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Solitary Confinement Essays (Examples)

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Longitudinal Study of Prisoners on
Words: 697 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 92010785
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Although international comparison of SC is difficult, the medical implications of the procedure are questionable, a nd, therefore, SC is a method that is best avoided.

Research Method

Two random samples of prisoners on remand on solitary confinement and non-SC were selectively studied. Age was between 18 to 60, and both genders were included. The SC group consisted of 133 participants. The non-SC group consisted of 95 participants.

Using a parallel study design, participants in both groups were interviewed by psychiatrist after imprisonment and given cognitive assessment day after interview. The assessments were longitudinal repeated assessments.

The interview employed the following aspects: Present State Examination, 10th edn (PSE-10).; Hamilton Anxiety and Depression Scales (HAS & HDS); assessment of usage of drugs; Sociodemographic interview; Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS); General Health Questionnaire; and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ)

Medical as well as criminal files of each subject were examined.

A three-way analysis…

Prison Culture
Words: 1950 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18919889
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Corcoran State Prison: Prison Culture and Effect on Inmates

The prisons in the U.S. have a long history of offering correction services and rehabilitation for the people convicted of various crimes within the society. There have been increased incarceration of inmates over the last few decades with prisons getting more populated than before hence the introduction of the privately run correction facilities to help handle the large number of people within the prison walls at any given time. However, the inclusion of the private prisons have not helped matters much neither have they improved the rehabilitation process or the living standards of the inmates in comparison to the state owned correction facilities. There have continued to thrive the prison cultures and in effect influenced the way the prisoners relate to each other and even relate to the correctional officers. This prison culture will be the focus of this paper and…

References

Bureau of Justice Statistics (2011). Prison and Jail Deaths in Custody, 2000-2009 - Statistical Tables. Retrieved August 21, 2014 from  http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/pjdc0009st.pdf 

California State Prison, Corcoran, (2013). California State Prison, Corcoran - Mission Statement. Retrieved August 21, 2014 from  http://www.cdcr.ca.gov/Facilities_Locator/COR.html 

David R. Shaw, (2009). California State Prison, Corcoran Warden Derral Adams One-Year Audit. Retrieved August 21, 2014 from  http://www.oig.ca.gov/media/reports/ARCHIVE/BOA/Audits/Warden%20Derrel%20Adams%20One-Year%20Audit,%20Corcoran%20State%20Prison.pdf 

Paige J., (2013). Court experts cite 'serious' healthcare risks at Corcoran prison. Retrieved August 21, 2014 from http://prisons.einnews.com/article/161057067/jrpGKHrWmZXOXTKc

Better ways to house long term prisoners
Words: 1083 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37322340
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Confinement

There is little argument, at least in general, that people that commit wrongful acts and crimes should be punished for what they have done. One of the common methods used to punish people for committed crimes is confinement in jail and/or prison. However, there are many people that suggest or assert that confinement has wide-ranging and long-lasting effects on the people that are subjected to it. They assert that this happens to the point that the method is counterproductive and just makes a bad situation worse in terms of whether the person will recidivate, how/when they will transition back to life outside of prison and mental health concerns in general. hile people that do wrong should obviously be punished to some degree, the possible and perceived effects on confinement should give people pause before they act like they know what the best answer and methods happen to be.

Analysis…

Works Cited

Gawande, Atul. "Is Long-Term Solitary Confinement Torture?."The New Yorker, 2009,  http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2009/03/30/hellhole .

Kerman, Piper. Orange Is The New Black. New York, Spiegel & Grau, 2010,.

Travis, Jeremy et al. The Growth Of Incarceration In The United States: Exploring Causes And Consequences. National Academies Press, 2014,.

In the Belly of the Beast by Kesey
Words: 1777 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 77600176
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Jack Henry Abbott

Jack Henry Abbot's In the Belly of the Beast is an unusual literary document. The book is comprised of letters sent originally to the novelist and chauvinist Norman Mailer, in an effort to give Mailer some corroborative detail for his non-fiction book about death-row inmate Gary Gilmore; Mailer, who described Abbott as a "phenomenon" for his articulate prose, then led a push to have Abbott paroled from prison. It is clear that Mailer hoped to do what Jean-Paul Sartre had done in France some four decades before, on behalf of the writer and convicted criminal Jean Genet: yet Mailer's attempt at a public role would backfire badly, when Abbott killed a restaurant worker in lower Manhattan on the day before the New York Times published its favorable review of In the Belly of the Beast. I would like to examine Abbott's work, and Mailer's advocacy of Abbott,…

Works Cited

Abbott, Jack Henry. In the Belly of the Beast: Letters from Prison. New York: Vintage, 1981.

Bloom, Harold. "Introduction." In Bloom, Harold (editor), Norman Mailer: Modern Critical Views. New York: Chelsea House, 2003.

Goffman, Erving. Asylum: Essays on the Social Situation of Mental Patients and Other Inmates. New York: Anchor, 1961.

Goffman, Erving. The Goffman Reader. Edited by Lemert, Charles and Branaman, Ann. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 1997.

Analyzing Capital Punishment Issues
Words: 3245 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92392684
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Capital Punishment

Solitary confinement represents one among the best means of keeping modern-day prisoners from communication and conflict, but has the most injurious effects on their health. Individuals imprisoned in conditions of solitary confinement demonstrate more psychotic behavior compared to normal prisoners; this includes higher rate of suicides (Thesis Statement). After a prisoner loses his/her mental capacity of understanding the reason for his/her imprisonment or punishment, subjecting him/her to solitary confinement is pointless. If one loses one's ability of understanding punishment, the consequences associated with one's actions become irrelevant and have no value. Thus, solitary confinement is crueler than capital punishment.

Lately, the subject of whether or not solitary confinement constitutes greater torture for prisoners than capital punishment (or death penalty), is gaining popularity (Writer Thoughts). The debate has reached a juncture where the favored option is capital punishment.

Solitary Confinement/Capital Punishment Background

During the early part of the 19th…

References

Berke, Jeremy. "Famous U.S. Judge Admits There's a Punishment That's Just as Bad as the Death Penalty -- If Not Worse." Business Insider. N.p., 19 Jan. 2016. Web. 3 Mar. 2016. .

Biggs, Brooke. "Solitary Confinement: A Brief History." Mother Jones. N.p., 2 Mar. 2009. Web. 3 Mar. 2016. .

"Introduction to the Death Penalty." Death Penalty Information Center. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 Mar. 2016. .

Keim, Brandon. "The Horrible Psychology of Solitary Confinement." Wired. N.p., 10 July 2013. Web. 2 Mar. 2016. .

Prison Conditions in the United States and Russia
Words: 974 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 98729681
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Maximum security prisons have grown in recent decades and have implemented methods some may deem inhumane. A 2016 article discusses prison conditions in maximum security prisons and addresses specifically the topic of preservation of human dignity and disease prevention. The author mentions the Dudley Lee v. Minister of Correctional Services case that held "that prison authorities have a duty of care to prevent prisoners from being infected with HIV-related illnesses such as TB" (Torriente, Tadion, & Hsu, 2016). The applicant was sent to a maximum security prison in South Africa where he eventually was diagnosed three years later with TB. Another instance of the government and its failure to acknowledge the need to safeguard a prisoner's health is the . v. Secretary of State for the Home Department, ex-parte Glen Fielding. Here the case discusses of a prisoner in the United Kingdom asking for condoms and being denied unless given…

References

Engel, P. (2013). Here's What Life Is Like Inside Russia's Toughest Prison.Business Insider. Retrieved 16 April 2016, from  http://www.businessinsider.com/inside-russias-black-dolphin-prison-2013-10?op=1 

Torriente, A., Tadion, A., & Hsu, L. (2016). Opening the Door to Zero New HIV Infections in Closed Settings. Health and Human Rights Journal. Retrieved 16 April 2016, from  http://www.hhrjournal.org/2016/02/opening-the-door-to-zero-new-hiv-infections-in-closed-settings/ 

Vasiliades, E. (2005). Solitary Confinement and International Human Rights: Why the U.S. Prison System Fails Global Standards. American University International Law Review, 21(1). Retrieved from  http://digitalcommons.wcl.american.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1045&context=auilr

Incarcerated Mentally Ill Patients it May Sound
Words: 2497 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 62620579
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Incarcerated Mentally Ill Patients

It may sound unbelievable, but on any given day, scholars estimate that almost 70,000 inmates in U.S. prisons are psychotic; and up to 300,000 suffer from mental disorders like depression, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorders. In fact, the U.S. penal system holds three times more people with mental illness than the nation's entire psychiatric hospitals (Kanapaux, 2004). Indeed one of the most telling trends, say some sociologists, is to incarcerate the mentally ill in order to remove them from society. This is sometimes the only alternative because public mental health hospitals have neither the space nor the funding to treat this special population. In fact, the very nature of incarceration tends to have a more traumatic effect on the individual, causing additional damage to their fragile psyche. omen, it appears, are especially vulnerable. These women have often been victimized during an abusive childhood and succession of relationships.…

Works Cited

Majority of Mentall Ill Inmates Don't Get Treatment. (2010, April 7). Retrieved October 2011, from Physorg.com: http://www.physorg.com/news189882907.html

ACLU. (2007, January 30). Solitary Confinment Called Inappropriate for Mentally Ill. Retrieved October 2011, from ACLU.org:  http://www.aclu.org/prisoners-rights/solitary-confinement-called-inappropriate-mentally-ill-prisoners-indiana 

American Psychatric Assocaition. (2000). Psychiatric Services in Jails and Prisons. Washington, DC: American Psychatric Press.

