916+ documents containing “social contract theory”.
Social Contract Theory
The social contract model is based on the underlying premise that society, in pursuit of the protection of people's lives and property, enters into a compact agreement with the government - where the latter guarantees the society protection, and the society in turn pledge to live in peace and harmony (Dooley & Paten, 2014). John Locke and Thomas Hobbes, the two main proponents of the social contract model, agree on this premise but differ significantly in regard to the principles under which the contract ought to operate (Dooley & Paten, 2014).
Hobbes' versus Locke's View
Through his political work Leviathan, Hobbes states that the government and the society both exist within the confines of the stipulated contractual agreement, but the former is the higher one of the two parties, and enjoys absolute sovereignty to use its power and political right to ensure that general order prevails in the society. In….
Constitution Society. (2007). The Social Contract and Constitutional Republics. Constitution Society. Retrieved 17 September 2014 from http://www.constitution.org/soclcont.htm
Dooley, K. & Paten, J. (2014). Why Politics Matters: An Introduction to Political Science. Stamford, CT: Cengage Learning.
Elahi, M. (2014). Social Contract Theory by Hobbes, Locke, and Rousseau. Academia. Retrieved 18 September 2014 from http://www.academia.edu/3138759/Social_Contract_Theory_by_Hobbes_Locke_and_Rousseau
" This voice allows a civilized person to put aside his or her self-interest, in order to uphold an abstract "general good." A person who has accepted the social contract therefore puts aside the anti-social natural inclinations described by Hobbes. In their place, a person agrees to abide by the rules of society and the social order. In a sense, the acceptance of the social contract makes society possible.
At first, it may seem that people lose a significant amount of their natural liberties when they enter into the social contract. However, how much liberty can there be in the bleak state of nature, where one constantly fears attack from other humans?
Rousseau-based analysis would locate more important freedoms in the fact that a cooperative society would ensure greater personal freedoms for all. There is much to be gained by voluntarily chaining one's natural freedoms, in order to gain the advantages of….
Hobbes, Thomas. Leviathan. New York: Penguin Books, 1982
Rousseau, Jean Jacques. The Social Contract. New York: Penguin Books, 1982
Rousseau, Jean Jacques. The Social Contract. New York: Penguin Books, 1982, p. 49
Hobbes, Thomas. Leviathan. New York: Penguin Books, 1982, p. 81
Several theorists have used social contract theory to understand the government’s role in taking care of the public and addressing the public’s needs. Current political issues offer further examination of social contract theory and how it may help with understanding government obligation and public participation. Rousseau's social contract theory is best and most relevant for understanding and offering solutions to contemporary political issues like mandatory vaccination, taxation, and universal healthcare because it offers a foundation from which to explain the perceived obligations of both the government and the public. Rousseau’s version of social contract theory contrasted against other theorists like Hobbes's and Locke's social contact theories demonstrates how one interpretation of a theory may be better suited for modern political issues over others.
According to social contract theory via Locke’s interpretation, when the government remains unsuccessful in securing natural rights or fulfilling society’s best interest often recognized as the "general will"….
Social Contract, Rousseau argues that we are all born free and equal, yet do not live either freely or equally. Rousseau then goes on to argue that the construction of the General Will is the means by which people can achieve freedom. The General Will is the social contract where all members of society agree to obey the General Will to be part of society. Rousseau argues that by this General Will, the separate wills of each member of society converge into one. Freedom is achieved because every citizen is equal, each being a single unit of the General Will and having the same amount of influence over it. Rousseau argues that this General Will is the way individuals in society retain their equality and find freedom. Further consideration of the implications of the General Will and the social contract will show that Rousseau's version of freedom and equality may….
Namely, the institutions of
slavery and Jim Crow that were used to constrain the growth and advancement
of African Americans are today disregarded as being directly relevant to
the fortunes and opportunities of blacks in America. This is both
unrealistic and unethical, with the denial of its lasting impact casting
American racism in an historical light rather than one which is still
present and problematic. It is thus that the social contract today serves
the interests of dominance even as it feigns to have disavowed these
aspects of itself.
