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Sleep in the Media
As interest in improving the quality of life increases, significant amount of research is being conducted in areas that can help improve the physical, mental and emotional well-being of human beings in an environment where there is constant distraction and a high level of stress. Sleep is an important area that has attracted a lot of attention. It is for this reason that the media has been particularly interested in the research on sleep and has portrayed it in a number of accurate and inaccurate ways for the consumption of the public. This ranges from getting adequate sleep to the best time for sleep in order to maintain productivity throughout the day. A number of remedies to cure sleep problems like insomnia and snoring are also popular occurrences in the media.
Michelson (2011) identifies one such myth that circulates frequently in the mass media.…
Gardner, A. (2012, May 01). Sleep curbs influence of obesity genes. Retrieved from http://www.cnn.com/2012/05/01/health/sleep-curbs-obesity-genes/index.html
Jones, K.E., Johnson, R.K., & Harvey-Bernio, J.R. (2008). Is losing sleep making us obese?. Nutrition bulletin, 33(4), 272-278. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-3010.2008.00727.x
Merrell, W. (2008, 10). How to sleep better and have more energy. O, The Oprah Magazine, Retrieved from http://www.oprah.com/health/How-to-Sleep-Better-and-Have-More-Energy
Michelson, W. (2011). Sleep time: Media hype vs. diary data. Social indicators research, 101(2), 275-280. doi: 10.1007/s11205-010-9647-y
All human beings need sleep in order for their bodies and minds to function properly. However, more and more people are staying up later than they should and then getting up without having slept the amount of time that they physically need in order to recover and ready themselves for the next day. Sleep debt refers to the deficit between the amount of sleep that a person gets and the amount that they need to function. The official definition, according to Scientific American states: "Sleep debt is the difference between the amount of sleep you should be getting and the amount you actually get. It's a deficit that grows every time we skim some extra minutes off our nightly slumber" (ebster 1). Every night it seems that for a large percentage of the population, the sleep debt seems to increase. There are many individuals who never get enough sleep…
Danner, Fred and Phillips, Barbara. "Adolescent Sleep, School Start Times, and Teen Motor
Vehicle Crashes." Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine. (Dec. 2008): n. pag. Rpt. In Writing and Reading Across the Curriculum. Ed. Laurence Behrens and Leonard J. Rosen. 11th ed. Boston: Longman, 2011. 522-28. Print.
Lambert, Craig. "Deep Into Sleep." Harvard Magazine. Boston, MA: Harvard Magazine, Inc.
Sleep Questionnaire (CSQ) Instrument Analysis
esearch to evaluate interventions to promote sleep in critically ill patients has been restricted by the lack of brief, inexpensive outcome measures (ichards, O'Sullivan, & Phillips, 2000). Usually the critically ill are given different medications that help them sleep. However, in many cases this is insufficient to achieve enough rest and sleep periods are generally fragmented and with decreased restrictiveness. Most researchers believe that a few days of partial sleep or even complete sleep deprivation in a healthy adult for brief periods is completely benign. However, for patients in critical care settings the effects of sleep deprivation can contribute to major complications.
Sleep is divided into two distinctive states, rapid eye movement (EM) and nonEM states. The former is defined by periods of episodic burst of rapid eye movements and the later (NEM) has a set of sub-stages that include for separate phases that can…
Richards, K., O'Sullivan, P., & Phillips, R. (2000). Measurements of Sleep in Critically Ill Patients. Journal of Nursing Measurement, 8(2), 131-140.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of mood on subjects' perceptions of the adequacy of their sleep, their reports of overall satisfaction / dissatisfaction with life, and the accuracy of the estimations task performance... It was hypothesized that sleep attainment influences the ability accurately judge adequacy of their sleep, cognitive functioning, and perceptions of satisfaction with their lives. The findings suggest that a lack of sleep may result in depressed affect which may cast a negative valence on self-reports. The research suggests additional inquiry into relationship between sleep attainment, mood at the time of report and prior to the report, and other aspects of life, such as job satisfaction, interpersonal relationships, economic status, and general health.
Participants. The sample consisted of 150 first-year psychology students at Swinburne University of Technology. All of the subjects were fluent in English. Seventy-one percent of the sample…
The summary noted a clear association between sleep disturbance in adolescents and a greater likelihood of having high cholesterol, high blood pressure and being overweight or obese. The study reported an association between sleep disturbance and cardiovascular risk in adolescents, as determined by high cholesterol levels, increased body mass index (BMI) and hypertension. The study called these findings important, given that sleep disturbance is highly prevalent in adolescence and that cardiovascular disease risk factors track from childhood into adulthood. Furthermore, the study mentioned previous studies that found that short sleep duration in adolescence was a significant risk factor for high cholesterol in adulthood, and that short sleep duration increased the odds of pre-hypertension, metabolic dysfunction, and adiposity.
The summary and the study said the research showed that those who reported sleep disturbances were more likely to consume a greater amount of soft drinks, fried food, sweets and caffeine. They both…
sleep has an affect on memory, and how narcolepsy can affect memory. Finally, it will discuss how to avoid sleep deprivation.
SLEEP DEPRIVATION AND MEMORY
Sleep. e cannot live without it, but sometimes, it seems like we would like to. Sleep deprivation has become much more common in our hectic and demanding society. "Like the religious ascetics of medieval times, many people today regard sleep as 'time lost.' They regret that the day is only twenty-four hours long and that they do not have time to do all the things they should do or would like to do" (Borbaely 158). One report notes that most people would rather sleep an hour more than they usually do, and in another study, people who slept less that six hours a night displayed the tendency to fall asleep during the day, or complain of being tired during the day. In addition, most people…
Arnold, Magda B. Memory and the Brain. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1984.
Borbaely, Alexander. Secrets of Sleep. Trans. Deborah Schneider. New York: Basic Books, 1986.
DeNoon, Daniel J. "Lack of Sleep Takes Toll on Brain Power." WebMD. 9 Feb. 2000. 26 July 2002. http://my.webmd.com/content/article/1728.54980
Editors. "Getting Enough Shut-Eye." ABCNews.com. 2 April 2002. 26 July 2002. http://abcnews.go.com/sections/living/DailyNews/sleep_poll020402.html
Sleep Behavior and Habits
Scientists have known for decades that the human sleep and wakefulness are controlled by complex factors that influence the circadian rhythm that regulate sleep in all mammalians and in most other forms of so-called higher biological life. More recently, physiologists have identified very important direct connections between sleep cycles, and sleep deprivation in particular, and human health. Specifically, sleep deprivation and the disruption of regular sleep-wake cycles have been implicated as factors that contribute to loss of mental focus, intellectual productivity, human error, emotional stability, resistance to bacterial infection, depression, and even healthful weight maintenance. In addition to the importance of sufficient sleep and the regularity of sleep cycles, there is even empirical evidence indicating that the quality of sleep is significantly affected by very small amounts of ambient light during sleep.
The Physiological and Psychological Importance of Sleep
Human studies on sleep and on sleep…
Lamond, N., Dorrian, J., Roach, G.D., McCulloch, K., Holmes, A.L., Burgess, H.J.,
Fletcher, A., and Dawson, D. "The Impact of a Week of Simulated
Night Work on Sleep, Circadian Phase, and Performance." Occupational Environment, (September 2003): 13-21.
Pauley, S. "Lighting for the Human Circadian Clock: Recent Research Indicates that
Sleep on Life Satisfaction and ognitive Function
Popular literature is replete with articles presenting evidence of the many harmful effects of sleep deprivation and the general consensus is that modern society works too much and sleeps too little. To be accurate, many empirical studies do exist that demonstrate the ill effects of insufficient sleep (Shekleton, 2010). Where these studies once predominantly emanated from the field of applied psychology -- in other words, from animal studies -- today the literature contains many juried articles from reputable laboratories and sleep clinics whose research is carried out with human beings ("National Sleep Foundation," 2005). The case for the physiological importance of sleep deprivation has been made, but as Groeger, et al. (2004) argues "actual data that show that society is sleep deprived do not exist." And what sleep data there is about the impact of sleep quality and amount on perceptions about life…
Certainly, subjects in the Groeger, et al. (2004) study could be expected to recall the approximate times of going to bed and arising, particularly if they reliably kept to the same hours every day, and the maintained the same patterns across the workday and weekends. However, as the literature demonstrates, the ability of people to accurately recall less meaningful, qualitative nuance is susceptible to disruption and attentional bias. Gilbert, et al. (1988) suggest that cognitive "busyness" impacts perception about constraining factors in the behavior of others.
