Lingu francas are languages used b wide groups of people to facilitate communication between cultures that traditionally use separate languages; English is the lingua franca of much of the world, as people from Sweden to China to Egypt learn it to facilitate international communication. Pidgins and creoles are bastardizations of two or more languages from a merging or meeting of cultures.
National and official languages can be established to ease communication within a nation, but they do not always represent the real linguistic situation. Official/national languages require planning for documentation and to ensure that the language will serve the nation's needs. Norway had a difficult time selecting which dialect to make the official language, for example. Linguists play a role in this by helping to track and classify linguistic varietals and determine the effects of official changes.
Regional variation and social variation can both greatly impact linguistic changes due to…… [Read More]
Thus sociolinguistics is far more than an arcane academic field of study; rather, sociolinguistics offers a unique opportunity to make a real difference in society.
Now, for a concrete example that you as students should be able to understand and appreciate. Sociolinguistics has profound implications for teaching and has played a huge role in understanding the poor educational performance of lower-class inner-city children (Labov, 1972). Sociolinguists have found that language is one of the variables that make these children significantly different from the standard culture of the classroom. Sociolinguists believe that the solution is to adapt the school system to the language and learning styles of the majority of students in the inner-city schools.
Of course, teaching is just one area that sociolinguistics touches. For instance, sociolinguists might investigate attitudes towards the proposed English-only Amendment to help policy makers formulate strategies for obtaining support or rejection. or, sociolinguistics might study…… [Read More]
Defining Simplicity: Jamaican Patwa
Defining Simplicity: Jamaican Padwa
In sociolinguistics there is often a need to define phases of language development that are neither discrete nor simple. Yet it is also clear that these same terms, the best example being Pidgin and Creole were adopted from popular culture and are therefore loaded to some degree in usage. The degree to which these words are "loaded" depends a great deal on context. Sociolinguistics defines Pidgin as a language of lingua franca, derived from the mixing of two languages by a group of people who have a need to communicate on some level but speak two varied languages. This work will explore the terminology, accepted internal and external definitions of it, including pidgin, creole and linguistic simplicity, looking finally at a modern example of a creole language, Jamaican Patwa in the context of the definition of simplicity.
The development of a…… [Read More]
Cypriot Greek has a particularly distinct character and vocabulary of its own and many modern Greeks perceive Cypriots to be of a different culture than their own (Terkourafi 2007). The proposed experiment examines how even Greek-Americans have internalized stereotypes attached to dialects. Dialect variation is perceived as a cultural and economic marker, not simply one of geography.
In this experiment, the speech patterns of different Greeks reading a variety of relatively neutral passages will be recorded. These recordings will then be presented to a cross-section of both native Greeks and to Greek-Americans, and the recordings will be rated upon their perceptions of the speakers. The recorded passages will feature speakers from locations both in the northern and southern mainland, and a variety of Greek islands of various locations. The speakers will be 'rated' based upon their perceived social class, intelligence, positive and negative feelings about the speaker, and levels…… [Read More]
Sociolinguistics - How gender influences the way people speak?
Definition of keywords
Sociolinguistics: This is a study of language in respect of social, class, regional, gender and occupational factors.
Gender: It is the condition of being a female or a male and is mostly used in relation to cultural and social differences.
Gender Equality: A condition in which the opportunities and rights are not affected by the change of gender.
Speak: To say in order to express or convey feelings or conversation (oxforddictionaries.com)
Within the study of discourse, comparative analysis of the way women and men use language has been a topic of interest for quite some time. However, to date no coherent framework for gender differences in language and its use has been established empirically, despite relatively extensive theorizing. One reason for this lack of framework lies in the absence of a consensus in how language, whether written or…… [Read More]
Also, student's vocabulary and formality of speech can and will differ in different social contexts, from school to home to the playground, as indeed does all human speech, as even teachers adopt a greater degree of formality speaking to the principal, to students, and also in their own homes.
hy teach standard speech at all? hat to do when certain patterns of speech, such as Black English, have different grammatical variations than standard written English? One approach is to stress contextual aspects of speech in education. (Chaika, 1994, p.299) It cannot be denied that job applicants and people are validated and valued differently, depending on how their speech coheres to Standard ritten English. Even dialect speakers are evaluated on a valuation gradient, as speakers with certain desirable accents, like a British accent for example, might be esteemed more than speakers with a traditionally Black or Spanish accent, unfairly. (Chaika, 1994,…… [Read More]
appended meaning according to the outledge Dictionary of Language and Linguistics.
