets of community policing and policing strategies intended to keep a safety buffer between the police and the community they serve and protect. The research includes work from authors who believe that a shift toward policing that could be characterized by paramilitarism occurred prior to September 11 (McCulloch, 2001a, Weber, 1999, p.2). Describing how community policing works in the Australian environment, McCulloch (2001b, p. 4) referred to an "iron fist" covered by a "velvet glove." Murray (2005) presented a comparison between the transitions that have occurred with regard to traditional policing and community policing. His work also includes a comparison of the cultures of both approaches to policing. Murray's conclusion is that the two orientations to policing are not incompatible; he proposes a hybrid model of policing that would enable both approaches to coexist.
Murray suggests that community policing continues to be the best way to prevent crime and to prevent acts of terrorism. He bases this conclusion on the enhanced capacity of a community to effectively communicate concerns and observations when there is a basic level of trust between citizens and the police in the community. The issue is that it is increasingly difficult to distinguish those with malevolent intent from those who must be protected from malevolence. When community members see themselves as partners in the efforts of the police to keep them safe in their own communities, the efficacy of community policing is both possible and enhanced.
The pressure on a police force that currently operates in a community policing mode to transition back to a traditional policing model is substantive. This pressure comes from the citizens -- who desire to see evidence that the country is taking effective steps to fight the war on terror, and from politicians for whom crime fighting and homeland security issues are "election sensitive." Paramilitary approaches to national security can readily be seen in other countries, as discussed, and it may be difficult for the
Drug Courts: A Program to Reinvent Justice for Addicts
For the past several decades, drug use has had an overwhelming effect upon the American justice system, with drug and drug-related crime being the most common offense in almost every community (Drug Strategies, 1996). eyond the troubling ability of these problems to fill prisons to capacity, the traditional judicial system seemed to have no deterrent effect on these crimes (Drug and Crime Facts, 1994). A disturbing "revolving door" pattern had emerged, with drug offenders moving through the system in a predictable pattern of arrest, prosecution, conviction, incarceration, and release. In a few weeks, sometimes only a few days, the same person was back in the system again, arrested for drug possession or a drug-related crime (National Association of Drug Court Professionals [NADCP], 1997). A particularly difficult problem faced by the system was the growing use of crack cocaine in the 1980s…
Bean, Philip. (1996, October). "America's Drug Courts: A New Development in Criminal Justice." Criminal Law Review. 720-740.
A scholarly review of the American drug court by a British attorney.
Brumbaugh, Alex. (1994) "Why Drug Courts Work." 3 Dec. 2002. http://www.silcom.com/~alexb/drugcrts.htm
Discussion of the various counseling techniques available to drug court clients, with an emphasis on acupuncture.
Policing in the U.S.A., UK, and Germany
The way law enforcement and the criminal justice system does its work in the United States has more similarities than differences with the way in which law enforcement and criminal justice is conducted in the UK and in Germany. This paper points to the similarities and the differences in approaches to policing and criminal justice in those three countries.
Criminal Justice in the United States
The USA has a presidential system of government, with one federal constitutional institution (with three branches, judiciary, legislative and executive), and 50 separate states with their own constitutions. In terms of the criminal justice system in the U.S. -- and law enforcement's role in that system -- there are four kinds of policing: a) federal policing (U.S. Dept. f Justice -- and several agencies within the DJ -- the Dept. f Homeland Security (Secret Service, Immigration, and the…
On pages 47-50, the author emphasizes the growing number of violent sex crimes that have been committed against children. About one-third of the "organized pornography rings around the world" are located in the United States and hence, since the 1990s, several pieces of legislation dealing with child molesters / sex offenders. Along with the "Wetterling Act" (the law that mandates sex offenders must be included on the national registry of sexual predators) and the Adam Walsh Protection and Safety Act (2006), the federal government provides funds for states to upgrade law enforcement and to provide sex offender information and registries. In the UK, the Violent and Sex Offender Register (VISOR) is very much like the National Sex Offender Registry (NSOR) in the U.S. The Sex Offences Act of 2003 describes more than 60 different kinds of sex crimes -- including possession of "indecent photographs of children" and the trafficking of children for sex purposes -- and like the U.S., sex offenders must register their residences and notify the government within 3 days (60-61).
In conclusion, there are many similarities between the criminal justice systems in the UK, the U.S., and in Germany. The similarities can be explained because all three democratic countries basically face the same kinds of criminal issues -- terrorism, white color crime, crimes against children, violent crime, among other aspects of criminal activity -- and in all three countries police and federal agents are ultimately accountable to the citizens who pay the taxes to keep law enforcement well staffed and up-to-date vis-a-vis technology. In the UK, there is a movement to decentralize police services away from total federal control, but decentralization is already reflected in the U.S. And Germany.
For instance, in the eyes of the courts, an offense's level could be equated to the guideline for the seriousness of a crime. The next aspect of the scorecard was the offender's personal or associative criminal history. Prior offenses dictated a level of conviction frequencies and social offenses. Therefore the personal criminal history of an individual ends up playing a major role in the sentencing guidelines. A person's propensity to repeat offences entails longer sentences. The person that had a history of repeat offenses offered a greater threat and therefore was often thought to be more dangerous to society. but, how does the justice system maintain a culprit's history without an ability to utilize integrated processes?
This is a prime example of where justice information systems integration could have far reaching implications. In regard to sentencing, first time offenders in one community may not have been labeled as serial offenders…
Avolio, Frederick M. (2000, March 20). Best Practices in Network Security -- as the Networking Landscape Changes, So Must the Policies That Govern Its Use. Don't Be Afraid of Imperfection When it Comes to Developing Those for Your Group. Network Computing.
Capital Punishment in U.S. Hit 30-Year Low in 2003. Ed. All American Patriots. (March 1, 2005). Retrieved on April 21, 2005, from All American Patriots at http://www.allamericanpatriots.com/m-news+article+storyid-6869-PHPSESSID-c7528df1df14be6397da4e89e25a7374.html.
Dekker, Marcel. (n.d.). Security of the Internet. Retrieved on April 21, 2005, at http://www.cert.org/encyc_article/tocencyc.html#Overview
Holmes, Amir., Webster, Lawrence P., & Sullivan, Teri (2004). JIEM Reference Model. SEARCH, the National Consortium for Justice Information and Statistics. Retrieved on April 21, 2005, at http://www.search.org/integration/JRM1.0.1.pdf
" (U.S. Department of Justice, 2007; 22)
The U.S. Department of Justice report also states that upon evaluation of the management of the DEA of "selected practices governing its SIU Program...revealed significant deficiencies including: (1) poor recordkeeping; (2) inadequate control over SIU equipment; (3) inadequate practices for supply salary supplement payment to unit members; (4) excessive span of control ratios for management of the units; (5) insufficient evidence of training; and (7) failure to perform exit briefing of outgoing SIU members. (2007) Stated to be crucial in the DEA success or failure in investigative activity internationally are relationships with: (1) other DEA offices (foreign and domestic); (2) other U.S. law enforcement agencies abroad; and (3) foreign government and their law enforcement components charge with combating illicit drug trafficking." (U.S. Department of Justice, 2007; 26) the following chart shows the sources of international training funds for the DEA in 2005.
