1000 results for “Social System”.
Social Systems (Egypt, Aksum, and Inland Niger Delta)
This paper makes comparisons between the early social systems of Egypt, Aksum, and the Inland Niger Delta.
Society in early Egyptian history was more structured than either of the other two societies to be reviewed in this paper. Egyptian society was structured like a pyramid, according to U.S. History's pages on Ancient Civilizations. At the top of the pyramid the gods were placed; Isis, Ra, Osiris and other Egyptian gods were most revered and respected because Egyptians believed that gods had control of the universe. They could "make the Nile overflow, cause famine, or even bring death" (U.S. History). Leaders called "pharaohs" were also considered gods (in human form), and they had a huge amount of power to enact laws and lead the military, so they were high on the pyramid. In fact the pyramids in Egypt were built specifically to…
Ancient Civilizations. (2008). Ancient Egypt / Egyptian Social Structure. U.S. History.
Retrieved January 14, 2013, from http://www.ushistory.org .
Hirst, Kris K. (2011). Aksum of Ethiopia. About.com. Retrieved January 14, 2013, from http://archaeology.about.com .
McIntosh, Susan Keech, and McIntosh, Roderick J. (2009). Jenne-Jeno, an Ancient African
It is the process of interaction among family members that determines the rules by which the family is governed. This is the family's level of cohesion, its adaptability, and its communication style. Finally, these interactions work together to serve individual members and collective family needs;
(3) Family function is the output of the interactional system. Utilizing the resources available through its structure (input), the family interacts to produce responses that fulfill its needs; and (4) the family life cycle introduces the element of change into the family system. As the family moves through time, developmental and non-developmental changes alter the family structure and/or the family's needs. These, in turn, produce change in the way the family interacts." (Allen, et al., 2007)
Figure 1 -- the Family System
Source: Allen et al. (2007)
The family is stated by Allen et al. (2007) to have many "attitudes, rules and communication patterns which…
Allen, Jo Ann (1991) Understanding Families, Children's Bureau, Administration for Children, Youth and Families, Office of Human Development Services, United States Department of Health and Human Services. Online available at:
Anderson, Ralph E., Carter, Irl. E. And Lowe, Gary (1999) Human Behavior in the Social Environment: A Social Systems Approach. Aldine Transaction 1999. Google Books. Online available at: http://books.google.com/books?id=hYfv-ieHdYkC
Family Developmental Theory (nd) University of Kansas -- Department of Psychology. Online available at: http://www.psych.ku.edu/dennisk/PF642/Family%20Developmental%20Theory.pdf
Fontaine, Reid Griffith (2005) Applying system Principles to Models of Social Information Processing and Aggressive Behavior in Youth. Aggression and Violent Behavior. 11 (2006) 64-76.
The Social System: User, Managers, and IT Professionals
The term Digital Divide refers to the broad disparities between income groups in terms of availability of information technologies including the Internet and related services. Studies of the Digital Divide show that the greater the accessibility of the Internet, specifically in schools and libraries, the higher the probability of students graduating and pursuing advanced education (Stevenson, 2009). Advocate organizations including the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and the Gates Center for technology Access (GCTA) argue that it is critically important for the Digital Divide to be eradicated to ensure below poverty line children and families have an opportunity to pursue educational opportunities and therefore increase their earning potential (Stevenson, 2009). The hard reality of the Digital Divide is that it exists in the United States just as prevalently as in 3rd world nations (Agarwal, Animesh, Prasad, 2009). The CTA has…
Agarwal, R., Animesh, A., & Prasad, K.. (2009). Social Interactions and the "Digital Divide": Explaining Variations in Internet Use. Information Systems Research, 20(2), 277-294.
Andrew Batson and Shai Oster. (2006, November 22). Politics & Economics: As China Booms, the Poorest Lose Ground; Survey Showing Income Decline Among Bottom 10% Suggests New Wealth Isn't Filtering Down. Wall Street Journal (Eastern Edition), p. A.4.
James, J.. (2009). Sharing Mechanisms for Information Technology in Developing Countries, Social Capital and Quality of Life. Social Indicators Research, 94(1), 43-59.
Karen L. Middleton, & Valrie Chambers. (2010). Approaching digital equity: is wifi the new leveler? Information Technology & People, 23(1), 4-22.
Enforced Ritual as a Political Tool: Dogma in the Song and Yuan Dynasties
It is difficult for a student of today's world to not look back in awe at the rigid and ritualistic behavior of the Chinese during the periods of the Song and Yuan dynasties. By today's standards, these people's laws and rites demonstrate their ability to submerge individual advancement in order to comply with the social and group dynamics. Why would these, or any other people for that matter submit themselves to such ordered and disciplined ritual? The purpose of this essay is to examine the idea that these people were ignorant of scientific thought and relied on heavily disciplined and ritualistic behavior to make sense of their violent and paternally dominant society.
In Ebrey's translation of the rules of the lineage of charitable estate certain distinctions are brought forward to highlight strict self-discipline measures in…
However, in the most recent theory of evolution which discusses the living world appears as the result of chance and an output of different randomly selected natural mills. This kind of development came to present as a result of the need of more subjects or topics in areas such as cybernetic, general system theory, information theory, theories of games which is needed in most decision making process in line with real applications. In mathematics techniques however, there are a number of general assumption which are insufficient and most of the time very contradict themselves (Laszlo & Krippner, 1982).
Again, Laszlo (1982) outlined that von Bertalanffy considered the idea of organization to be involved at various stages in the expression of natural system. This could be highlighted from his first statement on the system which he made between the years 1925-1926, during the time when similar thinking of organism was being…
Bailey, K.D. (2004). Beyond System Internals: Expanding the Scope of Living Systems Theory. Los Angeles: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Bailey, K.D. (2006). Living systems theory and social entropy theory. Systems Research and Behavioral Science, 23, 291-300.
Bertalanffy, L. (1951). General system theory - a new approach to unity of science. (Symposium), Human Biology, 23, 303-361. Dec 1951.
Bertalanffy, L. (1972). General system theory: Foundations, development, applications. London: Allen Lane.
Discuss relationship systems theory healthcare deliver U.S. - What current concepts healthcare explained helped a system theory approach? - What system theory? - How researchers (Ludwig von Bertalanffy Everett M.
Systems theory and diffusion of innovation theory
Systems theory was not specifically designed to cope with the challenges of the U.S. healthcare system, although it has been frequently applied to some of its issues. Systems theory was originally coined by the scientist Ludwig von Bertalanffy to sum up his idea that the 'whole' of systems -- both biological and otherwise -- were larger than the sum of their parts. According to von Bertalanffy, "in the past, science tried to explain observable phenomena by reducing them to an interplay of elementary units investigable independently of each other, conceptions appear in contemporary science that are concerned with what is somewhat vaguely termed 'wholeness', i.e. problems of organization, phenomena…
Diffusion of innovation theory. (2013). University of Twente. Retrieved:
This website contains excerpts from E.M. Rogers' work on diffusion of innovation theory, along with a helpful graphical representation of how the information is disseminated.
Kaminski, J. (Spring 2011).Diffusion of innovation theory. Canadian Journal of Nursing.
Social System, Institutional Values and Human Needs_
Burton's Deviance, Terrorism, and War redefined the nature of the problem to be discussed and the means to discuss it. Burton's agenda is not about states and state centric dynamics. He constitutes a new definition of the problem and a new definition of the reality (1979). In fact, the subtitle of his book, solving unsolved social and political problems, attests to this. Burton's work is therefore committed to addressing the process as opposed to stasis or structures. The book is committed to solving social and political problems and not their containment, management, or control. It is committed to initiating change not coercion. It is concerned with recurrent patterns of human behavior at all levels of social complexity (Burton, 1979).
Burton (1979) assesses the way society classifies and defines deviance. Structure of freedom underpins a portion of Burtons work. Structure of freedom is recognized…
Burton, J. (1965). International Relations, a General Theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University
Burton, J. (1979). Deviance, Terrorism and War: The Process of Solving Unsolved Social and Political Problems. New York: St. Martin's Press.
This in turn generates a kind of societal morality. As a consequence, social order becomes an incorporated trait of everyday life. According to the theory, what people see as standards are indirect behavioral rules. Infringements of the standard lead to diverse amounts of punishment depending on how common the standard may be. Chastisements can come in the shape of being disqualified from one's social group, critical looks, or imprisonment in the case of harsh infringements like killing or assault (Jeanty, 2010).