American Psychiatric Association. (2006, December). The Use of Restraint and Seculusion in Correctional Mental Health Care. Retrieved October 2011, from Pysch.org:  http://www.psych.org/lib_archives/archives/200605.pdf

Controversies in Criminal Justice
Words: 2417 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83892603
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Pelican Bay State Prison: War Zone

How does the video you selected support a social structure theory?

One social structure theory relates and highlights all the happenings in this video. Social disorganization theory appears to dominate the entire movie. This concept represents social change, lack of social agreement, and social conflict as the main causes of criminal activity and deviance; it is carefully associated with the environmental theory of criminology. Poverty is regarded to be the minimum stage or point in our social society. On the poverty stage, there are high levels of lack of employment, drug use and addiction, criminal activity and people without abilities to discover efficient and permanent employment. It does not imply that this does not exist in the higher stages of our society: they exist although the magnitudes are significantly lower. Absence of education is attributed to learners who fail to be successful in the…

References

Decker, S.H., Alarid, L.F., & Katz, C.M. (2013). Controversies in criminal justice: Contemporary readings. Los Angeles: Roxbury Pub. Co.

Stanley, E.A., & Smith, N. (2011). Captive genders: Trans embodiment and the prison industrial complex. Oakland, CA: AK Press.

Walsh, A., & Hemmens, C. (2011). Introduction to criminology: A text/reader. Thousand Oaks, Calif: SAGE

Philosophy Isolation in Philosophical Tales
Words: 1125 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 52884703
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Unfortunately, Philoctetes' talents led him down the path of war (Lloyd-Jones, 1994). He was a witness and participant to bloodshed, plunder and rape. Eventually, he became so disgusted with himself that he decided to punish himself for his sins by allowing a poisonous snake to bite him. As a result, he was shipped off to the isolated island of Lemnos, where he was physically isolated from the rest of the world for nine years. During this time, all he could do was think about his life and his crimes, which was sort of a self-punishment for his sinful existence.

I think that this type of physical isolation can be very damaging to a person. Today, many prisoners are kept in solitary confinement for days, completely cut off from all social activities and human contact. Isolation in prison means 23 hours a day in a concrete cell no larger than a…

Bibliography

Kaufmann, Walter. (1992). Tragedy and Philosophy. Princeton University Press.

T.C. Brickhouse and N.D. Smith (1989). Socrates on Trial. Waterhouse Press.

Lloyd-Jones, H. (1994). Sophocles II. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.

MIND. (2007). Not Alone? Retrieved from the Internet at  http://www.mind.org.uk/About%2BMind/Mind%2Bweek/isolationsummary.htm .

Ardmore Prison Answer to Question
Words: 798 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 7142882
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And employers cannot by law attempt to intimidate or fire workers for their pro-union activities. Another action the correctional officers could have taken would have been to bring their Congressman or Congresswoman into the matter to put pressure on Duffy through the Illinois governor's office or through federal Civil Rights legislation. Clearly Duffy was in violation of civil rights under the federal Civil Rights Act of 1964.

Answer to Question Five: Two months in solitary confinement is far too harsh for a person violating a minor institutional rule. In fact it is outrageously cruel. It violates all five of the Supreme Court's tests for whether an act is a violation of the Eighth Amendment. This kind of power is that of a demented, vicious warden, who uses severe, inhumane tactics because he has some crazed vindictive nature against inmates. He is in the wrong job because he expects prisoners (who…

Works Cited

Library Index. (2008). Prisoners' Rights Under Law -- Eighth Amendment. Retrieved April 15,

2013, from  http://www.libraryindex.com .

National Labor Relations Board. (2010). Employer/Union Rights and Obligations. Retrieved April 15, 2013, from http://nlrb.gov.

Excercise Program for Prisons
Words: 2656 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 32534048
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Letter of Transmittal

To the Head,

Department of Jails

There are often heavy psychological pressures on inmates as they are dislocated from the society. The type of interactions that happen in a prison setting also create psychological pressures and the incarceration also results in acute psychological stress. Prison life of inmates is most often associated with reduced physical activity as they are often subjected to a solitary life style without much scope for physic activity. There are also reduced opportunities for mental activities due to lack of resources as is the norm in prisons. Physical problems such as diabetes mellitus, heart diseases and other chronic disabilities have been established to have greater chance of setting on individuals who are sedentary.

This study recommends the ways and means to reduce physical and mental ill health of inmates due to the above mentioned reasons and conditions as recommendations of a training program…

References

Battaglia, C., di Cagno, A., Fiorilli, G., Giombini, A., Fagnani, F., & Borrione, P. et al. (2013). Benefits of Selected Physical Exercise Programs in Detention: A Randomized Controlled Study. International Journal Of Environmental Research And Public Health, 10(11), 5683-5696.  http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph10115683 

CASHIN, A., POTTER, E., & BUTLER, T. (2008). The relationship between exercise and hopelessness in prison. Journal Of Psychiatric And Mental Health Nursing, 15(1), 66-71.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2850.2007.01207.x 

Ciuhodaru, T., Iorga, M., & Romedea, S. (2013). Non-lethal Self-harm among Inmates. Procedia - Social And Behavioral Sciences, 78, 320-324.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.04.303 

Kaba, F., Lewis, A., Glowa-Kollisch, S., Hadler, J., Lee, D., & Alper, H. et al. (2014). Solitary Confinement and Risk of Self-Harm Among Jail Inmates. Am J Public Health, 104(3), 442-447.  http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/ajph.2013.301742

High Rate of Incarceration of the Mentally
Words: 2665 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17619008
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High ate of Incarceration of the Mentally Ill

Mental illnesses are among the most serious health concerns facing administrators and policymakers in America today. With the declining availability of both mental health community treatment programs and inpatient psychiatry beds in the few facilities available, more and more mentally ill persons are going without treatment and the essential services needed to enable them cope effectively with their conditions. Often times, police are the first responders whenever a mentally ill patient experiences a relapse and acts out due to symptoms of their mental condition; worryingly, however, rather than be taken to mental health facilities for treatment, most of these end up in jails and prisons. From the very onset, our prison and correctional systems had not been designed to respond to the needs of people with mental health problems, so when such people are housed here, they become more vulnerable to abuse,…

References

Aufderheide, D. (2014). Mental Illness in America's Jails and Prisons: towards a Public Safety/Public Health Model. Health Affairs. Retrieved 11 March 2015 from  http://healthaffairs.org/blog/2014/04/01/mental-illness-in-americas-jails-and-prisons-toward-a-public-safetypublic-health-model/ 

Busfield, J. (2011). Mental Illness. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press

Mitchell, A. (2013). Medicaid Disproportionate Share Hospital Payments. The Congressional Research Service. Retrieved 11 March 2015 from https://fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R42865.pdf

NAMI. (n.d.). Criminalization of People with Mental Illnesses is a Significant Problem. National Alliance on Mental Illnesses (NAMI). Retrieved 12 March 2015 from http://www2.nami.org/Template.cfm?Section=CIT&Template=/ContentManagement/ContentDisplay.cfm&ContentID=57465

Experimental Psychology Zimbardo Prison Study
Words: 2123 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 95692907
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In fact, during the study, the guards became more sadistic when they thought no one was watching them. Zimbardo notes, "Their boredom had driven them to ever more pornographic and degrading abuse of the prisoners" (Zimbardo). This may be the same reason guards at Abu Ghraib tortured and humiliated their charges, and the study seems to indicate this could happen in just about any prison anywhere, if the guards have enough power. The world should pay more attention to this study and its implications. As another writer notes, "The young men who played prisoners and guards revealed how much circumstances can distort individual personalities -- and how anyone, when given complete control over others, can act like a monster" (Alexander). This is what happened at Abu Ghraib, and chances are it is happening all around the world as well. In an interview about Abu Ghraib, Zimbardo notes the prison environment…

References

Alexander, Meredith. "Thirty Years Later, Stanford Prison Experiment Lives On." Prisonexp.org. 22 Aug. 2001. 9 Jan. 2007. http://www.prisonexp.org/30years.htm

Bronstein, Phyllis A., and Kathryn Quina, eds. Teaching a Psychology of People: Resources for Gender and Sociocultural Awareness. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 1988.

Giles, David. Media Psychology. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2003.

O'Toole, Kathleen. "The Stanford Prison Experiment: Still Powerful After All These Years." Stanford University. 8 Jan. 1997. 9 Jan. 2007.  http://www.stanford.edu/dept/news/pr/97/970108prisonexp.html

What Rights Prisoners Should Have
Words: 1505 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89038397
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ights Should Prisoners Have?