Scientific discipline developed from the cooperation of linguistics and sociology that investigates the social meaning of the language system and of language use, and the common set of conditions of linguistic and social structure. Several areas of sociolinguistic investigation are differentiated.
(a) A primarily sociologically oriented approach concerned predominantly with the norms of language use. (When and for what purpose does somebody speak what kind of language or what variety with whom?) Here language use and language attitudes as well as larger and smaller social networks are in the foreground. These facets are studied mainly by using quantitative methods; connections between socioeconomics, history, culture, ethnic differentiation, social class structure, and language varieties are included in the investigation (diglossia, code theory).
(b) A primarily linguistically oriented approach that presumes linguistic systems to be in principle heterogeneous, though structured, when…… [Read More]
Interviews can certainly be shaped by culture-specific nuances, but, at the same time misunderstandings may accrue due to other factors in other words, cultural differences may not be the only or accurate attribution to communicative difficulties in interview situations. There are too many other complexities that may be responsible for initiating miscommunication. Gomperz and Cook-Gomperz (2008) distinguish between socio-linguistics and linguistic anthropology but arangi concludes that: "A selective characterization of a communicative situation on the basis of different cultural attributes of the-participants can only serve to reify cultural differences in an essentialist way." (424). Rather what is needed is the application of discourse analysis to speech since discourse analysis functions as a two-pronged approach: on the one hand it traces individual communication to cultural background, and, on the other hand, it sources that same communication to societal and institutional role-relationships. 'Culture' may be a concept that has become exaggerated in…… [Read More]
e. cursing, swearing) and not using discriminatory language or language that is "racist, sexist, ageist" (Caldwell, 2004) or so forth. The concept of 'communicative competence" (Caldwell, 2004) is described as grammar that "relates to the nature of language teaching" in an approach." (Caldwell, 2004) that is fairly universally advocated in L2 teaching." (Caldwell, 2004) the mistakes that are made may either be in "form" due to lack of knowledge or through use of irregular past tense forms implying that grammar should be descriptive or mistakes in 'use" or knowing when the present perfect or the simple past tense should be used implying that grammar should be descriptive.
It is suggested by Tomlin (1994, pp. 141-42) that teaching communicative language in inclusive of (1) systematic attention to functional and structural aspects; (2) Situational and contextualized use of language in class; (3) Teaching and Learning being made transparent through representational support; (4)…… [Read More]
Language and Sexuality from a Desire-Based Perspective
Anthropology -- Language & Sexuality
The broader theoretical treatment of the study of sexuality has long been recognized in the fields of linguistic anthropology and sociolinguistics. Historically, sexuality has been discussed in sociocultural studies of language over the long-term. In fact, this work and the research it generated make up the emergent history and the scope of research on language and sexuality. This analytical discourse on the topic of sexuality and language is socially oriented, to be certain, but the it has followed a path of convenience, resulting in piecemeal treatment and an underlying fragmentation of the body of work.
Discussion of the desire-oriented approach to sexuality and language, theorizing the motivation and development of the approach from a poststructuralist position.
Women and men's talk: single/mixed sex; private/public
Gender and politeness
Peer and classroom talk
5. Public and workplace talk…… [Read More]
Yiddish as a first language in Ultra-Orthodox Jewish communities, compared to the use of local vernacular (for example, Hebrew in Israeli-ased Jews, or English in London and New York-ased Jews): in Hasidic Jews, the use of Yiddish is widespread, whereas in other Jewish groups, the local vernacular is more common.
This paper discusses the reasons behind these differences, and looks at the functions that Yiddish serves in these Hasidic Jew communities. The paper also looks at the effects of outside pressures has on the use of Yiddish, and on issues of identity in general.