As sociologists and historians examine social work, they often see a profession the spirit of which is social control. For them the language of therapy, assisting, or even empowerment masquerades a coercive center. Various recent literature of the vocation, conversely, has confronted the attitude of those researchers who depend on case reports as proof of what social workers in fact do in the field has highlighted empowerment in the…
Burford, Gale and Adams, Paul. (2010). Restorative justice, responsive regulation and social work. Retrieved March 23, 2011, from Web site:
Chapter 4: The role of the social worker. (2006). Retrieved March 23, 2011, from Web site:
The religious organization has other-worldly goals, but must adapt to the demands of this world in order to survive. There are generally two kinds of responses to this problem -- the church response and the sect response. The church response is to adapt at the expense of the goals and the sect response is value-rational-to maximize goal commitment at the expense of adaptation (Satow, 1975).
EXAMPLE NATUAL -- Management NEED in Business OGANIZATION
Theories and research concerned with individual performance, employee satisfaction, and reduction of tension between individual and organizational goals deal only with internal aspects of events, relationships, and structures that make up the total organizational system. However, if an organization is seen as an open-energy system, it is apparent that it is dependent for survival and growth upon a variety of energy transfers within the organization and also between the organization and its external environment. It is sure,…
Barnard, C. (1938). The Functions of the Executive. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University
Friedlander, F., and Pickle, H. (1968). Components of Effectiveness in Small Organizations. Administrative Science Quarterly13(2), 289-304
Kanigel, Robert (1997). The One Best Way: Frederick Winslow Taylor and the Enigma of Efficiency. New York: http://www.leaonline.com/entityImage/?code=200B
Kloos, B., McCoy, J., Stewart, E., Thomas R.E., Wiley, a., Good,- T.L., Hunt G.D., Moore, T. And Rappaport, J. (1997) Bridging the Gap: A Community-Based, Open Systems Approach to School and Neighborhood Consultation. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation 8(2), 175-196
Improving social justice for women has been identified as one of the building blocks of social change. Population control, education, and the eradication of domestic violence are all interlinked. "UNICEF estimates that worldwide, some 117 million school-aged children do not attend school, 62 million of them girls. Attendance rates are lowest in sub-Saharan Africa, where only 57% of girls are in school, and just 15% of these go on to secondary school" (About us, 2011, Women's global education fund). Women's education is not simply a feminist issue. Higher rates of female education are linked to lower birth rates and better health outcomes for children as well as women.
Women who are educated are more empowered to take control over family planning and have more resources to take care of the children they do have. "Educated mothers limit their families," says Dr. Yasmin aashid, a leader in obstetrics and…
About us. (2011). Women's Global Education Project.
Retrieved August 23, 2011 at http://www.womensglobal.org/About%20Us/about.html
Domestic violence. (2011). American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG).
Retrieved August 23, 2011 at http://www.acog.org/publications/patient_education/bp083.cfm
Napier & Whitaker's (1978) classic The Family Crucible is the benchmark book related to family therapy. The book is thorough, and divided into twenty chapters that cover the gamut of family therapy theory and especially practice. Napier & Whitaker (1978) are family systems theorists, and they openly divulge their appreciation for an approach to individual psychology that takes into account family systems. In other words, no individual can be understood or helped without paying attention to the family situation, its dynamics, and its role in identity formation and coping. The authors discuss dysfunctional family systems via a case study. By focusing on one case study, Napier & Whitaker (1978) show how family systems theory works, and what clients can expect from the process.
The authors weave their personal views and experiences throughout the case study, which clutters and bogs down the narrative, but which also provides a necessary…
Napier, A.Y. & Whitaker, C. (1978). The Family Crucible. New York: Houghton Mifflin.
Therefore, today's society in the United States is diverse, which is something a social worker needs to understand and know how to deal with each diverse group. Furthermore, through research, it has been discovered most ethnic groups that live in the United States consist of young people, which means by staying in this country, they grow accustom to their surroundings. Once they have grown accustom to living here, they feel like this is their home to start a life with their own families. This continues the growing number of ethnic groups in this country.
Due to the educational accommodations that schools and college campuses make for students that have ethnic backgrounds, there is not enough prejudice of one group to let a Holocaust to occur in the United Stated. Furthermore, this country believes in freedom of speech to allow one ethnic to be isolated from the rest and condone any…
Dennen, Johan. THE 'EVIL' MIND: PT. 3. CRUELTY AND 'BEAST-IN-MAN' IMAGERY. Retrieved March 30, 2008, from http://rechten.eldoc.ub.rug.nl/FILES/departments/Algemeen/overigepublicaties/2005enouder/EVIL_CRU/EVIL_CRU.pdf
Citrome, Lesilie,. (2007). Aggression. Retrieved March 30, 2008, from http://www.emedicine.com/med/topic3005.htm
Hall, Kathy Jo. (1997). Carl Rogers. Retrieved March 30, 2008, from http://aolsearch.aol.com/aol/search?query=Throughout+this+Jim+knocks+the+clay+figurines+head+of+and+crushes+the+body+while+shouting&invocationType=spelling
Seal, B., A. Bradford, and C. Meston. 2009. The Association Between Body Esteem and Sexual Desire Among College Women. Archives of Sexual Behavior 38, no. 5, (October 1): 866-72. http://www.proquest.com.library.capella.edu / (accessed April 1, 2010).
Part 5 -- Use of reframing
eframing refers to the manner in which something is said, or the actions one takes in introducing certain elements to clients -- perhaps a new way of looking at an old problem, of themselves, of a clinical issue. In the case of Mrs. O., we would ask that she look to the expansion of her universe through developing language abilities, or helping to find her translation assistance. The reframing stage would also be indicating that her cultural privacy issues about the effects of her medical problems might be contributing to her pain and suffering over them. Instead, reframing the issue would allow us to find a way to solve the problem, while still slowly moving within Mrs. O's comfort zone. eframing, in fact, is applicable when the fixed attitude constitutes a fundamental part of the issue -- in this case, a cultural…
Coady, N. And Lehman, P. (2008). Theoretical Perspectives for Direct Social Work Practice.
New York: Springer.
Cournoyer, B.R. (2008). The Social Work Skills Workbook. Belmont, CA: Thompson
Those values include the fact that I am very socially conscious and am very aware of my responsibilities and obligations as a social worker. I constantly strive to comprehend and understand the theories of human behaviors and social systems, and in doing so I strive to employ that understanding in order to promote the positive aspects of society and mankind. I am very apt to assist someone in solving the problems faced in their life or lives, and oftentimes see simple solutions even in the most complex scenarios. My strengths are that the values and beliefs I hold dear are the same values and beliefs that will hold me in high regard with the clientele I am most likely to interact with.
Humanism in particular plays a pivotal role in my values since I have always cared for my fellow humans and will continue to do so for as long…
This leads one to believe that they are not very well off financially and the mother has not real education in order to obtain employment since she is currently attaining administrative assistant training. Antonio also has issues with controlling his behavior when in the daycare environment, as he frequently has violent outbursts and crying spells.
If one were to assess Antonio from an Eco-Feminist perspective one would be better able to understand Antonio and his present behavior. Ecofeminism is the social movement that regards the domination of women and nature as unified. It is one of the few movements and analyses that in fact connect the two movements. Lately, ecofeminist theorists have extended their analyses to reflect on the interconnections flanked by sexism, the domination of nature, and also racism and social dissimilarities (What is Ecofeminism, n.d.). Daniel spent a lot of time suppressing Hilda in his behavior that he…
"Neil Adger on Social Resilience." (2010). Retrieved December 2, 2010, from Ecological
Sociology Web site: http://ecologicalsociology.blogspot.com/2010/05/neil-adger-on-social-resilience.html
Kendall, Diana. (2008). Sociology in our Times. Belmont: Thompson Wadsworth.
Mannelli, Sandra. (n.d.). What Are Defense Mechanisms Anyway? Retrieved December 3, 2010,
In preparation for this paper, I reviewed all class notes and lectures. I also referred to Schriver's (2011) Human Behavior and the Social Environment and also Payne's (2005) Modern Social Work Theory. I also reviewed several websites in preparation for a thorough community analysis, while also evaluating my own notes and photographs from assessing the community. My analysis of a specific community is based on several interrelated theories of social work and sociology including conflict theory, systems theory, and functionalism.
In light of what I have read, and based on my observations and interviews with locals, Downtown Indianapolis has undergone major restoration, gentrification, and revival since the 1990s. Issues like empowerment, advocacy, cultural diversity, and conflict theory all come to mind as I evaluate the community by applying theories of social work. I would like to focus in particular on the positive changes that have taken place,…
Arndt, R. (n.d.). Functionalist theory background. University of North Carolina: Pembroke. Retrieved online: http://libguides.uncp.edu/content.php?pid=315635&sid=2582715
Friedman, B.D. & Allen, K.N. (n.d.). Systems theory. Retrieved online: http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/32947_Chapter1.pdf
Payne, M. (2005). Modern social work theory, 3rd Ed. London: Lyceum Books.