Discussions of human rights frequently focus on the rights that people should have in a free society. They look at the types of rights that free people should be able to exercise without interference from their government. However, not all discussions of human rights focus on the rights of the free. Instead, some discussions look at the rights that duly convicted criminals should have. Some scholars conclude that prisoners should have the basic rights as free men. This is a ridiculous conclusion. Looking at the Canadian Charter of ights and Freedoms, it is clear that some of those rights are not meant for prisoners. In fact, the very nature of imprisonment hampers the exercise of some of those rights. These rights include the freedom of mobility, the freedom of peaceful assembly, and the freedom from unreasonable search or seizure. Furthermore, it is important to keep in…

References

Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, s. 2(c), Part I of the Constitution Act, 1982, being

Schedule B. To the Canada Act 1982(U.K.), 1982, c.11.

Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, s. 6, Part I of the Constitution Act, 1982, being

Schedule B. To the Canada Act 1982(U.K.), 1982, c.11.

Pennsylvania Correctional System vs Auburn Correctional System
Words: 751 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 86799314
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Corrections

Pennsylvania Correctional System VS Auburn Correctional System

Compare and contrast the Pennsylvania Correctional System and the Auburn Correctional System. What correctional system most closely explains our modern day prisons? Why?

The Pennsylvania Correctional System was one of the first correctional systems created in the new nation of America. It was instituted during the 18th century. At the time, it was felt that "the solution to the disorder and corruption in most prisons ...lay in complete separation of each inmate for his or her entire sentence, a system which had been tried occasionally in England but was always abandoned because of costs and inadequate prison structures" (Johnston 2012). The philosophy of the Pennsylvania System was heavily influenced by the Quakerism of the state, which stressed the need for penitential reflection as a way of repenting and establishing a closer relationship between the inmate and God. "The system of 24-hour separation…

References

Both sides of the wall. (2012). Correction History. Retrieved:

http://www.correctionhistory.org/auburn&osborne/brochure2.htm

Johnston, Norman. (2012). Prison reform in Pennsylvania. The Prison Society. Retrieved:

 http://www.prisonsociety.org/about/history.shtml

Business General Please List Sections According to
Words: 7827 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 81408071
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Business (general)

Please list sections according to instructions

Exercise 1.1: eview of esearch Study and Consideration of Ethical Guidelines

Option 1: Stanford Prison Experiment

Go to: http://www.prisonexp.org, the official site for the Stanford Prison Experiment.

What do you think the research questions were in this study? List 2 or 3 possible research questions (in question format) that may have been the focus of this experiment.

What happens when you put good people in an evil place? Does humanity win over evil, or does evil triumph? Does natural or innate evil exist, or is evil situational? Are certain people simply born "bad apples" or are they made evil by "bad barrels"?

What is "reality" in a prison setting? This study is one in which an illusion of imprisonment was created, but when do illusions become real? How quickly and easily will 'ordinary men' adjust to the roles as prisoners, guards and…

REFERENCES

Asby, M.D. And S.A. Miles (2002). Leaders Talk Leadership: Top Executives Speak their Minds. Oxford.

"Frederick W. Smith: The Entrepreneur Who Created an Industry." (2003). IBS Center for Management Research.  http://www.icmrindia.org/casestudies/catalogue/Leadership%20and%20Entrepreneurship/Frederick%20W%20Smith-The%20Entrepreneur-Leadership%20and%20Entrepreneurship.htm 

Holstein, W.J. (2007). "Fred Smith's Golden Rule for CEO's." BNet, November 19, 2007. http://www.bnet.com/blog/ceo/fred-smiths-golden-rule-for-ceos-be-selfless/1061 

Lussier, R.N. And C.F. Archua (2010). Leadership: Theory, Application and Skill Development. South-Western Cengage Learning.

Violation of Human Rights
Words: 4611 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 43224008
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PADILLA V. UMSFELD & HAMDI V. UMSFELD

Summary of Padilla v. umsfeld

Facts of Padilla v. umsfeld

Summary of Facts

Technical History

Holding

Supreme Court easoning

Lower Court easoning

Summary of Hamdi v. umsfeld

History of Hamdi v. umsfeld

Facts

The Holding

easoning for the Supreme Court

Individuals' Civil rights of Hamdi and Padilla

Contrast and Comparison

Padilla v. umsfeld & Hamdi v. umsfeld

Summary of Padilla v. umsfeld

One of the first and interesting things about the case is to know that the espondent, Jose Padilla, is a citizen from the United States citizen who made up his mind to become an "enemy fighter." This decision was helped made by the famous President George W. Bush and was held in military custody in South Carolina by the Department of Defense. Also, President George W. Bush discovered that Padilla was working alongside with the terrorist named al Qaeda. Both of…

References

Padilla, R. v. (2004, June 25). Retrieved from Supreme Court:  http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/03-1027.ZS.html 

Rumsfeld, H. v. (2012, November 12). Hard National Security Choices. Retrieved from Lawfare:  http://www.lawfareblog.com/wiki/the-lawfare-wiki-document-library/post-911-era-materials/post-911-era-materials-court-cases/hamdi-v-rumsfeld-542-u-s-507-2004/

Inmates and Guards Hassine Year
Words: 980 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 94456642
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However, if a prisoner refuses to snitch once an offense has been found by a prison guard, guards can sentence the refusing inmate to a long stint in solitary confinement, or even take away his prison job, despite reforms. This pressure by guards can lead inmates to endangering themselves, by becoming a snitch.

Even transferring to protective custody does not assure protection against retaliation for snitching (Kupers 1997).

Once a snitch has agreed to give information, even those that seem to be giving it willingly, this information is often unreliable. As noted earlier, it is not uncommon for a snitch to exaggerate information in order to garner favor with guards, for their own selfish purposes. Some prisoners may even instigate criminal activity in order to have information to report. In some instances, the urban code that prevents many from snitching is often employed by snitches as well, in the form…

Works Cited

Briggs, Chad, Sundt, Jody, and Castellano, Thomas. "The Effect of Supermaximum Security Prisons on Aggregate Levels of Institutional Violence." Criminology, 41(4). Retrieved March 16, 2008. Available: ProQuest.

Hassine, Victor. Year. "Relationships Between Inmates and Guards." Pp. 162-164 in Book, edited by Editor. Place of publication: Publisher.

Kupers, Terry a. "Men, Prison, and the American Dream." Tikkun, 21:1. Retrieved March 16, 2008. Available: General OneFile.

Poole, Eric & Regoil, Robert. "Alienation in Prison." Criminology, 19:2. Retrieved March 16, 2008. Available: ProQuest.

Arduous Labor Than People Imagine
Words: 1428 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 56695463
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But in light of my enhanced knowledge of the author's history, I can now approach the poem with a etter understanding of the author and of what he may e intending to convey. It took several readings of the poem to come to some comprehension. I was at first puzzled not sure if some underlying political motif existed here or whether the poem was a straightforward description of an 'Autumn day in Teheran'. Perhaps, just like a conversation depends on the mind of the listener who interprets it according to the specific slant that he or she gives it, so, too, poems in general and this poem in particular can e read and interpreted in either direction hinging as much on the mind of the reader as on the author. 'Autumn in Teheran' accordingly can e read in a straightforward manner as descriptive of an approaching season in Iran, whilst…

bibliography  http://www.vazhe.com/baraheni_bio.htm

Total Institutions Total Insitutions a Total Institution
Words: 1258 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40574644
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Total Institutions

Total Insitutions

A total institution according to Goffman is a place of residence and work where a number of like individuals (with similar character orientation), cut off from the larger society for an appreciable period of time, together lead an enclosed, formally administered round of life. Examples include prisons, mental hospitals and many more.

In this regard every particular institution be it prison, monastery, mental institution captures something of the time and interest of its members and gives or rather provides something of a world to them that is to say every institution has an encompassing tendency. In this the encompassing is characterized or symbolized by a barrier to social intercourse with the outside world characterized by the physical plant, for instance locked doors, high walls and barbed wires and so forth.

The following are the different groupings in which total institutions of our society can be linked…

References

Craig Haney (2001). From Prison to Home:The Effect of Incarceration and Reentry on Children,

Families, and Communities. Available at  http://aspe.hhs.gov/hsp/prison2home02/Haney.htm  (Accessed August 8, 2011)

Jenny Krestev Et.al., (2011). The Psychological Effects of Imprisonment. Available at http://www.uplink.com.au/lawlibrary/Documents/Docs/Doc82.html (Accessed August 8, 2011)

Layton, (1998). Seductive Poison: A Jonestown Survivor's Story of Life and Death in the Peoples Temple. New York: Anchor. Available at Bookshttp://jonestown.sdsu.edu/AboutJonestown/JonestownReport/Volume8/Gardner.htm (Accessed August 8, 2011)

Eugenia Ginzburg and Stalinist Russia This Paper
Words: 1447 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 90578841
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Eugenia Ginzburg and Stalinist Russia

This paper looks at the book Journey Into the Whirlwind by Eugenia Ginzburg and examines how her story impacts the study of the Stalinist Terror.