In summary, absent the recording of daily impressions regarding fatigue, energy, enjoyment, satisfaction, accomplishment, and mood, the reliability of the data is suspect.
Data from the Groeger, et al. (2004) was based on self-reports of sleep adequacy and included information about perceived satisfaction with energy levels, life experiences, and sense of being successful. Of considerable interest is the data that indicate that nine or more hours of sleep are not associated with higher levels of satisfaction with regard to energy, life experiences, and a sense of being successful. The popular notion is that people who sleep nine hours or more each day -- not including teen-agers -- are less energetic, less satisfied with life, and feel less successful overall, and may, in fact, be clinically depressed. Here, too, it would appear that future research would do well to investigate the actual reported and observed daytime moods of those subjects who report sleeping substantively more or less than typical subjects who tend to sleep, on average, about 7.5 hours per day. Given the inadequacy of accurate reporting of mood in the Groeger, et al. (2004) study, and the potentially important role that affect can have on recollection and reporting -- acting to mediate obtained responses -- research designed to accurately measure daytime effects of various levels of sleep and to precisely record mood in a repeated measures fashion is proposed. Further, instrumentation in the proposed study would be designed to obtain more refined measures of perceived levels of satisfaction and enjoyment in the three life areas targeted by Groeger, et al. (2004): Work, Home / Family Life, and Leisure Time. In
The results indicated that there is no significant difference between group 1 and group 2 with respect to their GPA, t (172) = .623, p =.534.
The results of the analysis for hypothesis one did not support the hypothesis. It was predicted that individuals who received greater amounts of sleep would have correspondingly higher GPAs. The results of the correlation analysis were not significant, nor did they approach significance in any way. This means that, for individuals in this sample, the amount of sleep one gets is not related to one's GPA. Whether one sleeps for 4 hours during a week or for 30, there appears to be no relation to one's GPA. These results are surprising, as one would generally believe that receiving an adequate amount of sleep would contribute to an individual's ability to function well, and thereby get good grades. There are a few factors,…
Sleep and Wakefulness
How Does Wakefulness Influence Sleep
Sleep is one of the most important components of good health, and successful night's sleep can be robbed in many ways. Because the sleep state is a fragile undertaking, events that happen during the day, issues during the night, and physiological actors all play a role. This paper discusses all of the factors related to how wakefulness affects sleep, and therapies that can be used to receive good sleep.
Of course the main way that wakefulness affects sleep is that fact that the person is awake. Sleep deprivation can come through many agencies such as what a person ate or drank right before bed, how agitated they were, what type of work the person did during the day, and the atmosphere they are sleeping in (atcliff & Dingen, 2009). However, this section is more about how sleep deprivation affects the…
Bokken, I. (2005). Dreams and Neuroholography: An interdisciplinary interpretation of development of homeotherm state in evolution. Sleep & Hypnosis, 7(2), 47-57.
Borbely, A.A., & Tontoni, G. (1998). The quest for the essence of sleep. Daedalus, 127(2), 167-182.
Botzen, D., & Rusu, A.S. (2010). Subjective sleep quality in relation to the type of living environment (rural vs. urban) an evolutionary psychological analysis of a Romanian non-clinical sample. Cognition, Brain, Behavior, 14(2), 141-149.
Broomfield, N.M., Gumley, A.I., & Espie, C.A. (2005). Candidate cognitive processes in psychophysiologic insomnia. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 19(1), 5-14.
Experiential Learning Activity
Parents with newborn babies usually get less hours of sleep because of the demands of the baby. While I have always known that this is a reality to many new parents, I have never known what it actually feels like to be in their shoes. This experiential learning activity has provided me an opportunity to have first-hand experience of what it entails to be a parent of a newborn baby with regards to night time waking up. As one who likes to have interrupted sleep, having to wake every three hours at night was a really difficult experience for me. When the alarm went off the first time i.e. at 1:00am, it was relatively easy for me to wake up. However, the experience became more difficult way into the night as I struggled to wake up. For instance, it was harder to wake up at 4:00am than…
Infant Sleep Patterns
People sleep nearly one third of their lives and infants sleep significantly more than adults (Franken, Kopp, Landolt, & Luthi, 2009). The function of sleep has hypothesized by different researchers; however, surprisingly there is no general consensus as to what the function and purpose of sleep actually is. It is known that sleep deprivation can have some serious consequences, especially in infants. The reason for this is that growth cycles as well as other developmental and functional processes occur in both the brain and body during sleep (Franken et al., 2009). Since getting adequate sleep is vital in infants it is important to understand their sleeping needs and patterns. In order to understand how to establish safe sleep patterns for children less than 18 months of age is important to understand the stages of sleep, the hypothetical functions of sleep, and the needs of infants regarding sleep…
Carpenter, R., McGarvey, C., Mitchell, E.A., Tappin, D.M., Vennemann, M.M., Smuk, M.,
Carpenter, J.R. (2013). Bedsharing when parents do not smoke: Is there a risk of SIDS?
An individual level analysis of five major case-control studies. British Medical Journal Open, BMJ Open 2013;3:e002299. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2012-002299
Franken, P., Kopp, C., Landolt, H.P., & Luthi, A. (2009). The functions of sleep. European Journal of Neuroscience, 29(9), 1739-1740.
However, things have advanced. ith better technology, we can monitor the brain's activity while in REM. Certainly, one thing is certain: with out sleep there is no life. ithout sleep, body temperature, eating, infection prevention, and basic brain functioning suffer.
In terms of survival, where do dreams fit in? Researchers argue that the continuation of a complex brain process such as REM sleep indicates serves an important function for the survival of mammalian and avian species. Certainly, it was a very valuable step along the evolutionary ladder and led to survival. As the brain grew more complex, it needed downtime to process new information. Like any computer, especially a complex one, the human brain requires maintenance. Besides simple "down time," it also requires reprogramming every 24 hours. Just like our network computers take necessary updates and downloads, the brain needs a reprogramming session every 24 hours to recharge itself and…
Animals have complex dreams, mit researcher proves. (2001, January 21). Retrieved
Aserinsky, E; Kleitman, N. (September 1953). "Regularly occurring periods of eye motility and concomitant phenomena, during sleep." Science 118 (3062): 273 -- 274.
Gokce, Gokalp. (1999). Sleep and dreams. Retrieved from http://www.csun.edu/~vcpsy00h/students/dreams.htm
Offered under the same roof are "consultative, diagnostic, and treatment services" which are stated to be provided "by board-certified practitioners in the fields of pulmonary medicine, otolarngology, family medicine and more." (2006)
Smith reports that the laboratories experiencing the most dramatic growth are two which are located the "farthest from the Hillsboro flagship" as they are located in two areas that were "formerly underserved." (2006) Smith additionally reports that the demand is stronger in the areas where the two fastest growing centers are located which supplies "plenty of fuel for expansion."
Smith states that the Sleep Health & Wellness NW is attempting to "fill a gap so that patients who previously were overlooked or not being reached or who fell through the cracks no longer are," she says. "We have no plans to open centers in areas where there are already quality sleep services programs. We only want to go…
Inspiration! Sleep Study Results & Analysis (2006) Q&a with Ron Richard, senior vice president of strategic marketing initiatives at ResMed HME Business April 2006. Online at http://www.hme-business.com/articles/55305/
Johnson, Duane, PhD (2008) Are you Really Managing Your Sleep Lab? The Business of Sleep. Focus Journal May/June 2008. Online at http://www.foocus.com/pdfs/Articles/MayJune08/Duane.pdf
Kay DC, Pickworth WB, Neider GL. Morphine-like insomnia from heroin in nondependent human addicts. Br J. Clin Pharmacol. 1981;11(2):159-169
MacFarlene, James (2009) the Painful Pursuit of Sleep. Sleep Review Journal Jan/Feb 2009. Online available at http://www.sleepreviewmag.com/issues/articles/2009-01_07.asp
Hours of Sleep, Life Satisfaction & Cognitive Functioning
ELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HOUS OF SLEEP, SATISFACTION WITH LIFE AND COGNITIVE FUNCTIONING
elationship between Hours of Sleep and Both of Satisfaction with Life and Cognitive Functioning
Proper sleeping hours are very important for our body's functioning. When a person is sleeping, his body is in the process of repair; thus allowing his brain to have some rest and the needed down time. There are many negative effects of less sleeping hours on the cognitive function as well as life satisfaction of a person.