DEA Mission Statement (2008) U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration. Online available at http://www.usdoj.gov/dea/agency/mission.htm
Agency Budget Summaries: Drug Enforcement Administration (1999) Policy Office of National Drug Control Policy. Online available at http://www.ncjrs.gov/ondcppubs/publications/policy/budget98/agency-09f.html
The Drug Enforcement Administration's International Operations (2007) U.S. Department of Justice Office of the Inspector General Audit Division Audit Report 07-19 February 2007.
Drug Enforcement Administration (2006) U.S. Department of Justice. Online available at http://www.usdoj.gov/jmd/mps/manual/dea.htm
S. DHS "Strategic Plan," 2008, http://www.dhs.gov/xabout/strategicplan/) ealistically acts of terrorism, domestic or foreign are exceedingly rare, though slightly more common than they have been in the past and at least marginally more violent in nature, they occur very, very rarely. (Lewis, 2000, p. 201) Though maintaining serious preparedness the mitigation of natural disasters, most which cannot be avoided is an issue needed to be addressed almost yearly, on both small and large scales, across the nation and is much more likely to directly effect people and resources on an intimate level and should be the Emergency Management system's first and primary concern! Though worst possible case scenarios, regarding the use of WMDs is important it is not where all the resources should go.
(5. In the course, you have been introduced to the various responsibilities of different levels of government in the homeland security effort. What level of government do…
Daniels, R.S. (2007). Revitalizing Emergency Management after Katrina: A Recent Survey of Emergency Managers Urges Improved Response, Planning, and Leadership and a Reinvigorated FEMA -- the Federal Government Has Responded by Making Most of the Recommended Changes. The Public Manager, 36(3), 16.
Department of Homeland Security Website www.dhs.gov
Depoorter, B. (2006). Horizontal Political Externalities: The Supply and Demand of Disaster Management. Duke Law Journal, 56(1), 101.
Hulnick, a.S. (2004). Keeping Us Safe: Secret Intelligence and Homeland Security. Westport, CT: Praeger.
And it does this by conducting investigations and enforcing laws that deal with public health, order, and decency.
"Morals" and "decency" are not words one would expect to see in the core values of a secular institution like a police department, but they are definitely in line with the stated core beliefs of SLU. As stated previously, SLU has it basis in a strong Catholic ideology, which is permeated with morality and decency. Catholic teachings, which are at the center of the core values of SLU, teach a person to be a moral individual who acts with decency. While maintaining the core values of maintaining excellence, respecting the law, protecting communities, and acting with integrity, the Lubbock Police Department does not forget to maintain a code of moral conduct that also expects society to act within the norms of decency.
One of the causes of the failure of the United…
Casteel, Philip. (2011, Feb. 24). "Mayor Reacts to Terrorist Arrest in Lubbock." KCBD
Webpage. Retrieved from http://www.kcbd.com/story/14136417/mayor-reactas-to-terrorist-arest-in-lubbock?redirected=true
"Core Values." (n.d.) St. Leo University Webpage. Retrieved from http://www.saintleo.edu/About-SLU/Florida-Catholic-University
"Lubbock Police Department swears in 13 New Officers." (2011, Sept. 9). Lubbock
Call for backup before attempting pursuit into unsecured potential gang situations
5.. Examples of gangs deploying military weapons and tactics against law enforcement:
2005: Contract assassination attempt against corrections officer in Lakewood, Wash. By United Blood Nation gang member in active service from Bremerton Navy Station (10)
2005: Ceres, California: Active-duty, U.S. Marine Iraq combat veteran gang member shoots two police, killing one, using military tactics (11)
2006: Verbal testimony by several gang members suggests veterans training gangs for combat (12)
2010: U.S.Marine Corps veterans charged with selling assault weapons to gangs (13)
2011: Twenty-seven AK-47s stolen from California's Fort Irwin Army base (14)
2011: National Gang Threat Assessment report: "Gang members are acquiring high-powered, military-style weapons and equipment, which poses a significant threat because of the potential to engage in lethal encounters with law enforcement and citizens alike" (15)
6. ACTION: If you believe you may encounter military-level threat…
References: All sources peer-reviewed, government or considered reliable.
Blankenstein, A. "Marines sold military assault weapons to L.A. gang members, authorities allege." Los Angeles Times L.A. Now, 9 Nov. 2010. 26 Dec. 2011 (4, 13)
Cooley, S. "Findings and proposals from the District Attorney's Office." L.A. County District Attorney. April 2008. 26 Dec. 2011 < da.co.la.ca.us/pdf/LADA_Gang_Crime_&_Violence_APR_2008.pdf > (9)
Federal Bureau of Investigation. "The Continuing Gang Threat." National Gang Threat Assessment 2011 Key Findings, National Gang Intelligence Center. 21 Oct. 2011 (15)
L.A. County District Attorney's Office. "Gang Crimes." Hardcore Gang Division, 1 Nov. 2011. 26 Dec. 2011 (16)
Tucker, deputy sheriff of said county, from giving and securing to the said Robert R. Smith and others, naming them, the due and equal protection of the laws of said state, in this, to-wit, that at and before the entering into said conspiracy, the said Robert R. Smith and others, naming them, were held in the custody of said deputy sheriff by virtue of certain warrants duly issued against them, to answer certain criminal charges, and it thereby became and was the duty of said deputy sheriff to safely keep in his custody the said Robert R. Smith and others while so under arrest, and then and there give and secure to them the equal protection of the laws of the State of Tennessee, and that the defendants did then and there conspire together for the purpose of preventing and hindering the said deputy sheriff from then and there safely…
Brittanica. "Force Acts." 2009. Brittanica.com. 23 November 2009 .
Cannaday, M. "United States vs. Harris, AKA the Ku Klux Klan Case." 17 March 2008. associatedcontent.com. 23 November 2009 .
jrank. "United States vs. Harris." jrank.org. 22 November 2009 .
justia.com. "United States vs. Harris (1883)." justia.com. 23 November 2009 .
Managing a correctional organization is not an easy task. It takes a great deal of thought and strategy to properly run a home for criminals, especially when many of those criminals can be unruly and poorly behaved, and perhaps even dangerous. It is important to establish a system in which inmates are distinguished from one another. For instance, those inmates who present a threat to other inmates, staff, or even themselves will need more security and supervision than those who pose no threat.
Traditional facilities organize their inmates according to those who need maximum, medium, and minimum security. However, there has been a new trend in correctional organizations that is called "direct supervision." This concept allows correctional officers to interact directly with inmates, thus allowing officers to manage inmates' behavior at a much more detailed level (National Institute of Corrections).
