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The classical and contemporary leadership styles over the years run the gamut from transformational, transactional, global and virtual/social media-driven in nature. However, the author of this response has notice that no single tool or type is going to work in all situations and thus a leader who is able to shift gears and change types based on the particular situation at hand is the leader that will be able to adapt and adjust based on the situation currently happening (Schreuder, Groothoff, Jongsma, Zweeden, Klink & oelen, 2013). One theory that not many people explore with seriousness, that being chaos theory, is absolutely taken seriously by the author of this response given the author's prior work in an emergency room setting (Chinnis & White, 1999).
Theories of leadership are truly honed and perfected quickly when it comes to experiences in nursing and leadership. Indeed, they are both situations where getting…
Chinnis, A., & White, K. R. (1999). Challenging the dominant logic of Emergency Departments:
guidelines from chaos theory. The Journal of Emergency Medicine, 17(6), 1049-1054.
Schreuder, J., Groothoff, J., Jongsma, D., Zweeden, N., Klink, J., & Roelen, C. (2013).
Leadership Effectiveness: A Supervisor's Approach to Manage Return to Work. Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation, 23(3), 428-437 10p. doi:10.1007/s10926-012-9409-6
The four important Situational Leadership styles that were created by Paul Hersey and Kenneth Blanchard are those of Delegating, Participating, Selling and Telling. (Chapter 8, Leadership)
This model is significant and important because of the fact that it is basically a contingency theory that has as its primary focus the followers of the instructions that the situational leader gives them. The reality is that the effectiveness of the leader can only be judges by the willingness and ability of the followers to follow the instructions. (Effective Leadership in the 21st Century - Part. 1) the four concepts of Delegating, Participating, Selling and Telling in fact form the basis of the 'maturity curve' that is laid over the 'four box model' that has as its vertical axis the 'Supportive Behavior', and as its horizontal axis the 'Directive Behavior' that must be followed by the situational leader in order to achieve the…
Boyens, John. Tips to help you maximize your Group's performance. Nashville Business Journal. February 28, 2003. Retrieved at http://www.boyens.com/articles/item.asp?id=113Accessed on 24 February, 2005
Chapter 8, Leadership. Retrieved at http://188.8.131.52/search?q=cache:pzqifEl1a5cJ:www.oup.co.uk/pdf/bt/fincham/Chapter8.pdf+Delegating,+Participating,+Selling+and+Telling+management+styles&hl=enAccessed on 23 February, 2005
Famous Models, Situational Leadership. 1999. Retrieved at http://www.chimaeraconsulting.com/sitleader.htm . Accessed on 23 February, 2005
Holverson, Michelle. Effective Leadership in the 21st Century - Part. 1. We Lead Online Magazine. Retrieved at http://www.leadingtoday.org/Onmag/sepoct04/mh-sepoct04.html . Accessed on 23 February, 2005
Leadership theory is a complex and engaging field. Indeed, people have been studying the concept of leadership and organization for many years now. The purpose is to understand two factors. First, there is a need to understand how a group works. What are it's dynamics and how does a leader develop. Second, to refine the organization of a given group so that its leadership will be able to guide it more effectively.
In the following paper, two somewhat opposing concepts of leadership will be discussed. The first will be a concept termed Situational Leadership which is often used by corporations and companies. The second will be Servant-Leadership which is more often implemented in volunteer organizations, churches, and the military.
The concept of Situational Leadership was developed in the sixties by Robert lake and Jane Mouton. This particular model of leadership focuses on two elements, a concern for people and a…
Hersey, P., & Blanchard, K. (1969) Management of Organizational Behavior. New York: Pearson Education.
Blanchard, Kenneth. Situational Leadership. Retrieved March 3, 2003, from Organizational Development Portal. Website: http://www.odportal.com/leadership/fastlearner/situational.htm
Situational Leadership. Retrieved March 4, 2003, from Teal Institute. Website: http: / / www.teal.org.uk/situation.htm
Spears, Larry. What is Servant-Leadership? Retrieved March 4, 2003, from the Greenleaf Center for Servant-Leadership. Website: http://www.greenleaf.org/leadership/servant-leadership/What-is-Servant-Leadership.html
developmental levels of situational leadership are four in total with four styles that correspond. D1, which is low competence, high commitment and corresponds with the style of leadership known as S1 or Telling/Directing. An appropriate use of D1 and S1 would be in those instances in which followers are lacking in competence. Here, they would need to have a demonstratio of how to do peform an action or do something. The followers in these instances would be energetic and committed, willing to accept the position of the leader and being directed. Here, supervision and direction is needed to get them to begin something.
corresponds with S2 and D2 is low commitement, but some competence with S2 being selling/coaching. Followers for this instance would need some direction and supervision due to their relative inexperience. The key difference in this level is the need for the leader to show praise in order…
he Pros and Cons of Situational Leadership
Situational leadership has become a generally accepted theory of leadership (Northouse, 2012). However, despite its attractions, it is not a perfect model due to flaws which are present in the underlying assumptions. he aim of this paper is to look at the model of situational leader, defining what it is and the way the theory fits in with practice. he advantages and the disadvantages of the model may then be assessed to demonstrate why and how this is a flawed leadership model.
Situational Leadership Model
In the past, many leadership theories have been developed in order to explain how and why leaders could be effective, with the aim of supporting leadership development. Early approaches, such as Great Man theory, trait theory and behavioral theories examined existing leaders to identify commonalities that may define good leadership, but leaders were to diverse and sufficient…
The situational model of leadership has undeniable advantages to support its use. The wide-scale take-up of the model indicates that it has been found highly useful; Northouse (2012), reports that of the Fortune 500 companies, but these 400 have reported utilizing the situational leadership model as part of their training programs. This indicates that organizations are founded an effective tool to help develop leaders. Secondly, the model may be argued as one which can provide practical guidance, and facilitate with the development of leaders. An underlying concept of the model is that leadership can be taught, if the potential leaders can be taught to adapt their style to meet the needs of the employees (Northouse, 2012). The model which assesses employees based on a developmental continuum facilitates a relatively simple application of the theory and practice. Furthermore, the model may be argued is built on commonsense, the abstract ideas will appeal to the intuition of many potential leaders (Northouse, 2012). The simplicity and generalization of the approach also provides model which can be applied in numerous types of situation, which is also advantageous (Northouse, 2012). The model may also have an advantage in is descriptive nature; not only does describe how leadership should take place it gives practical advice and directions on what should and should not be done in different situations (Northouse, 2012). The final major advantage is the flexibility of the model, and the recognition that employees will be different, and as such a single leadership style would not suit all employees (Northouse, 2012).
Disadvantages (negative position)
The undeniable advantages are also balanced with some significant disadvantages. While the model may have been widely used, it appears that there is only a limited amount of research this has been undertaken in order to justify the model and its assumptions (Northouse, 2012). Where research has been conducted, it is not always found in favor of the model. Vecchio, (1987) undertook research in an academic setting, studying 303 teachers located in 14 different high schools. Measurements were taken to assess the application of the model, with statistical tests indicating that situational leadership theory was only accurate for certain types of employee, especially newer employees (Vecchio, 1987). Other authors have also questioned the underlying basis of the theoretical assumptions, a valid criticism when it is considered that the origins of the model based on "quick management" practices and the desire to get instant results (Graeff, 1997). Even Hersey and Blanchard who developed a model have accepted that there is a lack of supporting research, and reported the need for further research in our own papers (Graeff, 1997). There are even some inconsistencies, is one that is assumed
Situational leadership is a style of leadership that is based on flexibility, where the leader has an adaptive style that changes depending on the situation. Blanchard and Hersey have developed the concept of situational leadership that the leader adapts the style to fit the development level of the followers being influenced (Anthony, 2018). Salesforce was named the number one company to work for in America, and its corporate culture has been described as unique. The CEO is Marc Benioff, one of the company's co-founder, who is co-CEO with Keith Block. Benioff was instrumental in defining the company's culture and its leadership style. This paper will examine leadership as Salesforce, through the lens of situational leadership.