The paper also looks at the religious issues related to the use of Yiddish, and at heritage issues in general. The paper also looks in detail at the use of Yiddish as a cultural isolating mechanism, as a way to create barriers between Hasidic Jews and non-Hasidic Jews, and also Hasidic Jews and non-Jews (gentiles).
The…… [Read More]
All of the chapters in the book relate to various events in Levi's life, as well as to his passion for chemistry. Surprisingly (when considering the suffering he went through in Auschwitz) Levi only associates a small chapter in the book with his experiences in the death camp. The story is nonetheless sad, and can be regarded as being the most impressive account in the book. All in all, "The Periodic Table" is more of an autobiography than a nonfiction account involving the Holocaust.
In "Vanadium," Levi shortly depicts a series of occurrences speaking about Auschwitz. The author apparently wants to go over the topic as fast as possible, only to return to the beautiful world of chemistry. He does not succeed in doing that however, since the subject slowly but surely grabs hold of him and forces him to go deeper and depict one of the most influential chapters…… [Read More]
It outlines those programs and benefits to be offered on campuses to help service international students more effectively. Japanese students are here identified. Since they speak English as second language, they have more stress, requiring more time to read their textbooks, receiving the abuse from students that are enrolled with them in classes or who are being taught by them when they serve as graduate assistants. This causes miscommunication and a loss of learning comprehension. The fact is that the native born student may feel resentment about being passed over for assignment to the teaching assistantship when it is given to the foreign born student. A series of programs is suggested to provide cultural sensitivity for the foreign student and then a staged program series to help the foreign student adapt (Lin, & Yi, 1997, 473-80).
Finally, the needs of students with special needs can not be ignored. Unfortunately, many…… [Read More]
The cultural values can be handled through the implementation of the of new methodologies for the execution of the task, the values as per the company's approval should be reinforced, no single action is expected to deliver necessary reforms to modify aspects and considerations that are highly ingrained and extremely valued, therefore it is important that the company adopt comprehensive and coordinated methodologies, for the management of the cultural changes. The multinational companies should understand that the quality of the product, and its services contributes significantly towards the success of the organization, and this has to be achieved only if the quality of the product does not only comply by the international standards, but should fulfill the aspirations of the local population, whereas the aspirations of the local population is based on cultural hegemony, therefore the cultural values should be respected during the entire course. Such organizations should introduce diverse…… [Read More]
Language defines identity, and creates boundaries between self and other. In Borderlands: The New Mestiza, Gloria Anzaldua refers to the "broken" and "forked" tongues that represented the boundaries and intersections of social, cultural, racial, ethnic, and gender identities. The roots of sociolinguistic hypotheses of language suggest that at the very least, language impacts the social construction of reality, as well as psychic self-perception. According to Noam Chomsky, language use is a type of "organized behavior" that is both a cause and effect of reality (2). The study of language structure and function "can contribute to an understanding of human intelligence," (Chomsky xiv). Chomsky goes so far as to suggest that language precedes cognition in some cases, by stating that, "the study of language structure reveals properties of mind that underlie the exercise of human mental capacities in normal activities," including the use of language as a creative mechanism, form, and…… [Read More]
The area is of interest because it allows linguists to look into the variants of Middle English that influenced the current dialect.
3. The North Carolina Language and Life Project's study of Harkers sland, North Carolina is extraordinarily interesting, as it allows researchers to study a dialect that was formed independently of surrounding areas for nearly two centuries. Because the island was separated from the mainland until a bridge was built in 1941, the dialect spoken there is quite different to other areas, and actually has many features of an older English. By studying this dialect, researchers will be able to determine important conclusions regarding time and language development, as well as dialect. n Johnstown, Ohio, another project is peering closely at sociolinguistics, peering at the relationship between cliques and phonetics, as well as age and language sounds. The researchers aim to determine if differences exist by examining groups of…… [Read More]
Politeness and Females
Gender and its connection with linguistic behavior has been a major subject of debate and discussion in research circles for last many decades. How men and women differ in the speech is an interesting topic that has been shown to have direct correlation with societal influences and conditioning. Women are conditioned to behave in a submissive manner and research indicates that it is because of this factor than biological construction that is responsible for women being more polite than men. A large body of research on the subject reveals that women generally use more polite language than men because they are expected to behave in a submissive, timid and less aggressive manner. Pierre Bourdieu (1977, p. 662) argued, "Politeness contains a politics, a practical and immediate recognition of social classifications and hierarchies."
