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Influences on Social Cognition in Children and Adolescents
Influences on Social Cognition in Children and Adolescents
Child development is influenced by many factors. Some of the most important factors that affect the development of a child include heredity, nutrition, parental affection, and culture. Cognition refers to a general processes regarding the principles of thinking in humans, whereas social cognition refers to the study of how people process and use social information, particularly how social information is encoded, stored, retrieved, and then applied by the person in social situations (Striano & eid, 2006). Social cognition and social cognitive development are often studied by cognitive psychologist and social psychologists. The parallel between cognitive development and the development of social cognition certainly cannot be ignored. Cognition in children develops within the social context, but also most likely conforms to certain developmental patterns (Piaget, 1954). The primary influences of the…
Baumrind, D. (1967). Child-care practices anteceding three patterns of preschool behavior.
Genetic Psychology Monographs, 75, 43-88.
Baumrind, D. (1991). The influence of parenting style on adolescent competence and substance use. Journal of Early Adolescence, 11(1), 56-95.
Blakemore, S.J. (2011). Social-Cognitive Development during Adolescence. Child Psychology
Since we observe the responses of our peers and friends, we are very much attuned to how we interact with others, and how their succeed or fail. The theory of self-efficacy is fundamental to understanding social cognitive learning, because it implies that the process of using this theory creates greater confidence. Since individuals learn from their cultural environment, it is imperative to construct a positive enforcing messages through the educational process to ensure that individuals feel that they can accomplish any and all given tasks.
A contextual example of the social cognitive learning model can be seen in the case of student as in the provided example. As is a student who feels no self-efficacy when it comes to mathematics, despite numerous opportunities to learn from math, he has taken no opportunities to improve himself. When questioned he clearly asserts that he cannot learn math, something that appears counterintuitive from…
Social Cognitive, Behavioral Drinking
Social Cognitive/behavioralist Drinking
Drinking behavior provides informative demonstration of how social cognitive and behavioralist theories provide complementary rather than competing explanations of human agency. Bandura (1999) casts social cognitive theory against various determinist and materialist theories on the assertion humans are "sentient agents of experiences rather than simply undergoers of experiences" because people explore, manipulate and influence the environment they discover (p. 4). This contrasts against "automaticity," habit, "tendencies to repeat responses given a stable supporting context" (Oullette and Wood, 1998, p. 55). Oullette & Wood (1998) compare habit learning to skill development, where practice can lead to "nonvolitional, frequent, and consistent experiences in a given context" but new situations require deliberation (p. 55). Wood and Neal (2007) largely reiterate this summary as repeated learned behavior (843). The present inquiry is particularly interested in how and why particular behaviors become repeated after negative consequences have been…
Bandura, A. (1999). A social cognitive theory of personality. In L. Pervin & O. John (Ed.),
Handbook of personality (2nd ed., pp. 154-196). New York: Guilford Publications. (Reprinted in D. Cervone & Y. Shoda [Eds.], The coherence of personality. New York: Guilford Press.)
Ouellette, J. & Wood, W. (1998). Habit and intention in everyday life: The multiple processes by which past behavior predicts future behavior. Psychological Bulletin 124(1), 54-74.
Wood, w. & Neal, D.T. (2007). A new look at habits and the habit -- goal interface. Psychological Review 114(4), 843 -- 863. Retrieved from DOI: 10.1037/0033-295X.114.4.843
The GEMS effort was to create a social environment that encouraged healthy eating and exercise, and expanded health literacy in a fun manner, and was accessible to young girls.
It is easier to change health-related behaviors in the young, and the program tried to address the unique and often more acute problem of obesity in African-American young girls. The entire community and family units were incorporated into the program effort. Positive aspects of the African-American community, such as strong social support, were used by the study designers, also in line with social cognition theory. Existing support structures and social learning were combined: for example, the families in question were often not educated in how to properly read food labels, but once they were, the desire to help their daughters become healthier would hopefully reinforce the need to engage in proactive steps to improve dietary health. During Family Nights, families of…
Marvella E. Ford, Barbara C. Tilley, & Patricia E. McDonald. (1998). Social support among
African- American adults with diabetes. Journal of American Medicine. 90 (6) 361-365.
Retrieved July 9, 2010 at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2568240/pdf/jnma00165-0047.pdf
Story, Mary, et al. (2003, Winter). "An after-school obesity prevention program for African-
Social psychology is the study of human behavior in social situations, showing how social pressures and sociological variables can impact psychological phenomenon such as identity, motivation, personality, or behavior. A quintessential topic in the field of social psychology is bullying. Bullying can be studied from a public health perspective, showing how the external variables such as how a school is designed and the leadership and organizational culture of the school affects risk factors implicated in bullying behaviors or victimization patterns. Alternatively, bullying can be examined from a purely psychological perspective to reveal the factors implicated in aggressive physical or verbal behaviors or alternatively, to study victim characteristics or why some bystanders refuse to step in when they observe bullying behaviors. This latter issue links in with the social psychology approach. The social psychology of bullying examines factors like why some people perpetrate bullying behaviors due to their upbringing, their sense…
SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY AND WHAT DOES IT AIM TO STUDY?
Inspired by Kurt Lewin (1951), social psychology adopted the experimental method to study human behavior (Wood & Kroger, 1998). In this regard, Wood and Kroger (1998) report that, "Lewin's experiments in leadership style (autocratic, democratic, laissez-faire) became classics in the new experimental social psychology" (p. 267). Lewins' early work was carried on by Festinger and others who explored cognitive dissonance for the next 20 years at MIT and subsequently at the Universities of Michigan and Minnesota, making this one of the foundations of social psychology (Wood & Kroger, 1998).
Simply stated, social psychology uses the scientific method to study human social behavior (ogers, 2003). According to ogers, psychological social psychology "studies how social events and phenomena influence the ways in which individual people feel, think and act. It is concerned with the psychological processes (such as social perception and cognition) that…
Hayes, D. (2004). RoutledgeFalmer guide to key debates in education. New York:
Karakashian, L.M., Walter, M.I., Christopher, A.N. & Lucas, T. (2006). Fear of negative evaluation affects helping behavior: The bystander effect revisited. North American
Journal of Psychology, 8(1), 13.
Increasing of skills and knowledge and even knowledge of the society cannot be possible without social interactions. That is the basis of the social cognitive theory as it brings together attitudinal and cognitive effects. The major forms of continuous learning are via the environment, the web, media houses and social communications. The intensity of the effect this new knowledge would have on people is dependent on their individual mindsets. Social communication (as earlier stated) is a major way of increasing knowledge and deriving meaning from these. In this handbook, we have given a thorough breakdown of social cognition and the workings of social communication in its various forms. This topic is very useful for schools, service establishments, research institutes, the government, professional training schools, industries and firms among others. Even the military could benefit from this as it has employees who daily apply their cognitive abilities for various uses such…
Humans are lousy at thinking.
Except, of course, that we're not. But it is true that humans are relatively bad at purely rational thinking. This should not perhaps be surprising to us: We are not, after all, computers, which are far better than are humans at making rational decisions and providing rational calculations about situations. This is not entirely a bad thing: Humans have apparently (though the process of evolution) sacrificed the ability to make perfectly rational calculations for the ability to excel at what those who are trying to teach computers to think like humans call fuzzy thinking. We are good, for example, at being able to read another person's internal emotional state by the tilt of their eyebrows but we are relatively bad at calculating the odds of whether to take another card in blackjack - to the unending enrichment of the Las Vegas casinos.
Paulos, J.A. (2001). Innumeracy: Mathematical Illiteracy and Its Consequences. London: Hill and Wang.
Social Cognitivism: Viewpoint Synthesis
Literature eview on Social Cognitivism
Theoretical Paper: Social Cognitive Theory of Personality by Albert Bandura
The core of the social cognitive theory is that through observation, learning occurs. This theory has several premises forming its foundation. Human beings are seen to learn when they participate in the observation process. A person who is a model, demonstrates a behaviour while the observer picks up this behaviour or learns it by seeing the model doing it. Albert Bandura, in his Social Cognitive Theory on personality, which is now known as the Social Learning Theory, states that there are many interactions of various elements such as people, the environment and behaviours when learning is taking place. Thus it takes place within a social setting (Bandura, 1999).