Schriver, J. (2011). Human behavior and the social environment, 5th Ed. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
The effects of information technology on the society
The social capital framework
In this paper, we evaluate the validity of the statement that IT is radically changing the social world. We perform a critical analysis of the concept of social world and social capital and how it is influenced by information technology. This is carried against the backdrop of the concept of information technology as the conceptual framework. The paper concludes that indeed the statement that IT is radically changing the social world is true.
The contemporary society has witnessed a series of transformations which can directly be attributed to the concept of technological dynamism. Technological dynamism is a concept which was defined by Albu (2009) as the rate of exchange in the level of predictability of new technologies. The technological advancements that we witness today are largely as a result of the lack of knowledge that exists…
Veenstra, G. (2000). Social capital, SES and health: An individual-level analysis. Social Science and Medicine, 50, 619-629.
Wellman, B.A., Quan-Haase, A., Witte, J., & Hampton, K. (2001). Does the Internet increase, decrease, or supplement social capital? Social networks, participation, and community commitment. American Behavioral Scientist, 45(3), 437-456.
Woolcock, M., & Narayan, D. (2000). Social capital: Implications for development theory, research, and policy. The World Bank Research Observer, 15, 225-249.
social science indentified as social psychology studies the influences that affect how individuals in a society interact with one another (Kenrick, 2006). In doing so, it applies scientific methods to measure how a variety of different factors such as group behavior, social perception, leadership, conformity, aggression and prejudice serve to affect how members of society relate to each other. In doing so, social psychologists examine the attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of both the individuals and groups who incorporate society. They also measure the effect that culture factors such as advertising, television, literature, and the movies contribute to these interactions.
Through the study of social psychology experts in the field use empirical methods in an attempt to explain why people organize themselves in groups, make decisions, behave in deviant ways, and form dating relationships. The field of social psychology has adopted a number of approaches to study in this area but…
Abelson, R.P. (2003). Experiments with People: Revelations from Social Psychology. London: Psychology Press.
Kenrick, D.T. (2006). Social Psychology: Goals in Interaction. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Ally & Bacon, Inc.
Oishi, S. (2009). Sociology: A Lost Connection in Social Psychology. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 334-353.
Social Media Tools and Social Liberation
Social media is a term that is commonly used to refer to a group of Internet-based tools and applications that are developed to enable the creation and exchange of content generated by users. These applications and tools take different forms including blogs, different online forums, social networks, and weblogs. The most common form of social media that has become prevalent in the recent past is social networks as reflected in the development and increased use of online sites like Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube. Together with other social media platforms, Facebook has played a crucial role in social liberation instead of a return to individualism. The role of social media in social liberation is attributable to the significance of these applications and tools in modern communications.
Link between Technology and the Society
The modern society has been characterized by rapid technological advancements that have revolutionized…
Omidyar, P. (2014, December 1). Social Media: Enemy of the State or Power to the People? The Huffington Post. Retrieved November 14, 2015, from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/pierre-omidyar/social-media-enemy-of-the_b_4867421.html
Storck, M. (2011, December 20). The Role of Social Media in Political Mobilization: A Case Study of the January 2011 Egyptian Uprising. Retrieved November 14, 2015, from http://www.culturaldiplomacy.org/academy/content/pdf/participant-papers/2012-02-bifef/The_Role_of_Social_Media_in_Political_Mobilisation_-_Madeline_Storck.pdf
"Twitter Revolution or People's Revolution?" (2012). ORSAM -- Center for Middle Eastern Strategic Studies. Retrieved November 14, 2015, from http://www.orsam.org.tr/en/enuploads/article/files/201226_research_paper.pdf
Complete Solutions plc (CS) is a successful organization specializing in IT consultancy business with annual turnover of £40 millions. The company is located at North of England with branches in the U.S. And France. Established in 1980, the company was taken over by a larger company, and the take-over bid led to the rapid expansion of the company. Complete Solution has several sections with approximately 400 users in the UK divisions. The company internal services are based in Manchester with the Training Solutions (TS) consultancy section, Sales, and Marketing section. The overall services of Complete Solution consists of the IT consultancy service as well as selling of hardware and software, training and recruitment, software development and, outsourced services. The other services provided by the Complete Solution are consultancy services. With rapid expansion that the company is enjoying, the Complete Solution is planning to go public by…
CO3601 System Concepts (nd).Soft Systems Methodology Case Study: Complete Solutions
Checkland, P.(1985). Achieving 'Desirable and Feasible' Change: An Application of Soft Systems Methodology ST. The Journal of the Operational Research Society. 36(9): 821-831.
Gasson, S. (1995). The Role of Methodologies in IT-Related Organizational changes. Proceedings of BCS Specialist Group on IS Methodologies, 3rd Annual Conference.
Simonsen, J. (1994).Soft Systems Methodology. Computer Science/Roskilde University.
Social, Cultural, And Political Influence in Healthcare Delivery
Social, cultural, and political inequalities are detrimental to the health and healthcare system of the U.S. This is because the U.S. is one of the most multicultural, overpopulated, diverse and undergoing rapid economic growth. The federal government has embarked on efforts geared at addressing unsustainable costs of health care in the U.S. With the leadership of the current president, Barrack Obama, initiatives of containing health care costs will evaluate and explore strategies to contain the growing costs of health care based on a system-wide while enhancing the value and quality of health care (Ubokudom, 2012). The apparent system of health care is rife with opportunities of minimizing waste, delivering coordinated, effective care, and improving well-being and health of all Americans. The government in collaboration with care providers must prioritize cost effective containment strategies with the greatest possibility for political success and non-partisan…
Albrecht, G.L., Fitzpatrick, R., & Scrimshaw, S. (2013). Handbook of social studies in health and medicine. London: Sage Publications.
Armstrong, E.G. (2011). The health care dilemma: A comparison of health care systems in three European countries and the U.S. Singapore: World Scientific.
Bale, J.R., Stoll, B.J., & Lucas, A.O. (2013). Improving birth outcomes: Meeting the challenge in the developing world. Washington, DC: National academies press.
Buseh, A.G. (2008). Empowering resilience: Improving health care delivery in war-impacted African countries: a case study of Liberia. Lanham, Md: University Press of America.
Social Network and Its Effects on the Developing Brain
The enhancing quantity of time kids are investing on computer systems in their home and institution has actually raised concerns about how using computer innovation might make a distinction in their lives-- from assisting with research to triggering depression to motivating terrible habits. This short article offers a review of the restricted study on the impacts of personal computer use on kids' physical development. Preliminary study recommends, for instance, that access to computer systems enhances the overall quantity of time kids invest in front of a TV or computer screen at the expenditure of other individual tasks, therefore putting them at danger for excessive weight. At the exact same time, intellectual study recommends that playing video game can be an essential foundation to computer proficiency due to the fact that it boosts kids' capability to check out and picture images in…
Deadwyler, S.A. (2008) 'Systemic and nasal delivery of Orexin -- A (Hypocretin-1) reduces the effects of sleep deprivation on cognitive performance in nonhuman primates', Journal of Neuroscience, 27 (52): 14239 -- 47.
Linn, S. And Poussaint, A.F. (1999). The Trouble With Teletubbies. The American prospect. May 1, 1999. June.
Sigman, A. (2007a) Remotely Controlled: How Television Is Damaging Our Lives, Vermilion, London
Sigman, A. (2007b) 'Visual voodoo: the biological impact of watching television', The Biologist, 54 (1): 14 -- 19
Social Psychology Concept Matrix
Social Psychology Concept
Application to Society
Application to the Individual
The researcher selects a certain number of people from the population that he/she wants to study and presents them with a list of questions on the topic asking them to respond in order to elicit their opinion.
The survey can be conducted in writing, over the phone, as face-to-face interview, or in a small-group oral format
The survey can be used to, for instance, discover the expectations that citizens wish from their new president.
The citizens of the country can be polled and asked what they wish the president to accomplish for them / their country in the new term. Results can tell the government what the citizens most wish to be implemented in their country.