Situational Leadership Styles
There are several different situational leadership styles, which the leader would apply to different followers and different situations as need be. The four main situational leadership styles are delegating, supporting, coaching…
Leadership style of the CEO of Google Inc. using situational leadershi
Larry Page and Sergey Brin met at the Stanford University in 1995 and by 1996, they built first search initially called Backub, which used links to establish the importance of the individual web pages. They continued working on the search engine, and in 1998, they founded the now worldwide-established Google Inc. Company (Larson, 2010). The company packs a lot considering the young age of the company as it now serves billions of users and customers around the globe. The mission of Google Inc. is to organize the information of the entire world and make it useful and accessible universally. The headquarters of the company is in 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway, Mountain View CA 94043. The company boasts and enjoys a vast number of employees across the globe, with an established management team representing a team of the most experienced professionals…
Godin, S. (2009). Situational leadership by Kenneth Blanchard and Paul Hersey. Retrieved from http://www.sayeconomy.com/situational-leadership-by-kenneth-blanchard-and-paul-hersey / on May 15, 2011.
Nicholas Carlson, Google CEO Eric Schmidt: "We Don't Really Have A Five-Year Plan" (CLIP)|
May 20, 2009, 2:59 PM Read more: http://www.businessinsider.com/google-ceo-eric-schmidt-we-dont-really-have-a-five-year-plan-clip-2009-5#ixzz2TwicO74K
Larson, C. (2010). Interview: Googlopolis. Foreign Policy, (181), 152-152. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/748713622?accountid=35812
The life and success of any organization is hinged on the leadership of that organization. An effective can transform the potential an organization has with regard to human capital and the available resources into a reality. An effective leader has the ability to propose new paradigms when old ones have become ineffective (IAAP, 2009). Effective leaders can change the minds of their followers and in the process make an organization achieve its identified goals. This paper seeks to illuminate whether the leadership at our procurement department is effective from the perspectives of the situational leadership and contingency theory approaches. The paper establishes whether the leadership and the procurement department were directive or supportive. The paper finally captures the insights that have been gained from analyzing the leadership at the procurement department.
The leader I worked with at the procurement department knew his goals and had the power to…
Burns, T., Stalker, G.M., (1961). The Management of Innovation. London: Tavistock.
Graeff, C.L. (1983). The Situational Leadership Theory: A Critical View. Academy of Management Review, 8(2), 285-291.
Hersey, P. & Blanchard, K.H. (1988). Management and Organizational Behavior. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
IAAP. (2009). Leadership Theories and Styles. Retrieved from http://www.etsu.edu/ahsc/documents/Leadership_Theories.pdf
Leadership is a process that helps in directing and mobilizing people. It has for the past 100 years been a subject of many studies. These studies have come up with theories of the nature and exercise of leadership. Some of these theories include trait theories of leadership, theories of emergent leadership, leadership style theories, psychodynamic theories, and the path goal theories among others. The second section of this paper focuses on evaluation of behavior of selected leaders. Leaders of different organizations exhibit specific behaviors that are in line with models and theories of leadership. Their behaviors can guide the behavior of individual followers, groups, or even teams. The analysis section touches on how leaders perceive their roles and what makes them develop as leaders. The summary wraps up all that the paper is about and what I have learnt.
Management and leadership are interchangeably used in our everyday…
Avolio, B.J., Walumbwa, F.O. & Weber, T.J. (2009). Leadership: Current theories, research, and future directions. Annual Review of Psychology, 60, 421-429.
Bass, B. (2008). The Bass Handbook of Leadership: Theory, Research, and Application. New York: Free Press.
Bennis, W. & Nanus, B. (1997). Leaders: Strategies for Taking Change 2nd Edition. New York:
Collins Business Essentials.
I have grown fond of Mr. Joe Scott because of his ability to inspire his followers to do more than they would have expected to do. He has the capability of engaging his staff's commitment in a context of shared values and vision. He is capable of aligning the interests of the organization and its members. Those who have worked closely with him attest to his ability to inspire and motivate those who are working directly under him. He is capable is inspiring change because he's idealized influence, individual consideration, intellectual stimulation, and inspiration. He can maximize mutual interest and restrain in the process of exercising his power. His leadership style broadens and elevates the interest of the follower (Mind Tools, 2013). This ends up generating awareness and motivation towards the purpose and mission of the organization. His leadership traits bring the group purpose above individual needs for the…
Mind Tools (2013). Leadership Styles: Choosing the Right Style for the Situation. Retrieved from http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newLDR_84.htm
Murray, A. (2013). Leadership Styles. http://guides.wsj.com/management/developing-a-leadership-style/how-to-develop-a-leadership-style/
The first leadership scenario is when a co-worker was calling in sick constantly, and it was clear from their attitude that they were not engaged. In this case, the supervisor did nothing, and it ended up affecting the morale of the group. As leader, I would have begun to build a case with this employee for termination, documenting the absences and the fact that they were clearly bogus. The second leadership scenario recently witnessed is a situation where a new restaurant opened up. The service standards seem very high -- the people are all obviously well-trained. This type of thing means that there is a lot of leadership, so I would be sure to reinforce these positive behaviors. This can be done by offering praise, and highlighting the actions for which the praise is being given. So not "good job," but "good job dealing with that difficult…
By the same token, by not having any specific policy implications, servant leadership theory does not expressly reject the transformational, situational or results-focused ideas of leadership. It is merely an adjunct to these theories, and is mostly useful for deciding on whether or not somebody should become a leader in the first place.
Situational Leadership and Results-Focused Leadership
These two leadership theories are opposed to one another, but they share the same philosophical underpinnings. The underlying theory of each of these leadership styles is that the leadership style is flexible, and the best leaders have the ability to utilize different styles and techniques depending on the needs of the day. here the two differ is in the understanding of the most important determinant of leadership style. Situational leadership theory argues that leaders need to adapt to the different circumstances, changing their style to suit the challenges with which they are…
The transformational leader- N.M. Tichy and M.A. Devanna ( 1990)
Servant Leadership- Robert Greenleaf
Leadership in organization - G. Yuki (2006)
Most conclusions on this approach were vague or indecisive in terms of social, psychological or mental significance (ice, 1978, 1981; Graen et al., 1972; Ashour, 1973).
Furthermore, over the years, many scholars have come to the realization that leadership is situational and hence there are many realistic settings like the environment, the employees, the resources, etc. that determine the characteristics needed in a leader as well as his/her business approach (Hershey and Blanchard, 1977, 1984). This is why it is important to first understand the different types of scenarios that a leader can face and then use those scenarios as the foundation on which most leadership techniques and approaches are built. This idea of leadership being situational is very helpful in outlining the methods through which leadership can be developed and has taken up a good part of the last three-decade of research (Mckenna, Boyd and Yost, 2007).
Adler, a. (1946). Understanding human nature. New York: Permabooks.
Ashour, a.S. (1973). The Contingency Model of Leadership Effectiveness: An Evaluation. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 9: 335-76.
Bandura, a. (1997). Self-efficacy. The Exercise of Control. New York: W.H. Freeman. (Bass, B.M. 1985). Leadership and Performance Beyond Expectations. New York: The Free Press.
Bennis, W., and B. Nanus. (1985). Leaders. New York: Harper and Row.
Like the passages model, the leadership as a point of view model focuses on
developing one extraordinary leader its end result. The process of
achieving that end result is similar to the servant leadership process, in
that it requires the leader to focus not on levels or situations, but
instead on a formula for success, namely "seeing what needs to be done,
understanding all the underlying forces play in a situation, [and] having
the courage to initiate action to make things better" (Clawson, 2006,
chapt. 1). Still, the model's process contains facets similar to the
situational model by asking leaders to look at underlying forces, as well
as facets similar to passages model by suggesting that leadership is a
function of a person's own qualities, which must be developed over time.
By focusing on the leadership as point of view model, organizations can
solve problems relating to the confusion of…
Charan, R., Drotter S., & Noel, J. (2003). Six Leadership Passages. In J.
M. Kouzes (Ed.)
Business Leadership: A Jossey Bass Reader, 1e. (chap. 12).
Clawson, J. (2006). Level Three Leadership, Getting Below The Surface, 3e.
Greenleaf, R.K. (2003). The Servant as Leader. In J. M. Kouzes (Ed.)
Leadership: A Jossey Bass Reader, 1e. (chap. 9)
Hersey, P. & Blachard, K.H. (2003). Situational Leadership. In J.M. Kouzes
Leadership Qualifications in the orkplace
Proposed Leadership Model
For eras there have been people and leaders have discussed what the qualifications that make a great leader are. Leadership travels all the way back to the period of the ancient Greeks. In the 1500's, there was an Italian statesman named Niccolo Machiavelli, who wrote The Prince, and in this book he talked about the different methods for leaders to use in obtaining power (Leadership 2003). This all led to the current events dating to the early 1900's and what has been used and developed in today's society. There are a lot of theories of what a leader in the workplace should have and the idea that leaders during history have been people who were seen or looked up to as leaders and deeply appreciated. As people say "There are those that lead and those that follow." An individual with…
Akinboye, J., 2005. Executive behaviour battery. Ibadan: Stirling-Horden Publishers.