Just like a proper diet, sleep plays a very essential role in the maintenance of overall health of an individual. Unfortunately, Americans are facing some serious cognitive and life satisfaction problems due to lack of sleeping hours. According to an estimate from U.S. Center for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC), approximately 25% of U.S. citizens have less sleeping…
National Sleep Foundation, 2005. Summary of Findings, retrieved on June 17, 2011 from www.sleepfoundation.org
Siri Carpenter, 2001. Sleep Deprivation May Be Undermining Teen Health. Monitor Staff, Vol 32, No. 9, pp.42.
Julia A. Shekleton, Naomi L. Rogers and Shantha M.W. Rajaratnam, 2009. Searching For The Daytime Impairments Of Primary Insomnia. Clinical Review, Brain & Mind Research Institute, University of Sydney, Camperdown, New South Wales
William E. Kelly, 2010. Sleep-Length And Life Satisfaction In A College Student Sample. Retrieved on June 17, 2011 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0FCR/is_3_38/ai_n6249228/
business plan for a unique business opportunity- a sleep lab. This paper investigates the unique business needs of this business as well as the challenges of engaging the surrounding community, its employees as well as clients on the health benefits of sleep as well as the necessity for the identification as well as treatment of various sleep disorders. The safety needs of the participant are also taken into consideration and well as the setup and running costs.
A sleep disorder is noted by Al Ghamdi (2009) to be a medical disorder of a person's sleep patterns and is a serious condition that affects an individual's normal mental, physical as well as emotional functions. Most sleep disorders can effectively be diagnosed and treated in a sleep lab or center via a common test referred to as polysomnogram (Patil,2010).
Sleeps disorders as a source of public health concern
Sleep is also being…
Al Ghamdi, M (2009). Business Plan for Sleep Center. Boise State University ScholarWorks
CDC (2011). Unhealthy Sleep-Related Behaviors -- 12 States, 2009.Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Weekly Vol. 60(8).
Ibis World (2012).Sleep Disorder Clinics in the U.S.: Market Research Report. Sleep Disorder Clinics Market Research Report. Available online at http://www.ibisworld.com/industry/sleep-disorder-clinics.html
Jonson, D. (May-June, 2008). Are you really managing your sleep lab. Focus Journal,
Neonatal nurseries are the only alternative environment to a human womb that is offered to a preterm infant . The development of these nurseries and its accessories has now opened a new era in the management of these preterm infants .These nurseries by virtue of their sophisticated machines and experienced care givers are now offering a better chance of survival to these fragile infants .These preterm infants are now not only surviving this initial complicated period of their lives but also leading a healthy life comparable to a normal term infant .
Although the preterm infants are profoundly benefited by these nurseries, these infants are also exposed to the various elements of a typical nursery environment .Among these physical elements, the constant lighting, noise, and nursing interventionsare the pertinent ones that may have negative influence on the development and well-being of a preterm infant .These physical elements may…
Dahl, R.E. (1996). The impact of inadequate sleep on children's daytime cognitive function.
Seminars in Pediatric Neurology 3, pp. 44-50.
Holditch-Davis, D., Barham, L., O'Hale, A., & Tucker, B. (1995). Effect of standard rest periods on convalescent preterm infants. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing,
I find that I could fall asleep almost anywhere, but especially after eating or when trying to relax. I am usually asleep within minutes of going to bed, but struggle mightily to get up in the morning. On a daily basis I find myself stressed to get through the day without felling tired, irritable and drowsy.
According to the Mayo Clinic's Sleep tips: 7 steps to better sleep (2012) there are 7 steps that one can use to achieve better sleep. These include:
Sticking to a regular sleep timetable -- going to bed and getting up at the same time every day, even on weekends, holidays and days off strengthens ones sleep-wake sequence and helps encourage better sleep at night.
Paying attention to what one eats and drinks -- one should never go to bed either hungry or stuffed as the discomfort might keep them up.
Creating a bedtime ritual…
Brain Basics: Understanding Sleep. (2007). Retrieved from http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/brain_basics/understanding_sleep.htm
Carpenter, S. & Huffman, K. (2009). Visualizing Psychology (2nd ed.), John Wiley & Sons.
Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders. (2008). Retrieved from http://www.aasment.org/resources/factsheets/crsd.pdf
Sleep tips: 7 steps to better sleep. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/sleep/HQ01387
egular sleep patterns [...] why human beings need a regular sleep pattern. Biologically, humans suffer if their sleep patterns are not regular and consistent in a variety of ways, as evidence will show.
When you do not get enough sleep, you can be cranky and out of sorts. You may have trouble concentrating and retaining information, as well. However, there are some compelling biological reasons to make sure you have regular sleep patterns. Your health and well-being can suffer because of irregular sleep patterns. In fact, lack of sleep can even make you fat. A writer notes, "Deep sleep is key to the release of hormones that play a role in hunger and appetite. A lack of rest can therefore cause you to overeat and crave foods high in fat and sugar" (Grimes, 2008). If you vary your sleep patterns for many months, it could help you put on weight…
Editors. (2010). Four simple ways to help restore sleep patterns. Retrieved 1 Dec. 2010 from the Best Health Fitness.com Web site: http://www.best-health-fitness.com/4-simple-ways-to-help-restore-sleep-patterns/.
Everett, F. (2010, February 15). Sleep yourself skinny. The Daily Mail (London, England), p. 37.
Grimes, K. (2008, October). Sleep Essentials. Dance Teacher, 30, 148+.
Big Sleep and Chinatown: Depictions of Noir in Hollywood
Film noir rose to prominence in the late 1940s and was initially described as "murder with a psychological twist" (Spicer, 1). Film noir helped to introduce audiences to a new genre that had distinct trademarks and themes. The Big Sleep, directed by Howard Hawkes and based upon the eponymous Raymond Chandler novel, helped to cement and define the genre. Similarly, Chinatown, directed by Roman Polanski, helped to redefine the genre, while at the same time, maintaining several aspects of classical film noir. The Big Sleep and Chinatown, though filmed nearly 30 years apart, are definitive films of the film noir genre, helping to establish the role of the hard-boiled detective in the genre, and adhering to the "murder with a psychological twist" trope.
The term film noir was first utilized by French film critic Nino Frank to describe four recently released…
Borde, Raymond and Etienne Chaumeton. A Panorama of American Film Noir: 1941-1953.
Trans. Paul Hammond. San Francisco: City Lights Books, 2002. Print.
Hawkes, Howard, dir. The Big Sleep. Warner Bros, 1946. Film.
Polanski, Roman, dir. Chinatown. Paramount Pictures, 1974. Film.
It is amazing to read how many times key terrorists literally fell through the fingers of investigators, and even after they had them, they allowed key information to go undetected or ignored. Even worse, it illustrates how deeply entrenched bin Laden was in terrorist activities. The groups he sponsored participated in Somalia at the time the U.S. angers were losing 18 of their men in the "Black Hawk Down" incidents, and became convinced America was simply a weak, "paper tiger" (Posner 52). Sadly, it seems now that he may have been right about many of his ideas about the American government and terrorism.