Tjaden and Thoennes (2000) surveyed men and women to find their comparable…
This is as also known as the knew-it-all-along effect or creeping determinism. It refers to the situation where the individual is inclined to see events that occurred as events that were predictable all along. This may result in memory distortion where a person's memory of the past is slanted by after-effects
Hindsight bias can interfere with the judicial system in that judges and jurors presented with the case a given often judge defendants as being capable of preventing the bad outcome (Starr & McCormick, 2001). This may be erroneous since many times defendant may not have known the outcome. This also extends tot the plaintiff, where, sometimes, jurors may determine that, based on the outcome, the plaintiff should have been more aware of the
System of castas/Latin American History
Among many contributions of Mexico to the present American culture few are considered more significant than the concept of Mestizaje referring to the racial and cultural and synthesis. Mexico came out to be a fusion of the old and new world, particularly after the Spanish invasion during 16th century. Ever since the inception of the conquest the interracial sexual unions among Indians, Europeans, Africans and Asians appeared common, however, interracial marriage was allowed only during the later half of the 17th century. The frightened white elite treatened of the growing tide of Castas -- many racially mixed people- during 18th century formulated a caste system in order to institute status distinctions between the sub-groups so as to divide them and strengthen the Spaniards' sense of their own exclusivity. (An Unsettling acial Score Card)
The commissioned paintings of many groups of castas have remained to be…
Early Latin America. Retrieved from http://occawlonline.pearsoned.com/bookbind/pubbooks/stearns_awl/chapter25/objectives/deluxe-content.html Accessed 7 November, 2005
Fulopp, Tomas J. Latin America and the Concept of Social Race. Retrieved from http://www.vacilando.org/index.php?x=810 Accessed 7 November, 2005
Montalvo, Frank. Danzon and Mexico's Caste System. Retrieved from http://www.webcom.com/~intvoice/montalvo3.html Accessed 7 November, 2005
Poverty alleviation program for minority communities in Latin America: Communities of African Ancestry in Latin America history, Population, Contributions and social attitudes social and economic conditions. Retrieved from http://enet.iadb.org/idbdocswebservices/idbdocsInternet/IADBPublicDoc.aspx?docnum=479869 Accessed 7 November, 2005
Social Security was instituted with the passage of the Social Security Act of 1935. It was signed into law by President oosevelt as a means of providing a social safety net for retirees. The passage of Social Security occurred during the depths of the Great Depression. Prior to this, the concept of social security did not exist in the U.S. -- you either worked until you died, or you retired when you were wealthy enough to do so. Social Security is run by the Social Security Administration, which also administers Medicare as part of the system. Social Security is theoretically self-funding. In 1937, the first taxes were collected to finance the Social Security system. Workers pay into the Social Security system via a payroll tax. According to the SSA's website, general tax revenues have never funded Social Security to any meaningful extent, implying that the program is self-funding through these…
Autor, D. & Duggan, M. (2006). The growth in social security disability rolls: A fiscal crisis unfolding. NBER Working Paper Series. Retrieved March 25, 2014 from http://cid.bcrp.gob.pe/biblio/Papers/NBER/2006/Agosto/w12436.pdf
Biggs, A. (2011). Means testing and its limits. American Enterprise Institute. Retrieved March 25, 2014 from http://www.aei.org/article/economics/retirement/means-testing-and-its-limits/
SSA.gov. (2014). FAQs. Social Security Administration. Retrieved March 25, 2014 from http://www.ssa.gov/history/hfaq.html
Templin, B. (2006) Full funding: The future of social security. Thomas Jefferson School of Law. Retrieved March 25, 2014 from http://drupaldev.tjsl.edu/sites/default/files/files/Full_Funding-The_Future_of_Social_Security.pdf
" (Adams et al.)
hat the report went on to show was how a decades long deception was practiced on a race that was viewed primarily as a guinea pig for medical science.
The Tuskegee Institute had been established by Booker T. ashington. Claude McKay had passed through there in 1912 to study agriculture (under the patronage of alter Jekyll, a man who provided the basis for Robert Louis Stevenson's classic horror tale character). Around the same time that Eleanor Dwight Jones was striving to preserve the white race, the United States Public Health Service began the Tuskegee Syphilis Study. hat took place was a forty year analysis of the life of syphilis. The two hundred black men who had syphilis were "deliberately denied treatment" (Adams et al.) in what was just one more step in oppression and callous social engineering.
And at the same time the Tuskegee experiment was…
Adams, Myrtle, et al. "Final Report of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study Legacy Committee."
1996. Web. 8 June 2011.
Cone, James. Risks of Faith. Boston, MA: Beacon Press, 1999. Print.
Dowlings, Keven, and Knightley, Philip. "The Spy Who Came Back from the Grave."
Competitor products and their equivalent prizes, this is so that after establishing our break-even analysis it can act as a guiding line to set the best price. (Tao 2008)
The survey should enable one establish the best marketing strategies and anticipate any future contingencies.
Entrepreneurship development services
This service will target individuals who wish to start business on their own or in a group it will mainly involve
Training on how to originate business ideas. It is said that if you feed a man you have only feed him a day, a long-term problem in a short-term way. If you show the man how to fish then you have feed him and his family for life and I add that if you show the man how to run a fish business you will have feed the society too. In his book ich Dad Poor Dad, Kiyosaki explains that the most…
Adaman F., Keyder C., Mudderrisoglu S., Yukseker D. (2009) Poverty and Social Exclusion in the Slum Areas of Large Cities in Turkey. European Commission on Employment, SocialAffairs and Equal Opportunities Development Goal. European Union, Luxenbourg, Europe.
Agbola T., Agunbiade E. (2009) Urbanization, Slum Development and Security of Tenure: The Challenges of Meeting Millennium Development Goal 7 in Metropolitan Lagos, Nigeria. Department of Urban and Regional Planning, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.
Camur E. (2003) What are the Social, Physical and Economic Problems of Slums and their Expectations from the Urban City? Sage books.New York.
Dumashie a. (2004) Informal Housing in East Africa: Lessons Learned From Cross Country Borders (Part II). Journal, FIG Working Week, May 22-27, United Kingdom.
Systems of Power and Inequality
In early March of 2012, a 28-minute video on the plight of African children received more than 21 million YouTube views. The video vividly depicts how the guerilla warlord Joseph Kony, leader of the Lords esistance Army (LA), reportedly abducted over 60,000 children who were subsequently forced to become child soldiers or sex slaves over the course of the civil war. Captured children who did not cooperate as said to have been mutilated and murdered. Production and dissemination of the video was a result of the efforts of an American charity called Invisible Children. In interviews with the press following the viral reception of the video, Invisible Children campaigner Jason ussell stressed the importance of the video as an example of how social media allows people all over the world to actually see other people -- see, as in the struggles, challenges, plights, and victories…
Anderson, M.L. And Hill Collins, P. (2009). Race, Class & Gender: An Anthology (7th ed.). Wadsworth Publishing.
Christie, D.J., Wagner, R.V., and Winter, D.D. (2001). Peace, conflict, and violence: Peace psychology for the 21st century. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Thorton, B. (2006). Critical consciousness and liberal education, In Watson, B. (2006) Civic Education and Culture.
Wilkerson, M. (2012, March 8). Kony 2012 campaign: Oprah and bracelets won't solve problem. The Guardian.
Social Upward Mobility
Explain how the economic system in the United States can be used both to allow upward social mobility and trap others in lower status levels.
America is known as the land of opportunity. This is because no matter where someone comes from, their racial group, nationality or economic class everyone has the chance to be successful. If they have a good idea and are willing to work at it, they will realize their long-term goals. Throughout the course of U.S. history, this has been the case. As innovators from across the world can start out with nothing and earn a fortune during the course of their lifetimes. (Cullen 2004) (Henslin 2013)
This is because the economic system enables upward mobility by encouraging the free flow of ideas through a culture of acceptance and understanding. At the same time, the movement of working capital and people from one…
Cullen, Jim. 2004. The American Dream. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
DeParle, Jason. 2012."Harder for Americans to Rise." Retrieved July 21, 2013 ( http://www.nytimes.com/2012/01/05/us/harder-for-americans-to-rise-from-lower-rungs.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0 )
Henslin, James. 2013. Essentials of Sociology. New York, NY: Pearson Education.
Social psychology view: What ensures that women are treated fairly in office settings in the United States?
One of the most prudent applications of social psychology within contemporary settings are those that relate to gender. Gender issues can become exacerbated when they are viewed within particular social constructs, such as the work environment. Due to the fact that the majority of the world was initially a patriarchal society (particularly in the United States) before modern conceptions of gender became prevalent, the role of women within the work environment is one which is certainly worthy of investigation in terms of how women are treated, what sorts of issues they must contend with, and how others (men) consider working women. The principle difference between contemporary and most historic notions of gender pertaining to women in the workplace is that in modern times, there is supposed to be a substantial greater amount of…
Bisika, T. (2008). Do social and cultural factors perpetuate gender-based violence in Malawi?.Gender & Behaviour, 6(2), 1884-1896. doi:10.4314/gab.v6i2.23426
Cikara, M., Rudman, L., & Fiske, S. (2012). Dearth by a Thousand Cuts?: Accounting for Gender Differences in Top-Ranked Publication Rates in Social Psychology. Journal Of Social Issues, 68(2), 263-285. doi:10.1111/j.1540-4560.2012.01748.x
Gilbert, D.G., Fiske, S.T. & Lindzey G. (2010). Handbook of social psychology (5th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Huerta, M. (2007). Intersections of race and gender in women's experiences of harassment. (Order No. 3253291, University of Michigan). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses,, 110-110 p. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/304848503?accountid=25340 . (304848503).