Purpose of the study
Bandura pursued various aims in this study. He looked at the behaviour of groups and individuals and…
Bandura A. (1989) Social Cognitive Theory. IN: Annals of Child Development (Vol 6, p1
60. (Vasta R, ed). Greenwich, CT: Jai Press LTD.
Bandura, A. (1986) Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory.
Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
(2004) Intent and Ordinary Bias: Unintended Thought and Social Motivation Create Casual Prejudice. Social Justice esearch, Vol. 17 Issue 2, p117-127, 11p. etrieved July 7, 2009 from EBSCO online database http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=s8h&AN=13079636&loginpage=Login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Henry, P.J. And Hardin, C. (2006). The Contact Hypothesis evisited. Status Bias in the eduction of Implicit Prejudice in the United States and Lebanon. Association of Psychological Science. Vol.1-7 -- Number 10. etrieved July 7, 2009 from EBSCO online database http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rst&AN=23000285&loginpage=Login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Mandel, I. (2009). Cultural Prejudice & Discrimination. esearch Starters Sociology, 2009, p1-6, 6p. etrieved July 7, 2009 from EBSCO online database http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rst&AN=36267911&loginpage=Login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Pearson, A., Dovidio, J., & Pratto, F. (2007).acial Prejudice, Intergroup Hate, and Blatant and Subtle Bias of Whites toward Blacks in Legal Decision Making in the United States. International Journal of Psychology & Psychological Therapy, 2007, Vol. 7 Issue 2, p145-158, 14p. etrieved July 8, 2009 from EBSCO online database Full Text http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=s8h&AN=27747337&loginpage=Login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site
amasubramanian, S. &…
Fiske, S. (2004) Intent and Ordinary Bias: Unintended Thought and Social Motivation Create Casual Prejudice. Social Justice Research, Vol. 17 Issue 2, p117-127, 11p. Retrieved July 7, 2009 from EBSCO online database http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=s8h&AN=13079636&loginpage=Login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Henry, P.J. And Hardin, C. (2006). The Contact Hypothesis Revisited. Status Bias in the Reduction of Implicit Prejudice in the United States and Lebanon. Association of Psychological Science. Vol.1-7 -- Number 10. Retrieved July 7, 2009 from EBSCO online database http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rst&AN=23000285&loginpage=Login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Mandel, I. (2009). Cultural Prejudice & Discrimination. Research Starters Sociology, 2009, p1-6, 6p. Retrieved July 7, 2009 from EBSCO online database http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rst&AN=36267911&loginpage=Login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Social Web and Technology: Moving Humans Into Uncharted Territory
The internet has changed the way humans interact with each other in every way. It has helped shape an entire generation of social interactions as well as helped people learn in ways that were not possible before. Within these interactions, the very roots of society are created. S these interactions have changed media and shape, the preferences and habits of socialization have changed as well. As a technology, social web has given people the ability to connect with other people and places that were at one time inaccessible. It also gives people unfettered access to information through first hand reports and stories. This access to information on a global scale is also changing the way socialization occurs.
Human beings have always had a certain access to information, whether within a small group or over technologies like TV, radio, or printed media.…
Blossom, J. (2009). Content nation: surviving and thriving as social media technology changes our lives and our future. Social Media: New York.
Dorfman, L., Martindale, C., Gassimova, V., & Vartanian, O. (2008). Creativity and speed of information processing: A double dissociation involving elementary vs. inhibitory cognitive tasks. Personality and Individual Differences, Vol. 44, No. 6, April 2008, 1382-1390.
Postman, N. (2001). Deus Machina. Technos: Quarterly for Education and Technology, Vol.
10, No. 27. Retrieved February 22, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002395759 .
Social Psychology: Examining the Principles of Persuasion Influencing Group Behavior
Introduction & Outline of the
Concepts of Social Psychology
Attitudes and Persuasion
Social Identity Theory
Cultural and Gender Influences
Social Psychology: Examining the Principles of Persuasion Influencing Group Behavior
Introduction & Outline of the Essay
Social psychology deals with different aspects of social life and social behavior. People not only have feelings and opinions about nearly everything they come into contact with, but the argument has been made that we need to have these feelings and opinions. The current essay is aimed at exploring the principles of persuasion influencing group behavior. The foundation for this essay is text book "Social Psychology" by Myers (2010) which discusses the attitude theory and persuasion, reviewing how attitudes are structured and how this structure influences their susceptibility to change
The essay is divided into four sections. In the first section…
Baker, David P. And Deborah Perkins Jones. 1993. "Creating Gender Equality: Cross-national Gender Stratification and Mathematical Performance." Sociology of Education 66:91-103.
Bassili, J.N. (2008). Attitude strength. In W.D. Crano & R. Prislin, (Eds.), Attitudes and attitude change, Frontiers of social psychology. New York, NY; Psychology Press, pp. 261-286.
Cialdini, R.B. 2001. Influence: Science and Practice. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Eagly, A.H. & Chaiken, S. (1993) The Psychology of Attitudes. Orlando, FL: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
Looking at a problem from several different angles and viewpoints is the ultimate goal of group work and group decision-making. Having people who are different from one another helps to avoid 'groupthink' and contributes to in-depth discussions and better ideas than could be found in a group where the participants were basically all alike (Chartrand, van aaren, & argh, 2006). How a person reacts to others and to the situation, though, can seriously affect the outcome of the group. Society is made up of many different kinds of people, so a good group will be comprised of the same. This will help to ensure the success of whatever decision that the group comes to, since there will be a greater suggestion that the public will be receptive to it, as based on the opinions of the various group members.
oth internal and external information must be tracked in order to…
Chartrand, TL, van Baaren, RB, & Bargh, JA. (2006). Linking automatic evaluation to mood and information processing style: Consequences for experienced affect, impression formation, and stereotyping. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. 135(1), 70-77.
Livingston, BA & Judge, TA (2008). Emotional responses to work-family conflict: An examination of gender role orientation among working men and women. Journal of Applied Psychology. 93(1), 207-216.
Molden, DC & Dweck, CS. (2006). Finding "meaning" in psychology: A lay theories approach to self-regulation, social perception, and social development. American Psychologist. 61(3), 192-203.
The stopping of treatment is the primary reason for this early intervention. This tactic has been extremely successful for many years and should be
Once the induction interviews are complete, the client and the social worker can move on to treating the patient. Once the treatment has started it is vitally important that the social worker pay careful attention to eliminating communication patterns that are counterproductive. Social workers have to be careful not to get stuck in unproductive type of communication that serve no purpose and do nothing to assist the client.
In addition if a social worker must examine the family functioning and diverse family and cultural contexts. This simply means that the social worker is responsible for examining the home situation of the client and assisting the client based on this environment. There are several different family structures that may be present including single family homes, blended families…
Glossary. Retrieved November 24, 2009 from: http: / / www. cmpmhmr. cog.pa.us / glossary.html
Hardcastle, David A. (2004) Community Practice: Theories and Skills for Social Workers. Cary, NC: Oxford University Press
Hepworth, DH Rooney, R.H., Rooney, G.D., Strom-Gottfried K., Larsen J. (2009) Direct Social Work Practice: Theory and Skills. Cengage Learning, 2009
Ogrodniczuk, J.S., Joyce, A.S., and Piper W.E. (2005) Strategies for Reducing Patient-Initiated Premature Termination of Psychotherapy. Harvard Review Psychiatry Vol. 13 Issue 2, p57-70, 14p. March/April 2005
..set of critical stages for normal psychologic development." (2001) Kandel relates that prior to formal studies being conducted on material deprivation: "...a few anecdotal examples of social isolation were collected by anthropologists and clinicians. From time to time children had been discovered living in an attic or a cellar, with minimal social contact, perhaps spending only a few minutes a day with a caretaker, a nurse or a parent. Children so deprived in early childhood are often later found to be speechless and lacking in social responsiveness." (Kandel, 2001) According to the National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities in the work entitled: "Issues in Learning Disabilities: Assessment and Diagnosis": Diagnosis, assessment and treatment must be in the nature of 'differential diagnosis' in making identification between varying disorders, syndromes and other factors that impact the acquisition of the skills of listening, speaking, reading, writing reasoning or mathematical abilities." (National Joint Committee…
Kamhi, a.G. (1984) Problem Solving in Child Language Disorders. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in School Journal. Volume 15. October 1984.