Even more troubling are the accounts of people who really understood the dangers America faced, but were ignored. It seems there was so much infighting between the FBI, the CIA, and other agencies, that many high officials could not be bothered listening to the concerns of some…
Posner, Gerald. Why America Slept: The Failure to Prevent 9/11. New York: Random House, 2003.
sleep and electronics. In particular, this research paper aims to explore the possible effects of screen time on sleep, based on experiences from participants in a survey. Prior to conducting the survey, the hypothesis was 'more screen time equals less sleep time'. Surveys are a valid research method to help test hypotheses by collecting information in the form of responses from target populations. By asking if screen time (e.g., video games, computers, mobile devices, and television) affected sleep outcomes of teenagers aged 14-18, the research paper could discover a negative correlation between screen time and sleep time. The negative correlation supported the hypothesis that teenagers exposed to higher levels of screen time, would sleep fewer hours. The research paper includes an appendix with a survey and excel data results collected from participants at Stuyvesant High School.
Teenagers have access to a wide array of electronics. From televisions to smart…
Comair Flight 5191: Case Study in Fatigue
Aviation Safety: Fatigue
Comair Flight 5191: A Case Study in Fatigue
Comair Flight 5191: A Case Study in Fatigue
Comair Flight 5191 came to a disastrous end in 2006 when the flight crew attempted to take off from a runway much shorter than required for the aircraft they were piloting, resulting in the deaths of 49 of the 50 people on board (Pruchnicki, Wu, and Belenky, 2011). The Comair Captain, First Officer, and air traffic controller failed to perform the necessary checks to ensure the plane was lined up on the proper runway before takeoff. The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) investigated the accident and could not definitively determine the cause. Years later at a sleep conference, the NTSB chairman Deborah Hersman mentioned the Comair Flight 5191 tragedy and noted that establishing fatigue as a significant contributing factor is often so difficult that…
Caldwell, John A. (2012). Crew schedules, sleep deprivation, and aviation performance. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 21(2), 85-89.
Hersman, Deborah A.P. (2010). Remarks of the Honorable Deborah A.P. Hersman, Chairman National Transportation Safety Board before the National Sleep Foundation in Washington, D.C. NTSB.gov. Retrieved 14 Feb. 2013 from http://www.ntsb.gov/news / speeches/hersman/daph100305.html.
Jackson, Craig A. And Earl, Laurie. (2006). Prevalence of fatigue among commercial pilots. Occupational Medicine, 56, 263-268.
Pruchnicki, Shawn A., Wu, Lora J., and Belenky, Gregory. (2011). An exploration of the utility of mathematical modeling predicting fatigue from sleep/wake history and circadian phase applied in accident analysis and prevention: The crash of Comair Flight 5191. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 43, 1056-1061.
Similarly, regular exposure to certain types of artificial lighting can have a negative effect on the quality of sleep as well. Research into the comparative health of daytime and nighttime workers has helped establish some of the more specific ways that sleep is important to human health. For example, certain forms of cancer such as breast cancer and colorectal cancer) have been documented at higher rates among nighttime workers Pauley, 2004). As it happens, those forms of cancer are known to be moderated by Melatonin, a hormone secreted by the pineal gland during specific phases of sleep and known to vary in relation to exposure to light Pauley, 2004).
Research on mice revealed that melatonin-related cancers increased when the subjects were exposed to very small levels of light during sleep and also that completely blind human beings have a lower incidence of colorectal cancers than blind people who can perceive…
Recent research into sleep and the way sleep patterns are affected by light suggest that sleeping in complete darkness is much more beneficial than sleeping in less than complete darkness (Pauley, 2004). Similarly, regular exposure to certain types of artificial lighting can have a negative effect on the quality of sleep as well. Research into the comparative health of daytime and nighttime workers has helped establish some of the more specific ways that sleep is important to human health. For example, certain forms of cancer (such as breast cancer and colorectal cancer) have been documented at higher rates among nighttime workers (Pauley, 2004). As it happens, those forms of cancer are known to be moderated by Melatonin, a hormone secreted by the pineal gland during specific phases of sleep and known to vary in relation to exposure to light (Pauley, 2004).
Research on mice revealed that melatonin-related cancers increased when the subjects were exposed to very small levels of light during sleep and also that completely blind human beings have a lower incidence of colorectal cancers than blind people who can perceive some light (Pauley, 2004). The researchers eventually determined that nighttime work is detrimental to human health partly because night workers are much less likely to sleep in absolute darkness since they sleep during daylight hours. Compounding the problem is the fact that the wavelengths common to blue television light and electronic equipment status lights are particularly bad in that regard. The research suggests that it is essential for night workers to sleep in entirely blacked-out rooms.
Obstructive Sleep Apnea
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) happens to be the most common of all the other kinds of sleep apnea – with the other types of OSA being mixed sleep apnea and central sleep apnea. Garvey, Pengo, Drakatos and Kent (2015) point out that as a matter of fact, there is evidence to suggest that it is the most common respiratory disorder. This, in the words of the authors, is more so the case given “recent data from the United States and Europe suggesting that between 14% and 49% of middle-aged men have clinically significant OSA” (Garvey, Pengo, Drakatos and Kent, 2015, p. 274).
Breathing Cessations and Severity Assessment
In basic terms, OSA involves periodic breathing cessations during sleep – with the occurrence (and the number) of the said cessations varying significantly. Most cases of OSA go unrecognized, effectively meaning that a very small percentage of those suffering…
At best, LS is considered a puzzling problem which leads to an "overwhelming need to move the leg to relieve the discomfort." There is no pain involved and hence patients can be cured with simple changes in diet. Vitamin supplements can help especially ones with folic acid and iron. It can also be treated with some herbs, leg massage or simple yoga exercises. Where it is not a neurological disorder, LS is not a cause of concern. It can come and go and may not even be a cause of major sleep problems unless it becomes persistent. LS is fairly common as one in twenty persons will experience some form of LS.
David Hoffman, Healthy Bones & Joints: A Natural Approach to Treating Arthritis, Osteoporosis, Tendinitis, Myalgia & Bursitis. Storey Publishing, LLC; (July 15, 2000)
Phyllis a. Balch. Prescription for Herbal Healing: An Easy-to-Use a-Z eference to Hundreds of…
David Hoffman, Healthy Bones & Joints: A Natural Approach to Treating Arthritis, Osteoporosis, Tendinitis, Myalgia & Bursitis. Storey Publishing, LLC; (July 15, 2000)
Phyllis a. Balch. Prescription for Herbal Healing: An Easy-to-Use a-Z Reference to Hundreds of Common Disorders and Their Herbal Remedies. Avery Trade (January 10, 2002)
Hoffman, p. 56
Balch, p. 390
GEONTOLOGICAL & GIATIC NUSING
Nursing Paper-Gerontological & Griatric Nursing
End of Life Issues and the Elderly
(2) "Identify and discuss the role of the nurse in providing family centred care to an elderly client who is palliative and living at home with his/her spouse or another family member."
Palliative care is an approach to provide a coordinated medical, nursing, and allied health service to address the patient's physical, social emotional and spiritual needs for people with progressive incurable illness. Palliative care seeks to deliver allied health service within the environment of person's choice to improve quality of life for both an ill person and the family or friends. In the United States, Europe and other part of the world, number of people reaching the advanced age and having the need of specialities for the management of pain control continues to increase. (oyal College of Nursing, 2004).
Meanwhile, a nurse plays…
Bliwise, D.L. Bliwise, N.G. Partinen, M. et al.(1988). Sleep Apnea and Mortality in an Aged Cohort. Am J. Public Health.78:544-547.
Bruce, S.D. & Hendrix, C.C. (2006). Palliative Sedation in End-of-Life Care: The Role of The Nurse in Palliative Sedation. Journal of Hospice and Palliative Nursing.8(6):320-327.
Canadian Nurses Association (2008). Providing Nursing Care at the End of Life. Ottawa Canada.
Davies, E. & Higginson, I.J. (2004). Better Palliative Care for Older People. World Health Organization.
Male ithout Female
In the classic films of the 1940s and 1950s, filmmakers tended to use very strict representations of gender in their characters. omen could be either virgins or tramps and men could be either heroes or villains. There was very little transgression of the stereotypical boundaries of character. Society as a whole during this period was heavily masculine. Men made up the executives and the politicians and of course the majority of the powerful filmmakers. Consequentially, the perspective of most films and literature of the era was decidedly masculine. Female characters were heavily marginalized and forced into one of the two categories listed above. In two works from the period, The Big Sleep and The Maltese Falcon, the women characters are portrayed as useless or as venomous and evil. Some scholars have speculated that the reason behind such portrayals is the basic male fantasy which is a world…
Ahearn, William. "The Mystery of the Maltese Falcon." 2008. Print.