Borman, W., 2004. The concept of organizational citizenship. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 13(6), p. 238 -- 241.
Cameron, J.D.E.K.R. & R.R., 2001. Extrinsic rewards and intrinsic: Reconsidered once again.. Review of Educational Research, pp. 30-54.
Charlton, G., 2000. Human Habits of Highly Effective Organisations.. Pretoria: Van Schaik Publishers.
I see that in my own leadership style I am oriented towards a transactional style, but that in order to improve my leadership I need to weave the daily leadership actions together better with an eye to creating long-term organizational excellence. I feel that I have developed strong communications skills and healthy leadership traits in terms of being rational but also being able to deal with the emotional elements of the job. I perhaps struggle a little at listening, but I also can be short-sighted with my decision-making, such that months or years later I find my decisions have set an undesirable tone that must be corrected. These are the most significant deficiencies between the leader I am and the leader I wish to become.
Long-term strategy can also be considered somewhat of a weakness. There is certainly a gap between the specificity of long-term strategies that the organization has…
Schermerhorn, John. (2001). Situational Leadership: Conversations with Paul Hersey. Ohio University. Retrieved August 1, 2009 from http://www.situational.com/PdfViewer.aspx?pdfPath=~/Pdf/Conversations_With_Paul_Hersey.pdf
Fielder, Fred. (1964). A Contingency Model of Leadership Effectiveness. Academic Press, Burlington, MA.
Vroom, VH & Yetton, PW. (1973). Leadership and Decision-Making. Yale University. Retrieved August 1, 2009 from http://www.lederne.dk/NR/rdonlyres/E8715858-DCEE-4355-88BB-B3E82FE7DA9B/0/18VictorVroom2.pdf
Enos, Darryl D. (2007). Performance Improvement. CRC Press, p. 153
Leadership for Organizations
The success of organizations and individuals' careers are influenced by the role of leaders. Nowadays firms seek leadership skills in individuals for all sorts of careers while recruiting. Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) believe that it has become critically important to nurture leadership approach at all levels of the organization (Lussier, Achua, 2009, p. 4).
The topic of leadership has been gaining tremendous attention of academic world and media (ass, Riggio, 2006, p. 17). Many experts have written about leadership and the challenges related to it as the subject is highly valued and at the same time a complex phenomenon (Northouse, 2009, p. 1).
In today's world individuals need to develop skills and capabilities required in professional world through personal development. They need to assess their strengths, weaknesses, leadership competencies and goals in order to achieve leadership capabilities (Rothstein 2010).
Leaders need to possess a wide range…
Adams, J.D. (Ed.). (1986). Transforming leadership: From vision to results. Alexandria, VA: Miles River Press.
Allen, K.E. (1995). Making sense out of chaos: Leading and living in dynamic systems. Campus Activities Programming, 52-59.
Argyris, C. (1970). Intervention theory and method: A behavioral science view. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Armstrong, S., & Armstrong, S. (1996). The conductor as transformational leader. Music Educators Journal, 82(May), 22-25.
Leadership Behavioral Approach
"Leadership is the lifting of people's vision to a higher sight, the raising of their performance to a higher standard, and the building of their personality beyond its normal limitations" (Drucker, 1985). Ability to inspire others in a shared vision is one of the quality features of a leader. Leaders have cleared visions and communicate these visions to their subordinates to enhance corporate values.
The objective of this essay is to review the leadership behaviors and approaches common to the organisation.
The paper compares alternative leadership theories, and assesses the validity and utility of these theories with reference to the behaviors of leaders at Apple Computers.
Finally, the study develops a hypothesis and tests this hypothesis by critically analyzing the critical incident to judge leadership performance.
Leadership behaviours and approaches
Leadership behavior and approach are the combine styles that the leaders use to influence the subordinates to…
Bass, B., & Bass, R. (2008). The Bass handbook of leadership: Theory, research, and managerial applications. New York, NJ: Free Press.
Clark, N. (2009). Emotional Intelligence & Leadership. University of Southampton
School of Management.
DeRue, D.S., Nahrgang, J.D., Wellman, N., & Humphrey, S.E. (in press). Trait and behavioral theories of leadership: A meta-analytic test of their relative validity. Personnel Psychology.
Course No -- Leadership
It had often been said earlier that leadership is an inherent quality in certain individuals, but there are also leaders who are made through management institutions, by organizations, through institutions like the armed forces and even through political relationships, etc. There are certain qualities that a leader must have or develop to be a leader and remain a leader and those are the subject matter of discussion now.
The situation in the world is changing and it has come to a position in the beginning of the twenty-first century, that certain characteristics are seen as requirements for being able to influence future changes. Some of them are the ability to bring together individuals as much as possible for them to take a collective action, demonstrate collaborative decision and inclusive decision making for the entire group, maintain a flexible and responsive reaction in reference to all…
"Devolution in Practice: An Update" Retrieved from http://www.wkkf.org/Pubs/Devolution/Pub3623.pdf Accessed 10 September, 2005
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Leboeuf, Maureen K. "Developing a Leadership Philosophy" Retrieved from http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/milreview/leboeuf.htm
Accessed 10 September, 2005
Leadership ehavior for Effective Decision Making
Effective decision making in the competitive business environment is closely linked with leadership skills. Managing change in existing organizations can often be extremely difficult, as it requires changing the organizational culture, the very roots that bind its members. This paper analyses the characteristics of a successful leader, illustrated with a practical example. Contrary to popular understanding, there is no unique style of leadership for all situations and the leader needs to be flexible and change his approach depending on case to case basis. The analysis takes into account the various theories on leadership - behavioral, contingency and transformational and evaluates the response of the leader to various situations in a typical organization operating in a fiercely competitive environment.
From the analysis, it is observed that the leader exhibited varying leadership styles and behavior to address and resolve various issues. The leader is found to…
Bennis, W. (1994) 'Visionary Leadership', in W.Bennis, J.Parikh and R.Lessem (eds) - 'Beyond Leadership: Balancing Economics, Ethics and Ecology', Blackwell: Oxford, pp.32-34
Gardner, H. (2001) 'Leading Minds' (ed) Manrik, J - 'Writers on Leadership', London: Penguin, pp. 73-76
Hampden-Turner, C. (1994) 'Charting the Corporate Mind' in W.Bennis, J.Parikh and R.Lessem (eds) 'Beyond Leadership: Balancing Economics, Ethics and Ecology', Blackwell: Oxford, pp.110-114
Jacobson, R. (2000) 'Leading for a Change: How to master the Five Challenges faced by every leader', MA: Butterwoth-Heinmann, pp.135-138
The passive style is described as management by exception where employees do not receive notice for their positive contributions to the organization, but instead are paid attention by their manager only when an error or problem arises. Punishment or disciplinary action is often the medium used in this approach. Active transactional leadership uses contingent rewards. With this approach, employees are praised for their performance and may be eligible for pay increases or other incentives (Bolman & Deal, 1991, p. 419). The type of leadership exhibited clearly determines the type of motivation used and often its success or failure.
The situational leadership theory of Hersey and Blanchard proposes that the optimal amount of task and relations behavior depends upon subordinate maturity. As the authors note, what the manager needs is a simple and logical framework for making decisions that will be successful (Hersey & Blanchard, 1990, p. 412). This theory prescribes…
Bolman, L. & Deal, T. (1991). Reframing organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Bossidy, Larry; Charan, Ram; Execution, the Discipline of Getting Things
Done; Crown Business, New York, NY. 2002.
DuBrin, a.J., R.D. Ireland, & J.C. Williams. Management & Organization. Cincinnati: South-Western, 1989.
Leadership and Management
Over time, the terms management and leadership have been used interchangeably but in reality; these two terms are essentially different in regard to roles, characteristics as well as functions. In this text, I concern myself with a number of leadership and management issues I have studied so far and their application in enhancing my leadership capabilities.