Federici, R.S. (1999) Neuropsychological Evaluation and Rehabilitation of the Post-Institutionalized Child. Presented at the Conference for Children and Residential Care, Stockholm, Sweden May 3, 1999. Neuropsychological and Family Therapy Associated.
A de Valenzuela, JA (1999) the Social Construction of Language Competence: Language Socialization in Three Bilingual Kindergarten Classrooms. University of New Mexico. Dissertation Synopsis.
Thanasoulas, Dimitrios (2001) Language and Disadvantage - Article 70 - the Weekly Column. 2001 August.
Prejudice and social psychology
Gender-based stereotypes and influence of society
Cultural impact of host cultures
The contribution of Stanley Milgram has been significant in the field of social psychology. Milgram conducted experiments of human behavior in a laboratory setting and concluded that obedience to authority usually disregards moral or legal normative standards. An individual's behavior is thus shaped by the environment, people around, and his figure of authority. "Because humans are social animals, human behavior is strongly influenced by behavior of other humans; this influence is often very direct"(Aarts & Dijksterhuis, 2003; Pg. 18). The current paper investigates as to what extent the human behavior is influenced by others. The paper adopts an investigative approach and cites peer reviewed articles to substantiate the discussion. Social identity theory is also an important theoretical explanation that explains how and why an individual voluntarily gets influenced from socially constructed relationships.
Aarts, H., & Dijksterhuis, A. (2003). The silence of the library: Environment, situational norm, and social behavior. Journal of personality and social psychology, 84(1), 18-28.
Bearden, W.O., Netemeyer, R.G., & Teel, J.E. (1989). Measurement of consumer susceptibility to interpersonal influence. Journal of consumer research, 15(4), 473-481.
Blass, T. (2009). The man who shocked the world: The life and legacy of Stanley Milgram. Basic Books (AZ).
Brewer, M.B., & Kramer, R.M. (1986). Choice behavior in social dilemmas: Effects of social identity, group size, and decision framing. Journal of personality and social psychology, 50(3), 543-549.
Consonant and Dissonant Cognitions
Define consonant and dissonant cognitions:
Leon Festinger developed the theory of cognitive dissonance based on the "relationships among cognitions" (Rudolph, Ithaca.edu). A cognition is described as a "piece of knowledge" which may be a certain behavior, a value, an emotion or an attitude, according to Frederick M. Rudolph at Ithaca College in New York State. (Dissonance is defined simply as a state of conflict, tension or disagreement.) Meanwhile, a typical cognition could be just the fact that a person prefers the color blue; the knowledge that blue is a favorite color is a cognition. The knowledge that a person just caught a long pass for a first down in a football game is another cognition and the knowledge that the Supreme Court ruled that corporations are people in the "Citizens United" case is another cognition. In other words, a neighbor has a cognition (i.e., is cognizant…
Festinger, Leon. (1957). A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University
Frijda, Nico H., Manstead, S.R., and Bern, Sacha. (2000). Emotions and Beliefs: How Feelings
Influence Thoughts. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
History Of Social Psychology: Past and Future Directions
The fields of psychology and social psychology owe their existence to the earlier philosophical thinkers including Aristotle, Plato, Descartes, Locke, Hume and Kant. However, the recognized founder of the field (by most historians) is the German scientist Wilhelm Wundt (Farr, 2003). In 1862 Wundt proposed that there psychology should consist of two branches: a social branch and a physiological branch of psychology (Farr, 2003). From Wundt's view psychology was more concerned with studying immediate conscious experience as opposed to studying overt behavior. However, in 1890 Wundt published the first volume of a classic 10-volume set of social psychology which described and analyzed a wide variety of social thought and social behaviors. Although Wundt's ideas and writings carried significant influence in Europe, his writings were not translated into English until sometime later. The behaviorist view became the more influential paradigm in the United…
Adorno, T.W., Frenkel-Brunswik, E., Levinson, D.J., & Sanford, R.N. (1950). The authoritarian personality. New York: Harper and Row.
Allport, F. (1924). Social Psychology. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Allport, G.W. (1985). The historical background of social psychology. In G. Lindzey & E. Aronson (Eds.), The Handbook of Social Psychology. New York: McGraw Hill.
Allport, G.W. (1954). The nature of prejudice. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books.
History Of Social Psychology
According to Kruglanski and Stroebe (2012) social psychology is defined as the scientific study of how a person's feelings, behaviors, and thoughts are influenced by the implied, imagined, or real presence of other people. Social psychology will analyze various social topics including social perception, behavior leadership, conformity, prejudice, nonverbal behavior, and aggression. It attempts to understand a person's behavior in a social context. Therefore, social psychology will look at human behavior as other people and the social setting that this occurs shape it. Social psychologists will deal with the factors that lead a person to behave in a given way in front of others, and it looks at the conditions in which some behaviors and feelings will occur. Social psychology is a young field that began in the 20th century. Around 90% of all social psychologists are believed to be alive. The early influencers of this…
Baumeister, R.F., & Finkel, E.J. (2010). Advanced social psychology: The state of the science. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.
Fiske, S.T., Gilbert, D.T., & Lindzey, G. (2010). Handbook of social psychology (Vol. 2). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Kruglanski, A.W., & Stroebe, W. (2012). Handbook of the history of social psychology. Church Rd, Hove: Psychology Press.
History Of Social Psychology
Social Psychology studies how people's thoughts emotions and feelings are influenced by what they see, hear or observe from their immediate environment (Feenstra, 2013). It also involves to how the same people respond to these influencers within their living environment. We must appreciate the fact that human beings are sensitive and receptive to all that goes on within their living environment. They react to the stimuli they get through sight or hearing. It the early days before the Second World War, psychologists and sociologists used to interact mostly in their course of action. This interaction resulted in the development of this field of social psychology. It has helped in understanding the intricate aspects of human socio-psychological phenomena (Burns, 2008).
Social Psychology theories
There are more than ten theories developed as from the late mid 20th century concerning the area of social psychology. They all explain the…
Feenstra, J. (2013). Social Psychology. San Diego: Bridgepoint Education, Inc. ISBN: 978-1-62178-578-1
Boundless. (Accessed December 2014). Psychology. Boston: Boundless Learning, Inc. Retrieved from; https://www.boundless.com/psychology
Burns, W.D. (2008). Research only matters if you do research that matters. Journal of College Science Teaching, 37(2), 12-14. (ProQuest Document ID: 1447219371).
Hogg, M. (2013). The Sage Handbook of Social Psychology. London: Sage.
People perceive and understand space differently depending on how it makes them feel, especially with regards to boundaries. Consequently, the definition of space changes across various individuals because every space has different meanings and feelings for every individual. In some situations where individuals may feel comfortable and at peace in one space, others may be very uncomfortable and irritated. For instance, social statues can change the feelings people obtain from the specific space. Based on this analysis, it is relatively clear that space affects people differently, which contributes to varying interpretations, definitions, and understanding of space. Therefore, when addressing spatial cognition, it is increasingly important to examine the different ways space is perceived and the varying feelings associated with it.
People's Perception of Space
As previously mentioned, people's perceptions and understanding of space differ significantly on the premise of how space affect them, especially their feelings. The difference…
Dolins, FL & Mitchell, RW 2010, Spatial cognition, spatial perception: mapping the self and space, Cambridge University Press: New York, NY.
Golledge, RG 1999, Wayfinding behavior: cognitive mapping and other spatial processes, JHU
Press: Baltimore, MD.
Khan, MM & Lodhi, SA 2014, 'Spatial, Social Cognition and Team Performance', Pakistan
Knowing the difference between normal emotions and emotional disorders is key to therapists' understanding bipolar behaviors
Excess emphasis is placed on pathological emotions rather than healthy ones
SEVEN: Recent developments in emotion and cognition & therapies (Lacewing, 2004).
Lacewing references 5 authors that discuss the development of emotional theories
It is clear there is nothing close to consensus when it comes to comparing emotion with cognition or defining exactly when an emotion results from cognition
EIGH: Cognitive processing in bipolar disorder (BD) using ICS model (Lomax, et al., 2009).