Chandler, Raymond. The Big Sleep. New York: Vintage, 1992. Print.
"Marlowe, Carmen and Vivian: An Interpretation of The Big Sleep." Word Press. Web. 2012.
innie exerts an opposite influence by recalling to Jake the necessity of being a good, moral person if he wishes to keep her in his life. Even the baby that innie is carrying plays a part in Jake's need: he uses the baby as leverage to win back the money that Gordon has pilfered from him and innie. The baby is "time," and "time" is what Gordon really values. Jake offers Gordon the opportunity to make right with innie by donating the $100 million from the trust fund to the charity that Jake and innie support. By helping Gordon make right, Jake buys himself an "in" with innie, and Gordon is there to insist that the two give their relationship another try.
Prior to this happy reunion, however, Jake suffers his lowest moment in the film. That moment comes as a consequence of the false solution provided at the end…
Stone, Oliver, dir. Wall Street: Money Never Sleeps. LA: 20th Century Fox.
Individual Programmatic Assessment
TEATMENTS OPTIONS FO IEGULA SLEEP-WAKE SYNDOME
Irregular Sleep-Wake Syndrome is a form of a psychological disorder also called Irregular Sleep-Wake hythm. People with Irregular Sleep-Wake Syndrome have non-aligned sleep times. These people have sleeping patterns that do not adhere to the "normal" times of sleeping at night. The sleeping patterns are disorganized to a magnitude that one cannot tell the presence of a clear sleep or wake pattern. Such people have a tendency to sleep off on some naps over a 24-hour period. The sleep patterns have been split into pieces. They behave like infants who sleep for a few hours, wake up for some other few hours, and also sleep off for some few hours, with the cycle repeating with no clear sequence. During the day, the number of sleep times may be high since they like napping a lot. During the night, they seem to…
American, P. A. (2015). Sleep-Wake Disorders: DSM-5 Selections. New York: American Psychiatric Pub
Flamez, B., & Sheperis, C. (2015). Diagnosing and Treating Children and Adolescents: A Guide for Mental Health Professionals. New York: John Wiley & Sons
Fontaine, K. L. & LeFontaine (2014). Complementary and Alternative Therapies for Nursing Practice. New York: Pearson
Kerkhof, G. A., & Dongen, H. P. A. (2011). Human Sleep and Cognition: Part II. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Invention and Summarize the Significance of the Underlying Technology Innovation
The device titled the Thornton Adjustable Positioner or TAP is an oral/dental device worn in the patient's mouth during sleep to move the lower jaw slightly forward to create an open airway for proper breathing while sleeping. The device or some like them have been previously tried on minor sleep disturbances such as snoring, yet, their efficacy has been unknown for more serious problems such as mild to severe sleep apnea. Sleep apnea, a disorder that creates oxygen deprivation during sleep and can moderately to severely affect the health of the individual first by depriving the individual of restful sleep and in more severe cases by creating oxygen deprivation that can lead to other chronic diseases or even acute death from asphyxia.
Up to this point the most commonly prescribed device for sleep apnea is a device that forces oxygen…
University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio (2009, February 4). Small Device Helps Sleep Apnea Sufferers In A Big Way. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/02/090203140147.htm
Behrens and Rosens (2002) have an entire discussion pertaining to the effects of sleep deprivation on adolescents. College students, actually, routinely deprive themselves of sleep as does the American nation in general (Weiten, 184) mainly in the hope and mistaken belief that they can achieve more in their life this way. According to Dumer and Dinges (2005), in fact, approximately 20% of adults are routinely sleep deprived.
cientific research on sleep, actually, presents something of a paradox since, whilst on the one hand, it indicates that sleep deprivation is not as detrimental as one might expect, on the other hand, evidence seems to indicate that sleep deprivation may be a major social problem, undermining efficacy in school and academic achievement, contributing to countless accidents, and negatively impacting an adolescent's life in various aspects.
The level of seriousness of the effects of partial sleep deprivation depends on the amount of sleep…
Behrens, L. & Rosens, L.J. Writing and Reading Across the Curriculum. NY: Longman Pub., 2002.
Dumer, J., & Dinges, D.F. "Neurocognitive Consequences of Sleep Deprivation," Seminars in Neurology, 25 (2005): 117-129.
Weiten, W. Psychology: Themes and Variations. NY: Thomson & Wadsworth, 2007.
An alarm was set each night signaling the self-agreed upon time for bed. I explained to friends and family that this was an important behavioral change in my life, as well as an academic exercise, and asked for their support. The process of self-change by using consciousness raising and reevaluation of goals and behavior were also an important part of the motivation for this study. I followed the prescribed agreement for a three-week period, realizing that I would need a few days at several levels in order to be successful (See Appendix B). At the end of three weeks my quality sleep averaged above 7.5 hours, thus increasing the basal measurement by 50% (from 5.0 hours to 7.5 hours).
Discussion- the intervention was a success and there was a clear set of lifestyle and behavioral changes that were made. General feelings of self-worth, sense of direction, and contentment/happiness with the…
Researchers used standard sleep questionnaires to assess sleep problems and characteristics in ADHD (n = 122) and non-ADHD (n = 105) comparison youths. They concluded that ADHD may be one of the consequence of nightmares but is not an outcome of it.
This study is valuable to my study in that it teaches me to be skeptical regarding differentiating between outcome and cause.
StRanjbaran, Z., Keefer, L., Farhadi, a., Stepanski, E., Sedghi, S. And Keshavarzian, a. (2007), Impact of sleep disturbances in inflammatory bowel disease. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 22: 1748 -- 1753.
Study showed that inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients have significant sleep disturbance even when their disease is not active. This problem might affect quality of life, gastrointestinal symptoms and coping ability, and might potentially increase or decrease disease severity. A self-administered, mail-in questionnaire package was sent to 205 subjects using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index…
The term consciousness has been defined as "mental awareness of sensations, perceptions, memories, and feelings" (Brown, et al. 2003, p. 166). Most human beings live in three states of consciousness: waking, sleeping, and dreaming. Two other states of consciousness, meditation and drug-altered consciousness, can be induced. This essay will explore these five states further and will conclude with a discussion on their psychological relevance.
Most of our lives are spent in waking consciousness, that is, a state of clear and organized alertness (Brown, et al., 2003). When we are awake, our perception of time, places, and events are real and often accurate. An electroencephalograph (EEG), a device that monitors the electrical activity of the brain, reveals that a person in the waking state has low-amplitude brain wave patterns that are fast and irregular.
Contrary to popular beliefs, sleep does involve some awareness (Lindsay et al., 2004). The…
Brannon, L. & Feist, J. (2007). Health psychology: an introduction to behaviour and health.
Belton, CA: Wadsworth.
Brown, P., Coon, D., Malik, R., & McKenzie, S. (2003). Psychology: a journey. Scarborough,
ON: Thompson Nelson.
For example, if one was travelling from Seattle to New York City and the flight arrived at 5pm New York Time the person's internal clock would still be registering 2pm. If the person wanted to be asleep around 11pm, then they should take the melatonin at about 8-830pm. If that same person flew from Seattle to Hawaii, and they arrived at 7pm, their internal clock would register 10pm; so they would still want to take melatonin based on the time they want to sleep in the local area.
3. When cats are deprived of REM sleep, longer periods of deprivation -- up to about 25 days -- are associated with greater rebound of REM when they can sleep uninterrupted. However, REM deprivation for more than 25 days produces no additional rebound. Speculate on a possible explanation. (Hint: Consider what happens to PGO waves during REM deprivation.)
REM sleep, or Rapid…
Wallace C., obins J., Alvord L, Walker J. The effects of earplugs on sleep measures during exposure to simulated intensive care unit noise. American Journal of Critical Care 8, 4:210-219.
Six paid volunteers (self-selected) were tested on five 8-hour periods, at 7-day intervals. The first three nights were quiet. The subsequent nights the subjects were given earplugs, and they were subject to simulated ICU noise. The study found that where elevated noise levels produced more awakenings, and rapid eye movement latency, the earplugs were effective in allowing the patients to reduce EM latency and increase the % of EM sleep. The authors note that the sample size was small, a key limitation.