Direct supervision can be distinguished from other management…
Direct Supervision." Sarasota County's Sheriff's Office. 5 Nov. 2003. http://www.sarasotasheriff.org/co_directsupervision.asp .
Direct Supervision: A Safer, More Effective Jail." Oswego County Sheriff's Department. 5 Nov. 2003. http://www.co.oswego.ny.us/sheriff/method.html.
Direct Supervision Jails." National Institute of Corrections. 5 Nov. 2003. http://www.nicic.org/resources/topics/DirectSupervisionJails.aspx.
Going by history, the chain gangs found in America were mostly used as tools for humiliating, controlling and terrorizing the African-Americans. The chain gang reappeared in 1995 as a type of punishment in Alabama prisons, thus bringing back to life one of the most shameful and powerful symbol of America's bequest of institutionalized ethnic subjugation and racial prejudice. The 8th Amendment prohibits all punishments that are not in agreement with the evolving decency standards that exhibits the growth of an emergent civilization. Slavery was not abolished immediately as a consequence of implementation of the 13th Amendment.
Despite the constitutional provisions for the total prohibition of slavery; the remnants of slavery could still be found in several economic, political and social contexts. Under the disguise of criminal justice, slavery was almost unashamedly re-implemented. Before the 13th Amendment saw the light of the day, repressive labor practices were introduced into…
Anderson, J.F., & Dyson, L. (2000). Alabama Prison Chain Gangs: Reverting to Archaic Punishment to Reduce Crime and Discipline Offenders. Western Journal of Black Studies, 24(1), 9.
Haley, S. (2013). "Like I Was a Man": Chain Gangs, Gender, and the Domestic Carceral Sphere in Jim Crow Georgia. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture & Society, 39(1), 53-77.
Guttierrez, A. (2013). Sufferings peculiarly their own: the thirteenth amendment, in defense of incarcerated women's reproductive rights, 15 Berkeley J.Afri.-Am. L. & Pol'y.
Banks, C. (2004) Criminal justice ethics: theory and practice. SAGE.
Organizational Design and Development
In the criminal justice organization, the decision making process is very important. It is also extremely hierarchical in nature, because it requires that people in all levels follow the chain of command for their particular department or other entity. In other words, a police cadet who is on the lowest rung of the advancement ladder would have a number of people above him or her, from which he or she would be required to take orders. Additionally, if there are organizations that have jurisdiction over the criminal justice organization in which that cadet works, he or she would also be required and expected to take orders from those individuals, as well. That is highly significant, and well worth noting, because a failure to understand how the organizational design and development of a criminal justice organization actually works can mean a lack of true respect for a…
Confidential Information Case Study
Confidential information generally consists of non-public information about people or institutions that if it were to be disclosed, could be expected to place either the person or the institution at risk. These risks could be criminal in nature, but also could be civil liability, financial standing, employability, reputation or privacy. ("601" 2010) In most businesses, employees are strictly regulated as to what information can be disclosed about other employees. However, in many businesses, people are routinely exposed to confidential information that could possibly cause harm and must weigh the various ethical concerns involved. These include the problems involved over their agreeing not to disclose such information when they were hired, as well as the possible harm disclosing the information could cause to the company, or any of it's employees. But this must be weighed against the possible harm that not disclosing such information could…
601 - Treatment of Confidential Information | The University of Chicago 2010, Human Resource Services | The University of Chicago, Available from: http://hrservices.uchicago.edu/fpg/policies/600/p601.shtml
Barrett, S. 2011, Outrageous Whistleblower Prosecution Fails, Available from: http://www.quackwatch.org/14Legal/nurses.html
Hearing Conducted by the Texas State Office of Administrative Hearings 2010, Texas Nurses Association, Available from: http://www.texasnurses.org/associations/8080/files/TMB_FormalComplaint.pdf
Howland, Daphne 1999. "When doctors go retail: Is it OK to sell products." American College of Physicians- American Society of Internal Medicine Observer. Available from: http://www.acpinternist.org/archives/1999/01/retail.htm
Like the federal government, the State of Texas passes legislation and creates laws that are specific to that state. That does not make the state immune to the laws federally required, but it does ensure that citizens there are aware of the beliefs, desires, and goals of the state within the confines of legal issues. As such, many of the bills that are created and passed into law in Texas are based on party lines. Democrats and Republications often have differing opinions on very serious issues such as the right to life, gun control, and immigration. ith this in mind, the bills they try to pass are generally very different from one another based on those beliefs. It can easily be seen that people who follow their party lines carefully and seriously will create and attempt to pass bills that are based on the beliefs and…
Baysinger, Steve. Texas Fights Back: Rep. John Otto (R-Dayton) Files Texas House Bill 553, "The Second Amendment Preservation Act." Tenth Amendment Center. 2013. Web. http://texas.tenthamendmentcenter.com/2013/01/texas-fights-back-rep-john-otto-r-dayton-files-hb-553-the-second-amendment-protection-act/
Culp-Ressler, Tara. Texas Lawmaker Introduces Bill to Block Abortion Restrictions Until the Death Penalty is Abolished. Think Progress. 2013. Web. http://thinkprogress.org/health/2013/07/16/2312051/texas-democrats-death-penalty-abortion/
Fletcher, Allen. Rep. Allen Fletcher Re-Files Bill Prohibiting Sex-Selective Abortions. Press Releases. 2013. Web. http://www.house.state.tx.us/news/member/press-releases/?id=4616&session=83&district=130&bill_code=2830
Howerton, Jason. Texas Democrat Proposes Legislation That Would Remove Sheriffs Who Refuse to Enforce Gun Control Laws From Office. The Blaze. 2013. Web. http://www.theblaze.com/stories/2013/03/27/texas-democrat-proposes-legislation-that-would-remove-sheriffs-who-refuse-to-enforce-gun-control-laws-from-office/
(1990) Municipal Government Involvement in Crime Prevention in Canada. This work provides insight into the way that municipal government interacts with the police in the organization of crime prevention structures and the delivery of crime prevention services and activities. (Hastings, 1990, p. 108)
The idea of municipal government interaction in crime prevention is shown to have been spurred on in Canada by "....the successes of locally organized and community-based initiatives in North America. In both cases, the involvement reflects a sense that, whatever crime prevention is, the police cannot do it alone." (Hastings, 1990, p. 108) This again attests to the prevailing theme in the literature that there is a general consensus that the police force faces problems that are complex and which require the interaction and the assistance of other local community and municipal structures.