30 bipolar persons and 30 healthy persons were tested (in a euthymic mood state and also in induced positive mood state) to see if they detected discrepancies in the sentences; the results show BD people operate at a "more abstract level"
NINE: Deficits in social cognition & response flexibility in pediatric BD (McClure, et al., 2005)
40 outpatients with pediatric BD…
TEN: Long-term effects of emotion on cognition (Moore, et al., 2002).
While researchers have investigated and determined that mood and emotion help determine and modulate human cognition, there is a need to examine how performance on certain tasks changes over time
Events with lots of emotion are more memorable; hence, if mood has an effect on long-term memory, it also may well have an impact on the ability to learn long-term
Ancient ome openly accepted male-to-female transsexuals, allowing them to assume female identities without negative social repercussions, obviously long before the science existed for them to have gender-reassignment surgery (eitz, 1998). Modern Indian society has Hijiras, transsexuals that, while not always treated with respect, are accorded their own gender identity and not relegated to male or female (eitz, 1998). The Dine/Navajos recognized three sexes: male, female, and Nadles. The Nadles could be intersexed people or transsexual people of either gender (eitz, 1998). The Sioux referred to transsexuals as Winkte, and allowed them to completely assume their preferred gender. "Physical females lived as male warriors, and had wives, while physical males lived their lives completely as women. In Sioux society no special magic was associated with this, it was just considered a way of correcting a mistake of nature" (eitz, 1998). What these examples make clear is that, in a different society,…
NNDB. (2010). David Reimer. Retrieved February 23, 2010 from NNDB
Peirce, K. (1999). Boys Don't Cry. Fox Searchlight Films.
Reitz, J.D. (1998). What is transsexuality? Retrieved February 23, 2010 from Transsexuality.org Website: http://www.transsexual.org/What.html
It was originally established in the early 19th century by Auguste Comte who tried to unify history, psychology and economics through an understanding of society as a broad paradigm. Emile Durkheim took this a bit further and focused on the way societies could maintain a sort of integrity within the modern work where past cultural trends (religion, ethnicity, etc.) were no longer the singular part of society. His view, which has become the modern view of sociology, surrounded questions of what binds individuals together as a formal group (society) and what happens to this group both collectively and for the individual. This is a broad discipline as well, and clearly an academic response to the modern age (industrialization, urbanization, secularization, etc.). The field looks at social rules, the way those rules were formed, and the way that individuals coalesce into groups, communities, institutions, and even powerful social organizations that transcend…
American Anthropological Association. (2012, January). What is Anthropology. Retrieved from aaanet.org: http://www.aaanet.org/about/WhatisAnthropology.cfm
Backhouse, R., & Fontaine, P. (Eds.). (2010). The History of the Social Sciences Since 1945. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Bernard, H. (2011). Research Methods in Anthropology. Lanham, MD: AltaMira Press.
Fernald, L. (2008). Psychology: Six Perspectives. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
social science research are qualitative and quantitative research methods. Qualitative research is believed to operate from a subjective, constructionist view of reality, whereas quantitative research operates from an objective, positivist viewpoint of the world. There has been quite a bit of debate over the merits of each of these approaches, often with one paradigm belittling the assumptions of the other. The current literature review explores the philosophical foundations of each paradigm, compares their practical differences, and discusses the strengths and weakness of both approaches as they relate to research in the social sciences and to human resources research. The rationale for mixed-methods research, where the two paradigms are combined, is also discussed.
In recent years there has been substantial interest concerning the role of specific paradigms and philosophical assumptions with regards to doing research. There has been a growing concern regarding the adequacy of research methods in social sciences and…
Anderson, V. (2004) Research methods in human resource management. London, UK: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.
Blalock, M. (1984). Basic dilemmas in the social sciences. New York: Sage/
Burrell, G. & Morgan G. (1979). Sociological paradigms and organization analysis. London, UK: Heinemann.
Bryman, A. (2006). Integrating quantitative and qualitative research: How is it done? Qualitative Research, 6, 97-113.
The manufacturing, advertising, and retailing of a product devoid of consideration for ethical, legal, and social aspects is harmful to the general success of any entity. The company in consideration is Jolly Company, which is presenting Bubbly Energy Drink. This is a start-up company that will have its base of operations in the State of Texas, in the United States. With the U.S. being the domestic market, the international market included in this discussion is Mexico. Energy drinks are amidst the most fast growing business segments of the entire beverage industry in the present day and are progressively more market in the direction of young individuals. Owing to the fact that these drinks are comparatively new to the market, the impacts of their longstanding use continues to be vague, and there is increasing proof to hint that they may be detrimental to young consumers. One of the legal issues linked…
Social Work: Spiritual Assessment
Instruments for Spiritual Assessment
One of the five instruments for spiritual assessment is the spiritual history. This is the only verbal instrument. A practitioner using spiritual history obtains a client’s spiritual information using two sets of questions. The first set of questions seeks to help the client tell their story from childhood to the present. The second set helps the practitioner elicit spiritual information from the client by assessing the dimensions of the soul (cognition, will, and affect) and the spirit (intuition, conscience, and communion).
The second instrument is the spiritual life map, which is a diagrammatic or pictorial account of a client’s relationship with God. It shows where the client is coming from, where they are, and where they are going in regard to their relationship with God. The client sketches their spiritual journey from birth to the present, and continuing to death and the…
Hodge, D. R. (2005). Developing a Spiritual Assessment Toolbox: A Discussion of the Strengths and Limitations of Five Different Assessment Methods. Health and Social Work, 30(4), 314-24.
Cognitive Aspects of the Aging Process
The purpose of this work is to define cognition and to explain the effects of aging on the brain in relation to memory, attention, metacognition, effects on languaging and the effects of aging on the executive function and finally cognitive function in very old age. This will be inclusive of primary cognitive diseases found in aging adults such as dementia and Alzheimer's.
Medical science continues to discover more about aging with each passing year. Cognitive effects of aging are one element that the aging individual must face as well as something that family and friends of the individual will cope with at some point. Cognition is defined as "the mental process of knowing, thinking, learning, and judging." (Online Medical Dictionary, 2005) Therefore the elderly experienced "cognitive dysfunction" is defined as "disturbance to the mental processes of knowing, thinking, learning and judging." Disturbances or dysfunctions…
Is there anything special about the aging of source memory?
Psychol Aging. 2005 Mar;20(1):19-32.
PMID: 15769211 [PubMed - in process]
Symbolic interactionism is the theory suggesting human beings are best understood in "interactive relation to their environment," (University of Twente, 2014). The three core principles of symbolic interactionism including meaning, language, and thought. Meaning refers to the fact that people ascribe meaning to their relationships, institutions, and other social structures. This meaning is what guides human emotion and cognition. Language is the symbolic type of human communication. Like meaning, language also impacts human emotional and cognitive states. Thus, the third component of symbolic interactionism is thought. How a person perceives, judges, and interacts with the world is covered by symbolic interactionism. Symbolic interactionism also suggests that the self is a mirror for others, and vice-versa in what is known as the "looking glass self," ("The Symbolic Interactionist Perspective," n.d.). Symbolic interactionism is an ideal sociological lens through which to understand how social media has transformed the nature of human…
Fernback, J. (2007). Beyond the diluted community concept. New Media and Society 9(1), 49-69.
Satell, G. (2014). If you doubt that social media has changed the world, take a look at Ukraine. Forbes. Retrieved online: http://www.forbes.com/sites/gregsatell/2014/01/18/if-you-doubt-that-social-media-has-changed-the-world-take-a-look-at-ukraine/
"The Symbolic Interactionist Perspective," (n.d.). Retrieved online: https://www.boundless.com/sociology/textbooks/boundless-sociology-textbook/sociology-1/the-theoretical-perspectives-in-sociology-24/the-symbolic-interactionist-perspective-157-3185/
University of Twente (2014). Symbolic interactionism.
Miranda Shaw is a manager at a high-ranking consulting company, and needs a senior analyst to fill a job opening in that capacity. She has chosen two out of the many applicants, Deborah Jones and ick Parsons, and is expected to make recommendation to the head of human resources department without delay. The two shortlisted candidates had attended the same prestigious business school.
