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Social Justice in the Book Of Micah
Social justice is justice that is exercised within a society and in particular it is to be exercised among and by the various social classes in society. A society that is socially just is one that has advocacy and practices that are based on principles of solidarity and equality. Social justice also requires that a just society is one that understands and values human rights and upholding dignities of human beings. Most people suffer because of social injustices; wealth and resources are based on inequality, racism as well as wars. The social injustices are not just personal failings but as a result of social structures that have created losers and winners within the society. The sin of social injustice is repeated by many prophets in the Bible including Micah who emphasize on how the underclass is neglected and these are for instance widows,…
Bratcher, D., (2011). The Book of Micah. Retrieved February 11, 2013 from http://www.crivoice.org/books/micah.html
Dillinger, C., (2004). What Does the Lord Require? (Micah 6:8)
Retrieved February 11, 2013 from http://www.bible.ca/ef/expository-micah-6-8.htm
Garcia, C, O. (2011).Bible Teaching Notes. Retrieved February 11, 2013 from http://www.bibleteachingnotes.com/templates/System/details.asp?id=29183&fetch=8025
Just Get Started: Engagement
Anticipatory empathy can be described as the ability of a person to evaluate the effects of his or her actions or words on another person. This is a common technique used by therapist to understand the outcomes of their therapy.
It is necessary to practice social justice that one can understand in other person's shoes and try to perceive the impacts that one's may have on other. In fact, anticipatory empathy is highly important for the students and educators of social work practice. Evidence suggests that practitioner-to-client empathy is critical for effective social work practice (e.g., Berg, aminani, Greer, Harwood, & Safren, 2008; Forrester, Kershaw, Moss, & Hughes, 2008; Green & Christensen, 2006; Mishara et al., 2007; Sale, Bellamy, Springer, & Wang, 2008). We also know that empathy is essential to adequate moral development (Jollife & Farrington, 2006). Furthermore, empathy is highly important in…
Busby, D.M., & Garnder, B.C. (2008). How do I analyze thee? Let me count the ways: Considering empathy in couple relationships using self and partner ratings. Family Process, 47, 229-242.
Hoffman, M.L. (2000), Empathy and Moral Development- Implications for Caring and Justice. Cambridge University Press
Henegan, L. (2005), Radical listening: Less talk, more leadership
Phelps. O.W. (1942), A Theory of Business Communication, Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/view/07409168/di993669/99p0169l/0.
Theoretical Constructs and Social Justice
hat does it mean to say that theory can influence and shape racist, classist, and sexist notions of people, groups, and societies?
Theoretical constructs, the text by Finn & Jacobson (2003) tells us, are highly influenced by prevailing political, cultural and social hierarchies. Accordingly, those theories of sociological order which ultimately are accepted as organic and naturally occurring are often tied into certain pointedly hegemonic imperatives. Finn & Jacobson point out that 'theory' is often the insidious euphemism employed to justify the demeaning impulses of colonialism. Here, scholarly objectivity is claimed as the justification for practicing the exploitation, anthropological deconstruction and democratization of native populations all over the world. According to our primary text, "in many ways, indigenous peoples have been oppressed by theory. Outsider understandings and assumptions have guided the probing into 'the way our origins have been examined, our histories recounted,…
Finn, J.L. & Jacobson, M. (2003). Just Practice: Social Justice Approach To Social Work. Eddie Bowers Pub Co.
e have described one of the roles of social justice work as that of the "bricoleur," hat is the significance of this role for the process of research and evaluation?
The reading explains that the bricoleur is mindful of the subjective nature of inquiry and the preferences that inquiries bring during research. In fact, every part of a research project, from thesis to drafting is different depending on the personality and preferences of the researcher. Being aware of this is key to ensuring an unbiased approach to the study. The means of reaching a state of unbiased study and reflection is through the same approach as the bricoleur. Researchers must step back and study the various components behind the motives for the study. Once the motives are evaluated and the researcher made aware of any potential biases, then the study can be conducted with the researcher effectively stepping…
Cornwall, Andrea and Jewkes, Rachael (2009). What is participatory research? Social Science & Medicine, 41(12): 1667-76.
Fook, Janis and Gardner, Fiona (2007) Practising critical reflection: a resource handbook, Maidenhead, UK, Open University Press
Mezirow, Jack (1998). On Critical Reflection. Adult Education Quarterly, 48(3): 185-89.
Selener, D (1997). Participatory action research and social change. New York, Life Sciences Publications.
Social Justice and the Gospel
For centuries, philosophers have puzzled the human condition. Questions abound about why humans act the way they do, why they form groups, what role cultural and social norms have for learning, how societies form, the nature of society, social change, and the way integration and alienation fit in with modern societies. In particular, the changes in urbanization and technology, and access to other cultures, spurred even more study of what it means to be human. Together, these paradigms form a notion of human history in which theories have tried to explain different aspects of human behavior and interaction. However, we can also look at the 20th century and find that there is a disparate interpretation of social justice, and the compatibility of the Gospels toward that goal. This is exemplified, for instance, in the works of the everend Martin Luther King, Jr., who noted: "Injustice…
Barry, B. (2005). Why Social Justice Matters. Malden, MA: Polity Press.
Dobson, R. And Buckley, C., eds. (2010). Humanitarian Jesus: Social Justice and the Cross. Chicago, IL: Moody Publishers.
Gindin, S. (June 2002). Social Justice and Globalization: Are they Compatible. Monthly Review. 54 (2): Retrieved from: http://monthlyreview.org/2002/06/01/social-justice-and-globalization-are-they-compatible
Hayden, P. (2001). The Philosophy of Human Rights. New York: Paragon Press.
While, the ICTUR is focused on addressing the issues of economic injustice as they related to laborers and labor unions. These distinctions are important, because they underscore the main observation of Hayek, where social equality is nothing more than an illusion. That being said, the way both blogs / websites present these different issues to readers, are designed to inform and call them to action. In this aspect, they are slowly changing perceptions about inequality by pointing out the obvious injustices that are occurring to the individual.
About Us. 2010, viewed 8 April 2010
An Excellent Result to Our io Fuels Campaign. 2010, viewed 8 April 2010
ollocks to Poverty. 2010, viewed 8 April 2010
Home Page. 2010, viewed 8 April 2010
Human Rights Denied. 2010, viewed 8 April 2010
RAU Campaign Update. 2010, viewed 8 April 2010
SAA Human Rights Roundtable Approved. 2010, viewed 8 April 2010
About Us. 2010, viewed 8 April 2010
An Excellent Result to Our Bio Fuels Campaign. 2010, viewed 8 April 2010
Bollocks to Poverty. 2010, viewed 8 April 2010
Home Page. 2010, viewed 8 April 2010
He writes, "The postulate of material equality would be a natural starting point only if it were a necessary circumstance that the shares of the different individuals or groups were in such a manner determined by deliberate human decision" (p. 81). Demand for equality or material redistribution can be based only on the belief that someone's decision has created the inequality so. Obviously, by assuming that the social does not exist and that the market is impersonal, there is no decision to blame for inequality. Further, he operates from the assumption that any starting point of equality is impossible to achieve due to the practical nightmare it would entail to redistribute wealth and resources. Another assumption he makes is that impersonality "brings about a greater satisfaction of human desires than any deliberate human organization could achieve" (p. 63). t is not clear on what history he bases this claim on…
In the end, Hayek proposes a view that excludes social justice from discussions of capitalism. Since the free market is the most desirable form of social order, it should be left alone to work itself out without social (or socialist) interference. The spontaneous ordering of haphazard outcomes among free individuals should remain free of meddling. If inequality results, it is neither good nor bad, only neutral. The only way an economic system could be judged morally is if its process is intentional and designed to affect the well-being of others. That would mean governmental control, which he opposes to a preferable free system. Redistribution cannot be done with predictable outcomes.