Hastings emphasizes this sense of interaction in the field of community policing and particularly…
About Community Policing. Retrieved 16 August 2006, at http://www.communitypolicing.org/about2.html
BJA Bureau of Justice Assistance Fact Sheet. Comprehensive Communities Program: A Unique Way To Reduce Crime and Enhance Public Safety. (2000) Retrieved 18 August, 2006, at http://www.ncjrs.gov/txtfiles1/bja/fs000267.txt
COMMUNITY ORIENTED POLICING. Retrieved 16 August 2006, at http://safestate.org/index.cfm?navID=7
Community-Oriented Policing: Blessing Or Curse? Retrieved15 August, 2006, from, http://www.wsurcpi.org/resources/citizen_invol/Community-Oriented%20Policing%20Blessing%20or%20Curse.htm
" (Vossekuil, orum, Fein, and Reddy, 2008) Stated to be an example of inductive assessment strategy is that of profiling. Profiling involves a description of the 'typical perpetrator' being compiled through use of characteristics that previous perpetrators of that specific type of crime have met. This profile is then used as a template or prototype for comparison of individuals who are believed or suspected to be a potential perpetrator.
In contrast, the process of threat assessment is deductive on a fundamental level and has as its focus primarily the 'facts of the particular case in question to guide inferences about whether the person is thinking about, planning, or building capacity for a violent act. The threat assessment approach emphasizes close examination of the progression of ideas and planning behaviors over time and corroboration of information gathered in the case from multiple sources in contact with the potential perpetrator." (Vossekuil, orum,…
Baehler, Aimee and Somerlot, Douglas K. (2005) Security and Disaster Preparedness: A Collaborative Process between State and Federal Courts. Aug 2005. The Justice Management Institute. Denver Colorado. www.jimjustice.org.
Renfroe, Nancy a. And Smith, Joseph L. (2008) Threat Vulnerability Assessments and Risk Analysis. 24 May 2008. Applied Research Associates. Online available: http://www.wbdg.org/resources/riskanalysis.php
Vossekuil, Bryan, Borum, Randy, Fein, Robert, and Reddy, Marisa (2008) Preventing Targeted Violence against Judicial Officials and Courts. United States Secret Service. Online available at: http://www.secretservice.gov/ntac_aapss.shtml
Form for 1.2.1 National Sheriffs' Association Physical Security Checklist (nd) Online available at: http://www.ncsconline.org/D_Research/TCPS/Forms/Form_121.pdf
How would you differentiate male and female prisoner backgrounds? Is there a better solution to prisoner background classification? Explain.
The basic cognitive, psychological and emotional differences between males and females are exacerbated by the intensely stressful conditions inherent to the majority of American prisons. According to Laura E. Bedard, Ph.D., a former professor of criminology who also served as Deputy Secretary of the Florida Department of Corrections, "Men tend to externalize stress, which in prison produces more physical aggression and combative behavior." This tendency results in male prisoners forming violent gangs based on racial boundaries, while women prisoners form more familial partnerships of necessity. The fact that "women tend to internalize stress" leads to prolonged periods of introspection and "may explain why female inmates engage in self-harming behavior such as cutting, carving and burning" (Bedard, 2008). Based on her firsthand experience with prison inmates of both gender, Bedard…
Bedard, L.E. (2008, September 16). Female vs. male inmates: The rewards and challenges of managing both. Retrieved from http://www.correctionsone.com/corrections/articles/1843155-Female-vs.-male-inmates-The-rewards-and-challenges-of-managing-both/
U.S. Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Prisons. (2011). Differences between federal, state, & local inmates. Retrieved from Federal Bureau of Prisons website: http://www.bop.gov/inmate_locator/inmate_differences.jsp
U.S. Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics. (2011). State and federal prisoners and prison facilities. Retrieved from Bureau of Justice Statistics website: http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index.cfm?ty=tp&tid=13
Broward Sheriff's Office. (2011). What's the difference between jail and prison? Retrieved from Broward County Sheriff's Office website: http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index.cfm?ty=tp&tid=13
One of the paramedics was Latina, and she translated; the female (Ms. Garcia) was married to the suspect but says she divorced him last year due to his violent episodes and his drinking and drug use, according to the translation from the Paramedic.
"A neighbor in a nearby apartment knocked on the door and said she had witnessed the female being harmed by the suspect more than once. The witness, Alice Mercado, 27, bilingual and employed as a maid in a nearby motel, said she had heard fighting coming from the apartment in the past on many occasions. Sometimes she was afraid to come to see what was happening because the suspect was unpredictable and explosively violent when under the influence of alcohol and crack cocaine, she said. She told this officer that she once had a relationship with the suspect prior to his marriage to her neighbor.…
United States, the scope of responsibilities of a sheriff varies across states and counties. The sheriff is most frequently a chosen/elected county official, serving as the arm of the parish court or county. However, some cities, a good example being the Commonwealth of Virginia, have a sheriff's office with dual purpose as the arm of the city jail and court. The sheriff can also perform court duties. These may encompass such functions as managing the city or county jail, providing courtroom security as well as prisoner transportation, assisting in serving warrants including serving process. Within urban areas, the sheriff may be constrained to those duties. Numerous other sheriffs as well as their deputies may serve an area as the main police force. In addition to also having jurisdiction over the whole county even in what some may consider more urban areas (Sullivan, osen, Schulz & Haberfeld, 2005, p. 123).
Sullivan, L., Rosen, M., Schulz, D., & Haberfeld, M. (2005). Encyclopedia of law enforcement. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
Weir, W. (2011). Border patrol. New York: Chelsea House.
In addition, a brief look at his family history is required, because the political fortunes of James Otis' father directly influenced the trajectory of his own career.
James Otis was part of the fifth generation in a family that first arrived in the colonies looking for economic opportunity, and James Otis' grandfather, John Otis III, was the first in the family who went beyond business into politics (aters 1968 & Halko 1969, p. 609-10). In 1760 James Otis was appointed advocate general of the Admiralty Court, which was the court responsible for dealing with smuggled goods seized in the colonies (Hickman 1932, p. 89.) hen the protest launched by the Society for Promoting Trade and Commerce within the Province made its way to court, James Otis would have been responsible for defending the legality of writs of assistance, but instead he resigned his post and took up the cause of…
Adair, E.R. "Writs of Assistance, 1558-1700." English Historical Review. 36.143 (1921): 356-
Borchers, Tim. "A Rhetorical Analysis of James Otis's Against Writs of Assistance." Minnesota
State. Minnesota State, 12 Jan 2001. Web. 20 Mar 2011.
Provide a background analysis about the organization's internal and external environment (SWOT AND PEST)
Organization -- W.A. Police Communications (24/7 police operations call center)
SWOT Analysis (Sheriff Grady Judd, 2013)
Education & Training
Technology & Equipment
Hiring Process and Standards
Promotional and Transfer Opportunities
The Economy and the Budget
Unchanging Pay Scales
Loss of Experts to etirement
Loss of Experts to Other Law Enforcement Agencies
Morale Succession Strategy
Inadequate Overtime Pay
Loss of Grants
Training and Educational Opportunities Multi-Agency Collaboration
Prospective Candidate Diversity
The Economy and the Budget
Issues with etirement System
Workforce Shortage/ Large Vacancies
Crime ate ise Because of Economic Factors
Growth of Inmate Population
Comparison of etirement Agency Pay to that of Other Agencies
Lost Grants Sponsoring…
Elizabeth Bakken. (2006). Making the Transition to Management. Ceridian Corporation.