Both candidates shone like stars during the interviews and boasted of intimidating work experiences. However, Parson's leadership skills make him stand out as a favorite for the position. Other qualities favoring Parson's candidature for the job includes a track record of resilience at work and excellent communication skills. Shaw makes up her mind to find out more about both candidates on Google, before taking the final decision in the matter. She visited the social networking site, Facebook, to find out more about the candidates' past and their…
Brindicci, Macros. "Smoking marijuana is 114 times safer than drinking alcohol -- study." Reuters. 2015. Web.
Forbes. "The world's most valuable brands." Valuable Brands. 2015. Web.
Halbert, Terry and Ingulli, Elaine."Making an Ethical Decision." Rpt. in Law and Ethics in Business Environment. South Western Publishing, 1991.3rd Ed. 15-18. Print.
Jangi, Sushrut. "Can we please stop pretending marijuana is harmless." Boston Globe Media Partners, LLC.2015. Web.
Cognitive and Social Psychology
Cognitive & Social Psychology
The critical period for learning language has been shown by research that examined the fluency of non-native English speakers according to their age upon arrival in the United States. The language ability of the non-native English speakers was measured by their ability on tests of English grammar and vocabulary, but this ability declines from the roughly the age of seven and older.
While it does seem that it would be easier for a student to learn multiple languages in school if they were learning them at the same time, there is some evidence that it may be difficult in other ways. Although the acquisition of language is largely governed by neural maturity in the brain areas that control language and speech, differences also reside in the individuals as well. Some people will have difficulty with language acquisition overall, others will…
The Bowflex ad featuring the 50-year-old grandmother of a five-year-old is quite persuasive. The woman featured on the ad does not look like she is 50-years old and she has a very attractive face, long luxurious hair, and a slim, shapely body. She TV advertisement shows her actively engaged in using the Bowflex and swimming and lounging in a two-piece bikini swimsuit. The primary element of persuasion used in the advertisement is ethos. The woman featured in the ad seems credible, respectable, and certainly exhibits the healthy, fit persona to which she refers and to which she attributes her shapely body. She reasonably talks about loosing weight over a period of time that is believable. While it does seem that her statement that she saw results from using the Bowflex right away may seem a bit exaggerated, the rest of her testimony seems credible. The advertisement works because any 50-year-old woman watching the TV ad would want to look as slim and fit as the woman featured in the ad.
Facial ecognition in Men and Women and Their DifferencesAbstractThis paper addresses the problem of difference in terms of how men and women recognize faces. The central question is whether this function of facial recognition is a biological phenomenon only or if it is something affected by cognitivism, which can in turn be influenced by sociocultural factors. The paper first examines what previous research has shown in terms of the biological differences in how men and women recognize faces. Then it addresses the evidence suggesting that sociocultural factors impact the cognitive processes involved in this function. It concludes that facial recognition is as much impacted by biology as it is by sociocultural phenomena.IntroductionDo men and women read faces differently? Current research suggests that when it comes to biological sex differences, women have an advantage in terms of having an ability to read emotion in the faces better than men (Wingenbach, Ashwin…
ReferencesBandura, A. (2018). Toward a psychology of human agency: Pathways and reflections.Perspectives on Psychological Science,13(2), 130-136.Hendon, M., Powell, L., & Wimmer, H. (2017). Emotional intelligence and communication levels in information technology professionals.Computers in Human Behavior,71, 165-171.Mishra, M. V., Likitlersuang, J., Wilmer, J. B., Cohan, S., Germine, L., & DeGutis, J. M. (2019). Gender differences in familiar face recognition and the influence of sociocultural gender inequality.Scientific reports,9(1), 1-12.Otgaar, H., & Baker, A. (2018). When lying changes memory for the truth.Memory,26(1), 2-14.Rennels, J. L., & Cummings, A. J. (2013). Sex differences in facial scanning: Similarities and dissimilarities between infants and adults.International journal of behavioral development,37(2), 111-117.Rosser-Majors, M. L. (2017).Theories of learning: An exploration. Bridgepoint Education.Scherf, K. S., Elbich, D. B., & Motta-Mena, N. V. (2017). Investigating the influence of biological sex on the behavioral and neural basis of face recognition.Eneuro,4(3).Wingenbach, T. S., Ashwin, C., & Brosnan, M. (2018). Sex differences in facial emotion recognition across varying expression intensity levels from videos.PLoS one,13(1), e0190634.
Social Psychology Studies: Explaining Irrational Individual Behavior by Understanding Group Dynamics
Social psychology is, as its name suggests, a science that blends the fields of psychology, which is the study of the individual, and sociology, which is the study of groups. Social psychology examines how the individual is influenced by the group. It looks at the influence of group or cultural norms on individual behaviors, thoughts, and feelings. However, because group norms are believed to change behavior, social psychology can be very difficult to document; the presence of the observer is believed to change behavior. As a result, social psychologists have developed a number of different studies aimed at investigating the interaction between group expectations and individual behavior. These studies offer insight into human social behavior, particularly into those social behaviors that seem to defy expectations and well-established social norms.
While there have been numerous social psychology studies since the…
Abrams, D. & Hogg, M. (1988). Comments on the motivational status of self-esteem in social identity and intergroup discrimination. European Journal of Social Psychology, 18, 317-334.
Bond, R., & Smith, P. (1996). Culture and conformity: A meta-analysis of studies using Asch's
(1952b, 1956) line judgment task. Psychological Bulletin, 119(1), 111-137.
Darley, J. & Latane, B. (1968). Bystander intervention in emergencies: Diffusion of responsibility. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 8(4), 377-383.
What motivates an individual to help others? In what ways are you motivated to help others?
When people help others, they experience good feelings, some of which are based on actual chemical changes in the physiology of the helpers. Indeed, research has shown that people often derive much more pleasure from engaging in helpful activities that when they focus on activities that are intended to only bring happiness to themselves. In addition to the feel good experience, helping others provides an opportunity to reduce cognitive dissonance. When someone is distressed, an empathetic person will experience a degree of distress also that is derived in part from the capacity of that person to put herself in the place of the other person. So when the distress of the person being helped is reduced, a corollary reduction in distress -- albeit typically of a substantially lesser degree -- for the…
Emotions affect how memories are processed, stored, and retrieved, which also impacts how learning takes place. Perhaps more importantly, emotions impact cognitive processes and learning. Neuroscience shows the ways thoughts are processed depends on one's cultural context and also emotional states. Thinking styles may be also linked to the learning process, as Zhang & Sternberg (2010) point out, and thinking styles are themselves related to cultural variables. The ways people process information therefore has to do with social learning as well as emotional learning and memory. Certain types of emotions may be more conducive to specific types of learning styles or learning behaviors. Emotions can also promote synchronized or chaotic neurological responses. These findings have implications for classroom design and pedagogy.
Wealth means far more than just possession of material goods. As Zhang & Sternberg (2010) point out, capital refers not only to assets in the traditional sense but also…
Nature of Cognition
Ever since Simon and inet developed the first intelligence test in 1905, the field of psychology has maintained a strong interest in the nature of intelligence. How do we think? Why are some people better problem solvers than others? What is cognition, the ability to think about our environment? Why are some people consistently more able to use their brains to think, to remember, and to problem-solve than others?
The first IQ tests were devised to determine which children were mentally retarded. These children were pulled away from mainstream education. However, the tests did an effective job of predicting school success for all students, and their use was broadened (Sternberg, 1999). Multiple tests were developed to measure cognition, which might be defined as the ability to think abstractly. Markman (2001) described it in this way:
Cognition depends on the ability to imagine or represent objects and events…
American Academy of Pediatrics. August, 2000. "Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Alcohol-Related Neurodevelopmental Disorders." Pediatrics.
Baker, O. Oct. 1999. "Faulty control gene underlies retardation (Rett Syndrome)." Science News.
Bower, B. Nov 20, 1999. "DNA furnishes tips to mental retardation." Science News.
Eliez, Stephan. Feb, 2000. "Genetics of Childhood Disorders: XI. Fragile X Syndrome." Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
The family is embarrassed when the subject goes out because of her antics, but gets frustrated remaining in the same house with her. The mother is torn between what she knows is right for her daughter and what will make her daughter happy. As previously mentioned, the two did not get along well in the daughter's childhood years. In addition to the subject, her mother felt the strain of this relationship bitterly. She still deals with the trauma it caused her. This lack of a relationship between the two women, and the presence of a father who, when rarely in the home, took the position of a strict disciplinarian lead to a stunted development for the subject. Although the abnormal behavior did not begin until after the accident, teachers recall mild paranoid behavior and odd actions toward her mother as early as high school's sophomore year.