Approaches to Leadership and Management
It is important to note that a number of issues dictate the leadership approach one would most likely adopt as a preferred style. In my case, these issues include but of course are not limited to the way I prefer making decisions, feedback mechanisms available as well as the tasks under consideration. With that said, I would consider adopting the directive approach. According to Nohria and Khurana (2010, pp. 18), in a directive approach, the leadership position is taken to be the basis of power. When…
Bennis, W., 2009. On Becoming a Leader. Basic Books
Lussier, R.N. & Achua, C.F., 2009. Leadership: Theory, Application, & Skill Development. Cengage Learning
Northouse, P.G., 2009. Leadership: Theory and Practice. Sage Nohria, N. & Khurana, R., 2010. Handbook of Leadership Theory and Practice. Harvard Business Press
Singh, B.R., 2004. Management: Theory and Practice. Anmol Publications
The integrative approach is almost always used in real world leadership. No leader succeeds solely on the basis of traits, solely on behaviors or solely be adapting to situations. Leaders use all of the tools at their disposal. Consider Apple under Steve Jobs. Jobs had some fantastic traits as a leader, particularly with respect to his vision for the company, its products and how society would use those products. But Apple never succeeded solely on vision. Jobs' behaviors served to reinforce his vision and the corporate culture. His formal and informal power was constantly leverage to make the company better. He used power in dealing with suppliers, partners, and consumers as well, all of which has contributed to Apple's success. The only approach not used at Apple under Jobs was situational leadership, because the company never really changed its leadership style to fit the circumstance. But like any good leader,…
In my opinion, leaders should be an example for their team regarding work. They should promote increased enthusiasm towards work, in order for their example to be followed by other members of their group.
However, when assessing an individual's leadership potential it is necessary to take into consideration its emotional intelligence level. People's emotional intelligence refers to their ability of understanding motions and feelings and their attitudes and reactions in different situations (Chapman, 2009). The emotional intelligence level reveals how we read people, how we tend to use our emotions, how we understand and manage these emotions, and impressions.
The results of my EIQ 16 test have revealed interesting aspects about myself that I was not really aware of. For example, on the reading people aspect I rated level 3, which means that I am competent in this field. This means that I am normally aware of my feelings and…
1. Bolden, R. et al. (2003). A Review of Leadership Theory and Competency Frameworks. Center for Leadership Studies. Retrieved February 2, 2011.
2. Guardian Portrait of the Supervisor (2010). Keirsey. Retrieved February 3, 2011 from http://www.keirsey.com/4temps/supervisor.asp .
3. Chapman, a. (2009). Emotional Intelligence. Retrieved February 3, 2011 from http://www.businessballs.com/eq.htm .
Thankfully, in my role I have become experienced in dealing with multiple stakeholders. I utilized my transformational leadership skills to have all stakeholders buy into my vision of the project, allowing me to shape the project in a manner that would allow me to deliver satisfactory results to all of the stakeholders.
I knew that I was going to demand a lot from all of the different stakeholders, and therefore I needed to lead by example. I took this as the core of my vision for my leadership. I was a situational leader, moving between transformational and transactional as the situation required. I was tough when necessary, in particular with respect to ethics, but I was also able to make contributions that improved the positivity surrounding the project. I worked with the union representative to build a set of disciplinary actions based on my code of ethics, which…
Leadership Styles Among Male and Female Principal
It is the intention of this research to study the leadership and cognitive styles of teachers and instructors of both genders within the educational system and their preference for types of leadership in a principal of that institution.
The research will include teachers and educators from all levels of the educational system from grade school to high school. The study will also include teachers and instructors from all major academic fields of study offered in public and private schools. The studies conducted thus far in the educational arena indicate that teachers are equally inclined towards different cognitive styles.
Teachers prefer a mix of idealist, analytical and realistic cognitive styles of leadership in their Principals. Studies have also indicated that teachers prefer that principals are people oriented and task oriented in their approach to running the school or institution. In addition, teachers also prefer…
Berens, Linda V., and Dario Nardi. Personality Types, Descriptions for Self-Discovery. New York: Telos Publications, 1999.pp.
Blake, R.R., H. Shepherd, and Jane Srygley Mouton. Managing Intergroup Conflict in Industry. Houston, Tx: Gulf Publishing Company, 1964.pp.
Blau, Francine D., Marianne A. Ferber, and Anne E. Winkler. The Economics of Women, Men, and Work. Prentice-Hall Series in Economics. 4th ed. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 2002.pp. xviii, 446
Bossert, S.T., et al. "The Instructional Management Role of the Principal." Educational Administration Quarterly 18.3 (1982): 34-64.
Of course, Jacobs would have to be a mature leader, as he most likely has adapted his style to make the organization successful. On the scale, however, he could also be qualified as an 2 individual, especially in the earlier stages of the project, who gave high directive and high support to his employees. Furthermore, from the specifics given in the case study, it is clear that Jacobs would be a selling leader and/or a participating leader, due to the various stages of the project. Because of his status, Jacobs could not be a low relationship leader and thus does not qualify as telling or delegating.
According to the table developed by Fiedler on the least preferred co-worker (rendered below), Jacobs would most likely have an effective leader quality, rather than leader position of power.
Thus, he would have good leader-member relations, may be unstructured, but would certainly score highly…
Situational Leadership Model (Blanchard). (2011). Retrieved October 14, from .
Information and table taken from: Fiedler's Least Preferred Co-worker (LPC) Theory. (2011). Changingminds.org. Retrieved October 14, from .
Graphs were referenced from documents attached by the customer.
This does not surprise me. In most instances, I work towards clarification of objectives, for example, although this is largely to ensure that there are no problems with my assessment. In general, however, I am willing to engage in a consistent flow of feedback with bosses, something that allows all parties concerned to have input. Considering that the other surveys showed a tendency towards consultative and facilitative styles, this is consistent with my character in general. Communication flow is important in any relationship between leaders and followers, and I believe that the leader needs to encourage this flow, but also that the follower needs to be willing to engage in this communication flow as well in order for the communication to work.
What this survey tells me is that it is critical for me as a leader to cultivate good followership traits in my followers. They need to be able…
Leadership in the Girl Scouts
Before becoming involved as a Girl Scout Leader, I would have minimized the amount of leadership necessary for the position. ather than being a true leader, I envisioned that a Girl Scout Leader would simply be the person organizing Scouting activities. What I did not realize is that leading a Girl Scout troop is a true exercise of one's leadership skills. After all, a Girl Scout troop leader must lead not only girls, but also the other parents in the group. Moreover, while troops are generally organized by age, they generally contain girls with a variety of backgrounds and experiences, so that the skills necessary for leading in one scenario are not the same ones required for leading in another scenario. Therefore, while I had hoped to be a transformational leader when I began my role as troop leader, inspiring each of the girls to…
Cherry, K. (2011). Transformational leadership: what is transformational leadership? Retrieved
April 18, 2011, from About.com website: http://psychology.about.com/od/leadership/a/transformational.htm
Girl Scouts of the United States of America. (2011). Girl Scouts cookie program. Retrieved from http://www.girlscouts.org/program/gs_cookies/
Girl Scouts of the United States of America. (2010). Safety tips. Retrieved from
There are a number of theories of leadership that can be applied to my own personal development plan in counselling. I first look to servant leadership as a unique approach to leadership, wherein it is emphasized that the effect leader is one who facilitates greatness in others. The concept of servant leadership was developed by obert Greenleaf in the 1970s, and emphasizes the leader doing whatever is needed in order to ensure that everybody else can be at his or her absolute best (Greenleaf, 1977). Servant leaders are always the ones who are searching, listening and watching, so that they can learn about their organizations, the environment in which their organizations exist, and the people within their organizations. The servant leader then can make a determination about what is needed for the organization to thrive in that environment, but recognizes that one leader cannot succeed on his or…
Alper, S., Schloss, P. & Schloss, C. (1995). Families of children with disabilities in elementary and middle school: Advocacy models and strategies. Exceptional Children Vol. 62 (3) 261-270.
Barling, J., Slater, F. & Kelloway, E. (2000). Transformational leadership and emotional intelligence: An exploratory study. Leadership & Organization Development Journal. Vol. 21 (3) 157-161.
Boyle, C., Beardsley, R. & Hayes, M. (2004). Effective leadership and advocacy: Amplifying professional citizenship. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education. Vol. 68 (3) 1-5.