Perhaps the fundamental flaw in Hayek's position is to assume that the market and its procedural game are impersonal. Clearly the free market is a human invention in the first place. It is a socially constructed idea, not a naturally occurring process. For millennia, humans lived without the benefit of a capitalistic free market. There have been many societies based on other forms of exchange. More than that, its legitimacy is socially constructed. In this vein, a powerful critique of Hayek's position comes from Hilary Wainwright's article "Arguments for a New Left." Her main concern with Hayek's view is its epistemological individualism which presumes that no person or collective can know in advance the market's outcomes. This leads him to unwarranted faith in a mysterious self-regulating price mechanism in the free market. It likewise sees the state as the protector of the market's spontaneity. The contradiction she exposes in this is the monopoly, which arises spontaneously but which has the perverse effect of limiting competition -- precisely the point that Hayek wants to preserve. Hayek cannot deal with this problem since his view cannot tell a government when to intervene. By contrast, Wainwright says, "If knowledge is understood as a social product, the foundation for Hayek's case for the free market begins to crumble" (Wainwright 1994). She points effectively to collaborative efforts in Japan and in the Italian textile industry as empirical examples of social cooperation to shape the market. While still a limited knowledge, cooperation can increase the predictability of the social consequences of economic action. This decreases their haphazardness and recognizes their social construction. It opens up the possibility for social planning and experimentation, not just subjection to luck-based impersonal market laws. Such desirable social projects incorporate human agency and ground the potential for social justice. Social justice becomes real.
He then went to work for the family business, lived in a nice home and drove a nice car, but had no reported income. Since the birth of their child, who is now a teenager, he has contributed virtually nothing to the child's support, though his mother has established a college fund for the child.
One area of research that has influenced my view of social justice is the research on wealth disparity in America:
In the United States, wealth is highly concentrated in a relatively few hands. As of 2001, the top 1% of households (the upper class) owned 33.4% of all privately held wealth, and the next 19% (the managerial, professional, and small business stratum) had 51%, which means that just 20% of the people owned a remarkable 84%, leaving only 16% of the wealth for the bottom 80% (wage and salary workers). In terms of financial…
Buzawa, E., and Buzawa, C. (2003). Domestic violence: the criminal justice response.
Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, Inc.
Domhoff, W. (2006). Power in America: wealth, income and power. Retrieved December 14, 2008, from Who Rules America?
Web site: http://sociology.ucsc.edu/whorulesamerica/power/wealth.html
Therefore, one of the most important documents of democracy points out precisely the notions of social justice, which should be the right to life, tolerance, happiness.
Despite the age of the Declaration the values enshrined in the document remain the same. This comes to point out the fact that indeed, the precepts of social justice today in the international community are based on the liberal thoughts of the 18th century and is viable to this day.
The diversity of opinions who argue for the victory of the liberal beliefs establishes in the end the actual conclusion that the estern perspective on social justice relies on old and well established notions of democracy. However, they are better defined in the clashes of civilization Huntington advocated a decade ago, in the war on terror waged by the Bush Administration, and in the constant refusal of other systems of government to consider them.…
Berstein, S. And Milza, P. (1994) Histoire de l'Europe. Paris: Hatier.
Braunstein, F., and Pepin, J.F. (1998) Les Grandes Doctrines. Paris: Ellipses.
Dunleavy, P. And O'Leary, B. (1987) Theories of the state. The Politics of Liberal Democracy. London and New York: Macmillan and Meredith.
Fukuyama, F. (1989) "The End of History." The National Interest. pp 3-18.
One of the biggest issues that all social workers will face is a host of ethical challenges. This is because their jobs require continuously becoming involved in situations where there will be conflicts between values and regulations. To deal with these challenges requires that everyone is conducting a self-analysis. This will be accomplished by taking a community values tour, examining our own values and the code of conduct for 21st century criminal justice social work. Together, these different elements will provide the greatest insights as to how these issues can be overcame. This is when social workers will be more effective in addressing a host of situations. (Dolgoff, 2011, pg. 109)
If you were to organize a "value tour" of your community, where would you go? What values would you highlight? What impressions might participants take away from the tour? How would you engage participants in critical reflection…
Values Ethics and Visions. (n.d.).
Bogo, D. (2006). Social Work Practice. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.
Dolgoff, R. (2011). Ethical Decisions for Social Work Practices. Belmont, CA: Brooks and Cole Learning.
McCoyd, J. (2010). Social Work in Health Settings. New York, NY: Taylor and Francis.
The Context of Eugene Debs' Court Statemtent
When a historically-naive, contemporary American reads Eugene Debs' statement to the court, it would be hard not to assume Debs believed he was a martyr for some imaginary cause. However, if the historical context is understood, this assumption would quickly dissipate. This essay will therefore examine the historical context within which this statement was made.
Debs' court statement is intimately tied to the patriotic fervor surrounding entry of the United States into World War I (Jensen 1968). While very few Americans actually wanted to become involved in WWI, the country was roughly divided between those who felt it would be their patriotic duty to serve if called and those who believed it was their moral duty to take an anti-war stance. One of the more vocal anti-war elements was unionized labor, specifically the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW). IWW members,…
Addams, Jane. "The subjective necessity for social settlements." In Philanthropy and Social Progress, edited by Henry C. Adams, 114-127. New York: Thomas Y. Cromwell, 1893.
Cole, William I. "Introduction." In The City Wilderness: A Settlement Study; by Residents and Associates of the South End House, edited by Robert A. Woods, 1-9. New York: Houghton, Mifflin & Company, 1898.
Finn, Janet L. And Jacobson, Maxine. Just Practice: A Social Justice Approach to Social Work, 2nd Edition. Peosta, Iowa: Eddie Bowers Publishing, 2008.
Those limits entail a legal distinction between "pure speech," "expressive conduct" and "behavior" (Mitcell 7)
Thus, Mitchell calls for "the democratization of public space" (9). Public space must become public once again, geographically and theoretically. Mitchell briefly mentions the Internet as a virtual public space facing similar threats as the physical city does. The same forces controlling physical spaces in the city are vying for power over the virtual spaces online. Mitchell especially targets consumerism as a driving force behind space stealing in both cities and online. Traffic, whether vehicular, pedestrian, or online, is diverted towards large-scale commercial enterprise. In cities as well as online, small businesses suffer, as does consumer choice. Banner advertisements online are akin to large billboards in cities: another blatant use of public space for private enterprise. Some business development zones actively restrict membership to their exclusive elite areas: which are open only businesses deemed desirable…
Mitchell, Don. The Right to the City. Guilford Press, 2003.
Action and Accompaniment
What roles of social justice are likely to be practiced using Diaz's process of participatory planning (i.e. eight moments)? Who would be important participants in this process?
Diaz participatory process of planning entails of answering all the questions which arise in the course of decision making. There are several roles of social justice work which might be practiced in this process of decision making using Diaz's model:
Learner: Searching, learning, being curious is the very essence of trying to reach a suitable solution. Learning is a process which makes you absorb new bits of knowledge and perform analysis on the old ones. However, while performing this role, it is important that we show complete openness and modesty to the situation in hand and people involved in it and be genuinely curious.
Collaborator: As per Diaz's process, it is necessary to have group think while arriving…
Cummins, L.K., Byers, K.V & Pedrick, L. (2011). Policy Practice for Social Workers: New Strategies for a New Era
Freire, P (1972) Pedagogy of the Oppressed, Harmondsworth: Penguin
Kane, L. (2001). Popular Education and Social Change in Latin America. Nottingham, UK: Russell Press. pp. 9
Mizrahi, T. (2008), Encyclopedia of Social Work
social work and social justice tie together in the respect they both deal with individual, group, and community needs. hether it is about meeting individual needs or working to change laws to meet the fairness of all individuals, social work reaches out to a broad area of meeting needs in general. It takes justice to work with individuals, groups, and communities and meet the needs thereof.
"Social ork is the professional activity of helping individuals, groups, or communities enhance or restore their capacity for social functioning and creating societal conditions favorable to this goal." (Definition of Social ork, 2011) Social work is the professional application of values, principals, and techniques of helping people obtain services, such as counseling, and helping communities or groups provide and improve processes that meet needs. It requires a great deal of knowledge in human development and behavior of social, economic, and cultural institutions, as well…
Definition of Social Work. (2011, June 22). Retrieved from Department of Social Work, Wright State University: http://www.wright.edu/cola/Dept/social_work/sw_definition.htm social justice. (n.d.). Retrieved from Business Dictionary: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/social-justice.html
Further, the physical well-being of everyone should be respected and there should be a guarantee that a "minimum level of material well-being, including basic [human needs], must be met by society, Peffer posits, explaining his view of Rawlsianism. The functions of a human being are important to respect, and basic liberties including: freedom of speech, assembly, thought, movement and other rights should be respected, Peffer continues.
Moreover, freedom from arbitrary arrest and seizure should be the rule of law. These are items that are written into the U.S. Constitution, so they should be familiar to all educated Americans as well. First of all, what about freedom from arbitrary governmental decisions to put a man to death who is delusional? And did the social inequalities benefit the least advantaged in the case of Patterson? Not at all. The social inequalities thanks to Perry -- who has a way of rewarding those…
Barber, Nigel. "Why white collar criminals rarely go to prison." Psychology Today. Retrieved December 5, 2011, from http://www.psychologytoday.com . 2010.