Eugenia Ginzburg: Portrait of a Prisoner

Eugenia Ginzburg experienced the heart of the Stalinist Terror as few have who lived to tell about it. A staunch communist supporter, Ginzburg found herself wrongfully accused of being an enemy of the people and subsequently thrown into jail. She spent the next eighteen years as a part of the Stalinist prison camps, suffering the hardships and tortures that those camps heaped upon the prisoners unfortunate enough to be imprisoned in them. Yet, through it all, Ginzburg never gave up on her communist convictions, and remained loyal to her party, only saying that Stalin was an enemy of the people, not the communist party. Because of her unique perspective of having been a part…

Treatment of Prisoners in the U S Continues to Be Cruel
Words: 863 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48041533
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Evolution of Prison Life

hat were prisons like, how were prisoners treated and classified through American history -- including prison environments in the last few years? This paper delves into those topics and provides the available literature that validates the points to be made in this essay.

The History of Prisons and Prisoner Life in America

According to author and Professor Jack Lynch, prisons were among the very first public buildings when settlers began to populate and develop the New orld. And there were few long-term punishments that were meted out, and among those were individuals convicted of being "debtors" (Lynch, 2008). The problem with putting the poor in prison because they couldn't pay their debts was that "…they could never earn the money they owed"; but it wasn't until the 1830s that the U.S. began to "…abolish debtor's prisons" (Lynch, 3). Instead of being imprisoned, convicted criminals were forced…

Works Cited

American Civil Liberties Union. (2013). Prison Conditions. Retrieved March 19, 2014, from  https://www.aclu.org .

Austin, J., and Hardyman, P.L. (2004). Objective Prison Classification: A Guide for Correctional Agencies. U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved March 19, 2014, from http://www.jfa-associates.com.

Lynch, J. (2008). Cruel and Unusual Prisons and Prison Reform. History.org. Colonial Williamsburg. Retrieved March 19, 2014, from  http://www.history.org .

Schwirtz, M. (2014). Mental Illness and Violence Rise at a Vast Jail. The New York Times.

Lgbtqi Undocumented Immigrants Grant Need Statement
Words: 1977 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 98946094
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Public Health -- Social Issues -- Statement of Need for a Cbo

Undocumented immigrants to the United States, including undocumented LGBTQI immigrants, are put down and kept down by the current system of apprehension, detention and post-detention abuse/negligence. Consequently, they need effective advocacy to reduce the number of detained undocumented immigrants, spur legislative and regulatory changes, improve standards of detention conditions and provide effective oversight of detention conditions. Furthermore, upon their release from detention, undocumented immigrants desperately need advocacy for health, legal and social service navigation.

There are approximately 11.2 million undocumented immigrants in the United States, with the largest numbers living in California, Texas, Florida, and New York. In addition, about four million U.S.-born citizen children have at least one undocumented parent; these "mixed status" families account for almost half of all families with undocumented adults (odrguez, Young and Wallace). Many migrants are seeking asylum from persecution by gangs…

References

#Not1More. "Queer & Trans Immigrants from Across the Country Proclaim "Liberation, Not Deportation." n.d. http://www.notonemoredeportation.com/. Web. 17 March 2016.

Cuauhtemoc, Cesar and Garcia Hernandez. "Invisible Spaces and Invisible Lives in Immigration Detention." Howard Law Journal, 57(3) (2014): 869-898. Print.

Human Rights Watch. "You Don't Have Rights Here." 9 October 2015.  https://www.hrw.org/ . Web. 17 March 2016.

National Immigration Law Center, ACLU of Southern California and Holland & Knight. A Broken System: Confidential Reports Reveal Failures in U.S. Immigrant Detention Centers. White Paper. Washington, DC: National Immigration Law Center, 2009. Print.

Annotated Bibliography for Prisons Conditions
Words: 1321 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Annotated Bibliography Paper #: 36753201
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Aleinikoff, . (2014). Between National and Postnational: Membership in the United States. Palgrave Macmillan UK, 110-129. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/9780230554795

his paper focuses on the 'postnational viewpoint' to the American notion of sovereignty and membership. he author defines what postnational viewpoint is and explains it means the view that a universal model of membership is replacing national citizenship and is doing so because it is anchored within deterritorialized concepts of persons' rights. Essentially this means there is a respect for global human rights norms leading to a "deterritorialized membership." his is important to consider when comparing the states of prisons in Russia and the United States because the rights of prisoners may reach a form of universal expression in that everyone gets treated in a way that people deem appropriate regardless of location.

Kennedy, S., Sharapova, S., Beasley, D., & Hsia, J. (2016). Cigarette Smoking Among Inmates by Race/Ethnicity: Impact of Excluding African-American…

This article shares the extent of prison conditions in an American prison named Pelican Bay State Prison in California. July 1, 2011, prisoners there started a sustained hunger strike. The reason being the majority of them were kept in complete solitary confinement, experiencing conditions considered torturous like extreme sensory deprivation for over five years. Some were kept in isolation for two decades. They asked for basic things during their strike like a phone call once a week, warm clothes to go outside in, supply of decent food, and a chance at escaping solitary confinement. {risons like this show how bad the American prison system can be.

Sarang, A., Platt, L., Vyshemirskaya, I., & Rhodes, T. (2016). Prisons as a source of tuberculosis in Russia. International Journal of Prisoner Health, 12(1), 45-56.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/ijph-07-2014-0022 

This study examines the poor conditions of Russian prisons that leads to a prevalence of tuberculosis. They analyze the poor prevention, treatment, and management of tuberculosis through collecting data from qualitative interviews with participants that are former medical specialists and prisoners in the region of Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia. They also show aside from poor management of tuberculosis infection; HIV infection are poorly managed revealing a poor prison health system in Russia. The study highlights the need for reform of the health system as well as the most common serious infections in Russian prisons. The most common being Tuberculosis and HIV.

Personal Thought on Three Articles
Words: 665 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24938781
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Juveniles Facing Lifelong Terms Despite Rulings

It is unfair to deny juveniles a chance at redemption. This message has been clearly echoed in the article, and a case has been offered of Shimeek Gridine who was convicted of attempted murder and sentenced to 70 years in jail without parole. Shimeek was only 14 when he was convicted, and the sentence given will mean that he might never see the outside of jail in his lifetime. Handing juveniles long sentences is equivalent to sentencing to them life, and this has been curtailed by the Supreme Court. However, judges have skirted the law, and instead of offering life sentences, they are now offering long sentences without a chance of parole, which in a real sense is similar to a life sentence. This is quite unfair to juveniles because it denies them the opportunity to reform and lead normal lives after serving their…

Life of Arthur Koestler
Words: 1465 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31661990
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Perhaps the most apt descriptor of the life and times of Arthur Koestler is the term extraordinary. Koestler would author scores of works of literature, including one relatively early on in his career which enable him to remain financially secure for the rest of his life (Menand). He was also a Jewish person who lived through both World Wars and endured firsthand persecution during the Spanish Civil War--an event which helped presage the Second World War. A man of both political and religious conviction, Koestler remained active on both fronts for the duration of his life. Moreover, his early literary success and activism rendered him a celebrity for the vast majority of his life. As such, he was able to meet and socialize with some of the more notable figures of the 20th centuries, including fellow authors, political proponents, and celebrities. He led a full, rich life until he killed…

Deportation of Cubans Immigrants Seeking
Words: 1979 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 22289027
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The absolute deprivation of basic human liberties makes it abundantly clear that all people in Cuba are potential political prisoners, because they are either virtually imprisoned by the country's restrictive laws, or face the threat of real imprisonment by acting out against the country. Moreover, to encourage Cubans to evade U.S. military and police forces in order to gain access to U.S. political asylum only encourages human trafficking and other dangerous practices. Instead of deporting Cubans or forcing them to seek asylum in a third country, which may have more restrictive definitions of what it considers a refugee, the United States should grant asylum to Cubans fleeing political persecution.

Works eferenced

Amnesty International. "Six Years in Prison in Cuba for 57 Activists: Supporters Face Ongoing

Harassment." Amnesty.org. 2009. Amnesty International. 23 Jun. 2009 .

Buckley, Cara. "Anti-Castro Pilots' Kin Meet." Cubanet.org. 2004. Cubanet. 23 Jun. 2009

.

Cubana. "Cuba Detains…

Referenced

Amnesty International. "Six Years in Prison in Cuba for 57 Activists: Supporters Face Ongoing

Harassment." Amnesty.org. 2009. Amnesty International. 23 Jun. 2009 .

Buckley, Cara. "Anti-Castro Pilots' Kin Meet." Cubanet.org. 2004. Cubanet. 23 Jun. 2009

.