Fielder, C. (2000). Making a difference: Advocacy competencies for special education professionals. Allyn & Bacon: Needham Heights, MA
Leadership has been one of the most studied, researched and theorize topic which has been evaluated, discussed and described by many theorists and scholars. Whereas the truth is that it's no theoretical phenomenon or rocket science. We all act as leader in different situations. Also, we all have different leadership styles and tactics of handling situations. Furthermore, as a leader, we are required to show different leadership skills as per the recipient. This is where the concept of situational leadership comes in. We studied this concept of leadership during our group activity which was performed to determine individual leadership style based on peer evaluation. Where this activity was intended to find out the leadership style; it was also helpful in finding out one's strengths and weaknesses as a leader.
The fundamental concept of leadership has changed to a limited extent over time however over time organizations, society…
Blanchard, K. (2011), Are you delegating or abdicating, retrieved from http://howwelead.org/category/situational-leadership/
Casey Mulqueen, How SOCIAL STYLE Concepts Make the Situational Leadership Model More Effective. Retrieved from http://docs.tracomcorp.com/TPD/Whitepaper/Social_Style_and_Situational_Leadership_Whitepaper.pdf
Dunbar, Lisa, Situational Leadership: The 4D's of Your Employees, retrieved from http://www.newdirectionsconsulting.com/2011/06/situational-leadership-the-4ds-of-your-employees/
Hersey, P., and Blanchard, K., Management of Organizational Behavior: Utilizing Human Resources (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1996)
Situational approach to leadership issues and challenges is one of the most commonly recognized approaches to leadership. This approach was developed in 1969 by Hersey and Blanchard and based on concepts from 3D management style theory by eddin in 1967 (Northouse, 2010, p.89). As the name suggests, situational leadership emphasizes on leadership in situations based on the fact different conditions require different types of leadership. This implies that an effective leader needs to be an individual that adapt his/her leadership style and skills to the demands of various situations. This approach to leadership emphasizes that leadership consists of a directive and supportive dimension, and that each dimension has to be applied effectively in a particular situation. Notably, when addressing a leadership situation through this approach, the process usually involves applying development level and style in the particular issue or situation.
Example of Leadership Situation:
An example of a…
Northouse, P.G. (2010). Situational Approach. In Leadership theory and practice (5th ed., chap
5, pp.89-109). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.
Wine, S. (2013, November 6). Leadership Vacuum? Ex-players Wonder Why No Players
Intervened in Dolphins Case. The Huffington Post. Retrieved January 21, 2014, from http://www.huffingtonpost.ca/2013/11/06/leadership-vacuum-ex-pla_n_4227157.html
leadership theories and how they are influencing an organization. As, we carefully examine the different ones and discuss how this will impact the long-term sustainability of the firm. This is the point that we can determine how and when these different ideas should be used to motivate subordinates.
When most people hear the word leadership they will often think of a person that is sure of themselves. As they are using: their experiences and courage to help inspire everyone around them during the most challenging of times. Yet, when you look a little further, it is clear that genuine leadership is more than just an image or an ideal. Instead, it is common form of thinking and a way of life that can help to transform the world as we know it. To fully understand how this is taking place requires: providing a basic definition of this concept and examining…
Alasdair MacIntyre, 2011, Wikipedia. Available from: [10 Nov. 2011].
Concepts of Leadership, 2010, NW Link. Available from: [9 Nov. 2011].
Traditional Theories of Leadership, 2011, E How. Available from: [10 Nov. 2011]
Cherry, K, 2011, Leadership Theories, About. Available from: [9 Nov. 2011].
leadership capability relation accepted model leadership management. Part 1. 'Situational leadership redundant a task .' As a future leader teams, present arguments statement.
The internal environment within economic agents is suffering dramatic changes within the modern day society and this is the result of numerous pressures from the internal and external environments, such as technology, competition or increasing demands from the various categories of stakeholders. In such a setting, the role of the leaders and managers gradually increases, as these come to portray the link between executives and employees, and they are more essential in ensuring that the firms attain their overall objectives.
As the role of leaders and managers increases, the emphasis placed on the formation of the leaders and managers must also increase. In such a setting then, the current project sets out to discuss the situational leadership model through the lenses of its applicability within…
Haydon, G., 2007, Values for educational leadership, SAGE
Humphreys, J., Zhao, D., Ingram, K., Gladstone, J., Basham, L., 2010, Situational narcissism and charismatic leadership: a conceptual framework, Journal of Behavioral and Applied Management, Vol. 11, No. 2
Ireh, M., Bailey, J., 1999, A study of superintendent's change leadership styles using the situational leadership model, American Secondary Education, Vol. 27, No. 4
2012, Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English Online, http://www.ldoceonline.com/dictionary/feedback last accessed on May 22, 2012
There are many different concepts of leadership, and much of what a person does as a leader is related to the concept to which that person subscribes. Some leaders are more interested in their followers than others, while other leaders are more focused on what they can do for the company and the bottom line. Neither option is necessarily the right option, because there are many ways in which leadership can be effective (Benson, 1994). However, for the majority of companies a leadership style that is transformational in nature and geared toward being a steward for the company is the best option. That is because people who are being led want to see that they are part of something bigger, and that they have value to contribute to the organization of which they are a part. If they do not feel as though they are receiving anything for the…
Benson, F. (1994). One right way doesn't work with leadership either. Journal of Quality and Participation.
Blank, W., Weitzel, J., & Green, S. (1990). Situational leadership theory. Personnel Psychology.
Miner, J.B. (2005). Organizational behavior: Behavior 1: Essential theories of motivation and leadership. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe.
Tittemore, J.A. (2003). Leadership at all levels. Canada: Boskwa Publishing
leadership is a concept of leadership based on the proposition that the right leadership style for optimal productivity and efficiency in working groups may be different in different situations and circumstances (ussell-Whalling, 2008). The best choice of leadership style often depends on various specific criteria pertaining to the skills and comfort zones of leaders, the maturity level of their subordinates, and the relative degree of commitment and competence of the individuals in the work group. In that regard, situational leadership can be thought of in terms of a conceptual matrix (ussell-Whalling, 2008) according to which all of the factors and circumstances must be considered to derive the most productive possible working relationships between a given leader and his or her subordinates.
Elements of Situational Leadership and Considerations of Appropriate Application
With respect to the individual skills, abilities, and comfort zones of leaders, individual leaders typically differ substantially in their reliance…
Daft, R. (2005) Management. 7th Edition. Mason: Thomson South Western.
Russell-Whalling, E. (2008). 50 Management Ideas You Really Need To Know. London:
educational change in regard to the need for curriculum change aimed at addressing curriculum inadequacy that affects our elementary schools. In this paper, the concept of transformational, situational and distributive leadership are discussed in line with instilling positive change to the curriculum development process.
The concept of educational change is one which is often misunderstood by many people (Fullan,2007,p.29).Educational change is either imposed involuntarily or voluntarily accepted by the relevant person or authority. Its meaning too is accepted with a lot of ambivalence as indicated by Fullan.In this paper, we discuss how the concept of educational change is enacted in order to improve student learning through the development of an updated curriculum that is aligned with the state standards for an elementary school. Students often state assessment outcomes as (not met) on the school report card for years. It would therefore require good leadership to instill the necessary change to…
Bondi, J. & wiles, J., (1998) Curriculum Development; A Guide to Practice (5TH Edition).
Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River New Jersey.
Burns, J.M. (1978), Leadership, New York: Harper and Row, Publishers
Bryman, A. (1992), Charisma and Leadership in Organisations, Newbury Park, CA: Sage
In SLII, there is a recognition that leadership is "done with people, not to people." The change in words illustrates this change of philosophy accurately.
In a sense, the two models have slightly different conceptualizations to reflect changes in the audience. Situational leadership was developed by the authors in 1972, when leadership styles were far more autocratic than they are today. Leadership was done to people in those days. Today, leadership is done with people. . The authors have recognized this fundamental shift in the prevailing leadership attitudes and made the appropriate changes to their model to reflect this. However, the terminology used in the original situational leadership model will still appeal to autocratic leaders. The SLII model's terminology will appeal more to modern leaders. As the excessive and clumsy use of the registered trademark symbol throughout their paper indicates, these concepts are products being sold. A shift in wording…
Hersey, P., & Blanchard, K. (1988). Management of organizational behavior: Utilizing human resources. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Hersey, P & Blanchard, K. (2009). Situational leadership & situational leadership II: Commonalities and differences. Self published. In possession of the author.