Typical Day for the…
What may seem like a straightforward business communication by one party may seem confusing, or worse, insulting, by another. Therefore, it is critical for managers to understand how culture impacts perception, so that they can ensure the effectiveness of their workplace communications.
"Communication for a diverse workforce requires understanding how diverse employee populations perceive business communication. Some employees believe constant memoranda and employee meetings are time wasters and, as such, might simply tune out both the message and the messenger. Other employees want to be informed of every company move, and if they believe transparency is missing from communication with employees, they begin to feel undervalued and unappreciated" (Mayhew, 2012). Understanding these differences can help managers relate to their subordinates in a more effective manner. However, the issue is not merely one of top-down communication. Employees also have to understand that they are working in a diverse environment. The presence…
Bustos Farias, E. (Unk.). Understanding social perception and managing diversity. Retrieved December 7, 2012 from Angelfire website: http://www.angelfire.com/ak6/organizational_behav/lecture3.pdf
Mayhew, R. (2012). Communication & Diversity in the Workplace. Retrieved December 7,
2012 from Chron.com website: http://smallbusiness.chron.com/communication-diversity-workplace-11389.html
The term 'applied social psychology' is used to denote a methodical utilization of socio-psychological models, study approaches and outcomes, concepts, ideologies, and intervention approaches for comprehending or ameliorating social issues. Psychologists belonging to this subfield concentrate on comprehending and solving practical issues and coming up with intervention approaches to enhance individual, organizational and societal response to social issues. While this domain's chief concern is the generic tackling of practical and social issues revolving around the environment, education, and so forth, social psychology may also help enrich people's lives (Schneider, Gruman, & Coutts, 2012). Social psychological theories offer prescriptions to solve practical and social challenges. This paper is presented as a review of literature on social psychological theories and their generic role in resolving practical and social problems.
A key applied social psychological theory is Cognitive Dissonance, whose main premise is that an individual is driven to remain consistent…
For example, Tocqueville was able to explain 18th century European aristocrat behavior by looking at social consequences. Like Tocqueville, Marx believed that they could explain individual actions by looking at subconscious class interests. Frey has demonstrated that people will accept individually negative outcomes, if they have positive group benefits.
Nietzsche believed that, while conscious of class interests, individual actions and beliefs should be viewed from an individual perspective, since they are motivated by the positive consequences to the individual actor. In discussing his theory of bounded rationality, Simon seemed to combine elements from the different theorist, by showing how social actions include cognitive dimensions.
3. How does the author distinguish human actions from other forms of human behavior?
Again, the author does not make it clear how he feels human actions and other forms of human behavior are different. Instead, he explains how various theorists have attempted to differentiate human…
ocial Web and You
Explain how social media/web is changing or has changed the ways you, your family, and colleagues find information. Also, how has social media/web changed the ways you interact in your personal and professional life as well as within academic spheres? What functionalities do you think will be invented in the future? Make sure you support your argument with facts, figures, and intelligent analysis. Also, consider any opposing arguments. (One page).
When social networking was just getting started, critiques were concerned that it would lead to isolation -- that people would only connect online and would increasingly neglect their real time friends and family (Putnam, 2000). The Pew Foundation has been conducting a longitudinal study called the Internet & American Life Project that examines how people use the Internet and how that use is changing communication, social interactions, and political activism, among other dynamics. As…
Croucher, S.L. (2004). Globalization and Belonging: The Politics of Identity in a Changing World. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
Friedman, T. (2005, April 5). The World is Flat: A Brief History of the Twenty-First Century (1st ed.). New York, NY: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
Taibbi, M. (2005, April 21). The peculiar genius of Thomas L. Friedman. New York Press. Retrieved http://rolocroz.com/junk/friedman.html
The topic for this paper is to determine what is meant by social change from the perspective of graduate students today. The paper is organized into four parts. The first part presents a background statement concerning the issue of interest and the gap in the existing body of knowledge the study intends to address. A description concerning the role of the researcher is provided in the second part and an explanation concerning the process of gathering, organizing, and analyzing data to form the basis of the methods used in this study are presented in part three followed by the analysis and interpretation of those data. Finally, a discussion concerning the trustworthiness of the findings that emerged from this analysis and a summary of the research are presented in part four.
What you have learned about social change as a social issue. Because the historical record confirms that…
Initiating joint attention related to activity in the frontal-cortical system, especially the left hemisphere and responding to joint attention to the parietal lobes. Heimann et al. (2006) found that that deferred imitation and joint attention both influence the development of language and communication skills in infancy. Deferred imitation at nine months was the strongest of the predictors of nonverbal communication at 14 months, but the predictive power increased significantly in situations when deferred imitation and joint attention were used together.
ecently studies have been conducted with other areas of cognitive behavior. For example, de Villiers (2007) has been looking at the association of language and what he calls Theory of Mind. Theory of Mind refers to the folk psychological theory humans use to predict and explain others' behavior on the basis of their internal workings: feelings, intentions, desires, attitudes, beliefs, knowledge and point-of-view. In other words, people have to create…
Bowerman, M., & Levinson, S. C (2001). Introduction. In M. Bowerman & S.C. Levinson (Eds.), Language acquisition and conceptual development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Delgado, C.E.F., Mundy, P., Crowson, M., Markus, J., & Schwartz, H. (2002). Responding to joint attention and language development: A comparison to target location. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 45, 715-719.
A de Villiers, J. (2007) Interface of language and theory of mind. Lingua 117 1858-1878
Doherty, M.J., 2006. The development of mentalistic gaze understanding. Infant and Child Development 15, 179-186.
It thus becomes the concern of CT researchers and clinicians to address and investigate sex differences as an aspect in depression and to confront how they understand and treat women, who comprise 2/3 of clients. A feminist framework may be adopted for a more comprehensive and sensitive approach to the problem in order to benefit the large group of women clients. The new understanding must also be incorporated into the mainstream of cognitive writings and practice and treated as only a special interest topic (Hurst).
Cognitive behavior therapy, based on the five foregoing studies, has shown important gains greater than traditional counseling approach, but needs follow-up work. It has also demonstrated efficacy in producing lower relapse rate than the standard clinical treatment. The discourse approach to the negative self-perception of depressed patients has showed limitations as a technique. ut it can be useful in reducing symptoms among injection drug users.…
1. Brown, KM. (1999). Social Cognitive Theory. University of South Florida. http://www.med.usf.edu/~kmbrown/Social_Cognitive_Theory_Overview.htm
2. Dobson, K.S. And Drew, M.L. (1999). Negative Self-Concept in Clinical Diagnosis. Canadian Psychology. Canadian Psychological Association.
3. Gale Encyclopedia of Psychology. (2001). Depression. Encyclopedia of Psychology. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_q2699/is_0004/ai_2699000439
4. Hawkins, W.E. (2005). Depression Therapy with Injection Drug Users. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse.
We cannot process information in the same manner because we have no prior knowledge of the object.
erception organization refers to the way we process information or stimuli to make sense of what we are observing. We can thus give them meaning which we can understand easily. There are some important steps in perception organization or we can say types of steps we can take to reach a conclusion.
These are: figure and Ground, Stereotyping, perceptual schemes, closure, proximity and similarity. Figure is what we immediately notice and it is the object of our attention. Ground is the area or stimuli surrounding that image. For example when a friends calls us from a distance, his voice becomes the point of focus while everything else around us like other people's voices become the ground. erceptual schemes are also used to make sense of information. These are based on appearance, social roles,…
Proximity refers to how close something is to the other. And Similarity refers to how similar it is to something we already know. This is the perceptual organizational process which helps us finally reach a rich percept.
Gregory Robinson-Riegler and Bridget Robinson-Riegler. Cognitive Psychology: Applying the Science of the Mind, Second Edition, Allyn and Bacon. 2008
The approach to the concept is varied, for the reason that there are no strict rules for the definition of the term metacognition, although it can be seen as the approach to learning, or concepts and methods that are used by the learner to learn speedily, efficiently and inn a consistent manner. However metacognition is a concept of how to achieve the end -- namely mastering something. Human beings are not good learners, and for that matter learning is itself a subjective concept that involves many metrics like time, perception, language, system in which the education is imparted and so on. One set of strategy that is termed metacognition- for example an approach to study math by the use of pictorial or video representations may suit one set of learners who are psychologically persons gifted with learning by visualisation. It may not work with others who are more…
Blau, Francine D. (2006) "The Declining Significance of Gender?"