Anthony W. Batts, Sean Michael Smoot, & Ellen Scrivner. (2012). Police Leadership Challenges in a Changing World. Washington DC: U.S. Department of Justice.
Edward Connors, & Barbara Webster. (2001). Transforming the Law Enforcement Organization to Community Policing. Institute for Law and Justice.
Fayetteville Police Department. (2016). Police Department - Written Directives and Operating Procedures. Fayetteville Police Department.
e can see that minority status has far less to do with population size, and instead seems very much to be inclined by race, ethnicity and political power instead. This label of minority status is in many ways used as a tag by which certain groups are detained from political unity or effectiveness.
To a large degree, this is a condition which relates to the nature of the Hispanic demographic, which in spite of its cultural diversity, is typically perceived by the larger American public as a single unified entity. This is both untrue and reflects the ethnocentric qualities of the white American political body that have tended to relegate the Hispanic population to representation that is not proportional to its true presence here. Indeed, "although Mexican-Americans continue to be the largest group within the Latino population, increasing immigration from other Latin American means they are perhaps the most culturally…
Agencia EFE. (2009). Hispanics ask Obama for More Key Government Posts. Hispanic Business. Ret. Feb. 13, 2010 at http://www.hispanicbusiness.com/politics/2009/4/30/hispanics_ask_obama_for_more_key.htm
Auerbach, a.J. & Oreopoulos, P. (1999). Analyzing the Fiscal Impact of U.S. Immigration. The American Economic Review, 89(2).
Bernstein, R. (2008). U.S. Hispanic population surpasses 45 million now 15% of total. U.S. Census Bureau News.
Borjas, G. (1995). The Economic Benefits from Immigration. The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 9(2).
incongruous to try to compare the artists illiam Shakespeare and Bob Marley. These two men, separated by centuries and embodying two very different forms of art, both make up part of the history of popular culture. One man is considered the premiere playwright in the history of the English language, a man whose name is synonymous with high culture. The other man is known for his success in a musical genre and a culture that uses a different meaning for the word high. hat could these men possible have in common one might ask? Examining the history and writings of both Renaissance writer illiam Shakespeare and reggae musician Bob Marley it becomes evident that they both use emotional appeals and heavy symbolism to prove points about the human condition and to promote understanding between people from different stations of life, all of which are used to persuade others that the…
Backus, Truman J. 1897. "William Shakespeare." The Outlines of Literature: English and American. Sheldon: NY. 90-102.
Laroque, Francois. The Age of Shakespeare. Harry N. Abrams: London.
Marly, Bob, 1973. "Get Up, Stand Up." Burnin'. Tuff Gong.
Marley, Bob, 1973. "I Shot the Sheriff." Burnin'. Tuff Gong.
Pygmalion -- George Bernard Shaw
George Bernard Shaw -- one of the most well regarded playwrights -- wrote this comedy and first presented it to the public in 1912. He took some of the substance of the original Greek myth of Pygmalion and turned it into a popular play. In Greek mythology Pygmalion actually came to fall in love with one of his sculptures, and the sculpture suddenly became a living human. But in this play two older gentlemen, Professor Higgins (who is a scientist studying the art of phonetics) and Colonel Pickering (a linguist who specializes in Indian dialects) meet in the rain at the start of this play.
Higgins makes a bet with Pickering that because of his great understanding of phonetics, he will be able to take the Covent Garden flower girl -- who speaks "cockney" which is not considered very high brow in England -- and…
Bennett, A. (2008). The History Boys. London, UK: Farber & Farber.
Glaspell, S. (1921). Inheritors: A Play in Three Acts. Berkeley, CA: University of California.
Glaspell, S. (2008). Trifles. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan
Hellman, L. (2013). The Children's Hour. Whitefish, MT: Literary Licensing, LLC.
Assurance and Security (IAS) Digital forensics (DF)
In this work, we take a look at three laboratory-based training structures that afford practical and basic knowledge needed for forensic evaluation making use of the latest digital devices, software, hardware and firmware. Each lesson has three parts. The duration of the first section of the three labs will be one month. These labs would be the largest labs. The Second section would consist of smaller labs. The training period duration in these labs would also generally be one month. The third section would consist of smallest labs. The duration of training period in these labs would be one week. The training will be provided in the field of software, programming concepts, flowcharting and algorithms and logical reasoning- both linear and iterative.
Part 1 Larger Labs:
Lab 1(Timeline Analysis)
Purposes and goals of the Lab (Lab VI):
Use MAC (Media Access Control, internet…
 Lab VI: Timeline Analysis. Available at https://cs.nmt.edu/~df/Labs/Lab06_sol.pdf
 LAB IV: File Recovery: Meta Data Layer. Available at
 Lab V: File Recovery: Data Layer Revisited. Available at
 Windows Client Configuration. Available at
Ethics in Law Enforcement
"Sometimes [police officers] may, and sometimes may not, lie when conducting custodial interrogations. Investigative and interrogatory lying are each justified on utilitarian crime control grounds. Police are never supposed to lie as witnesses in the courtroom, although they may lie for utilitarian reasons similar to those permitting deception & #8230;" (Skolnick, et al., 1992)
Is it ethical for law enforcement officers to use deception during the interrogation process? It appears that when officers are attempting to extract a confession from a suspect, deception is, in many cases, commonly applied strategy. Does a code of ethics conflict with the way in which law enforcement conducts its interviews and interrogations? hat do the courts say about deceptive interrogation tactics? These issues will be reviewed in this paper.
Deception in the Interrogation Room
Is it ethical to lie to obtain the truth? No. Do the ends justify the means?…
Braswell, Michael C. (2011). Justice, Crime, and Ethics. Maryland Heights, MO: Elsevier.
Leo, Richard A. (2009). Police Interrogation and American Justice. Cambridge, MA: Harvard
McMullen, Patrick M. (2005). Questioning the Questions: The Impermissibility of Police
Deception in Interrogations of Juveniles. Northwestern University Law Review, 99(2),
Heat of the Night
Theories on Prejudice and Discrimination
The first thought on prejudice and discrimination in this movie naturally falls to the race of Virgil Tibbs (i.e., Sidney Poitier) but this movie delves in much more subtle comparisons and stereotypical prejudices than mere skin color.
A film in the late 1960's did not headline a black actor. Significant is the fact that Tibbs is allowed to be smart, clever, empathetic, superior, and dedicated to finding the killer - even while realizing he is being framed for a murder he did not commit.