According to Ken Blanchard 'four leadership styles stems out of combinations of supportive and directive behaviors and that include directing, coaching, supporting and delegating styles' (Erven 2001). Leading gives emphasis on the supervision of control over the subordinate, coaching gives importance in providing information on the work requirements and solicits suggestions while still assuming control over the situation, supporting indicates support on the follower or employee rather than taking control and delegating entails the turning over of the responsibility of the manager to the subordinate.
In a situational leadership, style is not dictated by the leadership skills of the manager but rather, by the demands of the existing work environment catering to the particular needs of the organization. A good situational manager must be able to perform several leadership styles as the need arises. An example that shows the strengths and weaknesses of situational approach is when a high task…
Erven, B. (2001 July). Becoming an effective leader through situational leadership.
Dept. Of Agricultural, Environmental and Developmental Economics. Ohio State
Staehle, W. (1976). "Situational approach to management." Management international
Review . Vol. 16 (3). Springer.
Effective Approaches Leadership Management
Different personalities practice different management styles, while different management styles are suited to different personalities. It is very important for a manager to make sure that their employees are motivated and their work rates are up to the mark. The employees of any organization need to be motivated in order to maintain a fair attendance at the office along with enough motivation that employees would want to continue to carry on working. This motivation can be maintained by different managerial techniques for example keeping the employees involved in the decision making of the organization-having an autocratic leadership style of management is not likely to make employees feel part of the business; in fact, giving them more responsibility and a greater role in the activities of the organization should make them feel more involved and also they will feel more encouraged and motivated if the…
Principles of Management: Situational Approaches to Leadership . (n.d.). Get Homework Help with CliffsNotes Study Guides . Retrieved July 26, 2012, from http://www.cliffsnotes.com/study_guide/Situational-Approaches-to-Leadership.topicArticleId-8944,articleId-8914.html
Shih, W.C., Kauffman, S.P., & Christensen, C.M. (2008). Innovation Killers. Harvard Business Review, 1, 104.
Shih, W.C., Kauffman, S.P., & Christensen, C.M. (2008). Innovation Killers. Harvard Business Review, 1, 100.
Verbal Communication Model. (n.d.). Virtual Teacher Aide. Retrieved July 26, 2012, from http://www.vtaide.com/lifeskills/verbalC.htm
Select one of the leadership theories and then identify how you might apply the principles of this theory to aid in merger and acquisition.
In any organization, the overall leadership style will play a major role in determining the direction of the company. As the actions that are taken by managers, will set the tone for future growth and how the staff will focus on achieving their different objectives. One of the most common leadership principals that are used is: situational leadership. This is when executives are looking at different circumstantial variables, to determine the most appropriate course of action. Where, their underlying amounts of leadership will be adjusted, to reflect the changing conditions. (Cherry, 2010) A good example of this can be seen with the merger that would take place between: Exxon and Mobile in 1999. What happened was oil prices were hitting at all time low,…
The Merger. (2010). ICMR. Retrieved from: http://www.icmrindia.org/casestudies/catalogue/Business%20Strategy2/Business%20Strategy%20The%20Exxon-Mobil%20Merger%20Controversy.htm#The Merger Rationale
Cherry, K. (2010). About.com. Retrieved from: http://psychology.about.com/od/leadership/p/leadtheories.htm
Lopen, S. (2010). E How. Retrieved from: http://www.ehow.com/how_6946237_do-evaluate-public-school-environment_.html
Servant leadership is often based on Christian principles, although this is not required. It is a leadership concept that is designed to show that a leader can be a steward for the company, lead by example, help others, and not have to use any of the more 'heavy handed' leadership styles. While the servant leadership style is more often employed by women, men are becoming increasing more aware of (and more interested in) this particular style, because it seems to work well. The easiest way to show what servant leadership is would be to discuss the work of Stephen Covey, as he advocates this style in "The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People" and many other books.
Even though Stephen Covey is seen by many to be extremely important when it comes to management and effective individuals Covey himself appears to be somewhat scattered and disorganized. This is not actually…
In contrast, a "selling and coaching" (S2) approach is demanded when the leader knows the follower may be uncertain about how to perform the task, but the subordinate has a high level of commitment, as in the case of an intern or a new hire. S2 is a motivational or mentoring approach. The employee craves direction, but will be motivated more by personality and praise than 'carrots and sticks' versus the S1 situation (Straker 2004).
A "participating/supporting" leadership situation (S3) is when the leader knows that the employees can complete the task but the manager wants more of an emotional investment or a higher level of excellence. An example of this approach might be a manager of a fast food establishment with a teenage, low-skilled workforce. The employees can do the job, but needs more motivation to perform at a high level rather than task-specific direction. Finally, an (S4) situation…
Avolio, B.J., & Yammarino, F.J. (2002). Transformational and charismatic leadership: The road ahead. San Diego, CA: Emerald.
DISC. (2010). Retrieved July 1, 2010 at http://www.discprofile.com/
Homrig, Mark a. (2001, December 21).Transformational leadership. Retrieved July 1, 2010 at http://leadership.au.af.mil/documents/homrig.htm
Straker, David. (2004). Hersey and Blanchard's situational leadership theory. Changing Minds. Retrieved July 1, 2010 at http://changingminds.org/disciplines/leadership/styles/situational_leadership_hersey_blanchard.htm
Leaders who want to strengthen their understanding and use of followers can benefit from understanding models of followership and leadership. The Kelley Model of Followership (1992) considers ways of thinking and acting to categorize followers into five groups. These groups are: alienated followers who are skeptical but capable; conformist followers who follow orders and say yes often; passive followers who need direction because they do not think for themselves; and exemplary followers who are essential because they are motivated and independent, but loyal and cooperative. A fifth group is the pragmatist type of follower who has qualities from the other four categories. (Bjugstad et al., 2006, pp. 309-310).
Another model that considers the roles of leadership and followership is the Hersey and Blanchard Situational Leadership Theory (1982). This theory addresses four types of leadership styles. They are: telling, which involves direct instruction and task-oriented leadership; selling, which involves guiding and…
Bjugstad, K., Thach, E., Thompson, K., and Morris, A. "A Fresh Look at Followership: A Model for Matching Followership and Leadership Styles"
Journal of Behavioral and Applied Management, Vol 7, No. 3 (2006):
Where the urns (1978) book sets itself apart is through its evaluation of the practice and theory of leadership skills. In the book, urns (1978) states that he defined leadership as "leaders inducing followers to act for certain goals that represent the values and the motivations -- the wants and needs, the aspirations and expectations -- of both leaders and followers" (p. 19).
Another important reason that urns (1978) remains so popular today is that he addresses leadership styles throughout the book by using examples that can be easily related to. Moses, Napoleon, Mahatma Gandhi, and Martin Luther King, Jr. are all discussed. How they led, why, and in what capacity can shed significant light on specific types of leadership skills and the styles with which they best fit. Also included in urns' (1978) book are Adolf Hitler and Machiavelli, and they are all used to show how leaders who…
Benson, F. (1994). One right way doesn't work with leadership either. Journal for Quality and Participation. 17(4): 86-89.
Burns, J.M. (1978). Leadership. New York: Harper Perennial Modern Classics.
The Army offers unparalleled opportunities for leadership development, and not just at the theoretical level but also at the practical and applied stages. Nowhere is leadership more important than in the military, which is why the principles taught in this course will continue to resonate with me as I progress in my career. While every lesson has something to offer, the modules on leadership theories and on ethics have proved especially helpful for me to gain insight into different styles and approaches. For example, Big Man theory, trait theory, and situational leadership theories all apply to the Army. Because I have a better understanding of the diversity of leadership styles, my attitudes about leadership have changed since taking this course. Some leaders are more effective as transactional managers, focused on specific tasks and goals, but lack the big picture vision that sets apart servant leaders and visionary leaders. I appreciate…
Malcolm X and Leadership
The Leadership Styles of Malcolm X
Malcolm X was a natural born leader, according to Manning Marable in his biography Malcolm X: A Life of Reinvention (2011:33). What made him so was his incessant drive and ability to command others through repetition of "pet themes" as well as his ability to speak rapidly and overtop others (Marable 2011:33). In his early days before his conversion to Islam, Malcolm X demonstrated a remarkable effectiveness as a "leader of the pack" of assorted hoodlum with whom he fraternized. In this sense, contingency theory best applies to this stage of Malcolm's life, because given Malcolm's social context at the time, his style of leadership -- assertive, combative, and harping -- fit the situation and the type of people with whom he operated: people who respected only muscle and might, of which Malcolm had the intellectual and willful kind. In…
Avolio, B.J., Walumbwa, F.O., & Weber, T.J. (2009). Leadership: Current theories, research, and future directions. Annual Review Psychology, 60 421-449.