A true resolution to the failures of the social contract may only
really occur when the discourse on America's racialist past and the lasting
effects of this on the current fortunes of African Americans is resolved.
In that regard, Mills regards it as largely a fiction that racial
discrimination ended in any meaningful way after the Emancipation
Proclamation; rather, racial prejudice and systematic subjugation continued
overtly well into the 20th century, continuing still today albeit….
social contract would observe the law as well as the institution to enforce that law. y the enforcement of that law, those covered could expect justice to be done to them and everybody else. In times of trouble, such as when burglars or other criminals attack, one could call the police for help. Those covered by the contract need neither to fear such unjust attacks nor to take the law into their own hands. The weak need not fear the strong.
The deal for those covered by the social contract is that they join individual forces and resources with others who also want peace and equality, so that their own goods may not be taken from them unjustly, either. And because there are more people who want their goods and other rights protected than those who want a free-for-all all the time, there would be more people who would join….
Locke, John. (2003). Two Treatises of Government. Lonang Library: Lonang Institute. http://www.lonang.com/exlibris/locke
Rawls, John. (1999). A Theory of Justice. Revised. Cambridge: Bellknap Press
Taylor, Bobby. (1987). Rosseau's "Social Contract:" a Critical Response. The Freeman: The Foundation for Economic Education, volume 37, number 1
Wikipedia. (2001). Jean Jacques Rosseau. The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. http://www.utm.edu/rsearch/iep/r/rousseau.htm
Media Articulation Of The ites Of
HETEOSEXUAL vs. HOMOSEXUAL MAIAGE IGHTS
In the Land of the Free where the Bill of ights is supreme, all marital unions between consenting adults should be accorded the same level of societal respect and legality under federal and state laws. It was just a few decades ago when the Gay ights Movement was born in a raucous Greenwich Village bar, but homosexuals have become increasingly accepted in mainstream American society in the years since and a growing number of states are legalizing same-sex marriage in response to this trend. Unfortunately, the path to equal rights for all American citizens has been hampered by negative media coverage of homosexuals in the United States in recent years in ways that are frequently subtle but which are discernible through careful analysis. This type of analysis is important because prejudicial public information or notice of the sexual orientation….
Black's law dictionary. (1999). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. (2011). Library of Congress. Retrieved from http://
Gallagher, M. (2006, May 15). Banned in Boston. The Weekly Standard, 11(33), 3.
COMING TO A HEAD
Legal and Ethical Issues in usiness
Ethics in usiness
Three normative ethical theories were developed in Western capitalist societies in guiding the ethical conduct of business (Fort, 2014). The stockholder theory considers the maximizing of profits as the sole objective of business and above all considerations. It does not recognize social responsibility. It is completely utilitarian and one-sided. The stakeholder theory considers the welfare and needs of customers, suppliers, owners and employees along with maximizing profit. When called for, it believes that the interests of stockholders should be sacrificed in order to insure its survival. It developed from Immanuel Kant's philosophy, which respects the dignity and participation of all people. And the social contract theory is the most widely used business theory. It draws from the 18th-century philosophies of Thomas Hobbes and John Locke. Their philosophies argued that business should be dedicated and committed to the interests of….
Dobson, J. (1994). Virtue ethics as a foundation for business ethics: a "MacIntyre-Based
Critique. Center for Catholic Studies: University of St. Thomas. Retrieved on January
25, 2014 from https://www.stthomas.edu/cathstudies/cst/conferences/antwerp/papers/dobson.pdf
Fort, T. (2014). Ethical theories in business. eHow: Demand Media, Inc. Retrieved
Ethics and Morality: The Theories of Ethics and Morality
The subject in this case faces an ethical dilemma, where she has to choose between reporting an ethical concern and just playing along or doing nothing at all. Both choices have serious consequences -- reporting would mean that i) she loses her job and livelihood because of a confidentiality breach, and ii) she stops her organization from producing the environmentally-friendly hovercraft, and consequently, becomes the reason why the world will never enjoy clean unpolluted air. Playing along, on the other hand, would mean that she watches as 200,000 innocent lives are lost as a result of the hovercraft's incompatibility with existing models.