Sheriff Bill Gillespie (Rod Steiger) is the perfect white counterpoint to Tibbs: manipulative, curiously vulnerable, steely when crossed, and white - stereotypical redneck portrayal of a Southern public servant.
The underlying theory of prejudicial racism is clearly defined - if subtly - by the deserted condition of the train station, the hour of Tibbs' arrival, and being…
Internet predators seem to have a penchant for engaging adolescents in areas that are able to be monitored for content. The law enforcement via federal grants can track and collect information on a particular IP address to determine precisely what the intent is on that individual and use that as a means to limit his internet activity. A special program can be installed onto the computer of the solicitor to prevent the individual from attempting to contact minors online for sexual engagement. The means to prevent the act is perhaps the best method. Often, these individuals are not dangerous per se' as in a hardened prison criminal. However, by taking precaution, these individuals can be stopped from hurting others, ruining their lives, and subsequently clogging up the laws enforcement throughout the country.
Attorney general gonzales highlights department efforts to combat sexual abuse and exploitation of children in Massachusetts; unveils…
Attorney general gonzales highlights department efforts to combat sexual abuse and exploitation of children in Massachusetts; unveils new series of PSAs to educate teenage girls about online dangers (2007). . United States, New York: PR Newswire Association LLC. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/453822940?accountid=13044
Bremer, J., & Bersein, E.V. (2000). Computers in psychiatry today. Academic Psychiatry, 24(3), 168-168. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/196517498?accountid=13044
Case law developments. (2010). Mental and Physical Disability Law Reporter, 34(6), 827-827-984. Retrieved fromhttp://search.proquest.com/docview/840369002?accountid=13044
FBI licenses image search solutions from ADF solutions to combat child pornography (2006). . United States, New York: Business Wire. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/445173785?accountid=13044
A in millions)
Current in millions)
Provided by Federal ureau of Investigation as of September 18, 2006. www.whitehouse.gov/goodbye/3ae6b1ac94aa97e6650780f280890a7c81100e47.html"
CHART: National Correctional Populations
National Correctional Populations
The number of adults in correctional population has been increasing.
A in millions)
Current million in millions)
Provided by ureau of Justice Statistics as of November 30, 2006. (Social Statistics riefing Room, 2006)
Violence in the Media
Huston and colleagues have estimated that the average 18-year-old will have viewed 200,000 acts of violence on television (Huston, a.C., Donnerstein, E., Fairchild, H. et al. ig World, Small Screen: The Role of Television in American Society. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1992.)
41% percent of American households have three or more televisions (Nielsen Media Research, 2000).
56% of children ages 8-16 have a television in their rooms (Annenberg Public Policy Center, 2000. Media in the Home 2000)
Percentage of television-time children ages 2-7 spend…
Alter, Jonathan. "Moving Beyond the Blame Game. (Panel Discussion)," Newsweek, May 17, 1999.
Beyer, John. "PERSPECTIVE: How movie and TV violence hits children; Is there too much violence on television and is it time to curb it? John Beyer, director of the organization mediawatch-uk argues that media viol," Birmingham Post, March 21, 2007.
Chatfield, Joanne E.. "Influence of Media Violence on Children." American Family Physician, February 15, 2002.
Children's Hospital Boston. "Teen-Rated Video Games Loaded With Violence;
The Train Derailment Chemical Spill Response Annex
The three main priorities that the National Incident Management System (NIMS) provides for any emergency response operation are: to save lives, stabilize the incident, protect property and the environment. These three priorities are supported by the guiding principles of flexibility, standardization and unity of effort (NIMS, 2018). These priorities and principles, therefore, will serve as the foundation of this Train Derailment Chemical Spill Response Annex. This Annex will describe the role and expectations of all relevant partners in the response, the interagency collaboration process and procedures that all responding partners will be required to participate in to help prevent, respond to, mitigate and manage a train derailment chemical spill in our community.
First responders must give dispatch a sense of the level of seriousness of the situation in order to prepare the appropriate response. A 3 level classification system is…
Dressed in T-shirt that says 'Life is slum' and frayed jeans.
Oh yes! His beating was intentional. The way they kicked and stomped him -- over and over again. Though beats me why 20% didn't think so. Bigoted idiots.
Three LA Police officers stomped, kicked and beat King with metal batons. The scene was video taped by George Halliday, manager of a plumbing company, from ninety-feet away.
Q. What were your reactions?
Scandalized. I remember thinking it impossible that such acts of police brutality -- Police of all things! You would think they would be above that -- were happening today. In America. In Los Angeles.
California is oen of the most civilized states. This isn't the South after all. Here's where we're supposed to, like, love everyone else and against prejudice. Especially the police. Couldn't get to grips with this at the time. Scary.
That riots started a few…
Domestic Drug Trafficking
The illegal drug market in the United States is one of the most profitable in the world, and attracts the most sophisticated and aggressive drug traffickers (Drug pp). According to U.S. Customs Service, sixty million people enter the United States on more than 675,000 commercial and private flights, and another 6 million enter by sea, and some 370 million by land (Drug pp). Moreover, 116 million vehicles enter by crossing the Canadian and Mexican borders, and more than 90, 000 merchant and passenger ships dock at U.S. ports carrying more than 9 million shipping containers and 400 million tons of cargo, with an additional 157,000 smaller vessels docking at various coastal towns (Drug pp).
Amid all this trade, drug traffickers conceal cocaine, heroin, marijuana, and methamphetamine shipments for distribution into U.S. neighborhoods (Drug pp).
The traffic and distribution of illegal drugs involves diverse groups (Drug pp). Criminal…
Sesin, Carmen. Caring for 'drug mules' who perish on the job: Colombian aids forgotten victims. NBC News. May 25, 2994. Accessed from MSNBC.com web site on May 05, 2005.
Humbles, Andy. Dealers get creative when hiding their drugs. The Tennessean.
February 15, 2004. Accessed from The Tennessean web site on May 05, 2005.
Ethnicity in Stafford, Virginia
Living in the commonwealth of Virginia in the year 2012 is a mostly enjoyable existence for myself and the fellow members of my community. Stafford, Virginia is a relatively small place. e have about 100,000 people living here. This is a community steeped in heritage. One of the landmarks of our community is the boyhood farm of First President of the United States, George ashington. Ferry Farm is the central tourist attraction in Stafford and many of our local events center around our Founding Father. During the Civil ar, President Abraham Lincoln visited Chatham, a private home in the region. The land was used as a station for the Union army during that war. America's history is part of our daily lives. This is evidenced by the fact that the phrase "here history meets the promise of tomorrow" is emblazoned on the town's website (Stafford 2012).…
Callandar, Alane (2008). "Race Remains Complex Issue in South." The Stafford County Sun.
Cohan, Stacey (2010). "Autistic Teen Jailed for Officer Assault." Fox DC: Washington, D.C.
Freehling, Bill (2011). "Stafford Moving on Up on U.S. Wealth List." The Free Lance Star.