California State University at Sacramento. "Kantian Ethics." Retrieved December 4, 2011, from http://www.csus.edu/indiv/g/gaskilld/ethics/kantian%20Ethics.htm . 2008.
Florida State University. "Conflict Theory." Retrieved December 5, 2011, from http://criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/conflict.htm.
Kay, Charles D. "Notes on Utilitarianism." Retrieved December 5, 2011, from http://webs.wofford.edu/kaycd/ethics/util.htm .
Fabian social justice on human nature, freedom, and ethics
Man had no problem in the Middle Ages with his money since Free Competition was non-existent. Each man had his class and protection can naturally to them.
It was Capitalism that unmoored all control and regulation from village, guild, central municipality, government and the individual leaving one individual to drown or be drowned by his other more monetarily successful fellow men with no laws in check to stop it. Neither the feudal system nor the guild system could compete with the chaos of the industrial age and the leaps and bounds of capitalist individualism, which seized political reins and ruled the country. The great political economists were ignorant of the suffering of the masses.
Shaw sees Marxism as solution to the problem. More specifically he advocates a form of Social Democracy where the burden of rent will be thrown to the…
Dickens, Peter. Social Darwinism: Linking Evolutionary Thought to Social Theory (Philadelphia: Open University Press, 2000)
Shaw, GB. The Transition to Social Democracy Transition. Fabian Essays in Socialism
Which of these makes the most to you and why?
chose three principles of social justice that believe are foundational to the work, in that, each supports the constructs of structural violence and cultural violence. These principles are as follows: Understand how power works. Challenge our certainties. Confront questions of power. don't believe that social justice work can occur without the deliberate cultivation of critical consciousness. n order to understand how power works, it is crucial to understand the structures that establish poverty for certain classes or groups of people, and to understand how cultural violence validates the rightness of the structural violence that occurs. A rational humanistic approach to the analysis of culture and society requires the ability to see power relations clearly and to be able to identify how the dynamics of power and authority can be influenced to promote social inclusion and equality of rights.…
If I believe that the most important things that people working for social justice can do is learn all they can about structural and cultural violence, and to practice the art of critical consciousness. Inherent in critical consciousness is taking action based on what has been observed and learned. So I have to ask myself if I have established a plan for adequately doing what I recommend to others. In so doing, I recognize that I have little patience for those who enjoy the continuity of the status quo -- whether they benefit from it or whether they seem incapable of imaging a better way of being in the world. Perhaps, I have the least tolerance for those who do recognize that better ways of being in the world are attainable, but they are unwilling to forgo privilege and status in order to float all -- or even most -- of the boats.
What principles of social justice work do these voices exemplify?
I think Healy (2005) articulates for the status quo, as a long-standing argument for avoiding substantive change is that the laws, or regulations, or power structures, or whatever, do not make it easy or do not permit. If we look to Freire, we can see how it change is accomplished -- there are many who would have said that the taking critical theory to the mat and teaching 300 Brazilian sugarcane workers to be literate in order to meet suffrage requirements in 45 days simply is not possible. I complete agree that social work must be politicized if it is not to continue to be marginalized. As Hooks, Fook, and Pozotto (2005) argue, serious engagement with postmodern critical theory is necessary if substantive social justice change is to occur. This requires the legitimization of personal and political struggles and, importantly, the establishment of an alternative social work discourse.
Corporate Social esponsibility and the Triple Bottom Line: Why Distributive Justice Matters More Than Accounting Tricks
That multinational corporations have an ethical duty to be socially responsible has been made very clear by businessmen and social justice advocates like Sir James Goldsmith (ose, 1994). The question that remains is precisely how they are to execute that social responsibility. Some contend that a triple bottom line (TBL) concept is the way to measure whether a corporation is meeting its ethical obligations (by focusing on the "interrelated dimensions of profits, people, and the planet"), but TBL accounting is simply that -- accounting: it is not an ethical program that ensures social responsibility, only one that attempts to measure it (Slaper, Hall, 2011). Indeed, as Norman and MacDonald (2003) note, the TBL "is an unhelpful addition to current discussion of corporate social responsibility" (p. 1). This paper will show what the differences are…
Castka, P., Bamber, C., Sharp, J. (2005). Implementing Effective Corporate Social
Responsibility and Corporate Governance: A Framework. UK: British Standards Institution.
Ferrell, O. (2010). PepsiCo's Journey Toward an Ethical and Socially Responsible Culture. University of New Mexico: Daniels Fund Ethics Institute.
Norman, W., MacDonald, C. (2003). Getting to the Bottom of 'Triple Bottom Line'.
System Inquiry and Community Healthcare Involvement
How would you proceed in developing a plan for building community involvement in health care in your community? How would you assess the situation? ho would you involve? hy?
The first step in developing a plan for community involvement in local healthcare is to create a forum for interaction of different representative members of the community. By employing the 'dialectical process' identified in the text by Finn & Jacobson (2003), it is possible to gather the far-ranging perspectives of a wide spectrum of possible participants before initiating any formal steps. According to Finn & Jacobson, the dialectical process "consists of members engaging the debate of ideas with members variably putting forth a thesis and antithesis and finally arriving at some form of synthesis. The process can help members explore contradictory forces and discourses that shape everyday life. And it can help members…
Finn, J.L. & Jacobson, M. (2003). Just Practice: Social Justice Approach To Social Work. Eddie Bowers Pub Co.
Social Justice and Theology
Black Liberation theology offers a much needed critic of classical theology, and the various ways in which it favors, and even fosters the racially oppressive behavior and attitudes that many white people have towards marginalized people. However, while Black Liberation has adequately pushed back against the issue of white supremacy, it has done so without giving a sufficient attention to the issue of patriarchy, which has an oppressive affect on women of color. It is an issue of intersectionality. hile the issue of racial oppression is extremely important, it should not be elevated to a point where it is deemed to be more important than the liberation of women of color. This paper will look into the role of the Black Liberation Theology in shaping social justice with regards to women of color and classical theology.
Almost all liberation theologies and movements have arisen out…
Cone, James H. A Black Theology of Liberation, 20th Anniversary Edition. Maryknoll, New York: Orbis Books, 1990. Print.
Cone, James H. Black Theology and Black Power. San Francisco, Harper and Row, 1969. Print.
Copeland, M. Shawn. "Enfleshing Freedom: Body, Race, and Being." In Pinn, A.B. and Cannon, K.G (Eds.), Innovations: African-American religious thought. Minneapolis, Fortress Press. 2010. Print.
Douglas, Kelly Brown. Sexuality and the Black Church: A Womanist Perspective. Maryknoll, New York: Orbis Books, 1999. Print.
Education for Social Justice -- a eview
Foundations Education -- Social Justice
Author's note with contact information and more details on collegiate affiliation, etc.
Education is an institution that contains pervasive social injustice. Hytten and Bettez's article attempts to addresses several components of the issue. The article intends to provide a history of social justice movements in American education. The article intends to explain the dilemmas in effective social justice strategies and pedagogies. The article further intends to give a comprehensive explanation of the issue while giving the reader several vantage points from which to consider the issue and methods for change and/or improvement. Hytten and Bettez demand clarity and action. They require awareness of biases and awareness of the significance of culture when considering social justice. The paper will summarize, critique, and offer personal reflection upon their piece.
Understanding Education for Social Justice -- A eview
Hytten, K. & Bettez, S.C. (2011) "Understanding education for social justice." Educational Foundations, Caddo Gap Press, Web. Available from 2012 January 24.
Consultation and Social Justice Advocacy Similar?: Exploring the Perceptions of Professional Counselors and Counseling Students
Are Consultation and Social Justice Advocacy Similar?
Are Consultation and Social Justice Advocacy Similar? Exploring the Perceptions of Professional Counselors and Counseling Students"
Are Consultation and Social Justice Advocacy Similar?: Exploring the Perceptions of Professional Counselors and Counseling Students"
The mission of all counselors should be the desire to deliver high quality, complete school counseling services to all students. Our programs are designed to help all students develop and enhance their academic, social, career, and personal strengths in order to become responsible and productive citizens. There is a commitment to individual uniqueness and the maximum development of human potential. Through the skillful use of strategic, timely, and personal interventions, counselors customize educational experiences in order to enhance capabilities, close achievement gaps among high and low performing groups and support positive choices.