The subject has a duty to uphold confidentiality in all dealings that have to do with the company. Disclosing such information to the press would amount to breach of this duty. However, as a member of a corporate body, she also….
U.K. Government: Social Policy Theory & Practice
The objective of this study is to answer all four questions stated as follows: (1) What is the social administrative tradition? (2) What is meant by liberal welfarism? (3) Explain the parliamentary policy- making process? In addition (4) Detail the New Right critique of the welfare state?
Social Administrative Tradition
Grover Starling, administration scholar is reported to have described six characteristics of government's public administrative responsibility: (1) responsiveness; (2) flexibility; (3) competence; (4) due process; (5) accountability; and (6) honestly. (Shiguang, nd) Traditional government responsibility is noted to be that of maintaining public order. (Shiguang, nd) The World Bank identifies four primary administrative traditions as being those of: (1) Anglo Saxon (minimal state); (2) Continental European: Germanic (organicist); (3) Continental European: French (Napoleonic); and (4) Scandanavian: (mixture of Anglo-Saxon and Germanic). The most fundamental difference is reported to be "between the Anglo-Saxon and the Continental European….
ational choice theory can in fact encompass the other two previously mentioned theories of criminal behavior due to the fact that acting rational may include conflicting with common culture or joining the neighborhood gang to eventually escape the ghetto.
Of all the theories of criminal behavior studied so far, rational choice theory is the most applicable to the current state of society in my opinion. Much too often criminals are often dismissed for their faults, when in actuality they are truly acting rational and within their known boundaries of experience. Blanket laws do little good when examining them under this theory. Followers of rational choice theory would agree that changes within the criminal justice system should be made to expose the relative circumstances surrounding each case and not assuming that common punishments meet the required solution for the problem. Warner tended to agree: "building stronger communities will require not only….
Concluding in Political moderation, in "A Theory of Justice," and in later works, John awls explains a comprehensive, as well as influential theory, which is on the subject of, presenting a theory of justice in concurrence with the liberal-democratic passion that relates to the rights and freedoms of individuals in society. It entails that the rights of the individuals ought to be moderated by various types of clauses, making certain that no social or natural eventualities are overlooked. The theory declares that no inborn benefits of political authority, substance riches or natural capability should irreversibly or overpoweringly establish life chances. Furthermore, more distinctively, these morally subjective issues should not establish the value of political liberties to moral persons (1).
In 1971, awls's explains his first articulation of his theory of justice which highlights on individual abilities that he entitles the "Original Position" and in addition, a model of social life.….
1). Macedo, Stephen. April 1995. Liberal Civic Education and Religious Fundamentalism: the Case of God v. John Rawls. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Pp.468 -496.
2). Carter, Stephen. 1987. Evolutionism and Treating Religion as a Hobby. Duke Law Journal.
3). Rawls, John. 1993. Political Liberalism. New York: Columbia University Press.
4). Kenneth Baynes. 1992. The Normative Grounds of Social Criticism: Kant, Rawls, Habermas, Albany. Suny Press.
An objective glance at history tells us that the social contract was a real and actual covenant. The first people who banded into communities formed some overt and covert covenant with their neighbors, replete with trappings, that later became known as 'legal', in order to ensure their survival within this band of fellow strangers. The racial contract, though real, did not displace the social contract. Although the social contract, as per the French revolutionists terms of liberty, equality and fraternity never existed - even amongst Whites, it was always a myth and more symptomatic of Utopia - practical forms of the social contract, albeit with variations amongst gender and race, persisted. Integrated with the social contract, however, was a racial form of contract where male supremacism characterized by Christians of the white race gained sufficient power to dominate others who did not belong to their gender or race. acial category,….
Liberal equality is another principle that was propagated by awls and focuses on the removal of artificial obstacles or man made obstacles as opposed to the natural liberty principles. awls here argues for the removal of inequalities which act as disadvantages to some people and this can be achieved trough giving them a just share of the primary goods the society has to offer. This principle neglects the natural endowments natural disadvantages. Another philosopher, onald Dworkin therefore argues that even if these social primary goods are assembled yet the people with natural disabilities are not given some form of insurance, then they would still be disadvantaged (Matthew Clayton, n.d:8).