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Butler, James. (1828) "Outlines of practical education."
Hamilton Adams, & Co, 1828.
Ethical esponsibility of Corporate America
Many organizations strive to increase their profit margins by doing everything possible (including unethical practices) to increase their revenues. Nevertheless, the past three decades have seen some organizations embracing CS (Corporate Social responsibility). This idea has become significantly important to almost every organization that seeks to increase revenues. Corporate social responsibility is also referred to as community responsibility, stewardship, corporate sustainability, corporate responsibility, accountability and corporate ethics among others. In essence, CS enable organizations to bring in people and the environment into their decisions, strategies and plans (Anyango Ooko, 2014).
In this paper, the use of the term corporate social responsibility will mean a set of actions by enterprises that are geared towards meeting the legal, ethical, economic, and discretional responsibilities that the stakeholders expect them to fulfill. They should undertake the economic obligations of producing profits, and meeting the consumption requirements of the people;…
AnyangoOoko, G. (2014). The environmental factors that influence implementation of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in an organization. Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 19(12): 95-102.
Castka, P., Bamber, C., Sharp, J. (2005). Implementing Effective Corporate Social Responsibility and Corporate Governance: A Framework. UK: British Standards Institution.
Daft, R. L., & Marcic, D. (2006). Understanding management. Mason, Ohio: Thomson/South-Western.
Pearce, J., Doh, J. (2005). The high impact of collaborative social initiatives. MIT Sloan Management Review, 46(3): 30-38.
nurses play a very important role in the emotional, spiritual, and physical care of the patient with different illness. When it comes to nursing homes, nurses are responsible for the well-being of the individuals there. Even though majority of the persons there are not critically there, they still depend on nurses for their care both medically and emotionally.
Sanghine (2013) reported that two nursing home nurses managed to turn off the alarms of nineteen patients at night so they would not be disturbed during their sleep. They were caught when the care home manager checked up on them in the middle of the night. IT was reported that elderly patients in ages 75 to 100 were not able to call for help. Not only that, they also reported ill treatment to the persons only because they preferred their own comfort and sleep before their duty at the nursing home.
Baldwin, P., Dodd, M., & Wrate, R. (1997). Young doctors' health -- I. How do working conditions affect attitudes, health and performance?. Social Science & Medicine, 45(1), 35 -- 40.
Bates, D., Boyle, D., V, er Vliet, M., Schneider, J., & Leape, L. (1995). Relationship between medication errors and adverse drug events. Journal Of General Internal Medicine, 10(4), 199 -- 205.
Chaudhury, H., Mahmood, A., & Valente, M. (2009). The effect of environmental design on reducing nursing errors and increasing efficiency in acute care settings a review and analysis of the literature. Environment And Behavior, 41(6), 755 -- 786.
Hughes, R., & Rogers, A. (2008). The effects of fatigue and sleepiness on nurse performance and patient safety. Agency For Healthcare Research And Quality (U.S.).
A) The authors surveyed 122 adults in three groups (young, middle aged and older) and expected that older adults would receive the most unsolicited advice and offers of support, and also more likely to find these unwelcome than the younger and middle aged groups. They found that older adults, especially those living alone, received fewer offers than the younger groups, but all groups had "the same level of unpleasant affect" (p. 227). Older people were particularly likely to find offers or advice unwelcome if their compentecy was questioned.
B) Most people in the study received advice from sugnifucant ithers such as spouses and relatives (58%), compared to 28% that came from friends and 14% from strangers, and 56% reported that knowing the person made them more liklely to regard the advice as pleasant (p. 236).
C1) All participants reported receiving more advice associated with everyday cognition, competence and…
Blink and What Happens in apid Cognition
Gladwell's Blink (2006) is about rapid cognition. The book describes the thinking that happens in a blink of an eye, or what is called the thinking before the thinking. A person's mind is able to make rapid, important, and hopefully good decisions about people and situations. Many people call this "going with your gut," because it feels like using instinct instead of actual thought. In reality, though, it is still part of the thought process that every person must consider. It can be especially helpful when working with others in a situation where one has to make quick decisions with limited information. The first two seconds, when a person comes up with their original insight, is the basis for Blink. Gladwell (2006) goes into detail about what he believes is both perfectly rational and deeply mysterious when it comes to how people think…
Gilje, F.L. (2004). Hospitality: A call for dialogue. Invest in Yourself. Nursing Forum, 39(4), pp. 36-39.
Gladwell, M. (2006). Blink. New York, NY: Hachette Book Group USA.
Both types of reflection are ways to restructure cognition. Dynamic reflection focuses on problems and problem solving, while existential reflection seeks to discover meaning in life. In either case, the helper's role is to facilitate the reflection process.
Congruence with Social Work Values and Ethics
To determine the congruence between cognitive therapy and social work values and ethics, the writer consulted the National Association of Social Worker's (NASW) Code of Ethics (NASW, 2008). NASW's ethical principles are based on its six core values of service, social justice, dignity and worth of the person, importance of human relationships, integrity, and competence. The overriding purpose of cognitive therapy is service to the client -- helping her identify, challenge, and change the cognitive misconceptions that result in unhealthy emotions and dysfunctional behavior. Perhaps the most obvious congruence is between the values of dignity and worth of the person and social justice. The former…
Lantz, J. (2007). Cognitive theory and social work treatment. In M. Mattaini & C. Lowery (Eds.), Foundations of social work practice: a graduate text (4th ed.), 94-115. Washington D.C. NASW Press.
National Association of Social Workers. (2008). Code of ethics of the National Association of Social Workers. Retrieved from http://www.socialworkers.org/pub/code/code.asp .
Perusing the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (JPSP) for the year 1980 revealed several trends in the studies produced across that year. There were a large number of studies comparing gender differences on a number of variables in the year 1980. Probably more studies looked at gender differences on some quality than any other single independent variable (this finding most likely would occur in many years of JPSP). Other variables that stood out included investigating the nature of certain attributions or how attributions are formed, judgment or measurement of affect or emotion, the contribution of personality variables to social psychological concepts, motivation, attitude formation, and several articles on locus of control were also noted. From this review it appears as if topics related to attribution, motivation, and attitude formation were hot topics in 1980. There were few commentaries and several studies using archival data also noted.
In a more…
Calder, B.J., Phillips, L.W. & Tybout, A.M. (1982). The concept of external validity. Journal of Consumer Research, 9, 240-244.
DeLeon, F.M. (1999, October, 24). Rock the cradle -- and the marriage. Programs help couples prepare for parenthood. Seattle Times. Retrieved 23 July 2011 from http://community.seattletimes.nwsource.com/archive/?date=19991024&slug=2990888 .
Funder, D.C. & Joachim, I.K. (2004). Towards a balanced social psychology: Causes, consequences, and cures for the problem-seeking approach to social behavior and cognition. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 27, 313 -- 376
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1980, 38(1), 1-179.
The studies have also enlightened the fact that when the adolescence is securely attached to their parents, they develop increased social cognitive skills, which results in secure attachments with their relationships in the late adulthood, as they have been monitored to foster those relationships as well. In fact, the adolescence has also been observed to exhibit strong peer relationships that are based on trust (Greenberg, Siegel & Leitch, 1983).
The analysis of the empirical study have also demonstrated the fact when the relationship and attachment of peers is concerned during the adolescence period of life, two aspects played significant role in the development of social cognitive skills. The quality of their attachments on emotional basis and the degree with which they utilized that relationship were the prime contributing source that helped in the social cognitive development of the adolescence (Greenberg, Siegel & Leitch, 1983).
Section 6: Conclusion
To conclude the…
Bradley, R.H., Corwyn, R.F., Burchinal, M., McAdoo, H.P. And Coll, G.C. (2001). 'The Home Environments of Children in the United States Part II: Relations with Behavioral Development through Age Thirteen.' Child Development, Volume 72, Issue 6: p. 1868 -- 1886. DOI: 10.1111/1467-8624.t01-1-00383
Galotti, K.M. (2010). Cognitive Development: Infancy Through Adolescence. 2nd Edition. USA: SAGE Publications.