As a counselor I…
Moe, J.L. (2010). Exploring the Perceptions of Professional Counselors and. Journal for Social Action in Counseling and Psychology, 2, 23-45.
Sheridan, S.M. (2000). Considerations of multiculturalism and diversity in behavioral consultation with parents and teachers. School Psychology Review, 29, 344-353.
Sheridan, S.M. (2002). Behavioral parentteacher consultation: Conceptual and research considerations. Journal of School Psychology, 30, 117-139.
Soo-Hoo, T. (2007). Applying frame of reference and refraining techniques to improve school consultation in multicultural settings. Journal of Educational and Psychological, 21, 325-345.
Peel does not critique explicitly the implicit violence within capitalism, as these authors do with respect to racism and economic exploitation, nor does he do a good job of placing the economic context of suburban Australian poverty with a global or colonialist perspective as he could have by emphasizing less the positive aspects of multiculturalism and more the negative aspects of cultural stigmatism within capitalism. At the same time, his discussion is based more on an urban environment rather than, like Wood, on the peasant community (Wood 2003). It is also far more limited in historical scope than McNally's comprehensive viewpoint which traces capitalism through centuries (McNally 2002). Peel gives some indication of a critique of capitalism in his discussion of worker displacement and the shutdown of blue-collar factories which an urban example of what Woods is talking about. Furthermore, Peel does do some justice to the gender dimension by…
Callinicos, a 2000, Equality, Polity, London.
Fraser, N 1995, "From redistribution to recognition? dilemmas of justice in a 'post-socialist' age," New Left Review, vol. 1, no. 212, pp. 68-93.
Hayek, FA 1976, Legislation and liberty, vol. 2, the mirage of social justice, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
McNally, D 2002, Another world is possible, Arbeiter.
Peer 1 Jerri
While privatization of the prison industry might save the state in terms of costs I believe it does not save the state in terms of face or accountability. True, private prisons are regulated (Seiter, 2014), but there is almost certainly bound to be a conflict of interest between the private industry and the mission of the criminal justice system. If the corrections industry is profiting from incarceration, how can there not be a conflict of interest? Thus, my big problem with privatization of prisons is that it presents too many opportunities for private wealth to exploit the criminal justice system’s vulnerabilities and undermine the social justice it is meant to uphold.
Seiter, R. P. (2014). Private prisons: Myths, realities & educational opportunities for inmates. Saint Louis University Public Law Review, 33(1), 415–428.
Peer 2 Akayla
I think the privatization of prisons is not necessarily a good thing,…
People have a variety of motives for doing service work. Kymlicka (n.d.) outlines two views of why people perform service work, one being that service work is a duty, and the other being that service work is a gift, in other words a noble exercise. The roots of the duty position are with the principles of social justice, mainly that service work is performed because it is one’s duty, especially when one is more fortunate. Justice, in that view, is a matter of outcomes, and it is up to each individual to ensure that outcomes are just for as many members of society as possible.
The other view, that service work is a gift, Kymlicka claims is rooted in virtue, in the sense that one can gain virtue through the performance of this work. The disparity of outcomes in this view is natural, but one with means can nevertheless improve…
Cohen, G. (no date). Justice and inequality: The incentives argument.
Kymlicka, W. (no date). Altruism in philosophical and ethical traditions: Two views.
Mulhall and Swift (no date). The basics of justice as fairness.
University of Toronto psychology professor and practicing clinical psychologist Jordan Peterson has received far more media notoriety for his outspoken beliefs on the exercise of free speech and on conventional morality. His best-selling book 12 Rules for Life: An Antidote to Chaos likewise propelled the professor to pop psychology fame, diminishing somewhat Peterson’s credibility as an expert in his field or as an astute academic in spite of the fact that he has in fact published hundreds of papers in peer-reviewed journals (“About Jordan Peterson,” 2019). Moreover, Peterson continues to garner considerable attention on the speaking circuit and retains his Professorial post at the reputable University of Toronto.
In 2018, Peterson released his second general audience publication: the book Maps of Meaning: The Architecture of Belief. In this book, Peterson veers from the realm of pop psychology to tackle the philosophical conundrums he has concerned himself in more…
“About Jordan Peterson,” (2019). Jordan Peterson. https://www.jordanbpeterson.com/about/
Goldsbie, J. (2018). When your psychologist goes viral. Canadaland Show. https://www.canadalandshow.com/how-jordan-petersons-fame-affected-his-private-practice/
Haller, D.K., Fischer, P. & Frey, D. (2018). The power of good. Frontiers in Psychology 02 July 2018 | https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01094
Lindsay, D., Watola, D.J. & Lovelace, J. (2018). Why negative leadership matters. http://www.inovlider.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/Negative-Leadership.pdf#page=31
McQuigge, M. (2019). Cambridge University cancels fellowship offer for Jordan Peterson. HuffPost. https://www.huffingtonpost.ca/2019/03/21/cambridge-university-cancels-fellowship-offer-for-jordan-peterson_a_23698206/?utm_hp_ref=ca-jordan-peterson
Reh, S., Van Quaquebeke, N. & Giessner, S.R. (2015). Leader charisma. Paper presented at the Academy of Management Annual Meeting 2015, Vancouver, CA, August 7th – 11th.
Shakeri, S. (2019). Jordan Peterson book pulled from Whitcoulls shelves after Christchurch mosque attacks. HuffPost. https://www.huffingtonpost.ca/2019/03/22/jordan-peterson-book-pulled-from-whitcoulls-shelves-after-christchurch-mosque-attacks_a_23698846/?utm_hp_ref=ca-jordan-peterson
Thagard, P. (2018). Jordan Peterson’s flimsy philosophy of life. Psychology Today. https://www.psychologytoday.com/ca/blog/hot-thought/201802/jordan-peterson-s-flimsy-philosophy-life
The form of oppression and discrimination discussed in Unit 2 is mental health problems among veteran are further compounded by other problems such as financial difficulties, joblessness, marriage problems, social isolation, and homelessness (Smith et al., 2017). These problems are major risk factors for suicide and substance abuse. The federal policy from the Library of Congress that relates to this social justice is the Affordable Healthcare Act.
Include a description of the programs and services that are provided through the policy. What is the purpose of this policy? What problem does it seek to remedy?
The Affordable Care Act is also referred to as the health care law and was established with the main purpose of providing more Americans with greater accessibility to affordable health insurance, enhancing the quality of health care and health insurance, and also diminishing health care spending in the in the United States. Basically, its main…
No Justice, No Peace
In Z-Ro’s “No Justice No Peace,” the hip hop artist states, “No justice, no peace
It's us against police. Every time I turn around they shoot another brother down.” The argument made by the artist is that police brutality and oppression is marginalizing African-Americans and making them fearful of the law—which to them represents white rule, white power, and white aggression. The artist, like all hip hop artists, is coming from a traditional of criticism against Jim Crow: his descendents are men like Malcolm X and MLK, Jr., Ice Cube, and Tupac Shakur. Z-Ro’s words echo with all the history of those stories and more rolled into a monumental protest anthem. It is an anthem that many can understand. However, there is also a racial component to it that disqualified anyone who is not African-American from identifying with the song. For instance, others who are white…
Martin Luther King Jr.
The author of this document proposes to write a paper about the life and works of Martin Luther King Jr. It will specifically evaluate the merits of his integrationist works which he foisted upon the nation in the name of civil rights. This topic satisfies the requirement for this research paper in a number of ways. Firstly, it is predicated on one of the five historic ethnic minority groups that are the focus of the class for which this paper is written. Martin Luther King Jr. was widely hailed as a champion of African-Americans. He labored hard to attain civil rights for this group of people. One of the primary ways that he sought to achieve this objective was through the integration of African-Americans with Caucasians.
Secondly, the actions of King Jr. are in accordance with the requirements for action that are a part of this…
Du Bois, William. The Souls of Black Folk. New York: Barnes & Noble Classics, 2003.
Haley, Alex. The Autobiography of Malcolm X. New York: Ballantine Books, 1964.
King Jr., Martin Luther. Letter from a Birmingham Jail. www.africa.upenn http://www.africa.upenn.edu/Articles Gen/Letter Birmingham.html 1963.
Knowledge & Power in Education
When it comes to the educational system of the United States, it is clear that there are a number of factors and facets that influence and bounce off of each other. Whether it be knowledge, power or how both of the former influence the stratifications that are seen along racial and class/socioeconomic lines, it is clear that there are some powerful yet sometimes nefarious forces at work. The ideas and theories surrounding these topics shall be the focus of this brief literature review. ather than just being a summary of the sources covered, there shall also be some analysis. While race and class relations are better in many respects, there are still some glaring problems that still fester and manifest.
