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This article influenced me in showing the importance of religion in curbing alcohol. It is likely that religion could serve as buffer against other addiction, too.
4. The aim of Menagi,
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=%22Harrell%20Z%22%5Buthor%5D Harrell, & June's (2008) study was to examine the association between alcohol use and religious and emotional/social support on a sample of 221 merican college students. uthors discovered negative correlation to exist between level of religion (i.e. religious dispositional coping and commitment) and between frequency and intensity of drinking. Social support played an insignificant role.
This article affected me in that it demonstrated the significance of religion as compared to the effect of social/emotional support. The authors' results are encouraging for an individual who lacks social support.
n article by any Preventive Medicine faculty member. (Rose, G. (2008). The strategy of preventative medicine. Rose's Strategy of Preventative Medicine, 33-35.
NE Noel's article with the title: Changes in substance…
Article using or referring to the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test or AUDIT (National Health Service, 2004): Reinert, D.F., & Allen, J.P. (2006). The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT): A Review of Recent Research, Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 26, 272-279.
Article showing a measure of perceived stress. Cohen, S., Kamarck, T., & Mermelstein, R. ( 1983). A global measure of perceived stress. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 24, 385-396
Jones, K.H.S., Jason E., Von Schantz, M., Skene, D.J., Derk-Jan D., & Archer, S.N. (2007). Age-related change in the association
The importance of social support as we age
Human beings are social animals who thrive in the presence of other people and need the company even more during the old age. It can be a challenge to maintain adequate social interaction with the old people yet inevitably there will be some old person who will need the social interaction.
As we grow up, the children go away for independent lives or get married elsewhere, the older people start to retire from their jobs hence will no longer be with the workmates or have access to the various social groups that they had in the previous times. This is when the loneliness sets in coupled with the inability to frequently travel, there comes isolation. It is for such realities that Americans need to know the significance of social support to the aged and how to give it or where…
Department of Development Services, (2010). Social Support Systems and Maintaining Mental Health. Retrieved May 24, 2012 from http://www.ddssafety.net/content/social-support-systems-and-maintaining-mental-health
Elizabeth Scott, (2010). The Value of All Types of Social Support. Retrieved May 25, 2012 from http://forum.psychlinks.ca/family-and-friends/22227-4-types-of-social-support.html
Harold L. Burke, (2009). Healthy Aging. Retrieved May 23, 2012 from http://www.brain-injury-therapy.com/articles/healthy_aging.htm
Stephanie K. Glassman, (2012). Benefits of Social Support. Retrieved May 24, 2012 from http://www.glassmanpsyd.com/benefits-of-social-support/
Social Support in Ensuring Successful Parenting
Social support is absolutely essential in ensuring successful parenting for both parents and children. This is a broad area of study, and there are an increasing number of research studies that are being conducted to support these findings. Types of support that have found to be instrumental in helping parents develop good nurturing and parenting skills include strong family support, social networking, and community support. Without the appropriate social supports in place, new parents, particularly young parents, are more likely to encounter problems that will negatively impact their ability to be successful parents. The likelihood of long-term negative effects on their children is increased as well, as the literature shows.
Family support is one of the most important structures that impact young parents, particularly mothers, in their parenting skills. Early parenthood brings with it a number of stresses, particularly for new parents who have…
Beeber L.S., and Miles M.S. (2003). Maternal mental health and parenting in poverty.
Annual Review of Nursing Research 21:303-31.
Carpiano, R.M. And Kimbro, R.T. (2012). Neighborhood social capital, parenting strain, and personal mastery among female primary caregivers of children. Journal of Health and Social Behavior 53(2):232-47.
Ceballo, R. And McLoyd, V.C. (2002). Social support and parenting in poor, dangerous neighborhoods. Child Development 73(4):1310-21.
In modern America, there is a sense of a child belonging to his or her parents, and it not being the right of anyone else to interfere or participate in the raising of this child. From this mindset is born the very distinct line drawn between the influences of peers and parents, because the parents are not involved in the lives of the other children and adolescents in the community. Likewise, a child's peers are often completely unfamiliar with his or her parents because of this removal. Perhaps if a stronger effort was made to create a community atmosphere where parents and peers were able to work together in more ways, and therefore a child could have complimentary influences from these two sources, rather than competing ones. A child should ideally be influences by his or her complete community environment, rather than having to determine if parents or peers will…
The author of this report has been asked to select and describe a certain healthcare population that resides within the United States. The author will speak to the support systems that may or may not exist for that population and how any lack thereof could lead to healthcare disparities and negative outcomes for that group. However, the author of this report will first generally explain how social support can contribute to positive healthcare outcomes in a population and how social exclusion of any sort could lead to the opposite. While people of most religions and racial/ethnic groups in the United States have good and strong support systems that assist in the improvement and upholding of good healthcare outcomes, there are some populations that are under-served and some specific racial/ethnic groups that have the proverbial deck stacked against them.
Generally speaking, groups that have broad social presence and…
AHRQ. 'Disparities In Healthcare Quality Among Racial And Ethnic Minority Groups | AHRQ Archive'. Archive.ahrq.gov. N.p., 2015. Web. 15 July 2015.
Keeling, D. 'Social Support: Some Pragmatic Implications For Health Care Professionals. - Pubmed - NCBI'. Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. N.p., 1996. Web. 15 July 2015.
UC Hospitals. 'Religious Beliefs Shape Health Care Attitudes Among U.S. Muslims - The University Of Chicago Medicine'. Uchospitals.edu. N.p., 2011. Web. 15 July 2015.
Social, Cultural, And Political Influence in Healthcare Delivery
Social, cultural, and political inequalities are detrimental to the health and healthcare system of the U.S. This is because the U.S. is one of the most multicultural, overpopulated, diverse and undergoing rapid economic growth. The federal government has embarked on efforts geared at addressing unsustainable costs of health care in the U.S. With the leadership of the current president, Barrack Obama, initiatives of containing health care costs will evaluate and explore strategies to contain the growing costs of health care based on a system-wide while enhancing the value and quality of health care (Ubokudom, 2012). The apparent system of health care is rife with opportunities of minimizing waste, delivering coordinated, effective care, and improving well-being and health of all Americans. The government in collaboration with care providers must prioritize cost effective containment strategies with the greatest possibility for political success and non-partisan…
Albrecht, G.L., Fitzpatrick, R., & Scrimshaw, S. (2013). Handbook of social studies in health and medicine. London: Sage Publications.
Armstrong, E.G. (2011). The health care dilemma: A comparison of health care systems in three European countries and the U.S. Singapore: World Scientific.
Bale, J.R., Stoll, B.J., & Lucas, A.O. (2013). Improving birth outcomes: Meeting the challenge in the developing world. Washington, DC: National academies press.
Buseh, A.G. (2008). Empowering resilience: Improving health care delivery in war-impacted African countries: a case study of Liberia. Lanham, Md: University Press of America.
Social Commerce in Saudi Arabia: How the Social Media Affect the E-Commerce in Saudi Arabia
SOCIAL COMMECE IN SAUDI AABIA
Conceptual Framework Model
Psychological Aspect and Theories
Digital Divide in Saudi Arabia
Ethos, eligious conviction, and Government in E-commerce Adoption
The ise of the P Industry in Saudi Arabia
Conceptual Model and esearch Hypothesis (Drawing)
Social Commerce in Saudi Arabia
Modern Saudi Arabia today actually represents an exceptional and convergent mixture of social conservatism and technological ability, a wonderful alteration from a remote, desert land that it was just something like 50 years ago. As social media is turning out to be increasingly prevalent in Saudi Arabia, online marketers are starting capitalizing in methods that service social media and include online customers. In Saudi Arabia Online marketers' adoption of new online marking trends is being prompted by discoveries that show individuals are spending great amounts…
Anderson, M. (2013). Turning "like" to "Buy" Social Media Emerges as a Commerce Channel. Booz & Company, 23-56.
Assad, S.W. (2009). The rise of consumerism in saudi arabian society. International Journal of Commerce & Management,, 73-104.
Bahaddad, A.A. (2013). Attracting customer in saudi arabia to buy from your business online. . International Journal of Business and Management, 65-81.
Brock, C. (2014). F-COMMERCE AND THE CRUCIAL ROLE OF TRUST. Online Communities and Digital Collaborations, 1-11.
Social Vulnerability Analysis
Compare and contrast your findings based on your research and provide a summary.
Describe the correlation between environmental and socioeconomic risk and vulnerability for the counties you selected. This is Part III of the Social Risks and Vulnerabilities Project. St. Lawrence County, New York State and Missoula County, Montana were chosen from the Hazard Vulnerability and Risk Institute web site because they have similar population size but are from different geographic regions (Northeast vs. Northwest).