The concept of democratic equality deals with liberty and equality. It brings into perspective the basic freedoms and rights like those of speech and assembly among the others. It states that each individual should be accorded these in order to ensure the….
Robert Cavalier et.al. (2012). John Rawls: A Theory of Justice (1971). Drury College. Retrieved October 10, 2012 from http://caae.phil.cmu.edu/cavalier/Forum/meta/background/Rawls.html
Leif Wenar, (2012). John Rawls. Retrieved October 10, 2012 from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/rawls/
Matthew Clayton, (n.d). Liberal Equality and Ethics. Retrieved October 10, 2012 from http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/soc/pais/people/clayton/research/liberalequality/liberalequality.pdf
Locke's Theory Of Punishment
John Locke was an English philosopher, who is undoubtedly the philosopher of modern times and the originator of concepts like self and identity, human nature and understanding, theory of mind and several other concepts regarding political philosophy and ethics. orn in 1632 and died in 1704, Locke is unanimously termed as the Father of Classical Liberalism since during the enlightenment era; he was amongst the most influential and widely followed scholars. Many of his works regarding liberalism and republicanism have been included into the U.S. Declaration of Independence and Constitution, due to their authenticity and practicality in real terms.
Locke also performed as a government official who was authorized to collect information regarding to trade with the entire colonies. This experience allowed him to be in close contact with the political activities and eventually led him to write upon the authorization and legislation customs for the government. His….
Social Contract Theory The social contract model is based on the underlying premise that society, in pursuit of the protection of people's lives and property, enters into a compact agreement…Read Full Paper ❯
" This voice allows a civilized person to put aside his or her self-interest, in order to uphold an abstract "general good." A person who has accepted the social…Read Full Paper ❯
Introduction Several theorists have used social contract theory to understand the government’s role in taking care of the public and addressing the public’s needs. Current political issues offer further examination…Read Full Paper ❯
Social Contract, Rousseau argues that we are all born free and equal, yet do not live either freely or equally. Rousseau then goes on to argue that the construction…Read Full Paper ❯
Namely, the institutions of slavery and Jim Crow that were used to constrain the growth and advancement of African Americans are today disregarded as being directly relevant to the fortunes and…Read Full Paper ❯
social contract would observe the law as well as the institution to enforce that law. y the enforcement of that law, those covered could expect justice to be…Read Full Paper ❯
Women's Issues - Sexuality
Social Contracts: Media Articulation Of The ites Of HETEOSEXUAL vs. HOMOSEXUAL MAIAGE IGHTS In the Land of the Free where the Bill of ights is supreme, all marital unions between consenting…Read Full Paper ❯
Contract Offer COMING TO A HEAD Legal and Ethical Issues in usiness Ethics in usiness Three normative ethical theories were developed in Western capitalist societies in guiding the ethical conduct of business (Fort,…Read Full Paper ❯
Family and Marriage
Ethics and Morality: The Theories of Ethics and Morality The subject in this case faces an ethical dilemma, where she has to choose between reporting an ethical concern and just…Read Full Paper ❯
U.K. Government: Social Policy Theory & Practice The objective of this study is to answer all four questions stated as follows: (1) What is the social administrative tradition? (2) What…Read Full Paper ❯
ational choice theory can in fact encompass the other two previously mentioned theories of criminal behavior due to the fact that acting rational may include conflicting with common…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Ethics
Social Philosophy Concluding in Political moderation, in "A Theory of Justice," and in later works, John awls explains a comprehensive, as well as influential theory, which is on the subject…Read Full Paper ❯
An objective glance at history tells us that the social contract was a real and actual covenant. The first people who banded into communities formed some overt and covert…Read Full Paper ❯
Liberal equality is another principle that was propagated by awls and focuses on the removal of artificial obstacles or man made obstacles as opposed to the natural liberty principles.…Read Full Paper ❯
Locke's Theory Of Punishment John Locke was an English philosopher, who is undoubtedly the philosopher of modern times and the originator of concepts like self and identity, human nature and…Read Full Paper ❯