A proposal to change the program
educing Benefits: This can be done in various ways. Monthly benefits can be reduced by minimizing cost of living adjustments or by minimizing the primary insurance amount (PIA) for a certain average indexed monthly earnings (AIME). Other proposals include targeting reductions towards high-income retirees. Benefits can also be reduced by increasing the retirement age or imposing full taxes on social security benefits. These benefit reduction proposals are some of the simplest and cheapest to implement. If future clients expect lower benefits, they are expected to save more or work longer; all of which will have a positive effect on the economy (Midgley, 2006).
Complete privatization: one of the radical proposals is to erase the social security system and encourage individuals to save in their accounts held by private investment companies. Owners of accounts will have great discretion over their decision of investment…
Brown, J., Liebman, J., & Wise, D. (2009). Social Security Policy in a Changing Environment. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Cross, T.E. (2010). Social security: Capital markets & educational issues associated with individual accounts. S.l.: Diane Pub Co.
Midgley, J. (2006). Challenges to social security: An international exploration. Westport, Conn. [u.a.: Auburn House.
Social Commerce in Saudi Arabia: How the Social Media Affect the E-Commerce in Saudi Arabia
SOCIAL COMMECE IN SAUDI AABIA
Conceptual Framework Model
Psychological Aspect and Theories
Digital Divide in Saudi Arabia
Ethos, eligious conviction, and Government in E-commerce Adoption
The ise of the P Industry in Saudi Arabia
Conceptual Model and esearch Hypothesis (Drawing)
Social Commerce in Saudi Arabia
Modern Saudi Arabia today actually represents an exceptional and convergent mixture of social conservatism and technological ability, a wonderful alteration from a remote, desert land that it was just something like 50 years ago. As social media is turning out to be increasingly prevalent in Saudi Arabia, online marketers are starting capitalizing in methods that service social media and include online customers. In Saudi Arabia Online marketers' adoption of new online marking trends is being prompted by discoveries that show individuals are spending great amounts…
Anderson, M. (2013). Turning "like" to "Buy" Social Media Emerges as a Commerce Channel. Booz & Company, 23-56.
Assad, S.W. (2009). The rise of consumerism in saudi arabian society. International Journal of Commerce & Management,, 73-104.
Bahaddad, A.A. (2013). Attracting customer in saudi arabia to buy from your business online. . International Journal of Business and Management, 65-81.
Brock, C. (2014). F-COMMERCE AND THE CRUCIAL ROLE OF TRUST. Online Communities and Digital Collaborations, 1-11.
Social Media in the Business Environment
In the past few years, there has been a tremendous and dramatic increase in the use of social networking sites and social media such as Facebook and Twitter. This is particularly because of the low-cost, user-oriented, and highly collaborative means of communication that continues to evolve through its own impetus. Consequently, social networking sites or social media are based on certain principles that the corporate or business environment can learn from. There is an assumption that the widespread adoption of social media in people's personal lives can be moved to the professional environment where they can be used to develop unprecedented knowledge bases in which people, industries, and the society can be empowered. However, many businesses still consider social media and social networking sites tools as frivolous to an extent that they have prohibited their use in the working environment. Actually, these companies still…
Coleman, A (2012), How Social Media can Benefit Small Businesses, The Guardian, viewed 6
Ernst & Young (2012), Protecting and Strengthening your Brand, Ernst & Young, viewed 6
Social Order and Inequalities
Social order and inequality
Ideas, beliefs, values, norms, roles, statuses, organizations and social class may have impact on an individual's life directly or indirectly. This can be in form of gender and social inequality. The life of my friend Jane who is a woman is an example of how these phenomenon impacts the life of individuals.
Gender inequalities rise from deepening division in the roles that are assigned to men and women, especially in the political, economic and educational sphere. When my friend Jane could not make it to the leadership of their community despite various attempts, it showed that women are always underrepresented in political activities as well as decision making processes. This is brought by the ever existing beliefs that men are better leaders than women. As a woman she is subjected to institutional discrimination where they face problem of accessing education which has…
What is meant by the term 'social enterprise' and what do social enterprises contribute to society and the economies in which they operate?
The acceleration with which the world is changing day by day is continuous. A majority of organizations that have a motto of 'not-for-profit' are looking out for prospects with the help of which they can begin or widen their projects in order to get their missions fulfilled and offer the needy the earned profits. Thus, any organization or scheme that brings about the mentioned twofold objectives is considered a social enterprise. Social enterprises sell mission-related goods or services and by doing so they try to create a more impartial and fair environment through specific market-based strategies (Bornstein & Davis 2010).
In other words, a business is regarded as a social enterprise when the main objective is to cope up with the prevailing societal problems and…
Baptiste, T. (2009). Being a Leader and Making Decisions. 1st. ed. New York: Chelsea House.
Beerel, A. (2009). Leadership and Change Management. 1st. ed. Los Angeles: SAGE.
Bornstein, D. & Davis, S. (2010). Social Entrepreneurship: What Everyone Needs to Know. 1st. ed. New York: Oxford University Press.
Borzaga, C. & Defourny, J. (2001). The Emergence of Social Enterprise. 1st. ed. London: Routledge.
Social issue alcohol drugs consider a social issue interested. It human freedom, sexuality, deviance, crime, social mobility, poverty, education, aging, similar issues. Select a specific social issue investigate assignment.
Social issue: Drug abuse
The social problem of drug addiction is a long-standing one, yet the causes of addiction and the best way to treat addiction still remain difficult questions to answer. One contentious issue pertains to whether addiction is a 'crime' or an 'illness,' although an increasingly large body of medical research indicates long-term abuse fundamentally rewires addicts' brains and changes their perceptions of reward and punishment. Drugs stimulate dopamine receptors. Dopamine is a chemical in the brain that generates a sense of positive well-being: "Just as we turn down the volume on a radio that is too loud, the brain adjusts to the overwhelming surges in dopamine (and other neurotransmitters) by producing less dopamine or by reducing the number…
Cratty, Carol. (2011). New rules slashing crack cocaine sentences go into effect. CNN.
Drugs and the brain. (2012). National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). Retrieved at:
Social Equity Public Administration
Emergence as Concern in Field of Public Administration
Social equity has always been an important aspect of public administration, though only recently is it receiving much attention in the press. Whereas in times of old social equity concerned itself primarily with issues of fairness and equality in the public workplace, today social equity is emerging as a field encompassing many different aspects of administration.
Among these include public education, policy development, hiring and promotional practices, public welfare and even transportation. In modern public administration, all of these issues are applied to the field in order to establish fairness, justice and equality for all. Social equity in the field of public administration has emerged as a response to consumer demands for equitable policy making and fairness in governance.
Public administration as a whole may be defined as the management of "matters which have principally to do with…
Frederickson, G. (1986). "New public administration." Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press.
Rice, M.F. (2003). "Organizational Culture, Social Equity & Diversity: Teaching Public
Administration." Texas A& M. University, Bush School Working Paper #314. 14, November, 2004: http://bush.tamu.edu/content/research/working_papers/mrice/teach-post-modern.pdf
Christopher, G.C., Rutledge, P.J. (2001). "Reinvigorating the Social Equity Debate."
Social Technology and Security
Cincom Systems, a privately-held enterprise software company who is very active on Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter and has an extensive blog network relies on social media sites to share customer success stories and the latest updates on events the company is participating in. Cincom has six different product divisions, each offering a different type of enterprise software, ranging from Customer elationship Management (CM), and Enterprise esource Planning (EP) to advanced product and sales configuration systems as well. The latest information on employee accomplishments and a continual stream of updates on new products dominate the social networking sites, while the website is used for communicating the unique value proposition of the six different divisions.
The website is also used for providing product overviews and presentations given at conference, along with the biographies of the senior executives. Cincom's executives are all over 50 years of age, with several over…
Diffley, S., Kearns, J., Bennett, W., & Kawalek, P. (2011). Consumer behaviour in social networking sites: Implications for marketers. Irish Journal of Management, 30(2), 47-65.
Heirati, N., O'Cass, A., & Ngo, L.V. (2013). The contingent value of marketing and social networking capabilities in firm performance. Journal of Strategic Marketing, 21(1), 82.
Social trends in Education / the next 5 years
With societal establishments and school structures, we can carry the most important task of providing youths with the necessary education which will provide them opportunities to thrive in our community. A simple casual glance at the comparative mode of lifestyle in our country would make it obvious that these establishments performed in an excellent manner for the greater part of this century. But the universe is transforming in manners that radically remodels the suppositions, customs and guiding principles, which catered the American people earlier. Besides, the pace of transformation is gearing up at an amazing speed, requiring in many customs and establishments the need to progress in certain spheres. To look forward to modifications, to a certain extent than acting in response to it, schools are spotting developments and scrutinizing their probable connotations.
ather than guessing what the coming years has…
Anglin, John. S. Educational Trends for the Future. Handbook of Theory and Research in Higher Education: Volume: 8; pp. 115-121. New York: Agathon, 2002
Carter, Holly. Implementation of International Competence Strategies: Faculty. In Bridges to the Future: Strategies for Internationalizing Higher Education, pp.191-203. Ed. Charles Klasek, Carbondale, Illinois: Association of International Education Administrators, 1992.