The correlation between environmental and socioeconomic risk and vulnerability for St. Lawrence County, New York State and Missoula County, Montana
Lawrence County, New York State
Environmental risk factors include the accessibility and availability of tobacco which is higher here than in many other states in the U.S.A. . This makes it one of the places in New York that experiences a high level of lung and bronchus cancer. It has a rural…
Therefore, today's society in the United States is diverse, which is something a social worker needs to understand and know how to deal with each diverse group. Furthermore, through research, it has been discovered most ethnic groups that live in the United States consist of young people, which means by staying in this country, they grow accustom to their surroundings. Once they have grown accustom to living here, they feel like this is their home to start a life with their own families. This continues the growing number of ethnic groups in this country.
Due to the educational accommodations that schools and college campuses make for students that have ethnic backgrounds, there is not enough prejudice of one group to let a Holocaust to occur in the United Stated. Furthermore, this country believes in freedom of speech to allow one ethnic to be isolated from the rest and condone any…
Dennen, Johan. THE 'EVIL' MIND: PT. 3. CRUELTY AND 'BEAST-IN-MAN' IMAGERY. Retrieved March 30, 2008, from http://rechten.eldoc.ub.rug.nl/FILES/departments/Algemeen/overigepublicaties/2005enouder/EVIL_CRU/EVIL_CRU.pdf
Citrome, Lesilie,. (2007). Aggression. Retrieved March 30, 2008, from http://www.emedicine.com/med/topic3005.htm
Hall, Kathy Jo. (1997). Carl Rogers. Retrieved March 30, 2008, from http://aolsearch.aol.com/aol/search?query=Throughout+this+Jim+knocks+the+clay+figurines+head+of+and+crushes+the+body+while+shouting&invocationType=spelling
Seal, B., A. Bradford, and C. Meston. 2009. The Association Between Body Esteem and Sexual Desire Among College Women. Archives of Sexual Behavior 38, no. 5, (October 1): 866-72. http://www.proquest.com.library.capella.edu / (accessed April 1, 2010).
The GEMS effort was to create a social environment that encouraged healthy eating and exercise, and expanded health literacy in a fun manner, and was accessible to young girls.
It is easier to change health-related behaviors in the young, and the program tried to address the unique and often more acute problem of obesity in African-American young girls. The entire community and family units were incorporated into the program effort. Positive aspects of the African-American community, such as strong social support, were used by the study designers, also in line with social cognition theory. Existing support structures and social learning were combined: for example, the families in question were often not educated in how to properly read food labels, but once they were, the desire to help their daughters become healthier would hopefully reinforce the need to engage in proactive steps to improve dietary health. During Family Nights, families of…
Marvella E. Ford, Barbara C. Tilley, & Patricia E. McDonald. (1998). Social support among
African- American adults with diabetes. Journal of American Medicine. 90 (6) 361-365.
Retrieved July 9, 2010 at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2568240/pdf/jnma00165-0047.pdf
Story, Mary, et al. (2003, Winter). "An after-school obesity prevention program for African-
Grohol J. (2005). Attachment heory. Psych Central. Retrieved October 7, 2005 from the World Wide Web: http://psychcentral.com/psypsych/Attachment_theory
Psych Central is a web site which provides free mental health, support and psychology information and resources online since 1992. he site is clustered with numerous links to psychological issues and people related to this field. his article has been written by Dr. John Grohol who is a renowned psychologist and owner of this web portal. he article focuses on the theory of attachment explaining various behavioral patterns observed in the canvas of this theory.
Holmes, J. (1993). John Bowlby and Attachment heory. New York: Routledge.
Jeremy Holmes is a Consultant Psychiatrist/Psychotherapist in North Devon
District Hospital, Barn Staple, United Kingdom. He is also a visiting professor at Psychoanalysis Unit University College London. In this book, Jeremy Holmes provides a focused and coherent account of Bowlby's life and work, based on interviews with…
The web site is an online resource for various definitions and explanation of various terms used in the language. The site contains list of words which are distributed in titles or categories. It is a comprehensive portal of the language.
Pietromonaco P.R. And Barrett L. F, (2000). Attachment Theory as an Organizing Framework: A view from different levels of analysis. Review of General Psychology, 4, No 2,107-110.
Review of General Psychology is a quarterly journal and publishes new theoretical, conceptual, or methodological articles that focus on the traditional sub-disciplines of psychology. It is an approved journal of American Psychological Association (APA). The writers of the article are renowned psychologists. Paula R. Pietrornonaco is teaching at University of Massachusetts at Amherst and Lisa Feldman Barrett at Boston College. The article encompasses most of the aspects of the diverse theory of attachment from its evolution to its present day status.
Social Problem Related to Human Services
Social justice implies citizens’ equal entitlement to the self-same services and rights. In this paper, the inequalities in providing various human services to different societal groups in the nation will be addressed.
Beginning with education, a fundamental human service, it is a highly concerning fact that the nation’s educational system continually fails unwanted, abused and neglected children. Also, foster children totally at society’s mercy for survival are largely ignored. As children don’t have any avenue for voicing their views and demands, and cannot finance political campaigns, protest for improved services, or lobby elected representatives in order for being heard, it is the responsibility of society’s adults to speak for this faction of society. Attempts at organizing an effective child welfare system can be traced back to the late nineteenth century, when the nation’s contemporary system of foster care was established and Charles Loring Brace…
Social network mapping is one of the important aspects of an individual’s professional development in his/her career. Creating a social network map is important for professionals in clinical practice because clinical practitioners are increasingly realizing the significance of informal social support in their practice (Tracy & Whittaker, 1990). In essence, analysis of social support resources is necessary in identifying routine practices and assessment that are clinically beneficial. Consequently, several social network mapping techniques have been developed to help an individual assess his/her social and environmental resources (Tracy & Abell, 1994). Social network maps gather information regarding an individual’s social network in terms of size and composition, relationships, and frequency of contacts with others. This paper provides my social network map in relation to my clinical practice. It is divided into three major segments i.e. field work, map creation, and a portfolio.
I am currently working as a registered…
Social psychology is the study of human behavior in social situations, showing how social pressures and sociological variables can impact psychological phenomenon such as identity, motivation, personality, or behavior. A quintessential topic in the field of social psychology is bullying. Bullying can be studied from a public health perspective, showing how the external variables such as how a school is designed and the leadership and organizational culture of the school affects risk factors implicated in bullying behaviors or victimization patterns. Alternatively, bullying can be examined from a purely psychological perspective to reveal the factors implicated in aggressive physical or verbal behaviors or alternatively, to study victim characteristics or why some bystanders refuse to step in when they observe bullying behaviors. This latter issue links in with the social psychology approach. The social psychology of bullying examines factors like why some people perpetrate bullying behaviors due to their upbringing, their sense…
SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY AND WHAT DOES IT AIM TO STUDY?
Inspired by Kurt Lewin (1951), social psychology adopted the experimental method to study human behavior (Wood & Kroger, 1998). In this regard, Wood and Kroger (1998) report that, "Lewin's experiments in leadership style (autocratic, democratic, laissez-faire) became classics in the new experimental social psychology" (p. 267). Lewins' early work was carried on by Festinger and others who explored cognitive dissonance for the next 20 years at MIT and subsequently at the Universities of Michigan and Minnesota, making this one of the foundations of social psychology (Wood & Kroger, 1998).
Simply stated, social psychology uses the scientific method to study human social behavior (ogers, 2003). According to ogers, psychological social psychology "studies how social events and phenomena influence the ways in which individual people feel, think and act. It is concerned with the psychological processes (such as social perception and cognition) that…
Hayes, D. (2004). RoutledgeFalmer guide to key debates in education. New York:
Karakashian, L.M., Walter, M.I., Christopher, A.N. & Lucas, T. (2006). Fear of negative evaluation affects helping behavior: The bystander effect revisited. North American
Journal of Psychology, 8(1), 13.
These "interventions are strategies that target whole communities in order to build public resources and attend to the factors that contribute to child maltreatment" (Holzer et al. 2006 p 3). In NAPCAN's 2006 campaign, the organization was promoting parental education through social marketing. NAPCAN's campaign is directed at individuals in order to bring awareness of how their parenting can negatively impact their children.
One of the biggest strengths the campaign boasted was its price tag. The cost effectiveness of social media is a major strength to the overall campaign. Prevention programs are often less likely to be rigorously funded and supported by government agencies and institutions, with most funding coming only for short periods of campaign management (Tomison 1998). As a result, social media serves as an extremely beneficial platform because of its cost effective nature. The cost of the campaign is much less than other forms…
Barth, Richard P, 2009. Preventing child abuse and neglect with parent training: Evidence and opportunities. Future of Children, 19(2), 95-119.