Summary & Analysis
The first source consulted for this report cites a "diversity paradox" that has seemingly arisen. It refers to the commonly known paradigm…
Cousins, L., Mickelson, R., Williams, B., & Velasco, A. (2017). Race and Class Challenges in Community Collaboration for Educational Change. School Community Journal, 18(2), 29-
El-Haj, T. (2006). Race, Politics, and Arab-American Youth. Educational Policy, 20(1), 13-34.
S. Bishop, and the establishment of an economy that supports such principles and efforts to bring them about in a practical and direct manner is not only an issue of social importance but also of religious merit (Mahony 2007). For immigrants, minority groups, and other disadvantaged populations, the social justice that is demanded by Catholic theology must be built on a solid economic foundation. If people are used in service to the economy, they will necessarily be exploited and issues of social justice will only worsen; if instead the economy is used to serve the people that comprise it, the needs of social justice will almost automatically be met, and greater equality will prevail (USCB 1986; Mahony 2007).
A just economy also necessarily entails a similar preferential treatment of the underdog in regards to the environment, according to other comments made by prominent United States' bishops (U.S. Conference of Catholic…
Mahony, R. (2007). "The Challenge of "We the People" in a Post-9/11 World: Immigration, the American Economy and the Constitution." Accessed 13 May 2010. http://www.usccb.org/mrs/templeton.shtml
US Catholic Bishops. (1986). "Pastoral Letter on Catholic Social Teaching and the U.S. Economy." Accessed 13 May 2010. http://www.osjspm.org/economic_justice_for_all.aspx
US Conference of Ctaholic Bishops. (1991). "Renewing the Earth." Accessed 13 May 2010. http://conservation.catholic.org/u_s_bishops.htm
Ethic Identity: Social Justice Affirmation Difference Social Transformation Critical eview Essay approximately
Follow the Leader: Liberalism and Individuality
One of the central tenets to be found in Kwame Anthony Appiah's non-fictional manuscript entitled The Ethics Of Identity is a preoccupation with individuality, as it relates to the forming of one's identity. This concern for individualism is one of the primary themes of liberalism, which was initially championed by John Stuart Mill and may be evidenced by the author's work entitled On Liberty. Subsequently, Appiah's aforementioned book deals with several questions regarding individuality -- such as how this concept fits into the overall scheme of multiculturalism, as well as how it relates to the idea of being inherently Western. However, it would greatly appear that these questions regarding the importance of individualism are relatively small in comparison to the larger issue at hand which liberalism deals with -- which is an…
Appiah, K.A. (2005). The Ethics of Identity. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Benhabib, S. (2002). The Claims of Culture: Equality and Diversity in the Global
Era. Princeton: PrincetonUniversity Press.
Michaels, W.B. (2006). The Trouble with Diversity: How We Learned to Love Identity and Ignore Inequality. New York: Metropolitan Books.
Health and Social Justice Issue in Saharan Country
Mali occupies the fourth position among the poorest nations of the world. Mali is still plagued by a multitude of financial tribulations with an economy in shambles, the country's liability approximately equivalent to its GDP, at the mercy of the international donor groups, insufficient revenues of the state exchequer and pressure from various coterie groups voicing their demands. (Mali Human ights Practices: U.S. Department of State, 1994) However, at the same time it a nation that boasts of a rich and hoary tradition. It is popular as a country marked by its multihued varied populace and harmonic tunes. Currently, it is confronted with a massive menace like AIDS, Noma and a host of tropical diseases. Mali has the world's lowest adult literacy rate of less than 25%. The country's education system is inadequately formed, especially at the primary stage. A United Nations…
Condom Vending Machine. (March 01, 2004) "Mali, AIDS and Condoms" Initial Research Report. Retrieved at http://dtm.media.mit.edu/dtm/dtm04/projects/condom/archives/000145.html. Accessed on 11 July, 2004
Dao, S. (Jan 7-8, 2004) "HIV Treatment in Mali, PNLS/GAIA" AIDS Vaccine Conference, Bamako, Mali.
Johnston, Timothy; Faure, Sheila Dohoo; Raney, Laura. (June 1998) "The World Bank and the Health Sector in Mali" Report No. 18112.
Mahe A; Prual A; Konate M; Bobin P. (Sep-Oct, 1995) "Skin Diseases of Children in Mali: A Public Health Problem" Tropical Medical Hygiene. Volume: 89: No: 5; pp: 467-70
Aboriginal people are the Indians who live in Canada. Over the years, they have been characterized by poor living conditions, low social status, poverty, discrimination, and social injustices. Government organizations should be on the front ensuring proper treatment and social justice for the Aboriginal people. ed Cross is an example of non-profit organization, which seeks to improve the status of the Aboriginal people, regardless of their social status and with equal treatment to all, as discussed in the paper.
Non-profit organization aims at providing services to the public, while profit organizations aim at profit maximization. Public interest comes first, for the non-profit organization, rather than their interests. The ed Cross is recognized as the non-profit organization, and it is chartered by the U.S. congress. It provides services worldwide, and the general population during times of disaster and the workforce is predominantly volunteers.
ed Cross society
Nonprofit organizations have to be…
Journal of Education Controversy:. (1997). The Give Away Spirit.
Australia, N.L. (1992). Australian Public Affairs Information Service. Australia: National Library of Australia.
Ciconte, B.J. (2011). Fundraising Basics: A Complete Guide. Atlanta: Jonnes and Bartlett Learning.
Crooks, C.T. (2007). Engaging and Empowering Aboriginal Youth. Chicago: Trafford Publishing.
Counseling for Multiculturalism and Social Justice
One interesting theme which emerges in the book Counseling for Multiculturalism and Social Justice: Integration, Theory, and Application is the idea that the multicultural and social justice perspectives counselors may adopt are not necessarily synonymous. Although multiculturalism may stress the need to take into consideration a counseling subject's unique needs, including the fact that the client comes from a more collectivist culture, the social justice perspective emphasizes the need for change and dynamism in society and ensuring fairness for the client in frequently unfair situations. The social justice may challenges some of the client's deeply-held social assumptions and force the client out of his or her comfort zone. The counselor must weigh the need to be sensitive and not impose a particular worldview on the client with an accurate view of the client's situation.
It is true that multiculturalism and the social justice perspective…
Ratts, M. & Pederson, P. (2014). Counseling for multiculturalism and social justice: Integration, theory, and application. Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.
Community and Social Justice
Since the establishment of the Organization of African Unity (OAU), it has continued to be engaged with human rights as proven by the struggle for decolonization, self-determination, and independence of the African continent. Embodied with this, obviously, is the fact that those fighting and agitating for independence sought human right principles to justify their struggle because colonialism disregarded human rights of the colonized persons. In contrast to the OAU, the African Union (AU) made human rights an explicit component of its obligation as encoded in its Act and human rights in its mainstream programs and activities. However, with no doubt, the current approaches require strengthening with a perspective of creating a holistic, integrated and comprehensive methodology to ensure respect for all human rights.
OAU to AU: An overview
The OAU charter is grounded on the principle of non-interference and state sovereignty. It stipulates the battle for…
Bachir, S. (2009). Individual, Community, and Human Rights: a lesson from Kwasi Wiredu's philosophy of personhood. Transition, Issue 101, 2009, pp. 8-15 (Article) Published by Indiana University Press.
Diagne, S.B. (2010). Islam and open society: Fidelity and movement in the philosophy of Muhammad Iqbal. Dakar: CODESRIA.
Harris, G. (2009). Organization of African Unity. Oxford, England: Clio Press.
Nmehielle, V.O. (2011). The African human rights system: Its laws, practice, and institutions. The Hague [u.a.: Nijhoff.
Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi: Education and Social Justice
Johann Pestalozzi: A commitment to social justice and education
Born in Zurich, Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi (1746-1827) was a Swiss educator and an education reformer who believed that poor children had a right to education, and emphasized that teachers should use methods that were bound to strengthen the students' abilities. Bruhlmeier (2010) refers to him as the most popular educational reformer in the world. Having had a troubled childhood filled with family turbulence, it is inspiring how Pestalozzi beat the odds to become the most widely acclaimed teacher of his time.
The most important aspect of Johann Pestalozzi was his "Pestalozzi method," which he developed after numerous experiments and first used in the school of Yverdon. According to Bruhlmeier (2010), he believed that children learnt better through activities and they understood better when they followed their own interest and drew their own experiences. Pestalozzi…
Bruhlmeier, A. (2010) Head, Heart, and Hand: Education in the Spirit of Pestalozzi. Cambridge: Open Book Publishers CIC Ltd.
