System Theory the Origin and Research Paper

Excerpt from Research Paper :

However, in the most recent theory of evolution which discusses the living world appears as the result of chance and an output of different randomly selected natural mills. This kind of development came to present as a result of the need of more subjects or topics in areas such as cybernetic, general system theory, information theory, theories of games which is needed in most decision making process in line with real applications. In mathematics techniques however, there are a number of general assumption which are insufficient and most of the time very contradict themselves (Laszlo & Krippner, 1982).

Again, Laszlo (1982) outlined that von Bertalanffy considered the idea of organization to be involved at various stages in the expression of natural system. This could be highlighted from his first statement on the system which he made between the years 1925-1926, during the time when similar thinking of organism was being invented by Alfred North Whitehead.

In more precisely, particularly when such statement was being issued, biologist Paul Weiss also started the process to come up with another system approach based on the significant of finding of the intangible incorporation that offers the complete knowledge of system theory which is more consistently understandable. More than any other scientists or mathematicians, von Bertalanffy, Whitehead and Weiss became more aggressive and with a lot of potential and enthusiastic to develop a general science of organized complication. In completing the much awaited result von Bertalanffy gave out the whole formulation of a general theory of system.

However, the 'General System Theory' was first launched at a philosophy seminar which took place at the University of Chicago in 1937, but its publication was hold for more years and until after World War II. It was until 1960s when system thinking started to be recognized as one of the most classic efforts at scientific combination and formulation of theory on a number of subjects which work hand in hand to form a system (Bailey, 2006-page 2).

System theory as a legitimate general frame of inquiry

A number of studies which have been previously conducted on the whole idea of system theory methods and its uniqueness to interpersonal, intrapersonal, intergroup and human nature, the repercussions indicate that interactions carried out without reducing the perception experience to the level of individual stimuli. General systems likely take by a number scientist as series of immediate surfacing in parallelism in various subjects which interpret reality and consequently offer away for the combined study of complication in human experience (Bailey, 2006, pg. 3).

As a matter of concern for any scientist, system theory is viewed as a field of inquiry dealing with the idea and combination of exploration happenings and events, more so system theory contains and deals with both epistemological and ontological situations. But instead of starting one between epistemological or ontology, it became more appropriate to use reminiscent according to Greek point of gnosiology, which deals with the holistic and integrative discovery of a number of happenings and events. However, there are sides of the system approach that are seen as ontological and characteristics are like epistemological and the characteristics that was once seen both and are supposed not to be circumscribed to either both parties (Bailey, 2006 p.3).

System and environment

Bertalanffy (2008) described the term environment in system theory as the group of a good number of all objects in a change whose efforts of contribution affects the system itself and those objects whose contributions are perceived to change by the behavior of the system. It was emphasized again by Bertalanffy (2008) that environment of each and every social system contains three stages of purpose. These purposes are of the system sections which make up the systems, and the systems where its sections are being found or exist, and lastly the suprasystem of systems (Bertalanffy, 2008, p.23).

This however ignite the question of how systems thinkers and scientists can articulate their opinion of social reality in terms of the meaning of system and the meaning of environment as portrayed by the system theory. Analysts and scientists in a broad view of systems science have a vivid opinion of their intended mission as a united section of the social system in which they work. In conducting a system analysis of any problem or situation, it is more appropriate to start solving from the problem,
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not from a preconceived method. Immediately the demonstration of these problems have been identified and described, they can be quickly go a head inward to the sub-systems and outward to the surrounding (Bertalanffy, 2008, pg. 23).

Living System Theory

Living System Theory according to Miller (2001) is described as an envoy of the older work of system ways of dealings, but it might also be seen as an out dated branch of systems association. Besides, through combination living system theory by cutting edge with technology and most of the upcoming systemic research areas, the theory may still serve as one of the most respected theories and most stretchy equipment in the structuring and development of human support systems and man machine for symbiotic software (Miller, 2001, pg. 23).

The living theory represents early ways of systematic development from the older times and to the more primitive functionalist system approaches which were used in the sixties to more elaborate to the post modern ones of current time. It is argue that, the main problem is mush bigger than the community of system researchers and practicing systemists, so understanding it fully might be quite challenging. Living System Theory (LST) was established after a thorough search for the important process and subsystems which are common to all forms of life, the way it indicated in cells, organism, organs, groups and communities (Miller, 1978). The theory is believed to offer an extraction of the critical processes and structures required by all forms of life. Although living system theory is likely to be complex and analytical the way any good theory, it can be very important a time. In fact living system theory has already been used in a number of ways (Miller, 2001, pg. 24).

Boundaries of Living System theory

Miller (2001, p. 2) noted Living System Theory can be described base on the analysis of twenty critical subsystems of the eight hierarchical levels. The hierarchical levels are the organs, organism, group, organization, community, supranational system and society. There are also twenty other twenty critical subsystems which are used to process matter-energy and information, eight of subsystem are used to process the matter energy and ten are used in the processing of the information. Boundary and the reproducer are the two subsystems which are used to produce both matter energy and information. However, ingestor, distributor, converter, producer, matter-energy storage, extruder, motor, and supporter are the eight subsystem used in making matter energy (Miller, 2001).

In living system theory, there are only ten subsystems which are used to process information. Out of the ten subsystems, input transducer, the internal transducer, decoder, the associate, the encoder, the time, the output and decider are the only one being used in the processing of information. The function and importance of boundary in the self reference of the living system, is show through the curser perusal of the eight subsystems that are used to process matter energy and other subsystem for processing information. For example, Miller's (1992) define the term ingestor by using boundary as the subsystem which brings matter-energy across boundary from the environment. Without knowledge of boundary someone would not be able understand or define ingestor and the seven matter energy process subsystem.

For instant, boundary is referred indirectly by Miller (1992, p.3) as an input or the environment. Although Miller didn't use word boundary in any of the definitions, the terms such as input, output and environment cannot be defined without the boundary. But the only two matter energy subsystem which are define alone as internal entities without any direct or indirect referring to a boundary are the matter energy storage subsystem and the supporter.

General system theory

A system is noted by Laszlo (2003) to be asset of highly interconnected components that show properties or form a whole unit as opposed to operating as individual components. This definition is deemed valid for an organism, a cell, a society or even a galaxy. The concept of system thinking is therefore noted to apprehend our world. It is noted by Flood at al (1990,p. 4) that a system is a framework of individual or group thought that helps use in dealing with complex things and situations holistically. Whenever this concept is formalized in a conventional, explicit and definite form, it gets termed as system theory.

System theory is noted to provide a body of knowledge that goes well beyond the disciplinary boundaries. Bertalanffy's General System Theory (GST) then comes into picture. Bertalanffy's General System Theory (GST) is noted by Bertalanffy (1968.,p. 32) to be a theory…

Sources Used in Documents:


Bailey, K.D. (2004). Beyond System Internals: Expanding the Scope of Living Systems Theory. Los Angeles: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Bailey, K.D. (2006). Living systems theory and social entropy theory. Systems Research and Behavioral Science, 23, 291-300.

Bertalanffy, L. (1951). General system theory - a new approach to unity of science. (Symposium), Human Biology, 23, 303-361. Dec 1951.

Bertalanffy, L. (1972). General system theory: Foundations, development, applications. London: Allen Lane.

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