Horsfall, Briony, Bromfield, Leah, and McDonald, Myfanwy, 2010. Are social marketing campaigns effective in preventing child abuse and neglect? National Child Protection Clearinghouse Issues, 32(2010), 1-28.
Holzer, Prue J., Higgins, Jenny R., Bromfield, Leah M., Richardson, Nick and Higgins, Daryl, 2006. The effectiveness of parent education and home visiting child maltreatment prevention programs. National Child Abuse Prevention Clearinghouse Issues, 24(Autumn 2006), 1-24.
Kaplan, Andreas M. And Haenlein, Michael, 2010. Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of social media. Business Horizons, 53(2010), 59-68.
ocial Work and Burnout
Providing psychiatric and other forms of social work has been the chosen field of many generations of social workers and a major source of services in mental health facilities. ince psychiatric services are a subset of a larger career field of the health care profession, when the definition of social worker was expanded to health care professionals, it can be understood that the issue of burnout in the health care fields is of increasing importance. The health care professional is responsible for the well-being of others, and when the health care worker spends their time and energy giving to the well being of others without monitoring, or attending to their own needs, not only is the health care worker affected, but so is the entire health care profession, and client base. This research is designed to investigate, and determine some of the factors which contribute to…
Spector, P.E., & O'Connell, B.J. (1994). The contribution of personality traits, negative affectivity, locus of control, and type A to the subsequent reports of job stressors and job strains. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 67, 1-12.
Ullmann, A., Goos, M., Davis, M., & Mushinski, M. (1971). Activities satisfaction and problems of social work in hospital settings: A comparative study. Social Service Review, 45, 17-29.
Weismann, C., Alexander, C., & Chase, G. (1980). Job satisfaction among hospital nurses: A longitudinal study. Health Services Research, 15, 341-364.
.....starting point for research, I am selecting Scenario Two: Police Interrogations and False Confessions. The reason why I am selecting scenario two is that I have some degree of familiarity with the subject, and am fascinated by the ways people behave under pressure from authority figures, particularly law enforcement. I am also interested in scenario three related to the psychological aspects of disaster preparedness, but am more interested and concerned with criminal justice generally. Therefore, I narrowed down my selection of the scenarios mainly because of personal interest and curiosity about the subject matter, which motivates my desire to conduct the research necessary to write a proposal and complete the report.
Scenario Two described involving false confessions raises several points about the ethics of criminal justice, and how officers lie in order to extract information from suspects or witnesses. That information should not be admissible in court but sometimes is…
Colic's (2005) argument is that there is a very strong correlation between porr housing and an individual's physical ill health. He goes further to point out that six out of every ten homeless individuals do suffer from a certain form of mental distress. About 20% of this lot have severe mental illness. In a nutshell, social exclusion gives rise to a direct form of social and economic consequences that include poor housing and limited financial resources.
Dunn (1999) studied the link between social exclusion and mental health. His concluded that the correlation was rather strong and was in congruence with what other authors have documented. It has been acknowledged that unemployment affects persons who have long-term mental disorders in a way that is far greater as compared to the other persons with disability. A total of only 13% are employed as opposed to the more than a third of individuals…
Burnett, R. (2004) To reoffend or not to reoffend? The ambivalence of convicted property offenders in Maruna and Immarigeon, After Crime and Punishment.
Burnett A and Peel M (2001) Health needs of asylum seekers and refugees British Medical
Journal 322:544-547 (link to www.bmj.com)
Colic, P., (2005). Refugees and Employment: The effects of visible difference on discrimination. Perth: Murdoch University Press.
social networking has in the last couple of years stirred a lot of debate among politician and scholars alike. The level of risks and benefits associated with social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter and MySpace especially to children and teenagers has elicited a mixed reaction among the debating parties. In this paper we present a systematic analysis of the implications of social networking sites for both children and teenagers with a sharp focus on Facebook. We also focus on the benefits as well as the issue surrounding the use of social networking sites by use of relevant illustrations. Overall, we evaluate how the use of computer technology has impacted the society in general and education in particular.
Definition of Social Networking
Several scholars have attempted to define the concept of social networking and its components. Boyd & Ellison (2007) define social networking sites as special web-based services that are…
Berkshire District Attorney. Sexting. Pittsfield, MA: Commonwealth of Massachusetts; 2010.
Availableonline at: www.mass.gov/?pageID_ berterminal&L_3&L0_Home&L1_Crime_Awareness_%26_Prevention&L2_Parents_
%26_Youth&sid_Dber&b_terminalcontent&f_parents_youth_sexting&csid_Dber. Accessed onApril 5, 2011
Tynes, BM (2007),Internet Safety Gone Wild? Sacrificing the Educational and Psychosocial
UK Children and Families
Homeless families are generally defined as adults with dependent children who are briefly accommodated by voluntary agency, local authority or housing association hostels in the United Kingdom (Vostanis 2002). They are taken in from a few days or several months, often four to six weeks and generally provided with bread and breakfast. Although this broad definition does not include children who have lost homes and live with friends and relatives, it is estimated that there are 140,000 such displaced families in the UK today. The average family consists of a single mother and at least two children. Trends show that these families become homeless again within a year from being housed by agencies. Domestic violence and harassment from the neighborhood are the most frequent cause behind their homelessness. The volume of homeless refugee families among them has dwindled in the late 90s, mostly confined in the…
1. Harrisona C. et al. (2001). Who is failing abused and neglected children? Archives of Disease in Childhood. http://www.fetalneonatal.com/cgi/content/full/85/4/300
2. Jackson, S (2001). Reducing risk and promoting resilience in vulnerable children. IUC Journal of Social Work, Journal Issue 4. Department of Social Relations and Services: Bemidji State University. http://www.bemidji.msu.edu/sw_journal/issue4/articles/jackson.html
3. Jowell, T et al. (1999). Lone parent families: routes to social inclusion. Gingerbread. http://www.gingerbread.org.uk/lprtsi.txt
4. Nixon, P. Family group conference connections: shared problems and joined-up solutions. International Institutes for Restorative Practices. http://iirp.org/library/vt/vt_nixon.html
multiple factors present influencing the client in the situation described, including social, environmental and psychosocial factors. The client Marvin is currently suffering from emotional, physical and educational neglect largely resulting from environmental factors but also social circumstances. Environmental factors contributing to his case include lack of proper housing and possible nourishment, a family history of substance abuse and poor living conditions. Both child and parent in this case lack adequate social support networks to work through their problems and deal with the stressors associated with their lifestyle.
The most pressing issue influencing the client's case in this case is environment. Child abuse is more frequently the result of environmental factors that include family, relatives and poverty as well as multiple social factors that predisposition a family to disadvantage (Gitterson, 2001). Marvin is a product or consequence of uncontrollable aspects of his environment. So to is his mother who has suffered…
Ivey, A. & Pederson, P.B. (1993). Culture-centered counseling and interviewing skills: A
practical guide. Westport: Praeger.
Gelles, R.J. & Lancaster, J.B. (1987). Child abuse and neglect: Biosocial dimensions.
New York: Aldine De Gruyter.
Optimism and Pessimism Relates to Stress and Coping with Cancer
An increasing amount of research links negative and positive emotional states to wellness or ill health. The negative or pessimistic emotions seem to have a negative effect on the immune system and on general health. Pessimism has been shown to be unhealthy and have adverse effects on health, including increasing the risk of cancer and preventing recovery from the disease. On the other hand, positive or optimistic emotions have been shown to strengthen immune function and bring good health. (Gillman, 1989)
There is a wealth of research that suggests optimism has a positive association with better mental and physical health, as well as coping with stress. Pessimism has been linked to a higher risk of death before the age of 65, while positive emotions, like optimism, are linked to lowered production of the stress hormone cortisol, better immune function, and…
Schultz, Richard. Bookwala, Judith, Scheier Michael. "Pessimism, Age, and Cancer Survival." Psychology and Aging, Vol. 11, No. 2, pp 304-309.
Brissette, I., Scheier, M.F., & Carver, C.S. (2002). The role of optimism and social network development, coping, and psychological adjustment during a life transition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82, 102-111.
Carver, C.S., & Scheier, M.F. (2001). Optimism, pessimism, and self-regulation. In E.C. Chang (Ed.), Optimism and pessimism: Implications for theory, research, and practice (pp. 31-51). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Gillman, Jane. The Science of Optimism and Hope: Research Essays in Honor of Martin E.P. Seligman. Templeton Foundation Press, 1999.
Date of Interview: April 25, 2014
Interview place: Chicago Southside Community Center
Tshe name of tshe individual in question is Miss Johnson, a woman of 40 years of age who went through a divorce six years ago. Miss Johnson lives in a house with sher parents and sher three children. Tshe house is big and spacious and tshe presence of tshe grandparents shelps in offering tshe children anotsher pillar of support and guidance.