Media Culture
Words: 777 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 79155974
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Communications Media -- Media Culture

Stories Covered

Meet the Press June 24, 2012 (NBC)

The mainstream news program, Meet the Press June 24, 2012 (NBC), focused primarily on some of the different views about the most important needs of the nation between Republicans and Democrats. More specifically, the moderator raised the issues of racial profiling laws in various states, immigration policy reform, the potential consequences of a pending Supreme Court decision on President Obama's Affordable Care Act that has been the source of so much conflict in political circles since the first months of the current presidential administration. Other topics of discussion included the national budget in connection with the need to generate revenue, the current conflict over the "Fast and Furious" debacle and the bizarre allegations leveled against the U.S. Attorney General, and predictions about the different challenges faced by the respective presidential campaigns of President Obama and the…

Prisoner Re-Entry Into Society
Words: 2466 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 37544202
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Prisoner Reentry

Recommendations to Hillary Clinton Regarding Prisoner Re-Entry into Society

Prisoner re-entry is a vitally important issue today which has yet to reach its full impact on the minds and lives of voters. However, with every passing year the importance of this topic becomes more evident. Since the eighties, every passing year has brought more pressure for harsher and longer imprisonment and more streamlined mandatory sentencing rules. This has not only resulted in an exploding prison population, but also in a drastic increase in the number of prisoners re-released into communities. Additionally, the push towards more punitive measures has decreased educational opportunities in prisons and the availability of rehabilitation programs. This means that released prisoners are increasingly unable to reintegrate into their communities, increasingly prone to recidivism, and increasingly violent in each release and re-capture cycle. Even the conservative ush administration has recognized the threat posed by unprepared prisoner…

Bibliography

Banks, Gabrielle. "Learning Under Lockdown." Colorlines, NCM 2004 Award Winner, Nov 28, 2004.

Center on Crime, Communities and Culture. Research Brief: Education as Crime Prevention, Sept, 1997.

Human Rights Watch. "No Escape: Male Rape in U.S. Prisons." Archived at:  http://www.hrw.org/reports/2001/prison/ 

Petersilia, Joan. "CHALLENGES OF PRISONER REENTRY AND PAROLE IN CALIFORNIA" California Policy Research Center Brief Series, June 2000. Archived at:  http://www.ucop.edu/cprc/parole.html

Overcrowding in American Jails When
Words: 3087 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 89237121
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Court records also stick on, whether the charges are dropped or followed by a conviction. People of color or ethnic minorities, such as African-Americans and Hispanics, have come to accept that they cannot avoid acquiring a criminal record. The 1990 Washington DC-based sentencing project found that one in every four African-Americans aged 20 to 29 was in prison, in jail or on probation or parole. A research conducted by the National Center on Institutions and Alternatives had a comparable finding. In a decade, the figure decreased to one out of three or 76% of 18-year-old African-Americans in the urban areas who can expect arrest and imprisonment before age 36. The racial gap became evident at the approach of the millennium. In 1926, 79% of inmates in state and federal prisons were whites and only 21% were lacks. ut in 1999, African-Americans made up 55-60% of new admissions. Including Latino inmates,…

Bibliography

1. Bates, D. (2006). Policy Makers Working to Find a Solution for Increased Incarceration. Falls Church News Press.  http://www.fcnp.com/432/parole.htm 

2. Beck, A.R.. (2001). Jail Bloating: a Common but Unnecessary Cause of Jail Overcrowding.  http://www.justiceconcepts.com/jail%20overcrowding.pdf 

3. ISECUREtrac. (2004). Reducing Prison Overcrowding. ISECUREtrac Corporation. http://www.isecuretrac.com/sa_po.asp

4. Joel, D. (1989). Time to Deal with America's Prison Crisis. The Heritage Foundation. http://www.heritage.otg/Research/Criminalbg735.cfm

William Penn as Its Name
Words: 2272 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 12083883
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In 1682, the Quakers purchased East New Jersey. Penn then sought to extend the Quaker region. The King granted Penn a land charter, the area that is currently known as Pennsylvania, and that charter made Penn a sovereign ruler and the world's largest private landowner. Penn named the region Sylvania, but Charles II changed that to Pennsylvania, to honor Penn's father. (See Jacobson, pp. 43-55).

Pennsylvania was a very interesting colony. First, it guaranteed absolute religious freedom to its inhabitants. Second, it guaranteed the traditional rights of Englishmen. It guaranteed free elections, trial by jury, and freedom from unjust imprisonment. All of these guarantees were contained in Pennsylvania's first constitution, which was written by Penn. Penn also set about establishing a government much like the modern American government, which divided the legislature into two houses, and limited the power of the sovereign. Penn also introduced the idea of constitutional amendments,…

Works Cited

Association of Friends for the Diffusion of Religious and Useful Knowledge. A Memoir of William Penn. Philadelphia: Association of Friends for the Diffusion of Religious and Useful Knowledge, 1858.

Beckman, Gail McKnight. The Statutes at Large of Pennsylvania in the Time of William

Penn. New York: Vantage Press, 1976.

Hughes, Mary. The Life of William Penn. Philadelphia: Carey Lea & Carey, 1828.

Top Al-Qai'da Leaders Living or
Words: 2514 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 19576481
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Richard Reid

Richard Reid, better known as the "shoe bomber" has nearly eight charges held against him. He was arrested as a result of his efforts to demolish a commercial flight using bombs concealed in his shoes. Richard was born in London in 1973. He had a Jamaican father who was in prison for a majority of his childhood. The early separation of his parents reflects family dysfunctionality. Even though he had been educated in one of UK's better schools, the lack of proper family support subjected him to getting involved in several crimes. An interracial background might have resulted in adjustment problems in an environment dominated by whites. He was imprisoned several times, and accepted Islam while at Feltham young offender's institution. On his release Reid became a part in the London based, Brixton Mosque. He made an effort to get involved in mosque proceedings but ended up getting…

Works Cited

Bajoria, Jayshree. "al-Qaeda (a.k.a. al-Qaida, al-Qa'ida)," cfr.org Web. 30 Dec. 2009. Web. 4 Dec. 2010.

Gillespie, Thomas W. "Finding Osama bin Laden:an Application of Biogeographic Theories and Satellite Imagery." MIT International Review. 17 Feb. 2009

Laden, Omar Bin."Chapter 4: Born the Son of Osama Bin Laden"

"Dr. Ayman al-Zawahiri: Idol of the National Unity." The NEFA FOundation. Dec 14, 2009

Nursing Film Response the Stories
Words: 1812 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Film Review Paper #: 21372754
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I can see the quest narrative being used in the Diving Bell and the Butterfly movie. Bauby suffered from a very rare condition that is not only not well-known but less understood. In stead of feeling sorry for himself because of the situation in which he ended up, he took the negative thing that happened to him and turned it into something good. He made up his mind that he was going to go on with his life as best that he could. He had already had plans to right a book before he became ill and choose to go ahead with that project. He told his story in order to help himself understand what had happened to him as well as to tell his story to the rest of the world so that they could better understand it as well.

In the movie Away from Her, I can see…

References

Away from Her. Dir. Sarah Polley. Lions Gate Entertainment, 2006. Film.

Frank, Arthur W. (1997). The Wounded Storyteller: Body, Illness, and Ethics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press

The Diving Bell and the Butterfly. Dir. Julian Schnabel. Miramax Films, 2007. Film.

Leadership at Work Do You
Words: 946 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Reaction Paper Paper #: 50683100
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" ("Great Leaders are Made," 2005) This is important, because too often the various adversities can become so extreme, that they could overwhelm most individuals. The key, is to learn from the different mistakes that you made in the past and do not dwell on them in the future. Instead, you must move forward, to achieve your goals. A good example of this can be seen with the actor and director Michael Landon. efore he became the confident man that was often seen on the television show Little House on the Prairie. He was a skinny, awkward youth that was from a broken household. Where, his parents would fight consistently and Michael's mother was known for being possessive as well emotionally unstable. When he would try to hang out with friends, she would follow him and jump out of her car, beating him with a hanger. In the tenth grade…

Bibliography

Great Leaders are Made. (2005). Stanford University. Retrieved from:  http://www.gsb.stanford.edu/news/headlines/vftt_powell.shtml 

Leaders are Made Not Born. (2003). Business Week. Retrieved from:  http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/03_07/b3820038_mz005.htm 

Robbins, A. (1991). Creating a Compelling Future. Awaken the Giant Within. (pp. 284 -- 285). New York, NY: Simon and Schuster.

Count of Monte Cristo Edmond
Words: 761 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53736825
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Caderousse does nothing to prevent an innocent man from being accused. He has only a superficial role as part of the plot to frame the young man, and does not profit from it because of his incompetence and addiction. He even understands, however dimly, that Dantes will be able to take revenge, should the plot be discovered. When "one gets out of prison,' said Caderousse, who, with what sense was left him, listened eagerly to the conversation, 'and when one gets out and one's name is Edmond Dantes, one seeks revenge'" (Chapter 4). Caderousse eventually meets an untimely end, after murdering a man to whom he sold the jewel the Dantes deliberately gave to him, because Dantes knew that Caderousse's temper would result in the drunkard's destruction.

Villefort is perhaps the most complex character in The Count of Monte Cristo. At first, he states that he believes that Dantes is…

International Protection of Human Rights
Words: 7675 Length: 28 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 88133859
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UK Immigration Act of 1971 and Its Enforcement with espect to Administrative emoval/Deportation when Articles 3 and 8 of European Convention of Human ights are Engaged

Following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, many observers stated that "nothing would ever be the same again" and in some ways they have been absolutely correct. While the United Kingdom continues its inexorable march to become fully integrated into the burgeoning European Union, a number of obstacles remain firmly in place that relate to the perceived need by the UK government to better control movement of foreigners within its borders. The purpose of this study was to provide an examination of the UK Immigration Act of 1971 and its enforcement with respect to administrative removal or deportation when Articles 3 and 8 of European Convention of Human ights are engaged. This study used a three-chapter format to achieve this research purpose. Chapter…

References

Apap, J. And Carrera, S. 2004, "Maintaining Security within Borders: Toward a Permanent State of Emergency in the EU?" Alternatives: Global, Local, Political 29(4): 399.