Corson, David. Language Diversity and Education. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2001.
Morrison, J.L. Higher-Education Trends and Indicators. The Chronicle of Higher Education. Volume: 46, No: 3; September 10, 1999; p. A54
The relationship of this dynamic system can be seen in the past 9/11 attack at the World Trade Center. All of the three elements, the society, business, and government, were involved and aggravated in the incident. First of all, it was the international relationship and activities of the U.S. government that was the main reason why the attack was committed. To communicate the disagreement of the terrorist party to the government, what they did was to hamper and injure the businesses in U.S., particularly the World Trade Center which is located in the main business district of America. Consequently, from such attack to businesses as the terrorists' way to communicate their anger to the U.S. government, the society was the main element who received and experienced the harm.
Social evolution to rapid revolutionary change and contemporary globalization dynamics: Emphasizing the an Analysis of Global Economics.
An article that recently appeared in The Korea Herald, "U.S. And Germany stress cooperation" details a visit to Germany by U.S. Treasury Secretary Tim Geithner, who met with his German counterpart to discuss the financial crisis that has enveloped Europe as of late. The context for this meeting was important, as the European Union's currency, the Euro, has consistently been devalued in the past few years and several countries that are part of this alliance (17 altogether) are contemplating various measures in which the currency and the economic solidarity of the EU could be saved.
The crux of this article, which directly correlates to Hans-Werner Sinn's opinion editorial, "Why Berlin is Balking on Bailout" actually has less to do with the meeting between the two financial heads of the U.S. And Germany and…
Its business alliances have succeeded because of the past encounter and uncompromising principles of Starbucks. When Starbucks created a licensing contract with Kraft Foods, Inc., it permitted Kraft Foods to begin to make Starbucks' items available in grocery markets, and now because of that attempt their items are available all over Northern U.S. And even the United Kingdom. If Starbucks did not have the primary features of what it is looking for in an alliance, it might not have been as effective in its collaboration with Kraft Foods or any other partner. Starbucks was willing to think about the good and bad in the possible collaboration and choose on whether or not the collaboration would benefit its organization (Davidson & Fielden, 2013). If Kraft Foods, Inc. did not have the same corporate perspective and objectives that Starbucks had, Starbucks would not have engaged in business with them. Starbucks has been…
Beer, S. (2014). Diagnosing the system for organizations. New York, NY: Wiley.
Harrison, M. (2004). Diagnosing Organizations: Methods, Models, and Processes (Applied Social Research Methods) (3rd ed.). Berlin: Sage Publications.
Davidson, M., & Fielden, S.L. (2013). Individual diversity and psychology in organizations. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley.
Smith-Acuna, S. (2010). Systems Theory in Action: Applications to Individual, Couple, and Family Therapy. John Wiley & Sons
Systems Design Project
Change is integral to the survival of any commercial enterprise in today's globalized, technologically advanced business environment. This requires stakeholders to have personal and organizational transition skills to attain the desired change for future success (Hughes, 2006). Strategizing drives organizational change giving it direction through activities (Thornhill, Lewis, Millmore and Saunders, 2000). Internal and external environmental considerations are both relevant; along with change management required to align with strategic change. Singular change is integral to organizational modification; a concept that bears adopting as a precursor to internalizing change across the organization.
The change agent is responsible for comprehending the concept of strategic change which encompasses an understanding of change models, approaches and tools for proper implementation. Furthermore they must possess an aptness for analytical assessment of contexts, critical thinking adeptness - both of which will be applied along the change continuum within the organization through use of…
Balogun, J., and Hailey, V.H. (2008), Exploring Strategic Change, Pearson Education Limited, England
Burnes, B. (2004), 'Emergent change and planned change - competitors or allies?: The case of XYZ construction', International Journal of Operation & Production Management, Vol. 24 No. 9, pp. 886-902
Change Management Learning Center (2009), 'Five tips for: Succeeding in change management', Change Management Learning Center, available at: http://www.change-management.com/tutorial-5-tips-cm-success.htm (accessed 19 November 2009)
Chris, R. (2009), 'Working with Emergent Change in Organisations', available at: http://www.oikos-uk.com/docs_influences/Emergent%20Change%20print.pdf (accessed 20 November 2009)
Cradock's 2004 study of a correlation between population categories and child abuse lead to the development of an assessment tool that allowed social workers to determine when children were at risk for child abuse and when to intervene and what actions would be seen as an over-intervention. By using this assessment, social workers will not only know how to identify the serious danger of child abuse and what children are at-risk for being abused, but also the assessment makes it possible for social workers to determine when intervening in the situation may be dangerous or unnecessary for the children involved. Of similar importance are the tools developed to assess and evaluate those convicted of both child physical and sexual abuse. In Milner and Murphy's 1995 study, the methods of assessment and evaluation are discussed and critiqued. These methods, including interview, observation, personality tests, and offender-specific assessments, are all studied in…
Arad-Davidzon, Bilhah, and Benbenishty, Rami. "The role of workers' attitudes and parent and child wishes in child protection workers' assessments and recommendation regarding removal and reunification. Children and Youth Services Review. 30.1 (2008): 107-121.
Bray, James H. "Family Assessment: Current Issues in Evaluating Families." National
Council on Family Relations. 44.4 (1995): 469-477.
Buckner, Lynn P. And Salts, Connie J. "A Premarital Assessment Program." Family
Teachers will continue to lead the educational process, but they need to be very sensitive about the issues facing the society as a whole and the children as individuals in this society. Then, education becomes a means of identifying the issues in the life of the students and gaining knowledge and understanding about them. Education in this global society also has to acknowledge that cultural diversity is valued and preserved (Tozer, Violas, & Senese, 2002, p. 190). Teachers have to ensure that their students are taught in ways that respond to cultural groups without bias (Tozer, Violas, & Senese, 2002, p. 420). In education, there is a responsibility for students to gain a respect for other races, religions and gender that are different from their own. This is the only way that a diverse society can successfully survive.
Best, S. And Douglas, K. (1991) Postmodern Theory: Critical Interrogations, New…
Best, S. And Douglas, K. (1991) Postmodern Theory: Critical Interrogations, New York, the Guilford Press.
Byrne, a. (1998). Interpretivism. In Roberto Casati (ed.), European Review of Philosophy. Stanford: CSLI Publications
Dewey, J. (1997). Experience and education. New York: Touchstone Books.
Giroux, H. (1997) 'Crossing the Boundaries of Educational Discourse: Modernism, post-modernism, and Feminism' in a.H. Halsey, H. Lauder, P. Brown and a.S. Wells (eds.) Education: Culture, Economy, and Society, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
So to that extent, the choice consumers make is less about product, and more about convenience, and perhaps what the consumer perceives as the necessary choice; meaning they do not have a choice when considering the negative of selecting a different operating system. To this extent, it signifies the extent to which "personal computers" have indeed become very personalized, and consumers cannot risk making changes in the direction of operating systems once they have become accustomed to Microsoft.
The construct of time-style also offers potential for researchers investigating shopping behaviors and styles, for example, in the retail domain (see also Kaufman and Lane 1996). The various dimensions of time-style will likely have an impact on shopping behaviors such as how much pre-purchase planning is undertaken; whether people prefer browsing or "in-and-out" shopping; whether or not shopping lists are made; and whether people prefer to shop alone or with others. In…
Berdayes, V. & Murphy, J.W. (Eds.). (2000). Computers, Human Interaction, and Organizations: Critical Issues. Westport, CT: Praeger. Retrieved February 10, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=71745134 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=109763690
Chin, E. (2001). Purchasing Power: Black Kids and American Consumer Culture. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Retrieved February 10, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=109763693 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=104624583
Lally, E. (2002). At Home with Computers. New York: Berg. Retrieved February 10, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=104624585 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5020507541
More current research in this field uses an even more analytical approach. King and Covi (1995) studied the use of electronic journals, and their effect on scholarly communications. ather than just examining the effect of those journals, the researchers also took into consideration variables such as design layout and speed of content updates. What they found was that these journals did play a role in scholarly communication, and each of the different variables had an effect on how well the journal faired (King and Covi, 1995). It is precisely this type of analytical, integrated research that is useful to the field of social informatics, but is generally lacking.