Parkland, Florida Shooting – Rampant Gun Violence in the Nation’s Schools
What started as a normal day for the teachers and students at the Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School in Parkland, Florida on February 14, 2018, soon transformed into a scene of grisly mass murders and injuries perpetrated by 19-year-old high school student Nikolas Cruz. Unfortunately, this national tragedy was just another in a seemingly unending series of similar massacres of students and teachers in the nation’s schools in recent years and it galvanized the American public attention to the need for stricter gun control laws. Indeed, even as this paper was being written, two more students were shot to death at Central Michigan University by another 19-year-old, James Eric Davis Jr. who remains at large (Chicago-area teen suspected of fatally shooting two people at Central Michigan University, 2018). To determine the facts about the Parkland shootings, this paper reviews the…
g. A Police Office in a large metropolitan area like New York will have different duties and dangers than a County Sheriff in a rural Oklahoma area) (Barlow, 2000).
ightly so, modern society has a certain level of expectations for its military and law enforcement branches. While it is known that both must, at times, deal with the underside of society, it is also assumed that the group will rise above base and animalistic reactions and upload both the law and a sense of compassion -- coupled with self-preservation and safety. Officers are often in danger of infectious disease, motor vehicle fatalities, apprehension of persons under substance abuse, and line of duty deaths are not uncommon. For instance, approximately 200 police officers die per year in the United States, with over half of those deaths from direct assaults from suspects or criminals (obert, 2008). Still, individuals are sociologically drawn to…
REFERENCES and WORKS CONSULTED
Amnesty International, (2007), Amnesty International Report 2007. Cited in:
Baker, T. (2005), Effective Police Leadership, Looseleaf Law Books.
Barlow, D. (2000). Police in a Multicultural Society. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press.
Flew ver the Cuckoo's Nest"
Independent films have become such a mainstay of American cinema that it is difficult to tell what should be considered independent and what should be considered a major production these days. Small, independent film studios can gain such a following that they are soon producing movies that are seen by millions. f course, this was not always the case because the reason there are indie films is because of the rebellion over the control of the large studios. In the case of the movie "ne Flew ver the Cuckoo's Nest" it was an indie film, but it was seen by a large audience. Like many indie films of that time and this though, it had a flare that could not be seen in major motion pictures. Since major motion picture studios were interested more in the bottom line and worried about turning a profit for…
One only has to look at history to see the fallacy perpetrated by major motion picture studios. "They Died with Their Boots On" is a retelling of the story of the Little Bighorn massacre which starred Errol Flynn and was released by the major motion picture company Warner Bros. The movie makes a hero of Custer as he tries to run down Sitting Bull and a corrupt, gun-selling Indian agent. The picture is factually inaccurate from start to finish and perpetuates the myth that Custer was the honorable one at Little Bighorn. Sitting Bull is seen as an opportunist and a rebel who only wants to kill white people. This sort of movie was immensely popular (released in 1949) because, although everyone knew it was probably a biased retelling, it had a distinct hero and a villain (there were actually later movies which had Sitting Bull as the hero which is also factually inaccurate). Although the movie is enjoyable when an individual wants to spend a mind-numbing few hours in front of the TV, it is also a symbol of why many people were tired of major motion pictures, and why indie films have gained the traction that they currently have. A true telling of the story would reveal that neither was a hero, but that Custer, as a glory-seeker and narcissist, sacrificed his troop on a fool's errand.
In recent times, major motion picture studios have gotten the message, at least partially, that people crave a little more reality. That is why big name releases such as "American History X" and "American Beauty" were released by New Line Cinema and Dream Works respectively. These are considered indie film companies, but they are that in name only. These are both major studios that are producing edgy movies under an indie tag. Both of the releases mentioned above were both critical and box office successes because they were edgy. Another film that shows the influence that indie films has had is "Unforgiven." This is not a classic Western that has a distinct white-hatted good guy and a black hat wearing bad guy. The lines are blurred between the sheriff and the ex-outlaw. Some of the things Eastwood's outlaw character does are good, and some are not. The same can be said of Hackman's sheriff character.
These movies seem to rely on the success of such movies as "One Flew Over a Cuckoo's Nest." Because movie producers could see a major shift in the way they viewed edgy movies, the large motion picture studios changed the way they made movies. The money shifted, so the movie makers did also.
Fort Bend County, Texas
Urbanization is the process of becoming urban. Living together in villages, towns, and cities is a natural condition of human life that has obtained since the beginning of civilization 10,000 years ago. Cities, for better or worse, have been deeply involved in developing the main characteristics of civilization-literacy, government, high arts, commerce, technology (Miller & Sanders 1990).
Urban places have been focal points for action and ideas, and gateways for trade and migration. The future of humanity is to become urban; about half of the world's population will be living in cities in 2000. Texas shares this human legacy, for in the 1990s more than eighty percent of its citizens live within city limits (Miller & Sanders 1990). For Texas, therefore, urbanization is practically complete.
In 1990 in Texas, now the third largest state, the urban population reached 81.6%, compared to the 77.5% for the United…
Dallas Yesterday. Ed. Lee Milazzo. Dallas: Southern Methodist University Press,
Barr, A. Black Texans: A History of Negroes in Texas, 1528-1971. Austin: Jenkins, 1973.
Brewer, J. Negro Legislators of Texas and Their Descendants. Dallas: Mathis, 1935; 2d ed.,
In this regard, when wage levels fell in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, the standard of living for laborers and cottagers in England declined precipitously and they were compelled to use the majority of their cash, garden crops, and milk just to buy bread and clothing (Kulikoff 2000:19). Not surprisingly, many of these workers found it almost impossible in some cases to even survive, even with the entire family - including young children - working as hard as possible (Kulikoff 19).
In some cases, laborers (but not their families) were paid in food and drink as part of their wages and some likely kept fowl or a pig, and cottagers, of course, produced much of their own food; nevertheless, poor landless families ate bread and porridge, on occasion supplemented by milk, ale, cheese, eggs, or cheap meat, a diet that was far removed from the same level enjoyed…
Abramovitz, Mimi. Regulating the Lives of Women: Social Welfare Policy from Colonial Times to the Present. Boston: South End Press, 1988.
Bonomi, Patricia U. Under the Cope of Heaven: Religion, Society, and Politics in Colonial America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.
Breen, T.H. The Marketplace of Revolution: How Consumer Politics Shaped American Independence. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.