Females are more polite because people in any setting are expected to use more polite…… [Read More]
Such results of studies clearly show a paradox: similarities yet differences between language use by gender. Far from one coming from Mars and the other from Venus, men and women seem to come from different states in the same country. It is obvious that they grew up in different groups, which have subtle style differences. Yet, although subtle, the language differences have judgmental consequences. Observers perceive the female and male speakers differently based on their language use. For example, female speakers are rated higher on Socio-Intellectual Status (high social status and literate) and Aesthetic Quality (nice and beautiful), while males are rated higher on Dynamism (strong and aggressive). Major language differences may not occur between genders, but they are recognized as such anyway.
Adams, P. et. al. (1995). "Dominance and entitlement: the rhetoric men use to discuss t heir violence towards women." Discourse and Society. 6(3): 387-406.
Canary, D.J.,…… [Read More]
For instance, "some speakers may engage in overlap, speaking while someone else is taking a turn-at-talk. For some linguistic groups, this discourse behavior can be interpreted as a signal of engagement and involvement; however, other speakers may view it as an interruption and imposition on their speaking rights. Teachers can use the Record-View-Transcribe-Analyze technique to study cross-cultural interactions in their classrooms, helping students identify different communication strategies and their potential for miscommunication." (Demo, 2001)
According to the work "Vernacular Dialects in U.S. Schools," "Children from different backgrounds come to school speaking a wide variety of dialects." (Christian, 1997) the problem according to Christian (1997) is in the fact that, "One central issue in this controversy is whether mastery and use of a standard dialect should be required in schools. Some people consider such a requirement to be discriminatory, because it places an extra burden on certain students. Others argue that…… [Read More]
A community of practice in the procurement department
The procurement of materials and equipment such as schoolbooks and construction materials by government officials for the construction of public services and infrastructure involves contracting agencies that provide such services. These processes are often plagued with wastage of public resources, mismanagement, corruption, and graft. In this regard, Community-Led Procurement (CLP) allows local communities to control and implements the procurement process. They achieve this by creating groups that lead to accountability and openness, improved value of money, reduced wastage, and corruption, better quality of services and works and increased use of local contractors and workers. CLP also assists local community members to develop according to their vision (Alvesson & Karreman, 2007).
All government procurement programs have been plagued by waste and inefficiencies. The local communities have been lacking knowledge in terms of actors, processes, and costs involved. Cumbersome and slow systems…… [Read More]
During the process of conducting an interview there is are selected approaches that are utilized to set the tone of the conversation. Depending upon the style, this can have an effect on the kind of questions and the answers that are provided. In the case of the interview between Michael Parkinson and Meg yan, his style had an effect on what was learned in the process. To fully understand what is taking place requires looking at how the interview was conducted. This will be accomplished by focusing on: the style, seating arrangement, questioning approach, purpose and how this could be improved. Together, these different elements will provide specific insights about how to conduct an effective interview. (Mestherie, 1999, pp. 93- 100) ("Meg yan on Parkinson," 2011)
The interview Parkinson and Meg yan is taking a very confrontational style. This occurred when Parkinson began to have condescending responses…… [Read More]
Media as the Linguistic Discourse Analysis Object
esearch in Discourse Analysis - Linguistics
Discourse analysis' focus is noteworthy semiotic events. Discourse analysis aims to understand not only the nature of the semiotic event, but also the socio-psychological traits of the participants of the event. The proposed subject of research is media discourse analysis or media as the linguistic discourse analysis object. Media is highly relevant and almost fundamental to life in the 21st century. There is no doubt that there are social, perceptual, psychological, linguistic, and behavioral affects of technology and media upon users and communities. Objects of discourse analysis vary in their definition of articulated sequences of communication events, speech acts, etc. Media is nothing but a series of coordinated sequences of various communications events operating semiotically. Therefore, media discourse analysis is a worthwhile linguistic research endeavor. The hypothesis of the research contends that media discourse analysis, as part…… [Read More]