Barav, A., Wyatt, D.A. And Wyatt, J. 1998, Yearbook of European Law, Vol. 17. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Bello, J.H. 1995, "Community Competence to Conclude Certain International Agreements." American Journal of International Law, 89(4): 772-789.

Brown, J.M.and Louis, W.R. (Eds.). 1998, The Oxford History of the British Empire, Vol. 4. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press

Game Movie This Is One
Words: 1532 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 22196864
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A skeptic when faced with a rather extraordinary situation will be in total chaos even before he completely realized what was actually happening. Therefore, whenever you have serious doubts about something, you need not overreact. Instead handle the adversity with a clear head. Think of a clever way to walk out of the situation with your head up.

In the movie, Nicholas realized that the manipulating minds of those behind the game actually meant him well. He was the classic example of someone waking up from a dream, only to find out that he was the first to join in the laugh against him. When things started to fall apart he allowed himself to wallow in his uncertainties. When he should have fought his battles with a clear head, he went around like a maniac chasing elusive answers. The Game tells us that sometimes, you just have to take that…

Punishment
Words: 1439 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 5083803
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4. Retributive justifications for punishment- such as theories about making punishment "fit" what the crime or criminal "deserves" have been criticized on grounds that they assume we know a lot more than we do. For example, it is notorious that different jurisdictions assign different punishments for the same offense. In addition, it is notoriously difficult to assess an individual's personal blameworthiness for criminal conduct in terms of his or her personal history. However, neither of these factors is substantial enough to challenge the validity of retributive justice schemes. After all, it is to be expected that different jurisdictions would have different punishments for the same criminal behavior, because cultural values vary across the United States, with certain cultures and regional areas placing greater emphasis on different values. The federal system of government practically dictates that there will be conflict among the many criminal justice systems in the United States. Furthermore,…

Criminal Justice A the Criminal
Words: 1036 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 79521705
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This substantiates the concept that simply building more correctional facilities will only exacerbate the problem, as it will probably fill up even faster than it can be completed.

Moses Wright (2007) notes that there is light at the end of the tunnel. An increasing number of critics and professionals are recognizing the possibilities of rehabilitation as opposed to imprisonment. Rehabilitation has a number of advantages. Most notably, it will discourage repeat offending and thus reduce the number of prisoners who return to prison after only a short time. In addition, rehabilitation programs will both help those participating and other prisoners for whom an example is provided to become worthy contributors to society. Furthermore, rehabilitation will also relieve society of those repeat offenders who are never apprehended and thus continue to have the opportunity to commit their crimes. It therefore appears that rehabilitation programs could be much more effective in reducing…

Sources

Davis, Matthews (2006, April 7). The World's Biggest Prison System. BBC News, Washington.  http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/4858580.stm 

Patel, Roopal & McMurray, Peter. The Prison Dilemma: America's Penal System Makes a Mockery of Democracy. Harvard. http://www.digitas.harvard.edu/~perspy/old/issues/2000/apr/prison.html

Wright, Moses. (2007). Criminal Rehabilitation: Working towards a better life for prisoners and their families.  http://ezinearticles.com/?Criminal-Rehabilitation-Working-Towards-a-Better-Life-for-Inmates-and-Their-Families&id=455250

Life in Prison Life in
Words: 1453 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 4912157
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Williams...consistently denied killing Owens.

March 11, 1979 --...three of Williams' friends -- all with criminal histories and motivation to lie, Williams says -- testify that he confessed to the killings. A ballistics expert links a shotgun shell at the motel to Williams' gun. Williams has also steadfastly maintained his innocence in the Yang killings.

1981 -- Williams is tried and convicted in Los Angeles Superior Court of all four murders, plus...sentenced to death. He arrives at San Quentin's death row on April 20.

1987 -- Williams is placed in solitary confinement for 6 1/2 years after committing a string of violent incidents behind bars, including assaults on guards and other inmates.

1988 -- the California Supreme Court affirms Williams' death sentence, and he files his first federal appeal to the U.S. District Court.

1996 -- Williams, with co-author Barbara Cottman Becnel, publishes the first of a series of anti-gang books…

References

Stovall, Jeffrey, M.D. (2001, March). Prison Madness: The Mental Health Crisis Behind Bars and What We Must Do About it. American Psychiatric Association. Retrieved December 8, 2007, at  http://psychservices.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/52/3/394-a 

Nieves, Evelyn, (2005, December 14). "Schwarzenegger Clemency Denial Called Politically Safe." Washington Post, p. A18, Retrieved December 8, 2007, at  http://www.washingtonpost.com/wpdyn/content/article/2005/12/13/AR200512100026 . tml

Tookie's Path to Death Row." (2005, December 13). Retrieved Decembe 9, 2007, at  http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=5047269Timeline:Tookie 's Path to Death Row

Williams, Stanley, with Becnel, Barbara Cottman. (2001). Life in Prison. Chronicle Books.

Extraordinary Rendition the Costs of
Words: 6889 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 32847680
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In other words, up until the middle of the 19th century, there were no cases of note or significance that indicated that the executive branch of the UNITED STATES government had the authority to render suspects or criminals to foreign locations outside of the explicit authority granted through a signed treaty with a foreign government.

It was during the Civil War that the first major break with this established legal tradition was made. The incident involved the capture of a foreign citizen in New York City during wartime and performed by presidential authority alone. The man captured was Jose Augustin Arguelles, a Spanish subject, who captured illegal slave traders, claimed a reward, then sold the slaves to plantation owners. Under Spanish law he was a criminal, but the United States had no extradition treaty with Spain. Despite having no legal authority to do so, Lincoln authorized the capture of the…

References

Elsea, J.K. And Kim, J. (2007, January 23). Undisclosed UNITED STATES detention sites overseas: background and legal issues. CRS Report for Congress. Congressional Research Service. Retrieved November 29, 2007, at  http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/intel/RL33643.pdf 

Grey, S. (2005, December 19). Torture's tipping point. New Statesman, pp. 24-25.

Grey, S. (2006, November 20). Missing presumed tortured. New Statesman, pp. 12-15.

Gutierrez, D. (2006, January-February). The extraordinary cruelty of "extraordinary rendition." The Humanist, pp. 11-15.

European Resistance Movements in the
Words: 4304 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 43688761
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A small but vigorous Communist party already experienced with underground work was the first to initiate clandestine operations. They set up front organizations and recruited members. By April 1942, they had recruited enough people to form a guerrilla arm called ELAS. Aris Velouchiotis, a former schoolteacher and Communist revolutionary, was the leader of this group whose goal was to harass the occupiers and wear them down.

A charismatic leader with a strong streak of cruelty, he had a knack for communicating with peasants in the simple but subtle language of the mountains and possessed a flair for the dramatic. He draped his short, powerful figure with bandoliers, wore a black Cossack-style hat flamboyantly and was surrounded by a personal bodyguard of a score or more men, who adopted his headgear and hence were known as "black bonnets" (Bailey, 1978, p. 153).

Another group in Greece, EDES, developed in the mountains…

References

Bailey, R.H. (1978). Partisans and guerrillas. New York: Time-Life Books.

Fogelman, E. (1994). Conscience and courage: Rescuers of Jews during the Holocaust. New York: Anchor Books.

Haas, a. (1984). The doctor and the damned. New York: St. Martin's Press.

Olsen, O.R. (1952). Two eggs on my plate. Translated from the Norwegian by F.H. Lyon.

Children Counselling as a Counsellor
Words: 2317 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59660465
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It took them a while to get used to it but eventually, they were able to communicate with softer words and softer tone.

According to systems theory (Titelman, 1998), it was my duty to work on both Dave and his family so that their communication problem is uprooted from its origins. When his parents began to realize the impact of their meaningless arguments on Dave, they set quite a few rules for themselves. These rules included no harsh words or arguments in front of Dave and increased participation in his social & academic life. They realized the importance of their emotional support and gravity of the condition of Dave.

It was important to make Dave feel that he was needed and appreciated for being wonderful just the way he was. His parents also felt the need for a stable atmosphere at home where Dave could share his thoughts, fears and…

References

Bailey K.D. (1994) Sociology and the new systems theory: toward a theoretical synthesis. USA. Sunny Press.

Beck A.T. (1979) Cognitive Therapy Of Depression. NEWYORK .USA. Guilford press

Clark. D.A., Beck A.T. & Alford B.A. (1999). Scientific foundations of cognitive theory and therapy of depression. USA. John Wiley and Sons.

Einstein D. (2007) Innovations and Advances in Cognitive Behaviour Therapy. Australia. Australian Academic Press

Crime & the Treatment of
Words: 1602 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 10798349
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Once inmates were encouraged to complete an education while in prison and gain skills to get a paying job so they could be self-supporting once they got out, but that is no longer so. The public attitude was, "Why should criminals get a free education? Law abiding citizens have to pay for college." The overcrowded conditions, caused by long mandated sentences for non-violent drug offenses put an end to social programs in the prisons aimed at preparing prisoners to live as law-abiding citizens when they got out.