Conger, Jay A. (1989). Leadership: The art of empowering others. Academy of Management Executive, 3 (1) 17- 25.
Conger, J.A. (1999). Charismatic and transformational leadership in organizations
Charismatic politicalleadership. The Leadership Quarterly, 10 (2) 145-179.
Leadeship Skills Impact Intenational Education
CHALLENGES OF INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION
Pactical Cicumstances of Intenational schools
THE IMPORTANCE OF LEADERSHIP IN EDUCATION
What is Effective Leadeship fo Today's Schools?
Challenges of Intecultual Communication
Challenges of Diffeing Cultual Values
Impotance of the Team
Cuent Leadeship Reseach
APPLYING LEADERSHIP IN AN INTERNATIONAL SETTING
Wagne's "Buy-in" vs. Owneship
Undestanding the Ugent Need fo Change
Reseach confims what teaches, students, paents and supeintendents have long known: the individual school is the key unit fo educational impovement, and within the school the pincipal has a stong influence upon the natue of the school, the conditions unde which students lean, and upon what and how much they lean. Despite this ageement about the cental ole of the pincipal, thee is little eseach concening the chaacteistics of pincipals associated with effective leadeship and with pupil accomplishment, and even less insight…
Allen, K.E., Bordas, J., Robinson Hickman, G., Matusek, L.R., & Whitmire, K.J. (1998). Leadership in the twenty-first century. Rethinking Leadership Working Papers. Academy of Leadership Press. http://www.academy.umd.edu/scholarship/casl/klspdocs/21stcen.html
Bennis, W.G. (1997). "The secrets of great groups." Leader to Leader, No.3. The Peter F. Drucker Foundation for Nonprofit Management. http://www.pfdf.org/leaderbooks/L2L/winter97/bennis.html
Crowther, F., Kaagan, S., et. al. (2002). Developing Teacher Leaders. Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press.
Different Modes of Leadership
It seems that one of the most effective collaborative approaches to leadership involves situational leadership. Situational leadership, of course, is a paradigm in which leaders vary their leadership style and methodology according to the various situations they encounter (Wright, 2017, p. 27). In this respect, this form of leadership is highly effective for situations in which there are rapid changes, such as leading others during a merger or an acquisition. Moreover, it is collaborative in that the input from one’s followers regarding the sort of changes impacting situational leadership affects the type of leadership model one chooses to deploy next. Thus, both the situations and their consequences for followers informs the type of leadership involved, which is a collaborative means of implementing this flexible type of leadership.
Additionally, it also appears that transformational leadership is an efficacious approach to collaborative leadership. This particular leadership approach typically…
History Of Leadership
Throughout much of history, leadership was viewed as an inherited position. It was rare that somebody would earn their way into a leadership position. Over time, a leadership model emerged that emphasized traits, and those who displayed those traits were funneled into a leadership system that, at best, worked on a linear hierarchy where tenure determined who held what position.
The major gains in leadership theory occurred when the study of leadership moved beyond these two concepts. By the 1940s and 50s, there was a move towards behavioral theories. Leaders weren't successful because of their traits, but because of the behaviors that existed, a concept that was similar but different. Behaviorism opened up the study of leadership, however. It was really the first theory that focused on emergent leadership over assigned leadership. It also began to separate the idea of management from that of leadership. That separation…
Northouse, P. G. (2016). Leadership: Theory and practice (7th ed.). Thousand Oaks: CA: Sage Publications.
Leadership Central (2015). Leadership theories. Leadership Central.com. Retrieved December 6, 2015 from http://www.leadership-central.com/leadership-theories.html
2 Brief History and Organization Background
2 Proctor & Gamble History
5 Situation Analysis
5 External Environment
5 Internal Sociotechnical Systems
6 Problem Diagnosis & Definition
7 Great Man Theory
7 Trait Theory
8 the Managerial Grid
8 theory X and Theory Y
9 Participative Leadership (Lewin's leadership styles)
9 Situational Leadership
9 Contingency Theory
10 Transactional Leadership
10 Transformational Leadership
10 Organizational Leadership Discussion
14 Practitioner Recommendations
15 Overall Research Approach
16 Site and Population Selection
24 Identifications and Evaluation of Alternative Interventions
25 Action Planning
26 Follow-up and Evaluation
28 ork Cited
An Analysis of Leadership Styles Utilized by Procter & Gamble and Colgate-Palmolive and their Role in Contributing to Effective Practices and Profitability
This research proposal will focus on two major competitors in the national and international market, Procter & Gamble and Colgate-Palmolive, and the types of leadership…
Ang, S. (2006). Personality Correlates of the Four-Factor Model of Cultural Intelligence. Group &Organization Management, 31(1), 100-123.
Bass, B. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York: Free Press.
Bass, B. (1999). Two decades in research and development in transformational leadership.
European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 9-32.
Leaders are an important aspect to management and business. Leaders are what provide the basis from which subordinates follow. When a leader behaves in a way that provides a bad example to a subordinate or creates a chaotic environment, subordinates will follow suit and behave accordingly. Leadership behavior also lends to creation of a good or bad reputation for the leader.
When a leader treats his or her subordinates badly, that leader builds a bad reputation creating distrust and disharmony among subordinates. Culture also plays an important role in leadership as culture dictates personality. Personality is an important aspect of leadership style cultivation, lending to how a leader will treat his or her subordinates as well as interact with them. Leaders and subordinates are connected through behavior, culture, and personality. These articles highlight that relationship and outcome.
The first article discusses leadership behavior, acceptance of a leader by subordinates, and…
Boulton, F. (2011). Contemporary conflict resolution. Medicine, Conflict and Survival, 27(4), 247-249. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13623699.2011.645292
Chin, J. (2013). Diversity Leadership: Influence of Ethnicity, Gender, and Minority Status. OJL, 02(01), 1-10. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ojl.2013.21001
Ford, J. (2010). Studying Leadership Critically: A Psychosocial Lens on Leadership Identities. Leadership, 6(1), 47-65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1742715009354235
Koltko-Rivera, M. (2004). "The Psychology of Worldviews." Review of General Psychology, 8(1), 3-58. Retrieved from http://integralleadershipreview.com/5395-feature-article-leadership-and-worldview-what-in-the-world-is-a-worldview/
Phase 3 Discussion Board
The article that I have selected is "A framework for vulnerability analysis in sustainability science," by Turner et al. (2003). The authors advocate for a system that allows scientists to fully understand "the consequences of changes taking place in the structure and function of the biosphere." The authors argue that current vulnerability assessments are insufficient, and move the discussion towards an enhanced framework.
Sustainability science is defined as "an emerging field of research dealing with the interactions between natural and social systems, and with how those interactions affect the challenge of sustainability: meeting the needs of present and future generations while substantially reducing poverty and conserving the planet's life support systems" so this paper fits in with key elements of that definition. First, the paper reflects the need to understand the planet's life support systems in a complex way. The interactions between elements of these…
Eagly, A. & Johnson, B. (1990). Gender and leadership style: A meta-analysis. Digital Commons @ UConn. Retrieved October 23, 2014 from http://digitalcommons.uconn.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1010&context=chip_docs
Gardiner, M. & Tiggemann, M. (1999). Gender differences in leadership style, job stress, mental health in male- and female-dominated industries. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology. Vol. 72 (3) 301-315.
Kruse, K. (2013). What is authentic leadership? Forbes. Retrieved October 23, 2014 from http://www.forbes.com/sites/kevinkruse/2013/05/12/what-is-authentic-leadership/
Kushell, E. & Newton, R. (1986). Gender, leadership style, and subordinate satisfaction: An experiment. Sex Roles. Vol. 14 (3-4) 203-209.
A comparison of Law Enforcement with Other Professions
Who first comes to mind when you think of a 'Leader'? Is it Alexander the Great? Napoleon? Winston Churchill? Gandhi? Leadership is an interesting phenomenon to consider, from the perspective of civilization, of nations, of political change, and of history. What makes one person a leader while another tries and fails? What is a good leader and how is that different from a 'great' leader? The definition of leadership also varies with the context and with the individual who is defining leadership. The nature of leaders has changed as civilization has evolved, and the leaders we as a society need today may be different from those of a century ago. A national leader is distinct from a local leader, a oy Scout leader, or a team leader in a sport.