Tsheir last known family doctor was Dr. A. obinson who had a practice located on Main Street.
Miss Johnson's ephone [HIDDEN]
Miss Johnson's Work Number: 773.867.3498
Grandparents's cell phone [HIDDEN] Miss
B. Person, Family and Household, and Community Systems
Miss Johnson describes himself as a single motsher; sshe talks very openly about feeling afraid of going off on sher own and occasionally will avoid eye contact. Miss Johnson appears to work hard at…
Anderson, D. (2011, June 1). Dating after Divorce. Retrieved from psychologytoday.com: http://www.psychologytoday.com/articles/200301/dating-after-divorce
Mayoclinic.org, 2013. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). [Online]
Available at: http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/post-traumatic-stress-disorder/basics/symptoms/con-20022540
[Accessed 25 April 2014].
Education: Social Foundation
Brown v. The Board of Education (1954) was a landmark ruling that not only marked the beginning of the era of desegregation in the school environment, but also served as a frontal attack on the practice and doctrine of white supremacy in the overall society. Many viewed it as a reprieve for the Black-American community, but as Justice William Douglas revealed in 1971, the de jure segregation ruling in Brown v. Board of Education was more than just a mere reprieve for blacks; it was a direct effort towards integrating the philosophies, policies, and cultures of different communities to make public education accessible to American Indians, Latinos, African-Americans, and Asian-Americans just as it was to whites. As it turns out, however, desegregation of public schools did not even come close to being the one-fits-all solution that many thought would address all the inequality concerns of minorities --…
Benton, M.A. (2001). Challenges African-Americans Face at Predominantly White Institutions. Colorado State University. Retrieved 28 January 2015 from http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/SAHE/JOURNAL2/2001/Challenges.htm
Boland, P. (2013). Catholic Education in the 21st Century. Journal of Catholic Education, 3(4), 508-520.
India Country Today Media Network. (2011). Foundation Helps Native American Students Overcome Education Challenges. India Country Today Media Network. Retrieved 28 January 2015 from http://indiancountrytodaymedianetwork.com/2011/11/30/foundation-helps-native-american-students-overcome-education-challenges-65093
Krogstad, J.M. (2012). One in four Native Americans and Alaska Natives are Living in Poverty. Pew Research Center. Retrieved 28 January 2015 from http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2014/06/13/1-in-4-native-americans-and-alaska-natives-are-living-in-poverty/
Client is an African-American male, age 19, diagnosed with Bipolar Disorder 1 (296.89), with mixed and psychotic features. Lability and mood cycles have become more rapid recently. Currently, the client is experiencing an acute but mild manic episode.
The client has no significant biological issues. As the first in his family known to have Bipolar Disorder, no genetic component to the disorder has been determined, but further work in a family therapy context might help determine if there are any biological risk factors. The client is physically healthy. He does not use drugs or alcohol, but tends towards a pattern of excessive denial.
Psychologically, the client struggles with low self-esteem, denial, and mood swings. Although the client reports strong and amicable relationships with family and friends, there may be little empathy from his closest relatives due to perceived stigma about bipolar disorder and lack of knowledge of the…
Balanza-Martinez, V., Lacruz, M. & Tabares-Seisdedos, R. (2015). Staging and early intervention in bipolar disorder. Chapter 15 in Neuroprogression and Staging in Bipolar Disorder. Oxford University Press.
CDC (2015). Burden of mental illness. Retrieved online: http://www.cdc.gov/mentalhealth/basics/burden.htm
Cipriani, A., et al. (2005). Lithium in the prevention of suicidal behavior. The American Journal of Psychiatry 162(10): 1805-1819.
Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance (DBSA, 2015). Bipolar disorder statistics. Retrieved online: http://www.dbsalliance.org/site/PageServer?pagename=education_statistics_bipolar_disorder
Social Media and Technology
The entire sphere of human interaction has undergone large-scale transformation as a result of the rapidly changing technological environment and the emergence of the internet. Back in the day, social interactions were primarily based on hand-written letters and occasional telephone conversations. Thanks to technological progression, however, numerous online communication platforms have been developed, and what we have now is an internet revolution and a totally new and dynamic realm of human interaction and long-distance communication. Currently, 73% of America's adult population, and 93% of the teen population uses social media platforms to communicate with family members and friends. Today, Facebook is home to more than 700 million users who can conveniently communicate with each other at the touch of a button without having to grapple with the time and space limitations that back in the day forced people to choose their partners and friends from their…
Anderson, T.L. & Emmers-Sommer, T.M. (2006). Predictors of Relationship Satisfaction in Online Romantic Relationships. Communication Studies, 57(2), 153-172.
Andon, S.P. (2006). Evaluating Computer-Mediated Communication on the University Campus: The Impact of Facebook.com on the Development of Romantic Relationships. The Florida State University Electronic Theses, Treatises and Dissertations. Paper 208. Retrieved 3 October 2014 from http://diginole.lib.fsu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=3729&context=etd
Baack, D., Fogliasso, C. & Harris, J. (2000). The Personal Impact of Ethical Decisions: A Social Penetration Theory. Journal of Business Ethics, 24(1), 39-49.
Babbie, E. (2010). The Practice of Social Research (12th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
Social Work Leadership Theories and Areas of Application
Leadership Theories - Servant
The philosophy and collection of practices constituting the 'servant leadership' style enrich people's lives, improve organizations and, eventually, foster a kinder and fairer world. While the concept is ageless, the coining of the term "servant leadership" is attributed to obert K. Greenleaf, who cites it in his 1970 essay, The Servant as Leader. In his paper, Greenleaf states that servant-leaders are, first, servants. Leadership starts with one's inherent wish to serve. Subsequently, conscious choice generates the aspiration to lead. Such an individual sharply differs from the person who is, first, a leader, probably because of the latter's desire to procure material wealth or satisfy an abnormal power drive. Therefore, servant-first and leader-first types are positioned at two extremities of the continuum of leadership styles. Between the two, an endless assortment exists, forming part of human nature's infinite variety.…
212 books. (2012, December 7). An Introduction to Organizational Communication. Retrieved from 212 Books: http://2012books.lardbucket.org/books/an-introduction-to-organizational-communication/s09-01-approaches-to-leadership.html
Bal, V., Campbell, M., Steed, J., & Meddings, K. (n.d.). The Role of Power in Effective Leadership. Center for Creative Leadership.
Chuang, S.-F. (2013). Essential Skills For Leadership Effectiveness In Diverse Workplace Development. Online Journal for Workforce Education and Development, 6(1).
Cowles, T. B. (2015, December 7). Ten Strategies for Enhancing Multicultural Competency in Evaluation. Retrieved from Harvard Family Research Project: http://www.hfrp.org/evaluation/the-evaluation-exchange/issue-archive/evaluation-methodology/ten-strategies-for-enhancing-multicultural-competency-in-evaluation
Social Cognitivism: Viewpoint Synthesis
Literature eview on Social Cognitivism
Theoretical Paper: Social Cognitive Theory of Personality by Albert Bandura
The core of the social cognitive theory is that through observation, learning occurs. This theory has several premises forming its foundation. Human beings are seen to learn when they participate in the observation process. A person who is a model, demonstrates a behaviour while the observer picks up this behaviour or learns it by seeing the model doing it. Albert Bandura, in his Social Cognitive Theory on personality, which is now known as the Social Learning Theory, states that there are many interactions of various elements such as people, the environment and behaviours when learning is taking place. Thus it takes place within a social setting (Bandura, 1999).
Purpose of the study
Bandura pursued various aims in this study. He looked at the behaviour of groups and individuals and…
Bandura A. (1989) Social Cognitive Theory. IN: Annals of Child Development (Vol 6, p1
60. (Vasta R, ed). Greenwich, CT: Jai Press LTD.
Bandura, A. (1986) Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory.
Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Social psychology is a very broad field that takes in the many varieties of group dynamics, perceptions and interactions. Its origins date back to the late-19th Century, but it really became a major field during and after the Second orld ar, in order to explain phenomena like aggression, obedience, stereotypes, mass propaganda, conformity, and attribution of positive or negative characteristics to other groups. Among the most famous social psychological studies are the obedience experiments of Stanley Milgram and the groupthink research of Irving Janus (Feenstra Chapter 1). Authority figures are very important in influencing the behavior and attitudes of groups, as advertising pioneers like Edward Bernays and Nazi propagandists like Josef Goebbels realized early in the 20th Century. Human beings naturally categorize others into groups, and attribute values, attitudes and stereotypes to them, while they also tend to favor members of their own group (Feenstra Chapter 2). Social psychologists have…
Arendt, Hannah. Eichmann in Jerusalem: A Report on the Banality of Evil. Penguin Books, 2006.