While studies such as that above show clearly the value of social informatics research, done in a systematic, empirical way, the field in and of its self is still too non-integrated and unorganized. In order for the field to be truly beneficial…
Attewell, P. (1987). The deskilling controversy. Work and Occupation, 14(3), 323-346.
King, J.L. (1983). Centralized vs. decentralized computing: organizational considerations and management options. Computing Surveys, 15(4), 320-349.
Kling, R. (1999, January). What is social informatics and why does it matter? D-Lib Magazine, 5(1). Retrieved July 6, 2005, from D-Lib Magazine. Web site: http://www.dlib.org/dlib/january99/kling/01kling.html#Kling95 .
Kling, R. And Covi, L. (1995). Electronic journals and legitimate media in the systems of scholarly communication. The Information Society, 11(4), 261-271.
Social Engineering and Information Security
We are in an age of information explosion and one of the most critical problems facing us is the security and proper management of information. Advanced hardware and software solutions are being constantly developed and refined to patch up any technical loopholes that might allow a hacker attack and prevent consequent breach of information security. While this technical warfare continues, hackers are now pursuing other vectors of attack. Social engineering refers to the increasing employment of techniques, both technical and non-technical, that focus on exploiting the cognitive bias in humans as the weakest link in computer security. What is shocking is the fact that in spite of the great vulnerability to human exploitation, there prevails a seemingly careless attitude in this regard in the corporate world. While more and more money is spent on beefing up hardware security and in acquiring expensive software solutions, little…
1) Christopher Hadnagy (2011), 'Social Engineering: The Art of Human Hacking', Wiley Publishing Inc.
2) Greg Sandoval, (Feb 2007), 'FTC to Court: Put an end to pretexting operations', Retrieved Mar 5th 2011 from, http://news.cnet.com/FTC-to-court-Put-an-end-to-pretexting-operations/2100-7348_3-6159871.html?tag=lia;rcol
3) Mindi McDowell, (Oct 2009), 'National Cyber Alert System: Avoiding Social Engineering and Phishing attacks', retrieved Mar 5th 2011 from, http://www.us-cert.gov/cas/tips/ST04-014.html
4) Sonja Ryst, (July, 2006), ' The Phone is the latest Phishign Rod', retrieved Mar 5th 2011 from, http://www.businessweek.com/technology/content/jul2006/tc20060710_811021.htm
Social Contract, Rousseau argues that we are all born free and equal, yet do not live either freely or equally. Rousseau then goes on to argue that the construction of the General Will is the means by which people can achieve freedom. The General Will is the social contract where all members of society agree to obey the General Will to be part of society. Rousseau argues that by this General Will, the separate wills of each member of society converge into one. Freedom is achieved because every citizen is equal, each being a single unit of the General Will and having the same amount of influence over it. Rousseau argues that this General Will is the way individuals in society retain their equality and find freedom. Further consideration of the implications of the General Will and the social contract will show that Rousseau's version of freedom and equality may…
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques. The Social Contract. Trans. Maurice Cranston. New York: Penguin, 1987.
Vatican II, officially known as the Second Vatican Council, was a meeting of many leaders of the Catholic Church to discuss both theological and social issues pertaining to the Church in the modern era. Convened by Pope John XXIII in the 1960s and continued by his successor Paul VI, the main goal of the Second Vatican Council was to establish the Church's role and meaning in the modern world, which it recognized as fundamentally changed from the role of the Church in previous eras. Many different topics of concern were examined during the many phases of Vatican II, and the Council produced a number of documents on these varying subjects that help to define Church doctrine and perspectives on the modern world. When it comes to the social thought and action of the Catholic Church following Vatican II, one of the most important documents produced by the Council…
My views tend to classify modern societies first by their political system: socialist, democratic, representative, totalitarian, and then move more into demographics and psychographics.
1.2 Political Quarrels -Describe, in a 250-300-word post, one of the quarrels faced by the Britons or the French. Analyze the role of that country's history, geography, political institutions, and its culture in relation to the quarrel.
For centuries, Britain and France have been at odds with one another. This likely goes back to Medieval times, then progressed through the Age of Discovery, claims to colonies -- especially in the new world, and the age old rights to economic development of Europe and the oceans. Historically, in 1066 the Duke of Normandy led and invasion of England, defeating the English at the battle of Hastings. William, the Duke, had himself crowned King of England, but remained a vassal of the French King, which became humiliating to…
Roskin, M. (2008). Countries and Concepts: Politics, Geography, Culture. New York:
Spamming involves receiving deceptive mail like one has won the lottery then engineers ask for information to receive payment so as to gain financially or for social gains. For fake spyware, they claim to have utilities that are anti-spyware but are actually the spyware that can hack into your system. The engineers in this case pretend to be genuine and are out to offer solutions.
Protecting individuals from social engineering
There are various ways to prevent social engineering when one is using the internet. People should update themselves on the new techniques that social engineers are using. People should always contact their banks or any other financial institution using unknown sites or links. A website can never be assumed to be legitimate just by looking at it, it is important to ensure from experts that a website that is being used to give crucial information is a secured website.
Social- engineer. (2010). Security Through Education. Retrieved October13, 2010, from http://www.social-engineer.org/
Podgorecki, A. And Alexander, J. (1996) Social Engineering: Internet Fraud. New York:
Thapar, A. (2008. November 19). Sophisticated Engineering Techniques in Business. Time magazine, 160(5), 24-26.
Those who predict future behavior and demand for products and services correctly can profit tremendously from their planning; conversely, those who invest in technologies or applications based on assumptions or expectations that never materialize run the risk of losing their entire investment. In that respect, the computer realm is no different from the decisions and projections made in traditional types of businesses. It may just seem different by virtue of the accelerated rate of computer evolution and development and the fact that some of the specific new technologies and capabilities become so widely and rapidly adopted that they can change society practically overnight.
In all likelihood, computers today are similar to paper in the Middle Ages when producing paper was so labor intensive and expensive that very little was available and only to the wealthiest classes. Another analog might be dry cell battery technology around the turn of the 20th…
(2004) Intent and Ordinary Bias: Unintended Thought and Social Motivation Create Casual Prejudice. Social Justice esearch, Vol. 17 Issue 2, p117-127, 11p. etrieved July 7, 2009 from EBSCO online database http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=s8h&AN=13079636&loginpage=Login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Henry, P.J. And Hardin, C. (2006). The Contact Hypothesis evisited. Status Bias in the eduction of Implicit Prejudice in the United States and Lebanon. Association of Psychological Science. Vol.1-7 -- Number 10. etrieved July 7, 2009 from EBSCO online database http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rst&AN=23000285&loginpage=Login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Mandel, I. (2009). Cultural Prejudice & Discrimination. esearch Starters Sociology, 2009, p1-6, 6p. etrieved July 7, 2009 from EBSCO online database http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rst&AN=36267911&loginpage=Login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Pearson, A., Dovidio, J., & Pratto, F. (2007).acial Prejudice, Intergroup Hate, and Blatant and Subtle Bias of Whites toward Blacks in Legal Decision Making in the United States. International Journal of Psychology & Psychological Therapy, 2007, Vol. 7 Issue 2, p145-158, 14p. etrieved July 8, 2009 from EBSCO online database Full Text http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=s8h&AN=27747337&loginpage=Login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site
amasubramanian, S. &…
Fiske, S. (2004) Intent and Ordinary Bias: Unintended Thought and Social Motivation Create Casual Prejudice. Social Justice Research, Vol. 17 Issue 2, p117-127, 11p. Retrieved July 7, 2009 from EBSCO online database http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=s8h&AN=13079636&loginpage=Login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Henry, P.J. And Hardin, C. (2006). The Contact Hypothesis Revisited. Status Bias in the Reduction of Implicit Prejudice in the United States and Lebanon. Association of Psychological Science. Vol.1-7 -- Number 10. Retrieved July 7, 2009 from EBSCO online database http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rst&AN=23000285&loginpage=Login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Mandel, I. (2009). Cultural Prejudice & Discrimination. Research Starters Sociology, 2009, p1-6, 6p. Retrieved July 7, 2009 from EBSCO online database http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rst&AN=36267911&loginpage=Login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site
If the public trusts the judges and believes that they are administering justice equally among all people, then there appears to be a mutual respect atmosphere, in which the public adheres to the law willingly. However, if there is distrust of the administration, violence and criminal behavior becomes more prevalent, as the people resist unequal administration of the law.
Moe .C., Gilmour .S. (1995). ediscovering principles of public administration: the neglected foundation of public law. Public Administration eview, Vol. 55. etrieved November 13, 2007 at http://www.questia.com/googleScholar.qst?docId=5001645731.
Monahan, J. (1984).The prediction of violent behavior: toward a second generation of theory and policy. Am J. Psychiatry. Vol. 141:10-15 etrieved November 13, 2007 at http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/abstract/141/1/10.