Thus, definitions of leadership vary with the situation. However, they include…
Avery, G.C. (2004) Understanding Leadership: Paradigms and Cases. London: Sage
Avolio, B.J. (1999) Full Leadership Development: Building the Vital Forces in Organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Bittner, Egon (1970). The functions of the police in modern society: a review of background factors, current practices, and possible role models. Washington, D.C.: National Institute of Health, Center for Studies of Crime and Delinquency.
Boedker, C., Vidgen, R., Meagher, K., Cogin, J., Mouritsen, J. And Runnalls, M. (2011). Leadership, culture and management practices of high performing workplaces in Australia: The High Performing Workplaces Index. Society for Knowledge Economics: Sydney.
Leadership Approach Analysis
Description and Analysis of Style and Situational Approaches to Leadership
Style Approach to Leadership
This is the approach which focuses on the leader's behavior in terms of what he/she does and how they actually do it, viewed as what is important. Behaviors are classified as those which are related to the task at hand as well as those which are seen in the leader's relationship with the other staff members. The first classification relates to how the objective of the firm is achieved and how the leader aids the team to achieve this objective. The classification on relationships is about the leader being able to influence the team to feel settled in their roles, in their work with their colleagues and in their pursuit of the firm's objectives. Therefore, style approach looks at how the leader conducts himself/herself in terms of tasks and relationships in order to…
Northouse, P. G. (2007). Leadership: theory and practice (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Roberts, F. (2016, January 16). Situational Approach to Leadership. Retrieved from Fred Roberts: https://sites.google.com/a/stgregoryschool.org/mr-roberts/home/theoretical-and-applied-leadership/situational-leadership
Scholl, R. W. (2003). What is Leadership? Retrieved from University of Rhode Island: http://www.uri.edu/research/lrc/scholl/webnotes/Leadership.htm
Virkus, S. (2009). Leadership Models. Retrieved from Tallinn University: http://www.tlu.ee/~sirvir/IKM/Leadership%20Models/trait_approach.html
Two of the most pressing issues in corporate leadership today include gender equality and labor rights. In "Women See Slow Progress in Leadership," Gay (2013) cites numerous empirical studies showing that the glass ceiling remains nearly impenetrable at the highest levels of management. The report cites the work-life balance ideal as the most common reason offered for why many women are either opting out of the CEO lifestyle, or are not considered ready or willing to handle the challenges and pressures of senior leadership.
In "The Best etail Companies to Work for ight Now," Smith (2013) describes Costco's approach toward human resources management. The company has recently been named one of the best companies to work for in the United States because of their relatively high salaries, supportive work environment, opportunity for growth, and job security. Its ethical labor rights practices are helping gain positive publicity for Costco, showing…
Gay, M. (2013). Women see slow progress in leadership. The Wall Street Journal. 14 Nov, 2013. Retrieved online: http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424052702303289904579196123043065800
Greenleaf, R. (2013). Ten principles of servant leadership. Butler University. Retrieved online: http://www.butler.edu/volunteer/resources/principles-of-servant-leadership/
Lavinsky, D. (2013). Are you a visionary business leader? Forbes. Retrieved online: http://www.forbes.com/sites/davelavinsky/2013/04/26/are-you-a-visionary-business-leader/
Robert K. Greenleaf Center for Servant Leadership (2013). What is servant leadership? Retrieved online: https://greenleaf.org/what-is-servant-leadership/
Leadership is a complex process involving the ability of an individual to inspire, motivate and redirect ways of thinking. It refers to the ability to bring out the best in oneself and others. In any set up, there must be rules and regulations to guide the relationships between people and activities. In a set up like an organization, there are goals and objectives that the organization aims to achieve. These objectives and targets rely on the ability of a leader to organize and direct activities towards their attainment. Leadership is the ability of one individual to stir the sentiments and behaviors of others towards the achievement of the set goals. The leader does this by transforming the goals to be a common goal to others.
Methods used by leaders to influence group members
Leaders can use power to get things done. How a leader uses these powers determines the success…
Gitlow, L.A. Being the boss: The importance of leadership and power. Washington D.C: Beard
book, 2004. Print.
Hellriegel, D & Slocum, W.J. Organizational behavior. Mason U.S.A: Cengage learning, 2009.
Technical, interpersonal, and conceptual skills
Interpersonal skills entail knowing how to interact with others. No employee desires to have a boss who is inconsiderate or rude or one who has poor human skills. All these could reduce productivity and employee morale. Managers with effective human skills tend to have subordinates who have positive attitudes and strong desires to increase productivity. Managers are always expected in any organization to have harmonious relationships with those below them like supervisors, peers, and subordinates (Yukl, 2012).
Conceptual skills refer to an individual's aptitude to formulate ideas. These skills include formulating abstractions, thinking creatively, understanding issues, solving problems, and analyzing complex situations. Within the business context, these skills are viewed as integral prerequisites for top executive positions. Conceptual skills differ from technical skills and interpersonal skills. The three types of skills assume vital roles for certain purposes and in certain situations. However, conceptual skills…
Phillips, D. T (1993). Lincoln on Leadership: Executive Strategies for Tough Times. Warner Books, Inc.
Yukl, G.A. (2012). Leadership in Organizations. 8th Ed. Boston, MA: Pearson Education
There are several candidates for taking charge of Gene One during its initial public offering and for some time following, at least until the company has stabilized in its new position, if not for longer. There are of course positive aspects and drawbacks to each of the potential company leaders, but any negative aspects of one individual's leadership can be mitigated by a more temperate and even handed leadership structure, yet one that still allows for efficient and decisive decisions to be made and carried out.
Studies have shown that leadership is often more even-handed when measured in terms of influence rather than in terms of procedural behavior, and this knowledge will be directly and explicitly applied to the Gene One leadership structure in the situation at hand (Hysom & Johnson 2006). Michelle Houghton and John Kirby will be the primary decision makers for the company; Houghton's commitment to the…
Hinduan, Z.; Wilson-Evered, E.; Moss, S. & Scannell, E. (2009). "Leadership, work outcomes and openness to change following an Indonesian bank merger." Asia-Pacific journal of human resources 47(1), pp. 59-78.
Hysom, S. & Johnson, (2006). "Leadership Structures in Same-Sex Task Groups." Sociological Perspectives 49(3), pp. 391-410.
Massod, S.; Dani, S.; Burns, N. & Backhouse, C. (2006). "Transformational Leadership and Organizational Culture: The Situational Strength Perspective." Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers; Part B; Journal of Engineering Manufacture 220(6), pp. 941-9.
e. leadership (Pruyne, 2001, p. 6), but also that "determining how to abstract a set of leadership concepts that apply across contexts without sacrificing an understanding of how the conditions and qualities involved in leadership vary among those same contexts" remained elusive (Pruyne, 2001, p. 7). Experts provided extended series of examples, mostly from the 20th century, demonstrating how leadership characteristics change over time and vary with context. Therefore future, 21st-century leaders should learn from the confused, sometimes contradictory and still evolving historical development of the concept "leadership," in order to distill the useful concepts from mistakes and temporary analytical fads. What seems to persist from the development of leadership theory over the last three centuries, is that leaders can be made rather than born regardless of inherited socio-economic status, and that while certain traits may be more prominent or apparent in those who find themselves in positions of leadership…
House, R., Javidan, M., Hanges, P. And Dorfman, P. (2002). Understanding cultures and implicit leadership theories across the globe: an introduction to project GLOBE. Journal of World Business 37, 3-10. Retrieved from http://t-bird.edu/wwwfiles/sites/globe/pdf/jwb_globe_intro.pdf
Kirkpatrick, K.A. And Locke, E.A. (1991). Leadership: do traits matter? Academy of Management Executive 5(2), 48-60. Retrieved from http://sbuweb.tcu.edu/jmathis/org_mgmt_materials/leadership%20-%20do%20traits%20matgter.pdf
Pruyne, E. (2002). Conversations on leadership. Harvard Leadership Roundtable 2000-2001, 1-
78 Center for Public Leadership, John F. Kennedy School of Government. Retrieved from http://www.morehouse.edu/centers/leadershipcenter/pdf/ConversationsOnLeadership.pdf