Cooper, S. "A Closer Look at Racial Profiling" in S.J. Muffler (ed). Racial Profiling: Issues, Data and Analyses. Nova Science Publishers, pp. 25-30, 2006.
Ewen, Stuart. PR!: A Social History of Spin. NY: Basic Books, 1996.
Feenstra, Jennifer. Introduction to Social Psychology. Bridegeport Education, Inc., 2011.
I have had friends that I've known since I was in grade school. Our initial interaction occurred because of our attraction toward one another. We had so many things in common, such as the same favorite television shows and the same favorite sports. Our proximity to one another also aided in the development of this attraction toward one another. We all lived on the same block and therefore had more opportunities to interact with one another outside of the school setting.
Although physical attractiveness did not necessarily influence our friendship, according to Myers (2012), it is usually the first step in any sort of relationship, even those that are platonic in nature. The theory of physical attractiveness is based on research conducted that tends to suggest that people who are viewed as being more physically attractive are seen as being more approachable (Myers, 2012). My relationship with my friends can…
David, M. (2012). Social psychology. (11 ed.). New York, NY: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Statement of the Issue
Beginning with a discussion of Social Darwinism's inherent logical fallacy, this study examines whether or not wealthy industrialists of the nineteenth century actually practiced what Social Darwinism called for. By considering the history of the concept and its relation to capitalism, it becomes clear that not only did wealthy industrialists practice Social Darwinism, but that they embraced it precisely because it provided a justification for the unethical business practices they were already engaged in.
Statement of the Issue
Social Darwinism was a major force in the political, economic, and social landscape of the nineteenth and early twentieth century, but it represents something of a conundrum for the historian attempting to determine whether or not the wealthy industrialists who were proponents of Social Darwinism actually practiced what they preached. The difficulty stems from the fact that Social Darwinism is itself an example of a formal…
Bannister, R. (1993). Social darwinism: Science and myth in anglo-american social thought.
Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Klein, S. (2003). The natural roots of capitalism and its virtues and values. Journal of Business
Ethics, 45(4), 387-401.
What is meant by the term 'social enterprise' and what do social enterprises contribute to society and the economies in which they operate?
The acceleration with which the world is changing day by day is continuous. A majority of organizations that have a motto of 'not-for-profit' are looking out for prospects with the help of which they can begin or widen their projects in order to get their missions fulfilled and offer the needy the earned profits. Thus, any organization or scheme that brings about the mentioned twofold objectives is considered a social enterprise. Social enterprises sell mission-related goods or services and by doing so they try to create a more impartial and fair environment through specific market-based strategies (Bornstein & Davis 2010).
In other words, a business is regarded as a social enterprise when the main objective is to cope up with the prevailing societal problems and…
Baptiste, T. (2009). Being a Leader and Making Decisions. 1st. ed. New York: Chelsea House.
Beerel, A. (2009). Leadership and Change Management. 1st. ed. Los Angeles: SAGE.
Bornstein, D. & Davis, S. (2010). Social Entrepreneurship: What Everyone Needs to Know. 1st. ed. New York: Oxford University Press.
Borzaga, C. & Defourny, J. (2001). The Emergence of Social Enterprise. 1st. ed. London: Routledge.
Social Media etailing Applications: Opportunities and Threats
How Has Social Media Developed and What are the Benefits and Downsides of Using Social Media for etailers Today?
This study examines social business in general, how it developed and the benefits of using social media in particular. Second, this study provides a discussion concerning the potential positive as well as the effects of social business in the retail sector which is followed by a description of optimal business strategies for social media applications, the pros/cons of using these tools in the industry, and some representative case studies concerning companies that succeeded and some that recently failed in their use of social media. Finally, the study provides a summary of the research and important findings is followed by a series of recommendations concerning how retailers should use social media technologies in their own businesses in the concluding chapter.
Social Media Business Applications
About Honda. (2013). Honda. Available: http://corporate.honda.com/america/philanthropy.aspx?id=philanthropy_overview . Last accessed 1 November 2013.
About Virgin. (2013). Virgin America. Available: http://www.virginamerica.com/about/airline-company.html.
Baumann, M. (2010, June). @Twitter Discloses Business Model #Promotedtweets RT.
Information Today, 27 (6) 1-5.
Social workers often have commitments to specific policies, laws, or funding of programs that are vital to the population they serve or an issue that they strongly support. Such commitments often lead social workers to become involved in political issues and the campaigns of specific candidates. Being a social worker, such campaign experiences, the outcomes of your efforts, and how effective you felt you were may affect your view of the political process and the likelihood of becoming involved in similar campaigns in the future. Social workers' involvement in political advocacy is usually influenced by the impact of politics on social work practice. Through advocacy and lobbying in the political arena, social workers seek to promote changes in legislation and policy to enhance social conditions and promote social justice towards meeting basic human needs. In essence, social workers' participation in political advocacy is geared towards protecting individuals' rights and enhancing…
Social Cognitive, Behavioral Drinking
Social Cognitive/behavioralist Drinking
Drinking behavior provides informative demonstration of how social cognitive and behavioralist theories provide complementary rather than competing explanations of human agency. Bandura (1999) casts social cognitive theory against various determinist and materialist theories on the assertion humans are "sentient agents of experiences rather than simply undergoers of experiences" because people explore, manipulate and influence the environment they discover (p. 4). This contrasts against "automaticity," habit, "tendencies to repeat responses given a stable supporting context" (Oullette and Wood, 1998, p. 55). Oullette & Wood (1998) compare habit learning to skill development, where practice can lead to "nonvolitional, frequent, and consistent experiences in a given context" but new situations require deliberation (p. 55). Wood and Neal (2007) largely reiterate this summary as repeated learned behavior (843). The present inquiry is particularly interested in how and why particular behaviors become repeated after negative consequences have been…
Bandura, A. (1999). A social cognitive theory of personality. In L. Pervin & O. John (Ed.),
Handbook of personality (2nd ed., pp. 154-196). New York: Guilford Publications. (Reprinted in D. Cervone & Y. Shoda [Eds.], The coherence of personality. New York: Guilford Press.)
Ouellette, J. & Wood, W. (1998). Habit and intention in everyday life: The multiple processes by which past behavior predicts future behavior. Psychological Bulletin 124(1), 54-74.
Wood, w. & Neal, D.T. (2007). A new look at habits and the habit -- goal interface. Psychological Review 114(4), 843 -- 863. Retrieved from DOI: 10.1037/0033-295X.114.4.843
Social Marketing Dragonfly Effect
Social Marketing and the Dragonfly Effect: The Case of Barack Obama
"All of this happened because of you. Thanks, Barack," that was the message Barack Obama sent to all of his many online supporters on the night he won the historic presidential election (Chang & Aaker 2010 p 20). Part of Obama's success was his ability to capitalize on the emerging trends of social media. In his teams' efforts, the dragonfly model was implemented seamlessly, allowing him to gather a specific focus, grab attention, engage and finally empower his audience.
In his first run for president, Barak Obama implemented new and innovative strategies utilizing tenants of social media to help spread the message of his campaign. Not only did Obama utilize existing social networking platforms, but he also hired a team to create his own that was featured on his campaign website. Here, the research states…
Chang, Victoria & Aaker, Jennifer. (2010). Obama and the power of social media and technology. The European Business Review, 16-24.
Green, Douglas W. (2011). The dragonfly effect. DrDougGreen.com. Web. http://www.drdouggreen.com/wp-content/Dragonfly-Effect.pdf
The Dragonfly Effect. (2012). How Obama won with social media. Case Studies. Web. http://www.dragonflyeffect.com/blog/dragonfly-in-action/case-studies/the-obama-campaign/
Social Upward Mobility
Explain how the economic system in the United States can be used both to allow upward social mobility and trap others in lower status levels.
America is known as the land of opportunity. This is because no matter where someone comes from, their racial group, nationality or economic class everyone has the chance to be successful. If they have a good idea and are willing to work at it, they will realize their long-term goals. Throughout the course of U.S. history, this has been the case. As innovators from across the world can start out with nothing and earn a fortune during the course of their lifetimes. (Cullen 2004) (Henslin 2013)
This is because the economic system enables upward mobility by encouraging the free flow of ideas through a culture of acceptance and understanding. At the same time, the movement of working capital and people from one…
Cullen, Jim. 2004. The American Dream. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
DeParle, Jason. 2012."Harder for Americans to Rise." Retrieved July 21, 2013 ( http://www.nytimes.com/2012/01/05/us/harder-for-americans-to-rise-from-lower-rungs.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0 )
Henslin, James. 2013. Essentials of Sociology. New York, NY: Pearson Education.