Scotto C., McClusky C., Spillan S., Kimmel J. Earplugs improve patients' subjective experience of sleep in critical care. Nursing in Critical Care 14, 4: 180-184.
The study had 88 participants (49 intervention, 39 control). The subjects were admitted…
Mashayekhi F, Arab M., Abazari F., Rafati F., Rafiei H. The effects of earplug on perception of sleep in patients of coronary care unit (CCU) educators. Middle East Journal of Nursing 7,5:3-7
Neyse F., Daneshmandi M., Sharme M., Ebadi A. The effects of earplugs on sleep quality in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Iranian Journal of Critical Care Nursing 4, 3:127-134
Scotto C., McClusky C., Spillan S., Kimmel J. Earplugs improve patients' subjective experience of sleep in critical care. Nursing in Critical Care 14, 4: 180-184.
Van Rompaey B., Elseviers M., Van Drom W., Fromont V., Jorens, P. The effect of earplugs during the night on the onset of delirium and sleep perception: a randomized controlled trial in intensive care patients. Critical Care 2012, 16:R73-R82
Napping, should it be a part of a daily work regime?
The business world is full of leaders, innovators, and people looking to beat the competition. If someone came and said there was a way to help employees be more productive at no cost to the employer would anyone believe it? The answer is, yes. It has been scientifically proven that naps allow people to achieve more at work or at any mentally challenging task. Should all companies allow napping during work time? Additionally, why do Americans, in contrast to other modern countries, find it so difficult or odd to nap during the day?
It is hard to say because some jobs require people to be alert at all times, leaving little room for breaks, let alone nap time. But for the most part, most companies would stand to benefit allowing employees to nap during the work day. In order…
Gayomali, C. (2013, July 30). 4 research-backed reasons you should be allowed to nap at work - The Week. Retrieved from http://theweek.com/article/index/247584/4-research-backed-reasons-you-should-be-allowed-to-nap-at-work
Holland, B. (1995). Endangered pleasures: In defense of naps, bacon, martinis, profanity, and other indulgences. Boston: Little, Brown.
Nishida, M., & Walker, M.P. (2007). Daytime Naps, Motor Memory Consolidation and Regionally Specific Sleep Spindles. PLOS One, 2(4), e341. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000341.t001
MDD: Tina's Case Study…"
Tina's Case Study MDD
"MDD: Tina's Case Study.."
Major Depressive Disorder: Tina's Story
Tina's Story- Case Study
Tina is a 23-year-old black female. She is currently separated from her husband of five years. She is currently employed by two companies, one at which she works Monday- Thursday mornings, and the other on Wednesday -- Friday evenings, and all day Saturday and Sunday. However, she hasn't shown up for work on a consistent basis for the last four weeks, and not at all in the last two days.
Once an energetic, active, healthy female who loved to exercise at the local gym three days a week, Tina now spends most of her time in her apartment. She hasn't been to the gym in over four weeks, and her body movements that used to be quick and marked are now slow and sluggish. Even though she hasn't changed…
Aglan, A., Williams, J.G., Pickles, A., & Hill, J. (2010). Overgeneral autobiographical memory in women: Association with childhood abuse and history of depression in a community sample. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 49(3), 359-372. doi:10.1348/014466509X467413
American Psychological Association (2000) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-IV-TR Fourth Edition (Text Revision) DSM IV-TR, Arlington VA: American Psychiatric Publishing.
Craigie, M.A., Saulsman, L.M., & Lampard, A.M. (2007). MCMI-III personality complexity and depression treatment outcome following group-based cognitive -- behavioral therapy. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 63(12), 1153-1170. doi:10.1002/jclp.20406
Hybels, C.F., Blazer, D.G., Steffens, D.C., & Judith A., N. (2006). Partial remission. Geriatrics, 61(4), 22-26. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
The topic of sleep and dreaming is interesting to me because of the complex nature of the brain. It seems we know so much about human physiology, yet the brain is still mysterious. e know about neurochemicals, for instance, but do not really understand how memory is stored, accessed, or how dreaming affects our abilities during waking life. e know that a chemical upset, even minor, can make a huge difference in our state of consciousness, or our ability to perform in daily activities. Dreaming is fascinating to me because we know that the brain is a machine, and like any machine, it must be maintained (through nutrition) as well as rest and sleep. I find it personally interesting that dreams can be so vivid, unreal, frightening, pleasurable, and yet still mysterious.
Dreaming is part of sleep -- and a recurring stage in which our state of consciousness is…
Obringer, L. (2012, October). How Dreams Work. Retrieved from How Stuff Works: http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/life/inside-the-mind/human-brain/dream3.htm
Osterweil, N. (2010). The Health Benefit of Dreams. WebMD. Retrieved from: http://www.webmd.com/mental-health/features/the-health-benefits-of-dreams
Zhang, J 2004, Memory Process and the Function of Sleep, Journal of Theoretics, 6 (4): 14-21.
To die, to sleep: perchance to dream:" He is doomed to a sleep that is plagued by fear and reprisal, to seek out revenge for worldly actions against him. Hamlet knows that if he were to die today he would likely be doomed to walk the halls, as his father dreaming of the day that he was killed and the betrayal that ended his life, "ay there's the rub; / for in that sleep of death what dreams may come." Hamlet knows that reaching out to seek the sleep and dream of death he would be dooming himself to an eternal seeking of revenge, not unlike that of his father who reached out to him in death to tell his story of betrayal and exact revenge upon the wife (mother) and brother.
The soliloquy reveals that Hamlet is mortal, that he is afraid of the un-avenged death and that he…
Even though users of light therapy are often advised not to look directly at the light source, the mechanisms of the eye focus incoming light onto the macula, the small region of the retina where vision takes place, and where age-related macular degeneration occurs. Since blue light wavelength make up only a small percentage of the light in white light, any form of light therapy using a high proportion of blue light therefore risks subverting a variety of defensive mechanisms that protect the retina against blue light hazard. These defensive mechanisms include the anatomical positioning and structure of eye and its surrounding features, as well as human posture, which makes it awkward for humans to gaze upwards for long periods of time. Sunnex iotechnologies, 2008)
The work of David H. Sliney entitled: "Ocular Hazards of Light" presented at the International Lighting in Controlled Environments Workshop states the following risks and…
Figueiro, M.G., J.D. Bullough, R.H. Parsons, and M.S. Rea. Preliminary Evidence for Spectral Opponency in the Suppression of Melatonin by Light in Humans. Neuroreport, Vol. 15, 2004, pp. 313-316 in: Figueiro, Mariana, Bullough, John D. And Rea, Mark S. (2007) Light isn't just for vision anymore: implications for transportation safety. United States Department of Transportation Lighting Research Center Region 2 University Transportation Research Center Polytechnic Institute 31 Dec 2 -- "7
Figueiro, M., et al. Demonstration of additivity failure in human circadian phototransduction. Neuro Endocrinology Letters, Vol. 26, 2005, pp. 493-498.
Ingling, C.R., E. Martinez, and a.L. Lewis. Tonic-Phasic-Channel Dichotomy and Crozier's Law. Journal of the Optical Society of America, Vol. 73, 1983, pp. 183-189 in Figueiro, Mariana, Bullough, John D. And Rea, Mark S. (2007) Light isn't just for vision anymore: implications for transportation safety. United States Department of Transportation Lighting Research Center Region 2 University Transportation Research Center Polytechnic Institute 31 Dec 2 -- "7 Report
Lack, Leon, Bramwell, Toby, Wright, Helen, and Kemp, Krystyn (2007) Morning blue light can advance the melatonin rhythm in mild delayed sleep phase syndrome
In music, most artists will face a number of challenges. This is because there are struggles they will endure to become successful. At the same time, they have to be able to remain relevant and adapt with the music. This means creating a unique sound which can combine a number of elements together. In the case of Tori Amos, she was able to create a one of a kind genre that took the traditions of the singer -- songwriter from the 1970s and augmented them with an alternative -- punk sound. This created a new form of women entertainer, who wanted to use this as a way to highlight social messages in their songs. While at the same time, it is giving women a sense of empowerment in the way they carried themselves and performed.