Osborne, D. And Gaebler, T. (1992). einventing Government. New York, NY: Penguin Press.
Paulozzi, L.J.; Spengler, F, and Gower, MA. (1992). An evaluation of the Vermont worksite smoking law.Public Health ep. Nov-Dec 1992. 107(6) 724-726.
Moe R.C., Gilmour R.S. (1995). Rediscovering principles of public administration: the neglected foundation of public law. Public Administration Review, Vol. 55. Retrieved November 13, 2007 at http://www.questia.com/googleScholar.qst?docId=5001645731 .
Monahan, J. (1984).The prediction of violent behavior: toward a second generation of theory and policy. Am J. Psychiatry. Vol. 141:10-15 Retrieved November 13, 2007 at http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/abstract/141/1/10 .
Osborne, D. And Gaebler, T. (1992). Reinventing Government. New York, NY: Penguin Press.
Paulozzi, L.J.; Spengler, RF, and Gower, MA. (1992). An evaluation of the Vermont worksite smoking law.Public Health Rep. Nov-Dec 1992. 107(6) 724-726.
Systems Theory makes several assumptions that are useful for understanding the 14-year-old's behavior:
The state or condition of a system, at any one point in time, is a function of the interaction between it and the environment in which it operates." (Longres, 1999, p. 19)
Change and conflict are always evident in a system. Individuals both influence their environments and are influenced by them. Processes of mutual influence generate change and development." (Longres, 1990, p. 19)
Each person in a family is part of the whole system. The whole is greater than the sum of its parts." (Longres, 1990, p. 266)
These assumptions make us understand that the responsibility for the acts of the 14-year-old rest not with the child himself, but with the relationships and interactions in his family. More than anything else, the real issue is a family boundary problem where the hierarchical subsystem had not had a…
Brother Arrested in Slaying of Girl, 4." Washington Post 20. Sept., 2004: B-1
Longres, John F. Human Behavior in the Social Environment. Itasca, IL F.E. Peacock Publishers, Inc., 1990
Teen Appears in DC Court In Slaying of Sister, 4." Washington Post 21 Sept. 2004: B-3
As recent events in the Middle East have clearly demonstrated, Facebook is more on the side of the politically disadvantaged and the poor as they have increasingly embraced Facebook and other social media while the governments in the region tried to ban them. Many governments such as that of China do not allow Facebook primarily because they want to avert scenarios they have seen in the Middle East.
It was in the wake of 2008 when Oscar Morales, a young man in Columbia, decided that he had had enough of FARC (Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia), a Marxist group which routinely kidnaps people, keeping them as hostages for months or years, while many of the hostages die in captivity. Angry and depressed by the actions of FARC, one night he turned to Facebook which he had been using to connect with his friends and high school classmates. He…
Alexanian, Janet A.. "Eyewitness Accounts and Political Claims: Transnational Responses to the 2009 Postelection Protests in Iran." Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East 31.2 (2011): 425-442. Project MUSE. Web. 3 Oct. 2011. .
Burns, Alex and Ben Eltham, "Twitter free Iran: an evaluation of twitter's role in public diplomacy and information operations in Iran's 2009 election crisis," in Papandrea, Franco & Armstrong, Mark (Eds.). Record of the Communications Policy & Research Forum 2009. Sydney: Network Insight Institute. Web. 26 Nov. 2011 .
China, Walid. "The Facebook Revolution." New African 503 (2011): 24. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 26 Nov. 2011.
Eltahawy, Mona. "The Middle East's Generation Facebook." World Policy Journal 25.3 (2008): 69-77. Academic Search Premier. Web. 26 Nov. 2011.
Social Marketing Plan
Stop Crime, Be a Human first
Historically, South Africa was colonized under a brutish Apartheid system where there was a clear distinction in South Africa between the various divisions of the population before 1991. These racial categorizations were the Africans (black), Asians, the Coloreds and the Whites. This law has long been abolished but the majority of the South Africans still view each other along these racial lines (U.S. Department of state, 2011). It is estimated that the population of South Africa is 49.9 million people of whom the black Africans make up the 79.4% of the population and are also divided into various ethnic groups. The whites take up 9.2% while the Indian/Asians make up 2.6% of the total population and 8.8% being the coloreds (SouthAfrica.info, 2011).
According to Beggs et.al, (2001) there is a wide disparity between the blacks and the whites holding white collar…
SouthAfrica.info, (2011). South Africa's population. Available at http://www.southafrica.info/about/people/population.htm (Accessed 18 May 2011)
BBC (2003). Xenophobia in South Africa. Available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/3153461.stm (Accessed 18 May 2011)
Beggs, John J., and Wayne J. Villemez. (2001). Regional Labor Markets. Sourcebook of Labor
Markets: Evolving Structures and Processes, edited by Ivar Berg and Arne L. Kalleberg. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York. (503-29).
Systems theory is actually used by some practitioners in domestic violence social work and counseling by being packed within the approach of "family system theory" (e.g. Nichols & Schwartz, 2005). This approach holds that the family is a holistic system where all parts are inextricably and holistically intertwined and each member of the family affects the other. The school and community -- outside systems -- too affect the family, and, in turn, the individual family members have an impact on these external systems. Believing that all causes and effects have reciprocal impact, systems theory also posits circular causality where not only are multiple causes the instigation of one problem, but oen problem may, in effect, eventuate in multiple causes. Domestic violence, for instance, of spouse attacking other spouse negatively impacts children, which leads to poor academic study, which my negatively impact teacher's rating, disturbing the school, and so forth. Other…
Family system theory, too avoids labeling behaviors as good and bad seeing them as factor of external elements (such as geography or time) that are, often, beyond individual's control and often beyond his or her awareness too. Taking this in mind enables the counselor to not only be more empathic and understanding of client but to also help detach the client from guilt regarding his activities and show him how to effectively reduce his negative behavior in a self-efficacious manner. By seeing the behavior as simply an action that has been learned and robotically repeated / reiterated through the generations, family system theory reuses to evaluate it and teaches the counselor / social worker and client to see it as a negative variable, through no fault of his own, that needs to be altered. Altering it will, in turn, not only make his own life and lives of those who are closest to him happier, but he will also positively impact the lives of countless effected others.
System theory, when applied to treatment of domestic violence, may be helpful too in that it treats not only first-order levels but provides understanding of, and probes underneath, to second-order levels too. First order levels refer to the situation where surface behavior may be changed but the underlying attitude remains unaltered (Nichols & Schwartz, 2005). The perpetrator, for instance, may learn new communication skills but the influence of his cultural internalizations regarding supposed inferiority of the female remains unchanged. System theory, on the other hand, may help the client realize the root of his perspectives and, by so doing, have a greater and more enduring impact on him. This would consequent in a second-order change where the underlying rationale is addressed leading to male and partner affecting a healthier relationship.
It is in this way that I see systems theory as contributing powerfully to amelioration of domestic violence.
Concluding in Political moderation, in "A Theory of Justice," and in later works, John awls explains a comprehensive, as well as influential theory, which is on the subject of, presenting a theory of justice in concurrence with the liberal-democratic passion that relates to the rights and freedoms of individuals in society. It entails that the rights of the individuals ought to be moderated by various types of clauses, making certain that no social or natural eventualities are overlooked. The theory declares that no inborn benefits of political authority, substance riches or natural capability should irreversibly or overpoweringly establish life chances. Furthermore, more distinctively, these morally subjective issues should not establish the value of political liberties to moral persons (1).
In 1971, awls's explains his first articulation of his theory of justice which highlights on individual abilities that he entitles the "Original Position" and in addition, a model of…
1). Macedo, Stephen. April 1995. Liberal Civic Education and Religious Fundamentalism: the Case of God v. John Rawls. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Pp.468 -496.
2). Carter, Stephen. 1987. Evolutionism and Treating Religion as a Hobby. Duke Law Journal.
3). Rawls, John. 1993. Political Liberalism. New York: Columbia University Press.
4). Kenneth Baynes. 1992. The Normative Grounds of Social Criticism: Kant, Rawls, Habermas, Albany. Suny Press.
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(2004) Intent and Ordinary Bias: Unintended Thought and Social Motivation Create Casual Prejudice. Social Justice esearch, Vol. 17 Issue 2, p117-127, 11p. etrieved July 7, 2009 from EBSCO online…Read Full Paper ❯
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If the public trusts the judges and believes that they are administering justice equally among all people, then there appears to be a mutual respect atmosphere, in which the…Read Full Paper ❯
Systems Theory makes several assumptions that are useful for understanding the 14-year-old's behavior: The state or condition of a system, at any one point in time, is a function…Read Full Paper ❯
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Systems theory is actually used by some practitioners in domestic violence social work and counseling by being packed within the approach of "family system theory" (e.g. Nichols & Schwartz,…Read Full Paper ❯
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