This implies that through this study, the educators can get some assistance while they make the decision of retaining or promoting the failing students by considering the effects of both in detail. Since this is a qualitative study and not a quantitative one, from the data that is collected, it will be possible for us to build up a theory and then further studies can be conducted to confirm the theory about the effects of social promotion or retention and about the alternative ways that can be adopted to counter these effects. It should be made sure that information is given in a natural setting and the data is allowed to flow in any time. Once the information is collected it will be analyzed and compared with other studies of the same sort (Leedy and Ormod, 2010).
As mentioned earlier in the paper, the main purpose of this…
Aldridge, J. And Goldman, R. (2007).Current Issues and Trends In Education. p. 140-144.
Denton, D. (2001). Finding alternatives to failure: Can states end social promotion and reduce retention rates- http://www.sreb.org/programs/srr/pubs/alternatives/AlternativesToFailure.pdf
Greene, Jay (2008). Pro-con On Social Promotion.The Atlanta Journal-Constitution.
Hager, Lindsay (2013).Pros and Cons of Social Promotion.Social Promotion vs. Retention.
The Target Corporation: Description, Stakeholders, and their oles
The Target Corporation has grown, from a small branch of Dayton Hudson Corporation, to the second largest retailer store in the United States, dealing in soft lines, hard lines, and (mostly) non-perishable groceries. The company has realized numerous achievements, and currently holds the 36th position on the Fortune 500. From a single Minnesota store in 1962, Target corporation has witnessed massive expansion across all states, to a record 1,870 units (82 of these in Canada), and over $70 billion in sales. The company, currently, has Gregg Steinhafel as CEO, and John J. Mulligan as chief financial officer.
Like any other corporation, Target has a wide range of stakeholders: primary, secondary, as well as other key stakeholders. People (groups) that are directly affected by the organization's activities, either positively or negatively, are referred to as primary stakeholders. Secondary stakeholders, on the…
International Finance Corporation. (2000). Investing in People: Sustaining Communities through Improved Business Practice. Washington: World Bank Publications
Letavec, C.J., Rollins, S.C. & Altwies, D.C. (2008). Program Management Professional (PgMP): A Certification Study Guide with Best Practices for Maximizing Business Results. Lauderdale: J. Ross Publishing
OECD. (2012). Sustainable Materials Management: Making Better Use of Resources. OECD Publishing. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264174262-en
Rabinowitz, P. (2013). Identifying and Analyzing Stakeholders and Their Interests. Retrieved from http://ctb.ku.edu/en/table-of-contents/participation/encouraging-involvement/identify-stakeholders/main
A proposal to change the program
educing Benefits: This can be done in various ways. Monthly benefits can be reduced by minimizing cost of living adjustments or by minimizing the primary insurance amount (PIA) for a certain average indexed monthly earnings (AIME). Other proposals include targeting reductions towards high-income retirees. Benefits can also be reduced by increasing the retirement age or imposing full taxes on social security benefits. These benefit reduction proposals are some of the simplest and cheapest to implement. If future clients expect lower benefits, they are expected to save more or work longer; all of which will have a positive effect on the economy (Midgley, 2006).
Complete privatization: one of the radical proposals is to erase the social security system and encourage individuals to save in their accounts held by private investment companies. Owners of accounts will have great discretion over their decision of investment…
Brown, J., Liebman, J., & Wise, D. (2009). Social Security Policy in a Changing Environment. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Cross, T.E. (2010). Social security: Capital markets & educational issues associated with individual accounts. S.l.: Diane Pub Co.
Midgley, J. (2006). Challenges to social security: An international exploration. Westport, Conn. [u.a.: Auburn House.
Social Equity Public Administration
Emergence as Concern in Field of Public Administration
Social equity has always been an important aspect of public administration, though only recently is it receiving much attention in the press. Whereas in times of old social equity concerned itself primarily with issues of fairness and equality in the public workplace, today social equity is emerging as a field encompassing many different aspects of administration.
Among these include public education, policy development, hiring and promotional practices, public welfare and even transportation. In modern public administration, all of these issues are applied to the field in order to establish fairness, justice and equality for all. Social equity in the field of public administration has emerged as a response to consumer demands for equitable policy making and fairness in governance.
Public administration as a whole may be defined as the management of "matters which have principally to do with…
Frederickson, G. (1986). "New public administration." Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press.
Rice, M.F. (2003). "Organizational Culture, Social Equity & Diversity: Teaching Public
Administration." Texas A& M. University, Bush School Working Paper #314. 14, November, 2004: http://bush.tamu.edu/content/research/working_papers/mrice/teach-post-modern.pdf
Christopher, G.C., Rutledge, P.J. (2001). "Reinvigorating the Social Equity Debate."
This in turn generates a kind of societal morality. As a consequence, social order becomes an incorporated trait of everyday life. According to the theory, what people see as standards are indirect behavioral rules. Infringements of the standard lead to diverse amounts of punishment depending on how common the standard may be. Chastisements can come in the shape of being disqualified from one's social group, critical looks, or imprisonment in the case of harsh infringements like killing or assault (Jeanty, 2010).
As sociologists and historians examine social work, they often see a profession the spirit of which is social control. For them the language of therapy, assisting, or even empowerment masquerades a coercive center. Various recent literature of the vocation, conversely, has confronted the attitude of those researchers who depend on case reports as proof of what social workers in fact do in the field has highlighted empowerment in the…
Burford, Gale and Adams, Paul. (2010). Restorative justice, responsive regulation and social work. Retrieved March 23, 2011, from Web site:
Chapter 4: The role of the social worker. (2006). Retrieved March 23, 2011, from Web site:
Social and Labor Issues of Supply Chain Management
There are a myriad of labor and social issues that all enterprises need to contend with in designing, implementing and managing an international supply chain. In addition to the specifics of how suppliers will communicate pricing, product, and transaction-specific information and also synchronize efforts to support product introductions, there is also the more challenging social and labor issues to contend with. These differences are exacerbated by vast cultural differences between regions and nations. One of the most valuable frameworks for understanding social and labor issue differences in international supply chains is the Hofstede Model of Cultural Dimensions (Hofstede, 1993). This framework provides dimensional insight into how labor and social issues within and between nations can be planned for and optimized to gain the greatest level of performance given the inherent constrains in supply chain management (Hofstede, McCrae, 2004).
Analysis of Social and…
Hofstede, G. (1993). Cultural constraints in management theories. The Executive, 7(1), 81.
Hofstede, G., & McCrae, R.R. (2004). Personality and culture revisited: Linking traits and dimensions of culture. Cross - Cultural Research, 38(1), 52-88.
Social trends in Education / the next 5 years
With societal establishments and school structures, we can carry the most important task of providing youths with the necessary education which will provide them opportunities to thrive in our community. A simple casual glance at the comparative mode of lifestyle in our country would make it obvious that these establishments performed in an excellent manner for the greater part of this century. But the universe is transforming in manners that radically remodels the suppositions, customs and guiding principles, which catered the American people earlier. Besides, the pace of transformation is gearing up at an amazing speed, requiring in many customs and establishments the need to progress in certain spheres. To look forward to modifications, to a certain extent than acting in response to it, schools are spotting developments and scrutinizing their probable connotations.
ather than guessing what the coming years has…
Anglin, John. S. Educational Trends for the Future. Handbook of Theory and Research in Higher Education: Volume: 8; pp. 115-121. New York: Agathon, 2002
Carter, Holly. Implementation of International Competence Strategies: Faculty. In Bridges to the Future: Strategies for Internationalizing Higher Education, pp.191-203. Ed. Charles Klasek, Carbondale, Illinois: Association of International Education Administrators, 1992.
Corson, David. Language Diversity and Education. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2001.
Morrison, J.L. Higher-Education Trends and Indicators. The Chronicle of Higher Education. Volume: 46, No: 3; September 10, 1999; p. A54
Social Engineering Attacks Counter Intelligence
Social Engineering Counter Intelligence
Describe what social engineering and counterintelligence are and their potential implications to our national security in regard to the leaked Afghan War Diary and the Iraq War Logs.
Social engineering is the theft of classified information. Then, using it to change everyone's opinions and perceptions about what is happening. Counter intelligence is preventing hostile enemies or organizations from obtaining access to sensitive material. These areas are viewed from two different perspectives. The first one is that of more liberal attitudes. They believe that any kind of secret files, are allowing the U.S. government to hide the truth. This is when it has no accountability for engaging in different actions. These voices, feel any kind of disclosures of classified information, is critical to understanding the larger issues and letting the public (i.e. world) know what they are up to. (Mulrine, 2013) (Harding,…
Wiki Leaks. (2010). ABC News. Retrieved from: http://abcnews.go.com/Politics/wikileaks-109000-deaths-iraq-war/story?id=11949670
Wiki Leaks Releases. (2010). VOA News. Retrieved from: http://www.voanews.com/content/wikileaks-releases-400000-classified-us-military-files-105568738/128719.html
Fowler, A. (2011). The Most Dangerous Man in the World. Carlton: University of Melbourne Press.