Kaepernick Nike Ad
Colin Kaepernick, the former pro-football quarterback, has become the face of Nike in a new controversial campaign that has aimed to leverage Kaepernick’s status as an anti-establishment, counter-culture hero of social justice. Kaepernick, who became famous for being the first to “take a knee” during the national anthem sung before kickoff, soon found himself unemployed by the NFL (an organization he thereupon sued for discrimination). By trying to draw attention to social injustice during a particularly turbulent time in recent years when the Black Lives Matter organization got underway in response to a rising perception of police assaults on the black community, Kaepernick became a pariah in the corporate NFL world. Nike, however, like many other professional athletes—from LeBron James to Tom Brady (ESPN; Sanchez)—has shown support for the message that Kaepernick was trying to communicate. Nike has even gone a step further and tried to capitalize…
Improving social justice for women has been identified as one of the building blocks of social change. Population control, education, and the eradication of domestic violence are all interlinked. "UNICEF estimates that worldwide, some 117 million school-aged children do not attend school, 62 million of them girls. Attendance rates are lowest in sub-Saharan Africa, where only 57% of girls are in school, and just 15% of these go on to secondary school" (About us, 2011, Women's global education fund). Women's education is not simply a feminist issue. Higher rates of female education are linked to lower birth rates and better health outcomes for children as well as women.
Women who are educated are more empowered to take control over family planning and have more resources to take care of the children they do have. "Educated mothers limit their families," says Dr. Yasmin aashid, a leader in obstetrics and…
About us. (2011). Women's Global Education Project.
Retrieved August 23, 2011 at http://www.womensglobal.org/About%20Us/about.html
Domestic violence. (2011). American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG).
Retrieved August 23, 2011 at http://www.acog.org/publications/patient_education/bp083.cfm
Social work history displays that the desire of social justice is both a task and a myth for employees and their immediate predecessors in organizations. This study provides a critical analysis of Janet Finn's and Maxine Jacobson's work titled "Just Practice." The great focus is on the first and the third chapter where their contributions and critical omissions are identified. Finn and Jacobson have worked hard to illustrate the historical development of social work, which was largely premised on charity for the poor (Finn, & Jacobson, 2003). In both chapters, they have elaborated in length on how social work came into being. Ideally, social work history revolves around the industrial revolution and the way the rise of capitalism created a gap between the rich and the poor. In the first chapter, the role of Charity Organization Societies and Settlement House Movement as the pioneers of social work has been elucidated…
Barusch, A.S. (2009). Foundations of social policy: Social justice in human perspective. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Finn, J.L., & Jacobson, M. (2003). Just practice: a social justice approach to social work. Peosta, Iowa: Eddie Bowers Pub. Co..
Leiby, J. (1978). A history of social welfare and social work in the United States. New York: Columbia University Press.
Lundy, C., & Lundy, C. (2011). Social work, social justice, & human rights: A structural approach to practice. North York, Ont: University of Toronto Press.
Vatican II, officially known as the Second Vatican Council, was a meeting of many leaders of the Catholic Church to discuss both theological and social issues pertaining to the Church in the modern era. Convened by Pope John XXIII in the 1960s and continued by his successor Paul VI, the main goal of the Second Vatican Council was to establish the Church's role and meaning in the modern world, which it recognized as fundamentally changed from the role of the Church in previous eras. Many different topics of concern were examined during the many phases of Vatican II, and the Council produced a number of documents on these varying subjects that help to define Church doctrine and perspectives on the modern world. When it comes to the social thought and action of the Catholic Church following Vatican II, one of the most important documents produced by the Council…
Social workers often have commitments to specific policies, laws, or funding of programs that are vital to the population they serve or an issue that they strongly support. Such commitments often lead social workers to become involved in political issues and the campaigns of specific candidates. Being a social worker, such campaign experiences, the outcomes of your efforts, and how effective you felt you were may affect your view of the political process and the likelihood of becoming involved in similar campaigns in the future. Social workers' involvement in political advocacy is usually influenced by the impact of politics on social work practice. Through advocacy and lobbying in the political arena, social workers seek to promote changes in legislation and policy to enhance social conditions and promote social justice towards meeting basic human needs. In essence, social workers' participation in political advocacy is geared towards protecting individuals' rights and enhancing…
Concluding in Political moderation, in "A Theory of Justice," and in later works, John awls explains a comprehensive, as well as influential theory, which is on the subject of, presenting a theory of justice in concurrence with the liberal-democratic passion that relates to the rights and freedoms of individuals in society. It entails that the rights of the individuals ought to be moderated by various types of clauses, making certain that no social or natural eventualities are overlooked. The theory declares that no inborn benefits of political authority, substance riches or natural capability should irreversibly or overpoweringly establish life chances. Furthermore, more distinctively, these morally subjective issues should not establish the value of political liberties to moral persons (1).
In 1971, awls's explains his first articulation of his theory of justice which highlights on individual abilities that he entitles the "Original Position" and in addition, a model of…
1). Macedo, Stephen. April 1995. Liberal Civic Education and Religious Fundamentalism: the Case of God v. John Rawls. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Pp.468 -496.
2). Carter, Stephen. 1987. Evolutionism and Treating Religion as a Hobby. Duke Law Journal.
3). Rawls, John. 1993. Political Liberalism. New York: Columbia University Press.
4). Kenneth Baynes. 1992. The Normative Grounds of Social Criticism: Kant, Rawls, Habermas, Albany. Suny Press.
(2004) Intent and Ordinary Bias: Unintended Thought and Social Motivation Create Casual Prejudice. Social Justice esearch, Vol. 17 Issue 2, p117-127, 11p. etrieved July 7, 2009 from EBSCO online database http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=s8h&AN=13079636&loginpage=Login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Henry, P.J. And Hardin, C. (2006). The Contact Hypothesis evisited. Status Bias in the eduction of Implicit Prejudice in the United States and Lebanon. Association of Psychological Science. Vol.1-7 -- Number 10. etrieved July 7, 2009 from EBSCO online database http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rst&AN=23000285&loginpage=Login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Mandel, I. (2009). Cultural Prejudice & Discrimination. esearch Starters Sociology, 2009, p1-6, 6p. etrieved July 7, 2009 from EBSCO online database http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rst&AN=36267911&loginpage=Login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Pearson, A., Dovidio, J., & Pratto, F. (2007).acial Prejudice, Intergroup Hate, and Blatant and Subtle Bias of Whites toward Blacks in Legal Decision Making in the United States. International Journal of Psychology & Psychological Therapy, 2007, Vol. 7 Issue 2, p145-158, 14p. etrieved July 8, 2009 from EBSCO online database Full Text http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=s8h&AN=27747337&loginpage=Login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site
amasubramanian, S. &…
Fiske, S. (2004) Intent and Ordinary Bias: Unintended Thought and Social Motivation Create Casual Prejudice. Social Justice Research, Vol. 17 Issue 2, p117-127, 11p. Retrieved July 7, 2009 from EBSCO online database http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=s8h&AN=13079636&loginpage=Login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Henry, P.J. And Hardin, C. (2006). The Contact Hypothesis Revisited. Status Bias in the Reduction of Implicit Prejudice in the United States and Lebanon. Association of Psychological Science. Vol.1-7 -- Number 10. Retrieved July 7, 2009 from EBSCO online database http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rst&AN=23000285&loginpage=Login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Mandel, I. (2009). Cultural Prejudice & Discrimination. Research Starters Sociology, 2009, p1-6, 6p. Retrieved July 7, 2009 from EBSCO online database http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rst&AN=36267911&loginpage=Login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site
In this way, members of the public most in need of legal aid are provided with counsel that can help them achieve justice instead of losing their life savings on services that nevertheless results in failure. The IOLTA Comparability Rule therefore serves an important function in terms of legal justice that truly extends to all citizens of the country.