Privatization of prisons, which makes them cheaper to run, has had negative effects. Some researchers contend that by putting private companies in charge of prisons, we have created a market economy for crime with a market demand for prisoners. More people in prison provide more business for these companies. These companies have strong lobbies that pressure for harsher and longer sentences. For example,…

Bibliography

Beaudoin, Jack. "Does the U.S.Abuse Human Rights," Scholastic Update. 8 Dec. 1997.

Bohm, Robert. "Crime, Criminals, and Crime Control Policy Myths," Justice Quarterly,

Chavez, Linda. "One of the Keys to Reducing Crime is Ridding our Prisons of the Crimes Committed There," Enterprise/Salt Lake City, May 15, Vol 29, Iss. 46,

Green, Bonnie L.; Miranda, Jeanne; Daroowalla, Anahita; and Juned Siddique. "Trauma

History and the Affects the Criminal Justice System Has Had on Minorities
Words: 2016 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 4865747
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Criminal Justice System Has Had on Minorities

History and the Effects of the Criminal Justice System on Minorities -- 1940 to 1960

The 20-year period from 1940 to 1960 represented a crossroads for the United States in terms of engagement in an enormously costly world war as well as the social upheavals that resulted from the manner in which minorities in general, and Asian and African-Americans in particular, had been historically treated. While blacks had historically been the target of much of the racist views and violence in the U.S. through the mid-20th century, Asian-Americans were never far behind in the social mix and the attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941 just made matters worse for all concerned. Indeed, tens of thousands of Japanese-Americans were interred during the war "for their own protection," but many observers suggested this fundamental abrogation of these citizen's constitutional rights was tantamount to illegal imprisonment…

References

Bailey, F.Y., & Green, A.P. (1999). Law never here: A social history of African-American responses to issues of crime and justice. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.

Black's law dictionary. (1990). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Company.

Bouza, A.V. (1990). The police mystique: An insider's look at cops, crime, and the criminal justice system. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books.

Collins, D.E. (1985). Native American aliens: Disloyalty and the renunciation of citizenship by Japanese-Americans during World War II. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Punishing the Mentally Ill Criminal
Words: 2231 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 12164478
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For example, they should be required to complete at least 20 hours of training on brain disorders. It is ideal if consumers and family members become part of the activity and process. It must also be emphasized that, in most cases, dangerous or violent acts committed by persons with these brain disorders are the consequence of neglect, inappropriate or inadequate treatment of their illness (NAMI).

The Alliance also contends that the unpopular insanity defense should be retained and should be tested according to both volitional and cognitive criteria or standards (National Alliance of Mental Illness 2006). At the same time, the Alliance opposes the adoption of laws or position on "guilty but mentally ill. Instead, it advocates systems, which will provide comprehensive, long-term care and supervision in hospitals and the community where such individuals are found who are "not guilty by reason of insanity," "guilty except for insanity," or similar…

Bibliography

1. Amnesty International. (2006). The Execution of Mentally Ill Offenders. Amnesty International Library. http://web.amnesty.org/library/index/ENGAMR5002206

2. Anynomous. (2006). Forensic Psychiatry - Criminal.  http://www.stanford.edu/group/psylawseminar/blank%20Page%206.htm 

3. Fellner, J. (2006). A Corrections Quandary: Mental Illness and Prison Rules. http://www.law.harvard.edu/students/orgs/crc/vol41_2/fellner.pdf

4. Human Rights Watch (2006). Difficulties Mentally Ill Prisoners Face Coping in Prison. Human Rights Watch.org.  http://www.hrw.org/reports/2003/usa1003/7.htm

Prison Problem The Violence People
Words: 1336 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83053070
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A major portion of an inmate's helplessness, deprivation, depression and self-loathing etc. arises due to physical and psychological victimization that he or she has to face. Physical victimization includes homicide, assault and rape. These arise due to poor staff supervision and keeping defenseless prisoners with the violent ones. On the other hand, psychological victimization involves verbal manipulation and harsh psychological attacks of personal nature.

The stronger inmates attempt to create their own subcultures that show their dominance, rule and assertion on all prisoners (Heilpern, 1998). To fulfill the maintenance of these subcultures, they resort to rape, riots or even homicide spreading mental illnesses like stress, phobias, enhanced criminal activity, shame, guilt, etc. among the weaker prisoners.

Imprisonment: Eliminating or aggravating crime?

It is not a hidden matter that jails, even after intensive care and security, are not free of brutality, stress and violence among the inmates. The safety of each…

References

Cragg, W. (2002). The practice of punishment: Towards a theory of restorative justice. Routledge.

Foucault, M. (2008). Discipline and punish: The birth of the prison.

Gendreau, P., Cullen, F.T., & Goggin, C. (1999). The effects of prison sentences on recidivism. Ottawa: Solicitor General Canada.

Gudrais, E. (2013, March). The Prison Problem. Harvard Magazine.

Puritan Life Was Heavily Contaminated by Death
Words: 1611 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 60935225
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puritan life was heavily contaminated by death. Half of the original 102 pilgrims that settled in America died during the first winter and it was not uncommon for children to perish before they reached adolescence. Funerals were a common occurrence in everyday life and the air of towns was often littered with the sounds of church bells. From the early stages of learning, children were educated on the grim reality that they faced and if they were fortunate enough to grow up, their demise still followed them wherever they ventured to. Puritan religion explains that a person is unable to control their destiny. Their ascendance to heaven or hell is pre-determined before the time of their birth and their actions in life have no influence on their final destination.

Although her lifetime took place more than two centuries after their arrival, Emily Dickinson presented poetry that offered views on death…

Winnie Mandela
Words: 2699 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 73090707
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Winnie Mandela. The writer focuses on the Truth and econciliation hearing that she went through. Her life is presented as well as her beliefs and causes with a focus on the hearing and what it meant her followers. There were 10 sources used to complete this paper.

She is a woman who excused confidence, and she led many people to the brink of freedom as well as political activism. While she was at one time married to the great political activist Nelson Mandela, her name has become well-known because of her own fight for the causes she believes in. Winnie Mandela has spent her adult life as an activist. She knows how to stir the hearts of those who follower her as well as push the buttons of those who do not. In contrast to her ex-husband who is known for his attitude of passive resistance Winnie is far more…

References

Winnie Mandela: Fallen political heir  http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/special_report/1998/10/98/truth_and_reconciliation/202516.stm   http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/2115569.stm 

Winnie Madikizela-Mandela

Brendan Boyle; Reuters, WINNIE MANDELA FACES ACCUSERS WITNESSES FROM SOWETO TELL TRUTH COMMISSION OF TORTURE AND MURDERS BY LEADER AND HER SQUAD., Denver Rocky Mountain News, 11-25-1997, pp 31A.

Tom Cohen / Associated Press, Madikizela-Mandela defends herself: But testimony angers some, raises questions about value of hearing., The Dallas Morning News, 12-05-1997, pp 1A.

Chinese American Studies
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Chinese-American Studies: Wen Ho Lee Case

United States of America is a melting pot of various communities who have been residing in the country for generations. They feel assimilated into the American culture where many of them have been born and brought up in the U.S. And hence have remote connections with the country of their ancestors. As a result, they feel very much a part of this country and believe they have the rights of a citizen. This is why they feel that they do not deserve to be discriminated against on the grounds of their origins. Therefore such communities protest if situations arise, where they feel they have been discriminated against in some or the other. Though United States confers all rights of citizenry to its nationals, there have been cases in the past where the U.S. government has discriminated against a person or a group on the…

References

Indictment of Wen Ho Lee.

A www.fas.org

For Asian-Americans, Lee Case a stark Signal.  http://www.csmonitor.com/durable/2000/08/30/fp1s2-csm.shtml 

Mainichi, Hokubei. Full Pardon for Wen Ho Lee Sought. Jan 2, 2002. www.news.mconline.com/news/view-article.html

Search for Truth
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Life and Death in Shanghai" by Nien Cheng, "Atonement" by Ian McEwan and "The Violent Bear it Away" by Flannery O'Connor.

This paper will analyze how the three books demonstrate the significance of truth in one's life and how big a priority it is or isn't.

Search For Truth

Is Truth the winner in the end? Is the battle between Good or Evil always by won by Good? Could lies have terrible consequences on not only one's own life but on others? These are some of the questions that are raised and/or answered in Life and Death in Shanghai, Atonement and The Violent Bear It All.

Life and Death in Shanghai" by Nien Cheng is a true account of how Nien Cheng's life was persecuted and imprisoned during the time of Mao Zedong's Cultural Revolution in China. (1966-1976).

During this time, Nien Cheng became a victim of the revolution. Her…

Works Cited

Life and Death in Shanghai by Nien Cheng

Atonement by Ian McEwan

The Violent Bear It All by Flannery O'Connor

Women Offenders
Words: 5340 Length: 19 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 27946496
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delineation of the research hypotheses. The chapter will conclude with an outline of the remaining chapters.