Greenberg, M.T., Siegel, J.M. & Leitch, C.J. (1983). 'The Nature and Importance of Attachment Relationships to Parents and Peers During Adolescence' Journal of Youth and Adolescence, VoL 12, No. 5. Retrieved from: http://download.springer.com/static/pdf/70/art%253A10.1007%252FBF02088721.pdf?auth66=1353831684_c66cf2abf10086238108285519f20f1e&ext=.pdf
Ma, C.Q. & Huebner, E.S. (2008). "ATTACHMENT RELATIONSHIPS and ADOLESCENTS' LIFE SATISFACTION: SOME RELATIONSHIPS MATTER MORE to GIRLS THAN BOYS." Psychology in the Schools, Vol. 45(2). Retrieved from: http://www.paedpsy.tu-berlin.de/uploads/media/Jugendliche_01.pdf
This example from Gilbert's book better illustrates our discussion of "constructivism" in class. As discussed, constructivism suggests that we actively construe much of our experience. The "reality" is filtered through our minds based on our wishes, expectations, goals, and mood. Also, what we believe to be real is a combination of reality (sensation) and how we interpret that reality (perception) ("Social Cognition"; "Constructing Reality: hat is and hat was"). hen Gilbert's respondents say that they would be devastated two years after the death of their child, they construct the future based on their mood and what they feel presently (Gilbert also refers to this as "presentism"). The thought of the death of their child affects their mood and their mood in turn influences their construction of the future (the "reality"). Their construction of the future is not totally inaccurate but is a combination of reality and their interpretations. As Gilbert…
"Constructing Reality: What is and What was," lecture notes.
Gilbert, Daniel. Stumbling on Happiness. New York: Random House, 2006.
"Killing Us Softly 4: Advertising's Image of Women," Media Education Foundation, 2010.
"Person Perception," lecture notes.
Instead, it is increasingly evident that stark political conditions have weighed heavily on the nature of either side's identity, indicating that that conformity is a powerful force in the Islamic world.
Social Perception and Social Cognition:
Social perception and social cognition are rampantly distorted in many parts of the Middle East. For many Shiite and Sunni combatants, a lack of access to education, history or the ability to critically assess global events can elevate the ability of clerics, political leaders and tribal warlords to manipulate followers into perceiving this as a centuries-old conflict. This produces a pattern of social cognition for those on both sides which only understands the conflict as that which may be characterized as having roots with the will of Mohammed himself.
In reality, "if you read the newspapers in the 1950s and 1960s, you don't see anything about Sunni-Shiite riots. There were peasant/landlord struggles or communists…
Boeree, C.G. (2006). Sunnis And Shiites. Shippensburg University. Online at http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/sunnisshiites.html .
Grose, T. (2008). Sunnis and Shiites: Behind the Split. U.S. News and World Report.
HNN Staff. (2002). What is the Difference Between Sunni and Shiite Muslims -- and Why Does It Matter. George Mason University's History News Network. Online at http://hnn.us/articles/934.html
Arabs/Tuareg vs. Africans
Arabs/Tuareg Ethnic Clash with Sub-Saharan Africans
Africa is a very tumultuous continent and for a number of reasons. hether it be fights relating to race, ethnic squabbles, religion or a combination of the three, wars and problems are not hard to find. North Africa in particular and its proximity to the Middle East makes an already hot situation all that much hotter. One particular conflict that is ongoing and protracted in nature is that which exists between the Tuareg Arabs and the blacks in sub-Saharan Africa. They occupy much of the same areas of Niger, Mali, Tunisia, Morocco and Algeria…just to name a few. The problems between the two groups date back at least a thousand years and the wounds run deep for both sides. hile there perhaps may be chances for peaceful coexistence in the future, the last thousand years or so will probably prevent that…
Boundless. "Perception - Boundless Open Textbook." Boundless. N.p., 16 June 2014.
Web. 16 June 2014. .
GMU. "Women in World History: MODULE 9." Women in World History: MODULE 9.
N.p., 16 June 2014. Web. 16 June 2014.
German-Jews. The history of German-Jewish conflict is widely known but many might wonder why it started in the first place. Why would Germans show such extreme hatred for an ethnic group while the other did not seem to have threatened the latter? This question is certainly strange but answer is worth seeking which also helps us understand the concepts of conformity and social perception that affects global conflicts of such magnitude. The German-Jewish conflict is as much grounded in ugly realities of imperislaims and racism as any other. Arendt discovered two important innovations that were cultivated during the rise of modern imperialism i.e. "race as a principle of the body politic" and "bureaucracy as a principle of foreign domination." (Arendt, p. 185) While racism was seriously grounded in the fear of the white man, bureaucracy emerged as a result of over exaggerated and entirely false sense of protection that white…
Arendt, Hannah. The Origins of Totalitarianism. 1976
Du Bois. The Souls of Black Folks.
Evolutionary psychology is a field with primary focus on areas such as memory, perception, behavior, and language. It is a field that has application for and draws interest from a variety of other fields within the hard and social sciences. esearchers and other experts in the field of evolutionary psychology contend that just as much as the human body and physical capabilities have adapted and altered over time as a result of an intersection of factors, so does the mind. Evolutionary psychology would contend that modern human behavior is a combination and result of a number of psychological adaptations that have occurred and recurred since the earliest human environments.
Evolutionary psychology is a theoretical explanation and predictor for aspects of the human condition or experience such as intelligence, emotions, cooperation, and other universal behaviors that occur across culture, location, and time. Therefore the area of psychology that is the…
Haselton, M.G. (2005). Irrational Emotions of Emotional Wisdom? Evolutionary Psychology of Emotions and Behavior. Forgas, J. (ed) Hearts and minds: Affective influences on social cognition and behavior. Psychology Press: New York.
peception of objects in infants elated to IQ duing adolescence?
The tem "social cognition" epesents the fundamental capabilities of childen to peceive an object, categoize, emembe, evaluate, thing and eact appopiately (Dilalla, 2007). This poposal ecognizes the boad definition of the tem, but it emphasizes on the multidisciplinay quality of eseach fo this pape. Nevetheless, scientific disciplines vay in thei emphasis on vaious elements of this sophisticated constuct. In social psychology, the tem illustates a wide ange of happenings including moal easoning, fomation of attitudes and steeotyping. In neuoscience, it defines the tem as the capability to peceive the intentions and dispositions of othe people. On the othe hand, developmental psychology descibes the tem as the theoy of mind, the ecognition that people have beliefs and inteests divegent, and it is possible to explain behavio by efeing to the beliefs and inteests.
This poposal adopts the above definition because acoss…
references for novel and familiar stimuli. Advances in infancy research, 5, 69-95.
McCall, R.B., & Carriger, M. (1993). A meta-analysis of infant habituation and recognition memory performance as predictors of later IQ. Child Development, 64, 57-
Quinn, P.C., & Johnson, M.H. (2000). Global before basic object categorization. Infancy, 1, 31-
Psychological and Socio-Cultural Theories of isk
Definition of isk
The term "risk" is often defined differently depending on the particular paradigm. For example, risk is economics is typically defined in terms of differences in possible monetary outcomes and individuals/corporations involved in risk -- seeking behavior are typically seeking higher monetary payoffs (Markowitz 1952). When clinical psychologists, sociologists, law enforcement officials, and lay individuals identify "risky behaviors" they are referring to a broader meaning of the term "risk." In this context behaviors and involve risk are typically defined as behaviors that can be of potential harm to the person performing them or to other people (Steinberg 2008). In this sense the term "risk" is typically viewed in terms of possible negative outcomes as opposed to some other positive outcome such as the potential monetary gain.
This particular paper will assume that the definition of risky behavior includes some type of a…
Aristotle .1998. Aristotle: The Nicomachean ethics. In Ackrill J. et al. eds. Oxford World' s
Classics. York: Oxford, pp. 229-301.
Beck, U. 1992. Risk society: Towards a new modernity. New Delhi: Sage.
Boholm, A. 1996. Risk perception and social anthropology: Critique of cultural Theory. Ethnos 61, pp. 64-84.