As a result, there will be an examination of the influences of Tori…
"The Bee Keeper." Tori Amos. Last modified 2011.
"Parasol Lyrics." Song Meanings. Last modified 2012.
wiring of the teenage brain?
The teenage brain undergoes major restructuring during the formative teen years. The frontal cortex goes through a growth spurt right before puberty. This leads to a thickening of the area brain responsible for thinking. Typically the human brain is already ninety-five percent the size of an adult's by age six. However, during the teenage years the growth spurt results in new neural interconnections and pathways.
It is hypothesized that skills that are in constant use during the teenage are reinforced by the brain. While those skills or areas of the brain that are not in use, do not get the same reinforcement. This is known as the "use it or lose it" principal. For example, those students who engage in high levels of music and art see those neural pathways reinforced, therefore poised to flourish in the latter years, while other skill sets and pathways…
Since both individuals were seeking to improve
the circumstances, the question that begs to be asked is why did the male
"Male leaders received lower effectiveness ratings when expressing
sadness compared to neutrality, while female leaders received lower ratings
when expressing either sadness or anger" (Lewis, 2000, p. 221). Since
females are perceived in a different light, their emotions are also viewed
as being different as well. A response such as this does not make
cognitive sense, nor is it needs based, but it could be a fixed or a
learned behavior that would coincide with the fixed action theory.
Appealing to the audience from a needs basis might assist the young female
in achieving her goal, or she could benefit by taking a more dispassionate
approach in addressing the crowd. She could benefit from arousing the
students with application of a fixed action response especially from the
Bandura, A. (1989) Human Agency in Social Cognitive Theory, American
Psychologist, Vol 44, No 9, pp. 1175 - 1184
Chance, P. (1994) Learning and Behavior, Pacific Grove, California:
Brooks/Cole Publishing Company
Gawel, J.E. (1997). Herzberg's theory of motivation and Maslow's hierarchy
of needs. Washington, DC: ERIC Clearinghouse on Assessment and
Evaluation, [ED421486], accessed October 25, 2007
Are OBEs some kind of hallucination http://www.psywww.com/asc/obe/faq/obe21.html
Sleep Medicine Home Page: http://www.webct.com/dispatcher?PATH=service/ViewContent&contentI=11820&VERSION=1&FUNCTION=GetPath&SERVERIP=192.168.2.118&COURSEI=PSC150WWJM&COURSETITLE=General%20PsychologyJM%a&ISCIPLINE_0=79&BOOKTITLE_0=Psychology&BOOKTITLE_1=Taking%20Sides%2C&SOURCE=homepage
ream Control Techniques through Hypnosis
Hypnosis in Psychotherapy and Psychosomatic Medicine.
Medical Journal of Islamic Academy of Sciences. Volume 11, No.2
Betchley, Lee C. Ht. "The hypnotic benefits of lucid dreaming." http://hypnoticworld.com/Articles/lucid_dreaming.asp
ream Central's Unique Method of ream Analysis
Dream Central's Unique Method of Dream Analysis
humans have been experimenting with and fascinated by the various states of consciousness. It is common knowledge that man regularly moves through these different states of being. Equally known is the ability to intentionally change one's experiential level. Such is man's attraction to altered consciousness that some religions, chiefly Eastern ones, have incorporated into their repertoires philosophies of and activities towards attention manipulation. Science, particularly biopsychology, has also recognized the value of managing consciousness. Biofeedback, meditation, and sleep are examples of the relationship between attention and one's state of being.
Biofeedback involves electrically monitoring involuntary responses to stimuli. In other words, one's heartbeat, muscle tension, and brain wave activity are recorded while specific conditions occur. By analyzing and correlating this data to an individual's physiological dysfunctions, professionals are able to prescribe explicit and effective therapies. The belief guiding biofeedback treatment is that spontaneous reactions can be harnessed and modified thereby…
Morris, Charles G. & Maisto, Albert A. (2002). Psychology: An Introduction. Prentice Hall:
Medelein N. Moody, (2013). A Relational Aggression Intervention in Early Childhood. University of Nebraska. ProQuest LLC.
The paper was aimed at interrogating the relational aggression in early childhood and if there are interventions within the school setting that can act to reduce the aggression. This intervention is referred to as the Early Childhood Friendship Project and entailed taking stock of the changes in the behavior of the children as they undergo the study and the project. The preliminaries within the article indicates that there is usually a significant differences between the relational aggression between the boys and girls in school with the later recording a higher rate of aggression.
The study was conducted through a survey method and formal testing as the children went through the project and the teachers concerned recorded the results and any noticeable changes over time.
The results that were observed showed…
Sebastian H. Scharf, (2013). Chronic social stress during adolescence: Interplay of paroxetine treatment and ageing. Neuropharmacology 72 (2013) 38e46
The research is centered on the effect of exposure to chronic stress during development especialy at the adolescent and the possibility of developing psychiatric disorders. This was motivated by the fact that little is known about the long lasting effects of the exposures to stress and their relation to age.
The study was focused on the direct and long-lasting impact of chronic social stress during adolescence as well as the chronic treatment of SSRI. Adult and aged animals were used since the experiment could potentially harm human subjects. There was use of CD1 mice at the age of 28 days and these were subjected to a chronic social stress for 7 weeks among other treatments with chemicals. It was observed that the chronic stress as well as the antidepressant treatment at the end of the development period could have a significant and long-lasting impact which is very relevant to healthy ageing.
estless legs syndrome, also known as Ekbom syndrome, is the most commonly experienced sensorimotor disorder among the general population (Bassetti et al., 2011). The disorder afflicts approximately 2 to 10% of the general population and it is experienced as periodic limb movements in 80% of individuals with restless legs syndrome (Bassetti et al., 2011). The most prominent symptoms of the disorder are urges to move the legs as well as unpleasant sensations in the legs (Lee et al., 2011). The symptoms generally commence or become worse during inactivity and individuals with the disorder generally feel relief from symptoms after movement (Lee et al., 2011). Also, symptoms of the disorder are generally worse during the evening hours in comparison to the daytime. Furthermore, restless leg syndrome often results in sleep disturbances such as delayed sleep onset, multiple awakenings, and reduced sleep efficiency (Lee et al., 2011). The disorder is…
Bassetti, C.L., Bornatico, F., Fuhr, P., Schwander, J., Kallweit, U., Mathis, J. (2011). Pramipexole vs. dual release levodopa in restless leg syndrome: a double blind, randomized, cross-over trial. Swiss Medical Weekly, 141, w13274.
Bayard, M., Bailey, B., Acharya, D., Ambreen, F., Duggal, S., Kaur, T., Rahman, Z.U., Tudiver, F. (2011). Bupropian and restless leg syndrome: a randomized control trial. Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine, 24(4), 422-8.
Lee, D.O., Ziman, R.B., Perkins, A.T., Poceta, J.S., Walters, A.S., Barrett, R.W. (2011). A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study to assess the efficacy and tolerability of gabapentin enacabil in subjects with restless legs syndrome. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 7(3), 282-92.
Mitchell, U.H. (2011). Nondrug-related aspect of treating Ekbom disease, formerly known as restless leg syndrome. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 7, 251-7.
The assessment of my family is presented here for the academic purposes. The family comprises of six members that are working at different positions and live in personal home. Each member of family is educated. Based on questionnaire filled by all the family members, the summary is composed that will give an insight about the health of family.
Summary of each functional health pattern for family
The health perception-health function of the family suggests that it has an average health status. The health is not poor and the members are less vulnerable to severe health issues like diabetes and allergies yet there is a mild risk of getting cold and fever since there is low temperature at night and cool breezes during the morning. The family is suggested to have regular checkups and to take vitamins. Nutritional Metabolic Pattern of family shows that it has a healthy diet…
Doyer, B.M. And Radovich, N.H., (1990), "Functional health patterns: the postanesthesia care
Unit's approach to identification," Journal of Post Anesthesia Nursing, 5(3):157-62.