Daunton, M.J. Progress and Poverty: An Economic and Social History of Britain, 1700-1850. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1995.
ut, even though we have the rady ill, homicides keep going up. Critics of the rady ill suggest that this means that the rady ill doesn't work and we ought to get rid of it. However, what it really means is that we need to do even more to strengthen gun control measures. For example, the rady ill ought to include sales by non-dealers as well as sales by licensed gun dealers and ought to incorporate mandatory sentences for attempted illegal purchases of guns. Organizations such as the NRA will no doubt attempt to frighten Americans into believing that they are losing their constitutional right to keep and bear arms. However, the wide-spread support of the rady ill indicates that Americans aren't that stupid. Americans want responsible sales of guns and are willing to tolerate some inconvenience to protect their safety. And, politicians have withstood the pressure of the NRA…
Anderson, J. (1996). Inside the NRA: Armed and dangerous: An expose. Beverly Hills, Calif.: Dove Books.
Brady Act background checks: The first seven months (2000, January 2). http://usgovinfo.about.com/library/weekly/aa010200a.htm
Brady Handgun Violence Protection Act. Wikipedia. http://www.answers.com/topic/brady-handgun-violence-prevention-act
Did Brady bill block handgun sales? (1998, June 22). Capital Hill Blue. http://www.guncite.com/bradybilljun22.html
Community policing arose from dissatisfaction with traditional policing. According to Brogden (1999), traditional police work focuses primarily on fighting serious crime. Proponents of community policing claim that this framework of policing has failed to serve the needs of the community and that traditional police work ignores the factors that most communities regard as priority. Fleming (2005) adds that traditional crime control methods failed to adequately address crime. Brogden (1999) explains that traditional policing "has been faced with several inter-linked crises -- of operations (policing practices are highly ineffective at dealing with crime): of efficiency in crime prevention, especially in the failure to enlist the potential of citizens and communities in this process of crime prevention, and in dealing with the symptoms rather than the causes of crime; of professionalism (the lack of relations between higher police pay, codes of conduct, and effectiveness); and of accountability" (p. 173). Fleming (2005) adds…
Alldredge, P. (2009). The Contradictions of Neighborhood Watch: The Growth and Success of a Failed Crime Prevention Strategy. Conference Papers -- American Sociological Association, 1. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Bennett, T., Holloway, K., & Farrington, D. (2006). Does neighborhood watch reduce crime? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 2(4), 437-458. doi:10.1007/s11292-006-9018-5
Brogden, M.M. (1999). CHAPTER 10: Community Policing as Cherry Pie. In, Policing Across the World (pp. 167-186). Taylor & Francis Ltd. / Books. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
U.S. Department of Justice. (2011). Community policing. Office of Justice Programs: Bureau of Justice Statistics. Retrieved from http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index.cfm?ty=tp&tid=81#terms_def
POL 319 State & Local Governments
emocracy in America has evolved from the concept of federalism allowing citizens at all levels to develop their own governance system. Since the founding of the United States in 1776 different governmental structures both on the state and local level developed. My paper takes a closer look at three different faces of state and local government in the United States of today: irect emocracy Government, Police Jury Government and Mayor-Council Government. While California and Louisiana are showcase examples for the irect emocracy and Policy Jury Government system, New York City stands exemplary for a strong Mayor Council governmental system. The goal of the paper is to point out the distinctive features of the three models, their historic background, and various impacts for citizens in the three geographic surroundings.
Case Study # 1 -- Examination of irect emocracy in California
Does the legislature or the governor have more power in Louisiana based on your analysis? The governor has more power than the legislature because the legislature can completely overpower the governor. There is not one bill he can stop if they chose this veto and there is not an expense he can block for the same reason. The legislature can organize the executive branch anyway it chooses subject to the constitutional imperative of the presence of certain constitutional officers. Furthermore it can get rid of any regulatory authority in it, and propose any constitutional amendment it likes regardless of the governor's opinion on the matter
(Sadow, J.D. (23 May 2011, p.2).
How is the provision of funds to local and state efforts affected or optimized by Louisiana's French-based system? The state of Louisiana faces a severe decline in revenues through fiscal year 2012 which, if no corrective action is taken, will leave a significant funding gap in the state government expenditures and will create serious sustainability issues in financing of state obligations. It is essential that the state act now to reduce the cost of state government, through all means available, including efficiencies, economies, greater effectiveness, and other means to streamline government in order to overcome the projected severe revenue reductions occurring through 2012 . Louisiana also created the Commission on Streamlining Government (CSG) to examine each agency's constitutional and legal duties to gain efficiency and lower costs by reducing the size of state government. This commission is charged with making real reforms to reduce the size of government by finding and getting rid of a ballooning bureaucracy and duplicative services and low-performing programs both on the state and local government level (Streamlining Louisiana: Driving Government Reform in an Era of Fiscal Crisis (29 January 2010, p. 2). Proposers of the reform i.a. request the issuance of annual public reports online of all state grants by funding source, agency, parish and
against the idea of legalizing gambling in the town of Youngstown, Ohio. he writer takes the reader on a short history of the town and exposes the gangster activity that has always thrived within the town. he writer uses this as a springboard to argue that gambling becoming legal would only encourage a repeat of such mob activity. here were four sources used to complete this paper.
LE's NO REPEA HISORY
As the residents of Youngstown debate the issue of legalized gambling, there are many forces being exerted on both sides of the issue. Youngstown, Ohio has been economically deprived for some time and the city government as well as community advocates are scrambling to re-vitalize the area. When advocates of legalized gambling look at cities across the nation who have allowed it, they see improved economics through jobs and tourism as well as money for the school system being…
Those who lobby for the legalization of gambling toss out large dollar figures that they insist would be pumped into the school system. "About $186 million annually for all Ohio schools -- money that would be earmarked for schools in the Ohio Constitution, unlike the experience with the Ohio Lottery when it was first approved 24 years ago (James, 1997). " However what the town would lose in money due to extra law enforcement, court time and costs of the District attorney office, victim programs for crimes committed and other gambling related needs would offset any monies the town may or may not garner for the schools.
For a town to be in the financial situation that Youngstown is brings many options to the table. While city officials scramble to find solutions and answer to their constituents the idea of legalizing gambling can look very appealing. The appealing part wears off after the economy straightens out and we are left with the crime, the mafia and all that it brings with it for the rest of the city's existence. It is a much better idea to
Just like every other institution in the country, American policing system went through a long period of evolution to finally achieve the shape that it has today. And similar to other laws and institutions in America, even police recruitment methods were heavily borrowed from Britain. In the 19th century or at least for most part of it, American police was shaped after the British policing laws (O'Keefe, 2004). However the one important difference lied in the separation of national and local police bodies. Since in most western countries, police was under the direct control of the national government, it was easier to manage them from one central location and their development was also almost simultaneous. However that was not the case in the United States where every county and state had its own local police department, which is why development of sporadic and departments were created at different…
1) Miller, Wilbur R. (1999) Cops and Bobbies: Police Authority in New York and London, 1830-1870. Columbus: Ohio State University Press.
2) Wadman, Robert C. And William Thomas Allison (2004) To Protect And Serve: A History Of Police In America. Upper Saddle River. New Jersey
3) James O'Keefe. (2004) Protecting the Republic: The education and training of American police officers. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.