In conclusion, it has been seen above, that the definition of the justice concept is often in conflict depending upon the viewpoint from which it is considered. At the bottom line is the fact that American citizens should not be forced to allow those in political or financial power to victimize or discriminate against them. Justice in conflict is served only if due consideration is given to all parties and all sides involved. Despite the often problematic issues involved, the phrase "justice for all" is one of the cornerstones of American…
Bednar, Joseph (2007, Apr 2). Justice for All. BusinessWest. Database: FindArticles.com. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa5286/is_200704/ai_n21235376
The Daily Record, Baltimore. (2007, Oct. 9). Comparable rates on IOLTA: A step toward justice for all. Database: FindArticles.com:
Wildman, Sarah. (2004, Dec. 21). George W. Bush has a very clear position on what makes good judges. The Advocate. Database: FindArticles.com: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1589/is_2004_Dec_21/ai_n8706676
Tzu argues that strategy is important in that a successful general or leader can and will adapt to changing conditions on the battlefield, and that the art of war is more about adaptability and the risks and opportunities that come with the constant and dynamic nature of warfare than it is about careful planning and preparation. This is not to say that the latter two actions are useless, by Tzu sees more value in flexibility and cunning than he does in immobility and inflexibility.
Both works illustrate how personal and social justice differ from each other. They also point out that personal order is often a concept that lacks true definition, at least as time goes by. A successful person, whether in war or in their family life, learns to adapt to changing situations and scenarios, putting aside social order and justice in favor of a much more relevant, functional…
Sophecles. (458 BC). Electra.
Tzu, Sun. (5th century BC). The Art of War.
It would strive to minimize the pay and quality-of-life differential between the wealthiest individuals and the poorest, although it would permit whatever differential justified by the greater good served by certain professional commitments and responsibilities.
Rawls' ideas if incorporated into society would not compel any person to contribute to the greater good any more than he or she desired; they would simply impose mechanisms for distributing resources and potential rewards in the most socially beneficial and equitable manner. Industries that produce socially beneficial products and services that contribute to the greater good would be permitted to profit more from those endeavors than superfluous industries; physicians would be entitled to sufficient compensation and benefits to ensure against any shortage of physicians in society; and police officers and firefighters would earn more than professional athletes, although closer to several times the average wage in society instead of the equivalent of hundreds or…
"Many social decisions are, of course, of an administrative nature. Certainly this is so when it is a matter of social utility in what one may call its ordinary sense: that is, when it is a question of the efficient design of social institutions for the use of common means to achieve common ends" (Rawls, 1958 p187).
Rawls' ideas would seem to comport perfectly with the essential purpose of public administration services. In principle, the entire structure of modern administrative services in society is precisely to improve society and contribute to the public good much more efficiently and effectively than individual citizens could ever hope to, even in a collaborative effort. Granted, to a certain extent, Rawls' ideas could be seen as excessively constraining individual initiative and creativity; however, in the realm of public administration of social services and justice, they would greatly increase the quality of life and contribute to the greater good. Instead of the poorly motivated, apathetic attitudes frequently associated with civil service employment, Rawls' ideas would reward civil servants sufficiently to guarantee much greater commitment to their responsibilities.
Generally, modern public administration and civil service exemplify the very concepts emphasized by Rawls except that the pay differential between civil servants and employment in many areas of the private sector greatly detract from the communal spirit and cooperation that Rawls hoped to promote through his ideas. Ultimately, while some of the specific mechanisms suggested by Rawls' ideas may be impractical to impose on a free society, their general purpose is likely achievable to some degree simply by increasing awareness of some of the conceptual arguments.
Rawls sets out to propose a new theory, which he does by formulating two principles and "to show that the two principles of justice provide a better understanding of the claims of freedom and equality in a democratic society than the first principles associated with the traditional doctrines of utilitarianism, with perfectionism, or with institutionalism" (Rawls, Political Liberalism 292).
Nozick suggests an entitlement theory of justice that might seem to reflect the categorical imperative but which actually counters Kant's theory of property. John Rawls offered a revision of Kantian theory so it could be used as a grounding in ethical theory. Nozick also shows a strong commitment to prepolitical individual rights. He also recognizes that there are forces, including past injustices, which shape our holdings in society in various ways, raising the question of what ought to be done to rectify these injustices:
The general outlines of the theory of…
Nozick, Robert. Anarchy, State, and Utopia. New York: Basic Books, 1974.
Nozick, Robert. "The Entitlement Theory." In Morality and Moral Controversies, John Arthur (ed.), 253-259. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1996.
Olen Jeffrey and Vincent Barry. Applying Ethics. Boston: Wadsworth Publishing, 1996.
Rawls, John. Political Liberalism. New York: Columbia University Press, 1996.
Northrop Frye recognized this fact but believed that the satire missed its mark:
It completely misses the point as satire on the ussian development of Marxism, and as expressing the disillusionment which many men of good-will feel about ussia. The reason for that disillusionment would be much better expressed as the corruption of expediency by principle (Frye 1987, p. 10).
What links 1984 and Animal Farm most directly is that both are anti-utopian in nature, for Orwell had developed a certainty that government in a utopian society would always be corrupted and would lose sight of its principles because of expediency.
Animal Farm was written during World War II. There is evidence that he was planning a novel that would become 1984 even before he wrote Animal Farm, and there is a relationship between the two books that is not often noted:
The form each book took was very different,…
Brander, L. (1954). George Orwell. New York: Longmans, Green and Co.
Crick, B. (1986). The making of Animal Farm. In Critical Essays on George Orwell, B. Oldsey and J. Browne (eds.). Boston: G.K. Hall.
Frye, N. (1987). In George Orwell, H. Bloom (ed.). New York: Chelsea House.
Green, T.H. (1995). Liberal legislation and freedom of contract. In Sources of the Western Tradition, M. Perry, J.R. Peden, and T.H. Von Laue (eds.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Social workers try to help people make the most of their environment, their relationships, and any struggles they might have with money or family. A lot of social workers deal with people who face life-threatening circumstances, such as criminal activity or substance abuse. Other issues that social workers try to tackle are inadequate housing, unemployment, illness, disability, or difficulties around childbirth (Social Work Professions: Summary of the Social Worker Fields, 2010).
There are various social work specializations, but the larger categories include child, family, and school social workers, who provide social services and assistance to children and their families; medical and public health social workers who provide support for people with illnesses, such as Alzheimer's disease, cancer, or AIDS; mental health and substance abuse social workers who deal with people who struggle with psychological issues; and social workers who deal with the intricacies of social policy and planning (Social Work…
Social Work Practice. (n.d.). Retrieved August 31, 2010, from Web site:
Social Work Professions: Summary of the Social Worker Fields. (2010). Retrieved August 31,
2010, from Education Portal Web site: http://education-
Social Problem Related to Human Services
Social justice implies citizens’ equal entitlement to the self-same services and rights. In this paper, the inequalities in providing various human services to different societal groups in the nation will be addressed.
Beginning with education, a fundamental human service, it is a highly concerning fact that the nation’s educational system continually fails unwanted, abused and neglected children. Also, foster children totally at society’s mercy for survival are largely ignored. As children don’t have any avenue for voicing their views and demands, and cannot finance political campaigns, protest for improved services, or lobby elected representatives in order for being heard, it is the responsibility of society’s adults to speak for this faction of society. Attempts at organizing an effective child welfare system can be traced back to the late nineteenth century, when the nation’s contemporary system of foster care was established and Charles Loring Brace…
Part 5 -- Use of reframing
eframing refers to the manner in which something is said, or the actions one takes in introducing certain elements to clients -- perhaps a new way of looking at an old problem, of themselves, of a clinical issue. In the case of Mrs. O., we would ask that she look to the expansion of her universe through developing language abilities, or helping to find her translation assistance. The reframing stage would also be indicating that her cultural privacy issues about the effects of her medical problems might be contributing to her pain and suffering over them. Instead, reframing the issue would allow us to find a way to solve the problem, while still slowly moving within Mrs. O's comfort zone. eframing, in fact, is applicable when the fixed attitude constitutes a fundamental part of the issue -- in this case, a cultural…
Coady, N. And Lehman, P. (2008). Theoretical Perspectives for Direct Social Work Practice.
New York: Springer.
Cournoyer, B.R. (2008). The Social Work Skills Workbook. Belmont, CA: Thompson
One of the primary concerns was multicultural relationships -- the recognition that ethics were relative to specific cultures and that each culture had to be understood according to its own functions, has to be respected for what it is, and had to be addressed in light of its cultural history and practices so that its people could best be helped. Social work had come a long way from attempting to squeeze all citizens of America in the model of the 'perfect American' as it had done in the 1920s. Nowadays, it is well-recognized that immigrants have many problems that deter them from receiving the rights that all Americans should receive optimal beneficial medical care and healthy living accommodations. Suffering from handicapped language skills and ignorance about the ways of their new land, immigrants are often exploited by an unjust and insensitive system as well as by willful individuals. This is…
Chesney, A.P., Chavira, J.A., Hall, R.P., & Gary, H.E. (1982). Barriers to medical care of Mexican-Americans: the role of social class, acculturation, and social isolation. Med. Care 20, 883 -- 91
Raemer, F. (1998) The evolution of social work ethics Nat. Assoc. Of Social Workers.