Vincenz, M.C., and Siskind, M.M., (1994), "Functional health patterns: a curricular course
Model for adult acute care," Nursing Diagnosis, 5(2):82-7
Circadian Rhythm Test responses (cont'd)
Responses to Question, "What time do you need to get up each morning?"
Circadian Rhythm Test responses (cont'd)
Responses to Statement, "Describe how you sleep. (Assume you need to wake up at a certain time each morning.): How I fall asleep"
Circadian Rhythm Test responses (cont'd)
Responses to Statement, "Describe how you sleep. (Assume you need to wake up at a certain time each morning.): My ability to stay asleep at night."
Circadian Rhythm Test responses (cont'd)
Responses to Statement, "How my body naturally wakes up."
Circadian Rhythm Test responses (cont'd)
Responses to Question, "What time of year do you notice sleep, energy or mood problems?"
Circadian Rhythm Test responses (cont'd)
Responses to Question, "What time of year do you notice sleep, energy or mood problems? Ends"
Educate pilots concerning the need for regular healthy meals when operating conditions allow; carriers can help…
Drug treatment and behavior therapy may be useful, rather than analysis.
Also, psychological symptoms may produce biological phenomenon, like sleep disturbances. "Sleep disturbances and unipolar depression are such intransigent bedfellows that troubled sleep is considered a hallmark of the mood disorder," for example. (Marano, 2003) However, insomnia can also fundamentally unbalance the brain's natural state of homeostasis, causing the symptom of depression, as well as manifesting itself as a symptom of depression itself.
Behavioral problems in children can have their roots in biology. Children without enough sleep or proper nutrition are more likely to act out inappropriately, and without treating these biological causes, simply addressing the children's purely psychological feelings or even giving them coping mechanisms such as rationally discussing the issues, will matter little. Children and adolescents also have different sleep needs, and different internal time 'clocks' because their bodies are still busily growing at night. Children and adolescents,…
Goldman and C. Barr. (2002) "On the Addicted Brain." New England Journal of Medicine. 347:843. Retrieved 10 Oct at http://scienceweek.com/2003/sb031003-6.htm
Marano, Hara E. (2003) "Insomnia and Depression." Psychology Today.
Retrieved 10 Oct at http://www.psychologytoday.com/articles/index.php?term=pto-2862.html&fromMod=popular_depression
The objective of this study is to examine the condition of Fibromyalgia. Toward this end, this study will conduct a review of current literature in this area of inquiry.
Fibromyalgia is a syndrome reported as common and one in which the individual has pain throughout their body as well as joint, muscle, tendon and soft tissue tenderness on a long-term basis.
Causes of Fibromyalgia
While the cause of Fibromyalgia is uncertain it has been linked to such as fatigue, problems sleeping, headaches, anxiety, and depression. Factors that are believed to be potential triggers of fibromyalgia include: (1) physical or emotional trauma; (2) abnormal responses to pain in areas of the brain; (3) disturbances in sleep; and (4) infection although no specific virus has been identified as being responsible for causing Fibromyalgia.
Occurrence of Fibromyalgia
Fibromyalgia is known to occur most in women ages 20 to 50 years of age.…
Demirbad, B. And Erci, B. (2012) The Effects of Sleep and Touch Therapy on Symptoms of Fibromyalgia and Depression. Iran J. Public Health. 2012;41(11):44-53. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed
Fibromyalgia - Fibromyositis; Fibrositis (2012) Summary of Cochrane Review. PubMed Health. Retrieved from:
Patterns of Health Perceptions
Marjorie Gordon (1985) went on to introduce the idea of functional health patterns in order to create a good nursing data base. Utilizing this approach, nurses are able to create an organized approach for attaining the relevant information from patients. This data therefore assists them in getting a good idea about the human and health functions of that family. In doing so, making a diagnosis becomes an easier process. The findings attained from the family I interviewed will be discussed below.
The health perception and management findings were that most of the family members were not satisfied with their general health. The major problems in the family were regarding hypertension and heart diseases in the family. The family as a whole stated that they did not find it easy to act according to the suggestions of the doctor. The elders of the family were…
318. However, in this and other studies, it seems that lack of effectiveness may be due to a cessation of the CBT and not due to its lack of effectiveness while in treatment (Belleville, 2011, p. 318). egardless, there are very few, if any, studies that show evidence of negative effects of CBT.
An additional factor that should be taken into account in Isabella's case is that substance use may be involved. Neither the DSM nor the DASS questionnaires address the theory that substance use may exacerbate or may be premorbid to anxiety/depression/stress disorders. Perhaps additional questionnaire(s) regarding substance use should have been presented to her. The Cannabis Expectancy Questionnaire is an example of a questionnaire that directly addresses substance use by assessing use by the patient (Connor, 2010).
An important additional consideration regarding Isabella's case is that in her verbal report she states that her inability to relax and…
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When watching a scary movie alone at night, this system is likely to become engaged due to the perception of a threat; sudden noises are likely to cause an involuntary flight reaction that, of course, subsides after a moment.
Temporal summation in a nerve cell occurs when the length of time over which successive activation potentials occur is sufficiently long enough to allow for the potentials to continue to the point where they begin to overlap. When this occurs, a new activation starts to begin before the climax of the preceding action potential has been reached. This action potential essentially ends prematurely, or summates, as it begins the rise into the next action potential, which ends up being larger in magnitude than the constituent action potentials. Summation of active potential in muscle fibers allows for similarly larger action potentials, which can increase the strength of the fiber contractions.
Somehow this is an explanation of what love is, paradoxical. This paradox between the sublime relationship of sex to love and to procreation is all one in this small poem and is the true meaning the poet is conveying.
Fergus is at once the symbol and personification of this in the poem, "this blessing love gives again into our arms." (Meyers __) Referring to the love they have shared for each other and the love that is now their child. The meaning here is at once figurative and literal, here is a sense of spiritual love between them all, and the physical presence of their bodies, both at first as a couple making love and then experiencing their child between them as the symbolic and literal result of that love.
There is also a counter play between the innocence of a child and the experience of an adult. In the…
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Discuss the relevant information about the student's behaviors. What factors early on contribute to how she is today?
Liz, a 15-year-old high school Freshman, has been exhibiting certain behaviors lately and in the past that have been affecting her today. Liz has been functioning below grade level academically. She cannot work independently, "hates" school, and rebels against all authority. She is defensive and uses abusive language. She tends to blame others for her carelessness and seldom takes responsibility. According to Liz's parents, Liz seldom slept enough when she was younger, so as to give them a break from her behaviors. As Liz grew older, she began to react impulsively. She has been caught distributing drugs and refuses to get tested, psychologically.
There are certain factors, from the past, that may have contributed to how Liz is today. First of all, Liz seemed to be deprived of sleep, early on,…
The researcher will gather all of the information collected from the self report questionnaires and analyze using a variety of techniques including summary, interpretation, classifying and describing. The author will use the data to measure change that occurs among the populations using HT therapy.
In conducting the study the researcher will undoubtedly run into some obstacles including determining how to measure change in the participants health and well being, examining the extent of change and the attributes of change for purposes of the study (King, 2001). Measuring change is a key concept vital to longitudinal research design (Kind, 2001). As this study is qualitative in nature the data will be presented via narratives, observations and transcripts from the survey to record and measure data appropriately (King, 2001).
The researcher will attempt to explain change and identify causal relationships between the independent and dependent variables. Data managing, reading, describing,…
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This last category includes the infamous waterboarding technique, which has -- in subsequent evaluations -- been labeled illegal torture. An important consideration in the evaluation of these techniques has been the additive impact of combining techniques to achieve an enabling condition or objective. In other words, in its 2002 memo to John izzo, the Acting General Counsel of the C.I.A., the U.S. Justice Department specifically prohibited some combinations of techniques and specifically permitted other combinations. In the period following 9/11 through 2005, revolving officials in the Office of Legal Counsel of the U.S. Justice Department issued radical memos supporting or opposing the standard imposed by Congress for identifying torture. The harsh interpretation in 2005 asserted that the techniques used by the C.I.A. were not "cruel, inhuman or degrading," and so could not be considered to be torture.
How would you validate the information received from a suspect that was deprived…
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