Harding, L. (2011). Wiki Leaks. New York, NY: Public Affairs.
Social evolution to rapid revolutionary change and contemporary globalization dynamics: Emphasizing the contributions of economic, and political process to societal change
Should the U.S. trade with ussia?
The Cold War ended long ago but trade restrictions still exist between the U.S. And the former communist superpower of ussia. In an effort to liberalize trade, the U.S. has been easing some of these restrictions. ecently, the Senate Finance Committee passed a trade bill that could double U.S. exports to ussia at a time when the U.S. economy is particularly strapped and in need of rectifying the trade imbalance that exists between itself and the rest of the world overall. Declining U.S. exports have been linked to sluggish job growth. U.S. exports to ussia currently hover around $9 billion dollars, a figure which some analysts estimate could double if the trade bill passes ("U.S. okays trade with ussia," The Korea Herald, 2012).…
Pukhov, Rusan. "Why Russia supports Syria." The New York Times. 7 Jul 2012.
[27 Jul 2012] http://www.nytimes.com/2012/07/07/opinion/why-russia-supports-syria.html?_r=2&%20scp=1&sq=russia%20syria&st=Search
"U.S. okays trade with Russia." The Korea Herald. 19 July 2012. [19 July 2012]
A nation faithful to democracy is blessed and called to spread this "good news" throughout the nations "(Withrow,2007, p.15 ).
Coupled with this "gospel" was the support and verification of major scientific theories during this period. Social Darwinism was derived from Darwin's work on the evolution of the species. In essence, Darwin's theory of human evolution refers to the principle of the 'survival of the fittest," on which the ideal of human progress becomes possible. Therefore, taking this principle into account, Social Darwinism attempt to explain and justify the social and economic inequalities in society in terms of those who are the strongest and fittest in the society i.e. those who are the most prosperous and who accumulate the most. Therefore, the vision that this theory produced was one that favored and justified the strongest and most successful in society.
In order to understand the impact of Social Darwinism one…
Carnegie a. The Gospel of Wealth Reflection Questions. Excerpts of an essay written by Carnegie in 1889. Retrieved from http://learningtogive.org/resources/stories/gospelofwealth/
De Santis, V. The American Gilded Age Revisited. Australian Journal of Politics & History, 29
(2), pp. 354 -- 367. Available from http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/119538983/abstract?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0
Withrow L. Success and the Prosperity Gospel: from Commodification to Transformation a Wesleyan Perspective. Journal of Religious Leadership, 6(2). Available from http://arl-jrl.org/Volumes/Withrow07.pdf.
Addams included a large amount of environmental reforms in her program for Hull House. One of the most prominent incorporated her labors to address the unhealthful heaps of garbage in immigrant areas because of a lack of public interest. The mayor of Chicago ultimately appointed Addams garbage inspector for her region a job that she took very seriously. Addams managed garbage collectors and took violators of garbage policies to court. Even though Addams and her associates frequently started reforms, the immigrants had a dynamic role as well, helping in knowledge gathering and its communication to their neighbors (Settlement House Movement, 2011).
ichmond's devotion and professionalism, along with her scientific charity has been documented and developed over the years. Her casework practice, managerial talents, research, and stress on social work education fashioned a professional environment in what was beforehand thought to be just charity work. This professionalized social work permitted philanthropic…
Settlement House Movement. (2011). Retrieved March 23, 2011, from Web site:
Smith, Mark K. (2002). Casework and the Charity Organization Society. Retrieved March 23,
2011, from Web site: http://www.infed.org/socialwork/charity_organization_society.htm
A model that stresses the fact that people in a generally bad mood or situation will seek out pro-social behaviors, i.e. To help others to make him or herself feel better. (Berkowitz 185) Though this theory has often been contested, not simply because it tends to negate altruism but because people in bad moods tend not to seek out the doing of good deeds, (Berkowitz 186) these two examples of pro-social behavior in this film are both realistic and examples of the negative state relief model of action.
The first example is when Rob agrees to help two skater slackers and frequent shoplifters at his store to produce a record. Rob does not have a record label but it is a logical extension of his love of music and of human progress. He walks into the store, where Barry and Dick are listening to a demo tape of Vince and…
Berkowitz, Leonard. Causes and Consequences of Feelings. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
Geen, Russell G. Human Aggression. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Open University Press, 2001.
Heath, Robert L., and Jennings Bryant. Human Communication Theory and Research: Concepts, Contexts, and Challenges. 2nd ed. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2000.
While he supported me in my endeavors, he raised many questions, >Why do you want to enter social work? How do you think you are going to provide for your family and the lifestyle you are accustomed to?" Deferring to socialization pressures that still impel them to fulfill the "breadwinner" role and avoid feminine characteristics, they may segregate themselves from women in the profession, selecting specialties or positions that society deems as more appropriate for men (Williams, 1995). They too may emphasize the masculine aspects of their jobs to "reduce the dissonance between their professional and gender identities" and to justify their career choices (Christie, 1998, p. 506). Thereby, male social workers adhere more closely to the social definition of masculinity" (ritton, J. & Stoller M., 1998).
The young people who are trying to enter into a social work profession "hope to advance research and social work services for men…
Britton, J. & Stoller M. (Autumn, 1998), Engendered disparity: Males in Social Work, Retrieved December 6, 2006, from The Advocate's Forum, Vol.5, No.1, Web Site: http://www.ssa.uchicago.edu/publications/advforum/v5n1/v5i1a2.html
Chattopadhay, T. (2004), Role of men and boys in promoting gender equality: advocacy brief / Asia-Pacific Programme of Education for All (APPEAL), United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok: UNESCO Bangkok, Retrieved December 6, 2006, at http://www.ungei.org/resources/files/unesco_role_of_men.pdf
Christie, A.(2001), Men and social work, New York, NY USA: Palgrave Publishers, Retrieved December 3, 2006, at http://site.ebrary.com/lib/csueastbay/Doc?id=2002957
Gillingham, P. (January, 2006), Male social workers in child and family welfare: New directions for research, in Social work, Volume 51, number I
Social Media and Barthes Cultural Myths
Social Media and Barthes' Cultural Myths
hile social media services undeniably bring individuals together, they also have created a new type of cultural understanding of words. They have created a subset of individuals, who, as users of social media, conceptualize words themselves differently than individuals who are not social media users. Using Barthes' definition, social media itself can be seen as the setting of a cultural myth. It is a vast network wherein signifiers, which outside the myth are associated with their own rich set of signifieds, are given new interpretations (Barthes 1957/1972). That is, these concepts, which outside the myth are imbued with connotative meanings, within the myth are set at a distance from those meanings and given a related, though slightly different, set of signified concepts. In particular, the concept of "friend" within the social media myth gains its own, new, mythic…
Barthes, R. (1972). Mythologies. (A. Lavers, Trans.). New York: Noonday Press. (Original work published 1957).
Kujath, C. (2011). Facebook and MySpace: Complement or Substitute for Face-to-Face
Interaction? Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 14(1-2), 75-78
Orr, E., Sisic, M., Ross, C., Simmering, M, Arsenault, J., Orr, R. (2009). The Influence of Shyness on the Use of Facebook in an Undergraduate Sample. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 12(3), 337-340
As recent events in the Middle East have clearly demonstrated, Facebook is more on the side of the politically disadvantaged and the poor as they have increasingly embraced Facebook and other social media while the governments in the region tried to ban them. Many governments such as that of China do not allow Facebook primarily because they want to avert scenarios they have seen in the Middle East.
It was in the wake of 2008 when Oscar Morales, a young man in Columbia, decided that he had had enough of FARC (Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia), a Marxist group which routinely kidnaps people, keeping them as hostages for months or years, while many of the hostages die in captivity. Angry and depressed by the actions of FARC, one night he turned to Facebook which he had been using to connect with his friends and high school classmates. He…
Alexanian, Janet A.. "Eyewitness Accounts and Political Claims: Transnational Responses to the 2009 Postelection Protests in Iran." Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East 31.2 (2011): 425-442. Project MUSE. Web. 3 Oct. 2011. .
Burns, Alex and Ben Eltham, "Twitter free Iran: an evaluation of twitter's role in public diplomacy and information operations in Iran's 2009 election crisis," in Papandrea, Franco & Armstrong, Mark (Eds.). Record of the Communications Policy & Research Forum 2009. Sydney: Network Insight Institute. Web. 26 Nov. 2011 .
China, Walid. "The Facebook Revolution." New African 503 (2011): 24. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 26 Nov. 2011.
Eltahawy, Mona. "The Middle East's Generation Facebook." World Policy Journal 25.3 (2008): 69-77. Academic Search Premier. Web. 26 Nov. 2011.