Relevant Background Information

Increasingly, female offenders and issues associated with their incarceration have been identified as a problem of concern. Evidence suggests that female offenders represent a growing population within the U.S. penal system. Between 1986 and 1991, the number of female inmates in state prisons increased 75% (Bureau of Justice Statistics, 1994). Between 1981 and 1991, the number of females incarcerated in federal penal institutions also increased by 24%. Since 1980 the population of women inmates has increased by more than 200% (Gabel & Johnston, 1995). Women inmates currently account for 9% of the entire prison population and of this group, 57% are women of color.

The majority of women are arrested for nonviolent crimes. Typical offenses include fraud, use of illegal drugs, and prostitution (Singer, Bussey, Song, & Lunghofer, 1995). Evidence also…

Spy Case Katrina Leung
Words: 1469 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 18349317
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Katrina Leung: who she is, why she has made the news, what she is accused of, and what threat she posed/poses to the United States. The paper also discusses the Leung case within a more general framework, in terms of the post-9/11 world, and North America's place in that world, in terms of the need for the U.S. To safeguard its security, and the security of its citizens, and also to secure its position in the world economy.

Katrina Leung, or Man Ying Chan, Wen Ying Chen or Luo Zhongstan, as she has also been known, was a Chinese spy, who was arrested for spying on the United States government, for China.

Pre-arrest, Katrina Leung was a political activist in Southern California, a supporter of the republican party. She was also a Director of the World Affairs Council, based in Los Angeles. She lived in California, in San Marino, with…

Bibliography

http://www.cicentre.com/Documents/DOC_Smith_James_J_Case.htm

 http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/3005274.stm   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Katrina_Leung 

 http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn?pagename=article&node=&contentId=A58327-2003Apr19&notFound=true 

According to FBI Director, Robert Mueller, "James Smith was once a special agent, sworn to uphold the rule of law and the high ethical standards of the FBI. According to today's charges, former Agent Smith not only betrayed the trust the FBI placed in him, but also betrayed the American people he was sworn to protect" (quote taken at (http://www.cicentre.com/Documents/DOC_Smith_James_J_Case.htm).

After the Madness
Words: 1058 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 59355731
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Sol achtler's, After the Madness, is a riveting, powerful story about a distinguished public servant that finds himself on the other side of the law. The main character, who is also the author, writes about his experiences as a defendant and occupant of the criminal justice system in America.

achtler was the Chief Judge of New York. He had a long, distinguished record of public service, and was slated to become the state's next governor. achtler's bright future faded; however, as allegations of fraud and blackmail were brought against him by a former lover. Convicted of the charges in 1992, achtler was sent to two federal prisons for eleven months.

achtler details his rough, often brutal experiences in the federal facilities. He recounts being stabbed by a fellow inmate, and the wound being stitched using no anesthetic. He recalls being placed in solitary confinement as a result of the incident,…

Works Cited

Wachtler, Sol. After the Madness. New York: Random House. 1998.

Dreyfus Affair
Words: 1252 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 27693812
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Dreyfus Affair

Alfred Dreyfus was born in Alcace in 1959, a period of time tumultuous for both Germany and French. When Germany acquired the Alsace region, Alfred's father moved his family to Paris, feeling allegiance to that country. Alfred was commissioned as an artillery officer in the French Army in 1882 (Adler, 2002).

While Dreyfus was growing up France went through tome dramatic changes. The French thrown was abolished in 1871 and the Third Republic formed. Religious leaders were afraid their power would diminish, and multiple factions lined up against each other. Anti-Prussian sentiment was high because of a humiliating defeat in the Franco-Prussian war (Adler, 2002), and all these factors led to a huge wave of extreme nationalism. Those opposed to the new Republican government needed a target and found it in the Jews after the collapse of a major bank. The director of the bank named "Jewish capitol…

Bibliography

Adler, Joseph. 2002. "The Dreyfus affair.(Alfred Dreyfus)." Midstream, Jan.

Braziller, G. The affair: the case of Alfred Dreyfus by Jean-Denis Bredin. Translated from the French by Jeffrey. New York: Mehlman, 1986.

Cavendish, Richard. 1999. "Dreyfus Pardoned." History Today, Sept.

Editor. 1998. "Framed by his words The Big date." The Scotsman, Feb. 21.

International Crime Terrorism and Organized Crime Trends
Words: 3182 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 30816158
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International Crime, Terrorism, And Organized Crime Trends

Comparing contrasting topics international crime, terrorism, organized crime trends

This research has confirmed the possibility of close correlation between money laundering activities, Islamic terrorist fundraising, organized crime, and corruption of public officials throughout Brazilian Hizballah region. The organized crime networks and the Islamic extremists of Brazil must be examined in collaboration because they are connected to wider networks in Latin America zone and across the world. All the organized activities and terrorists in Brazilian Hizballah were facilitated by corrupt officials, which were driven by the benefits of lucrative criminal activities conducted such as business ventures by terrorists and organized crime groups. Consequently, there was a mutually beneficial association among the three sectors. In this study, Brazilian Hizballah will serve as a microcosm.

Introduction

A number of free-Trade American regions with massive Middle Eastern populations permit organized crime mafias, Islamic terrorist groups, and corrupt…

References

Almeida, J. (2008). Brazil in focus: Economic, political and social issues. New York: Nova Science Publishers.

Duyan, A., & NATO Emerging Security Challenges Division. (2012). Defence against terrorism: Different dimensions and trends of an emerging threat: [proceedings of the NATO Advanced Training Course on Defence Against Terrorism: Different Dimensions and Trends of the Emerging Threat - Terrorism, Kabul, Afghanistan, 23-27 May 2010]. Amsterdam: Ios Pres in cooperation with NATO Emerging Security Challenges Division.

Friedlander, R.A., Levie, H.S. & Lovelace, D.C. (2009). Terrorism: Documents of international and local control. Dobbs Ferry, N.Y: Oceana Publications.

Giraldo, J.K. (2007). Terrorism financing and state responses: A comparative perspective. Stanford, Calif: Stanford Univ. Press.

History Correctional Facilities in the US
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Prison system plays a significant part in promoting the well-being and sustainability of the global societies. he American prison system is an example of the prison system that has undergone significant transformation over decades to become what is seen in the present. he origin of the American prison system is traceable back to early ages before the 19th century when incarceration was introduced as a method of criminal punishment to those who violated the law. he early ages of the development of the prison system was characterized by a geographical widespread of the penitentiary systems that could serve the purposes of law. However, exposure of this system to significant changes such as scientific and political developments alongside reform movements resulted in the improvement of the prison conditions.

raditionally, the prison systems of the U.S. were used for punishing people who evaded paying their taxes. he history of the U.S. prison…

The mass prison era featured between 1825 and 1876. The use of treatments such as hard labor and whipping of the criminal offenders characterized this period. The system was the key competitor of the Pennsylvania system of prison that persisted between 1790 and 1825. This stage of the history of the U.S. prison system was dominated by the cases of vandalism, stealing water from the standpipes, and failure of individuals to pay taxes to the government. The reformatory era came between 1876 and 1890 where the prison system adopted the used of intermediate sentencing as a form of punishing the criminal offenders. This phase aimed at reforming the criminal offenders rather than punishing them. As such, it adopted the use of graded stages where there was the use of parole systems to achieve the desired social sustainability and well-being. However, the system failed due to the effects of recidivism during this period. Urban crimes such as burglary, robbery with violence, and murder were the most common crimes during this stage of the growth of the U.S. prison system.

The industrial era followed where the prisoners were used to provide cheap labor. Among the systems of inmate labor that were used during this period, include the piece-price system, the contract system, public account system, lease system, public works system, and state-use system. However, the passing of the Ashurst-Sumners Act and the Hawes-Cooper Act reduced the labor that could be provided by the inmates. Among the crimes during this period included murder, robbery, and rape cases among other forms of crimes. The 1935-1945 punitive era was characterized by the holding of prisoners owed a debt to their societies. As such, there were few innovations during this period and the form of crimes committed during this era-included robbery, murder, and other forms of violence against humanity.

The treatment era of 1945-1967 came where there was the recognition of the need of the use of medical models for the sick inmates. The forms of crimes encompassed the above crimes. The community-based era (1967-1980) followed where inmates were provided with privileges such as work release, study-release, and halfway houses. This was followed by the warehousing era (1980-1995) and the Just desert era (1995 to the present) that recognized the need for provision of services that recognized human needs of the inmates. The forms of crimes included terrorism, robbery, murder, and all other forms of crimes present in the other eras. Therefore, it is apparent that the prison system of the U.S. has undergone significant transformations over time to become the present prison system.

Minority Arrests and Predictive Policing
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noticeable gap when it comes to criminal-justice statistics, specifically police and their use of lethal force. Although statistics exist for several things like arson and homicides, there are no official and reliable tabulation of law enforcement-caused civilian deaths. The Washington Post mentioned in one of their articles, that almost 400 police killings occurred in one year. While this is at least an estimated figure versus unknown, James Comey, an FBI Director confessed he did not know how many of these killing occur every day, every month, or every year. There are just no efforts to collect such data.

Statistics such as these are important. Statistics play an important role in focusing the attention of politicians, defining the public debate, as well as driving the allocation of resources. The work of public officials is often assessed by how these statistics decrease or increase based on the efforts of such public officials.…