On the other hand, one lesson of the Industrial Revolution is that human suffering and exploitation can never be used as a coin with which to pay for material progress or wealth. Likewise, the Industrial Revolution teaches that neither the welfare of the contemporary wealthy and fortunate, nor even the future well-being of subsequent generations is ever justified as the fruits of the suffering of other human beings.
In retrospect, the progression from agrarian to industrial economies need not have required the degree of suffering with which it was, unfortunately, associated, particularly in the nineteenth century. The best evidence for this proposition seems to be the efforts, most of which were successful, on the part of Bismark, in Germany, while workers suffered greater hardships, by comparison, in the rest of the newly industrialized world. Greed and callousness, is, unfortunately, characteristic of many elements of human life, which was not necessarily…
Burchell, S.D. (1968) Age of Progress.
Time Life: UK
Faissler, M., Hayes, C. (1966) Modern Times: Mainstreams of Civilization.
Macmillan: New York
I do not believe that this occurred because people became less concerned about the welfare of prisoners, or that America had simply become 'hardened' to the idea of trying to help people. I believe it merely came out of a frustration on the part of Americans who were desperate for an alternative that actually worked. Every night on the news, people are bombarded with story after story about criminal behaviors and growing crime rates, so it is entirely understandable that American's would throw their arms up in exasperation, and say 'let's try something else!' Frustration has always been a powerful catalyst for change, and the criminal justice system is no exception. But is this frustration the most powerful reason behind the replacement of the medical model with the justice model? Or is there something else that needs to be considered? Perhaps it was the war on drugs that drove this…
Barlow, D.E. & Barlow, M.H. (1993) Cultural diversity training in criminal justice: a progressive or conservative reform? Social Justice, 20 (3/4), 69-84.
Robinson, M.B. & Scherlen, R.G. (2007) Lies, damned lies, and drug war statistics: a critical analysis of claims made by the office of National Drug Control Policy. SUNY Press.
Sparks, R. (1996). Prison Histories: reform, repression and rehabilitation in E. McLaughlin and J. Muncie (eds) Controlling Crime, London: Sage for the Open University
Williams, V.L. (1996) Dictionary of American penology. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
" (Shiele, 2006) All of these are important yet they do not address the use of "the worldviews and cultural values of people of color as theoretical bases for new social work practice models" (Shiele, 2006) but instead hold the beliefs that: (1) that only White people - especially White men - have the ability and skill to develop theories and social work practice models; (2) that people of color, specifically African-Americans, lack the ability and skill to develop theories and social work practice models; (3) that the precepts of European-American culture are the primary, if not the only, precepts through which social problems can be analyzed and solved; and/or (4) that culture, and the internalization of culture by the theorist, has little or no effect on theory - that theory or theorizing is mostly or completely an objective activity." (Shiele, 2006)
Sohng, S. (2004). A brief overview of…
Sohng, S. (2004). A brief overview of contemporary theories of social justice. Justice lecture notes October 04, pp. 1-13.
Rawls. J. (1997). Justice and Equity, in L. Pojman & R. Westmoreland (Eds), Equality: Selected Readings (pp.183-190). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Reisch, M. (2002). Defining social justice in a socially unjust world. Families in Society: The Journal of Contemporary Human Services, 83, 343-354.
Isbister, J. (2001). Capitalism and justice, Chapter 1 and 2 (pp. 3-29). Bloomfield, CT: Kumarian Press.
Social equity is a key issue of public administration and forms the basic theme of the 2013 "Social Equity Leadership Conference," in June. This white paper discusses the key goals of the conference based on the conference issue for social equity as global engagement and local responsibility. These are the issue facing social equity among domestic and global public leaders in public and private agencies in the education, immigration, transportation, environmental, policing and corrections sectors. A review of theories on public administration identifies that public leadership networking, collaboration, and cooperation with leaders and agencies is necessary. This is associated with public leadership practices like public policy development, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation, social equity, and public advocacy.
Globally Engaged, Locally esponsible: New Challenges for Social Equity
Emerging Issues in Social Equity and Leadership Covered in the Conference:
2. Policing and corrections
3. At risk communities, which…
Brian, A.E., & Adam, J.N. (2010). Building the reservoir to nowhere: The role of agencies in advocacy coalitions. Policy Studies Journal, 38(4), 653-678.
Buss, T.F. & Morse, R.S. (2008). Innovations in Public Leadership Development. Armonk, New York; M.E. Sharpe, Inc.
Candler, G., & Dumont, G. (2010). The price of citizenship: Civic responsibility as the missing dimension of public administration theory. Public Administration Quarterly, 34(2), 169-201.
Cichocki, D., Laberschek, M., & Rusanowska, M. (2011). Analysis of strategy of culture development in krakow 2010-2014 as an example of public policy implementation. Zarzadzanie Publiczne, 13(1), 103-115.
Justice, political philosopher John Rawls looks at the idea of social justice and the individual rights of the individual by redefining the last 200+ years of the American experience. In general, he looks at the manner in which the Founding Fathers were correct by basing their views on previous social contract theorists like Locke and Rousseau. For example, there is a clear linkage between John Locke and Rawls that validates the ideas of liberalism within American society. In fact, Rawls notes that the American Experience extended the concept of justice far beyond hat any of the Enlightenment philosophers ever hoped (Rawls, 1957).
Rawls (1921-2002), an American philosopher who focused on moral and political philosophy, believed that the principles of justice are the models that rational individuals who are free would choose as basic ways to cooperate within their society. He called this position the original position, in that it was…
Kamm, F. (2007). Intricate Ethics: Rights, Responsibilities and Permissible Harm. New York: Oxford University Press.
Rawls, J. (1957). Justice as Fairness. Philosophical Review. 54 (22): 653-62.
Rawls, J. (1999). A Theory of Justice. Boston, MA: Harvard University Press.
Rawls, J. (2001). A Theory of Justice. New York: Oxford University Press.
social work beyond U.. Borders?
Whilst it is true that each country and region may have its own concept of justice and ways of doing things, and that the Western concepts of justice and its norms, are inapplicable to a different country, nevertheless there are some human rights issues that transcend countries and boundaries. These human rights issues can only be recognized if one takes a transcendental stance compared to a narrow stance. It is by recognizing existence of these human rights issues that America can transcend its national limited perspective and involve itself too in a social work pose that effects international concerns and involves itself with concerns and obligations that transcend borders.
In another way, also, the U.. is never separate from social work issues that occur outside its perimeters. Immigrants from other countries seek refuge in the U.. On a continuous basis. Even immigrants who do not…
Childs, JB Red Clay, Blue HILLS, in honor of my ancestors.
Universal declaration of human rights pdf.
Racism, nativism, and exclusion: Public policy, immigration, and the Latino experience in the United States. Journal of Poverty 4, 1-25.
Shacknove, a. (January 1985). Who is Refugee? Ethics 95, 274-284.
Said, E. (1993) Culture and imperialism. www.zmag.org/zmag/articles/barsaid.htm.
Platt, a.M., & Cooreman, J.L. (2001). A multicultural chronology of welfare policy and social work in the United States. Social Justice 28, 91-137.
Reisch, M. (1998). The sociopolitical context and social work method, 1890-1950. Social Service Review, June, 162-181.
Carlton-LaNey, I., & Hodges, V. (2004). African-American reformers' mission: Caring for our girls and women. Affilia, 19, 3, 257-272.
Gordan, L. (2002). If the Progressives were advising us today, should we listen? Journal of the Guilded Age and Progressive Era 1, 1-8.
Gordan, L. (1991). lack and white women's visions of welfare: Women's welfare activism, 1890-1955. Journal of American History, Sept. 559-590.
Williams, L.F. (2003). An assult on white privilege: civil rights and the…
Takaki, R. (1993). A different mirror. In a different mirror: A history of multicultural America (pp 1-170. New York, NY: Little, Brown & Company.
Kilty, K., & Haymes, M. (2000). Racism, nativism, and exclusion: Public policy, immigration, and the Latino experience in the United States. Journal of Poverty 4, 1-25.
Shacknove, a. (January 1985). Who is Refugee? Ethics 95, 274-284.
Said, E. (1993) Culture and imperialism. www.zmag.org/zmag/articles/barsaid.htm.