Social Exchange Theory
the teacher an e-mail states. In words, explain . Your answer pages double spaced. 1. What Social exchange Theory? 2. List focus assumptions Social Exchange Theory describe . 3. How concepts work theory?
What is social exchange theory?
Social exchange theory views human beings as essentially self-interested creatures. 'What's in it for me?' is the underlying question behind all human actions. People engage in social interactions and relationships to obtain benefits for themselves, whether these benefits are economic, social, or personal in nature.
List some focus and assumptions of social exchange theory and describe one of them.
Human beings are assumed to be rational in their behaviors and motivations, and are capable of calculating what is the best of a series of given alternatives to maximize personal gains. There is also an assumption that humans are capable of assimilating enough useful knowledge to make such decisions (Witt…
Witt, David. (2010). Social exchange and developmental theories. Family Crisis.
Retrieved February 7, 2011 at http://www3.uakron.edu/witt/fc/fcnote5b.htm
Social Web and Technology: Moving Humans Into Uncharted Territory
The internet has changed the way humans interact with each other in every way. It has helped shape an entire generation of social interactions as well as helped people learn in ways that were not possible before. Within these interactions, the very roots of society are created. S these interactions have changed media and shape, the preferences and habits of socialization have changed as well. As a technology, social web has given people the ability to connect with other people and places that were at one time inaccessible. It also gives people unfettered access to information through first hand reports and stories. This access to information on a global scale is also changing the way socialization occurs.
Human beings have always had a certain access to information, whether within a small group or over technologies like TV, radio, or printed media.…
Blossom, J. (2009). Content nation: surviving and thriving as social media technology changes our lives and our future. Social Media: New York.
Dorfman, L., Martindale, C., Gassimova, V., & Vartanian, O. (2008). Creativity and speed of information processing: A double dissociation involving elementary vs. inhibitory cognitive tasks. Personality and Individual Differences, Vol. 44, No. 6, April 2008, 1382-1390.
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Competitor products and their equivalent prizes, this is so that after establishing our break-even analysis it can act as a guiding line to set the best price. (Tao 2008)
The survey should enable one establish the best marketing strategies and anticipate any future contingencies.
Entrepreneurship development services
This service will target individuals who wish to start business on their own or in a group it will mainly involve
Training on how to originate business ideas. It is said that if you feed a man you have only feed him a day, a long-term problem in a short-term way. If you show the man how to fish then you have feed him and his family for life and I add that if you show the man how to run a fish business you will have feed the society too. In his book ich Dad Poor Dad, Kiyosaki explains that the most…
Adaman F., Keyder C., Mudderrisoglu S., Yukseker D. (2009) Poverty and Social Exclusion in the Slum Areas of Large Cities in Turkey. European Commission on Employment, SocialAffairs and Equal Opportunities Development Goal. European Union, Luxenbourg, Europe.
Agbola T., Agunbiade E. (2009) Urbanization, Slum Development and Security of Tenure: The Challenges of Meeting Millennium Development Goal 7 in Metropolitan Lagos, Nigeria. Department of Urban and Regional Planning, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.
Camur E. (2003) What are the Social, Physical and Economic Problems of Slums and their Expectations from the Urban City? Sage books.New York.
Dumashie a. (2004) Informal Housing in East Africa: Lessons Learned From Cross Country Borders (Part II). Journal, FIG Working Week, May 22-27, United Kingdom.
(the Teacher's role in developing social skills)
ole of Workplaces:
espectable work is seen as a social standard based on harmonizing and mutually collaborative policies to advance rights at work; employment; social protection and social dialogue. It tackles a basic ambition of women and men everywhere, that is, to get respectable and productive work in situations of freedom, equality, security and dignity of human labor. This ambition stresses a collective attempt by many bodies, namely, by international organizations, national governments, business and workers, and by all the social bodies in civil society. It needs all mediators of change to be involved in pioneering economic and social initiatives, customized to particular national and local needs. It specifically calls for new working relationships and dialogue between the conventional social partners in the sphere of work which includes governments, organizations of employers and trade unions and other associations of civil society, which have…
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Keirsey, David. (1998) "Parenting and Temperament" retrieved at http://keirsey.com/parent.html . Accessed on 26 February 2005
Lavoie, Rick. "The Teacher's role in developing social skills" Retrieved at http://www.ldonline.org/article.php?max=20&special_grouping=&id=400&loc=22Accessed on 27 February 2005
Moore, Shirley. G. "The Role of Parents in the Development of Peer Group Competence" ERIC Digest. Retrieved at http://www.fww.org/articles/misc/0628e.html. Accessed on 26 February 2005
Social Media and Suicide
Internet has become a gadget of everyday use for people of 21st century. As it is offering many benefits to the users in terms of information communcaition, interaction, entertainment, socialization and earning livelihhod, there are certain dark factors related to it. The dark factors are as severe as forcing people to commit suicide. It is no exaggeration to mention that Intenet is used as a medium to harass people and get undue benefits from them.
Social media today is playing major role in enabling people and organizations to communicate and share ideas, views and knowledge with other people. The traditional methods of communication have been modified through social media platforms like chat rooms, social networking sites (Facebook, My-Space, Twitter, Google+ etc.), video sites (YouTube), discussion forums, video chat, text messages, blogs etc. (Lexton et al., 2012). The most well-known social networking website Facebook had…
Biddle, L., Donovan, J., Hawton, K., Kapur, N., Gunnell, D., 2008. Suicide and the Internet. British Medical Journal, 336, 800-802.
"Cyberbullying Does Not 'Cause' Teen Suicide," 2012. Retrieved from http://www.science20.com/news_articles/cyberbullying_does_not_cause_teen_suicide-95444
"Facebook Statistics," 2011. Retrieved from http://www.facebook.com/press/info.php?statistics
"Facebook statistics by country," n.d. Retrieved from http://www.socialbakers.com/facebook-statistics
Social Psychology: Examining the Principles of Persuasion Influencing Group Behavior
Introduction & Outline of the
Concepts of Social Psychology
Attitudes and Persuasion
Social Identity Theory
Cultural and Gender Influences
Social Psychology: Examining the Principles of Persuasion Influencing Group Behavior
Introduction & Outline of the Essay
Social psychology deals with different aspects of social life and social behavior. People not only have feelings and opinions about nearly everything they come into contact with, but the argument has been made that we need to have these feelings and opinions. The current essay is aimed at exploring the principles of persuasion influencing group behavior. The foundation for this essay is text book "Social Psychology" by Myers (2010) which discusses the attitude theory and persuasion, reviewing how attitudes are structured and how this structure influences their susceptibility to change
The essay is divided into four sections. In the first section…
Baker, David P. And Deborah Perkins Jones. 1993. "Creating Gender Equality: Cross-national Gender Stratification and Mathematical Performance." Sociology of Education 66:91-103.
Bassili, J.N. (2008). Attitude strength. In W.D. Crano & R. Prislin, (Eds.), Attitudes and attitude change, Frontiers of social psychology. New York, NY; Psychology Press, pp. 261-286.
Cialdini, R.B. 2001. Influence: Science and Practice. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Eagly, A.H. & Chaiken, S. (1993) The Psychology of Attitudes. Orlando, FL: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
Social Engineering and Information Security
We are in an age of information explosion and one of the most critical problems facing us is the security and proper management of information. Advanced hardware and software solutions are being constantly developed and refined to patch up any technical loopholes that might allow a hacker attack and prevent consequent breach of information security. While this technical warfare continues, hackers are now pursuing other vectors of attack. Social engineering refers to the increasing employment of techniques, both technical and non-technical, that focus on exploiting the cognitive bias in humans as the weakest link in computer security. What is shocking is the fact that in spite of the great vulnerability to human exploitation, there prevails a seemingly careless attitude in this regard in the corporate world. While more and more money is spent on beefing up hardware security and in acquiring expensive software solutions, little…
1) Christopher Hadnagy (2011), 'Social Engineering: The Art of Human Hacking', Wiley Publishing Inc.
2) Greg Sandoval, (Feb 2007), 'FTC to Court: Put an end to pretexting operations', Retrieved Mar 5th 2011 from, http://news.cnet.com/FTC-to-court-Put-an-end-to-pretexting-operations/2100-7348_3-6159871.html?tag=lia;rcol
3) Mindi McDowell, (Oct 2009), 'National Cyber Alert System: Avoiding Social Engineering and Phishing attacks', retrieved Mar 5th 2011 from, http://www.us-cert.gov/cas/tips/ST04-014.html
4) Sonja Ryst, (July, 2006), ' The Phone is the latest Phishign Rod', retrieved Mar 5th 2011 from, http://www.businessweek.com/technology/content/jul2006/tc20060710_811021.htm