Maps to increase comprehension for ESL's
English as a Second Language Learner
The academic achievement gap between linguistic minority groups and other students is a persistent problem for the American public school system (Thernstrom and Thernstrom, 2003). The pattern of underachievement and a high school dropout rate for Hispanic/Latino students among immigrant groups is particularly pronounced (Wong Fillmore & Meyer, 1992) Of the school-aged English Language Learner (ELL) population, 73% come from Spanish language backgrounds (U.S. Census Bureau, 2002), and their test results in reading are of particular concern as literacy skills are the building blocks for academic achievement. The gap between the test scores of Hispanic/Latino students and white students is a well documented phenomenon, existing throughout grades K-12 in both reading and mathematics (National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), 2003). According to the NCES (2000), 44% of foreign-born Hispanics fail to complete high school. A much lower percentage…… [Read More]
Language change refers to the process in which a particular language varies in its linguistic levels of analysis by developing or assimilating new forms and/or eliminating and/or totally modifying some of the existing forms (Schukla & Conner-Linton, 2014). Every natural language is subject to change over time even if these changes and alterations do not receive recognition by the individuals that use them. The process of change can be a slow and sure process or certain catch phrases may be incorporated very quickly (Kroch, 1989). Thus, the changes may not always be obvious but by comparing different the same language at different times, comparing different dialects, or how different languages interact, it becomes clear that languages change in all of their qualities including their grammar, syntax, semantics, lexicon, morphology, and phonology (Algeo & Butcher, 2013).
The process of language change is studied both by historical linguists and sociolinguists.
Historical linguists…… [Read More]
Education today has become more interesting and challenging than it has ever been before. This is particularly the case with the teaching and learning of English as a second language. Immigrants to the United States and other English speaking countries, for example, are faced with the challenge of not only learning a new language sufficiently to be able to communicate in their new environment, but also of fitting in with a lifestyle and culture that is more often than not completely foreign to them. These challenges can have both a motivating and demotivating effect on EFL and ESL learners. Teachers who are aware of these effects can then more effectively plan their lessons and work with such students to help them obtain optimal results. Hence, a myriad of research articles have seen the light regarding the challenges faced by this sector of learners. "EFL learners moving to an ESL context:…… [Read More]
Of these, twenty were of different first languages learning Hungarian and thirteen were of Hungarian as first language learning English." (P 8).
Based on this argument, age is not only the intrinsic factor that influences language acquisition. Typically, educational and maturational factors contribute to the language acquisition. With this claim, there could be a new hypothesis that reveal young= better and adult =better. Singleton (2005) conclusion on CPH is that
"Critical Period Hypothesis is misleading, since there is a vast amount of variation in the way in which the critical period for language acquisition is understood -- affecting all the parameters deemed to be theoretically significant and indeed also relating to the ways in which the purported critical period is interpreted in terms of its implications for L2 instruction."(P 269).
The study summarizes a research paper titled "The Critical Period Hypothesis: A coat of many colors" (Singleton, 2005). The…… [Read More]
The confidence of non-native speaker teachers is expected to be strengthened by better, more direct, access to the way native speakers use the language. ut an option not on offer so far (and, of course, a task impossible for a corpus called the ritish National Corpus) is to give these non-native speaker teachers access to a corpus capturing the successful use of English among non-native speakers, as a lingua franca, thus offering supremely relevant models for many learners wishing to use the language for similar purposes. So when Aston and urnard refer to ?the political implications of changing the basis on which assessments of correctness or appropriateness of usage are made? what has changed about the "basis" is how it can be accessed, not how it is defined. There is also another problem that operates at a deeper and unrecognized level: the language attitudes of those who, paradoxically, are themselves…… [Read More]