Letter of Transmittal
To the Head,
Department of Jails
There are often heavy psychological pressures on inmates as they are dislocated from the society. The type of interactions that happen in a prison setting also create psychological pressures and the incarceration also results in acute psychological stress. Prison life of inmates is most often associated with reduced physical activity as they are often subjected to a solitary life style without much scope for physic activity. There are also reduced opportunities for mental activities due to lack of resources as is the norm in prisons. Physical problems such as diabetes mellitus, heart diseases and other chronic disabilities have been established to have greater chance of setting on individuals who are sedentary.
This study recommends the ways and means to reduce physical and mental ill health of inmates due to the above mentioned reasons and conditions as recommendations of a training program for the inmates that include both physical and mental training and suggests ways and means for the improvement of self-confidence and reduction of loneliness of inmates.
The Problem 4
Problem Assessment 4
The Method 6
Results of the Study 8
A viable solution 10
Recommended Actions 10
By characteristics, the penal institutions are generally sick places where unhealthy behaviors such as smoking, inactive lifestyle, irregular diet and of inmates cramped in to overcrowded conditions often results in the inmates developing both chronic physiological and psychological diseases at high rates.
There are often heavy psychological pressures on the inmates as they are dislocated from the society. The type of interactions that occur in a prison setting can also create psychological pressures and thus the incarceration also result in acute psychological stress. Moreover, the social stigma associated with being imprisoned and the impact of the institution of prison itself can leave long-lasting psychological impacts on prisoners and inmates. These often manifest in acute mental illness and other psychological problems (CASHIN, POTTER & BUTLER, 2008).
Over the yearsmany studies and reports have shown that prison inmateshave poorer overall health levels with a consequential associated lower rate of healthcare utilization in comparison to the general population. Chronic debilitating conditions are also common such as a co-infection with the HIV, hepatitis C virus, and/or opioid dependencewhich can be included among the health risks beyond what mental disorder that inmates may face. These also result in increased medical personnel employment and pharmacological costs which ultimately increases public spending by the government due to thehealth and psychological diseases commonly present in a prison population (Battaglia et al., 2013).
The life of inmates is most often associated with reduced physical activity as they are often subjected to a solitary life style without much of a scope of physic activity. There are also reduced opportunities for mental activities due to lack of available resources as is the norm in prisons. Physical problems such as diabetes mellitus, heart diseases and other chronic disabilities have been established to have greater chance of setting on individuals who are sedentary. Moreover the lack of exercise -- both mental and physical, also significantly increases the risk of the development of mental illness and psychological problems in people leading sedentary life styles and especially those who are cut off from society in a significant manner for various reasons.
An elevated risk of future hypertension among inmates has been proven to be associated with long periods ofincarceration. Therefore it can be concluded that in order to reduce risks of health ailments as well as mental health, it is important that the inmates be subjected...
Some studies have also shown that regular participation in endurance exercise training and mental health exercises -- that include proper and effective recreational training for inmates significantly helps in reducing mental and physical problems in individuals. This also applies to the cases of inmates who are often forced to stay in a confined state and with little or no opportunity for physical and mental exercises.
Theseresistance training programshave be shown to help in gaining favorable health benefits for inmate subjects who are at the risk of developing various chronic diseases like heart ailments, diabetes, central obesity and mental illness including acute depression. Well-being and quality of life is also increased by regular participation in physical activities and studies have suggested that a well-developed and supervised exercise training can help better the debilitating conditions for the inmates and the overall physical and mental fitness of incarcerated people.
A report from the Treatment Advocacy Center, a nonprofit advocacy organization, there were
According to a new report from the Treatment Advocacy Center, a nonprofit advocacy organization in the U.S., advocacy roughly 356,268 inmates with severe mental illnesses in prisons and jails, while only 35,000 people with the same diseases were in state psychiatric hospitals in 2012 in the U.S.
Therefore it can be concluded that the inmates of jails and other penal institutions require a rigorous training program for mental and physical health benefits on a regular basis. This report now presents a the description of the type of health training programs that can be adopted in jails and prisons for inmates to keep them mentally and physically fit despite the solitary nature of their life. The training program can be adjusted to according to the particular requirements of the inmates and the requirements of detention condition.
The study was conducted with two different methods. One of the ways was to study the results of research efforts and studies that were conducted on the issue in the past. The context and the place of the studies as well as the settings of the studies were kept in mind and were selected on the basis of similarity of condition and facilities at the prison in contention. The results of the studies on mental health and physical fitness of jail inmates was carefully studied and analyzed. The conditions of the inmates in the previous studies were evaluated and compared with the conditions of the inmate sin the jail concerned the mental health issue was given specific focus upon while selecting and analyzing the studies. The studies and researches were chosen that bore resemblance to the reported mental illness of the inmates in the jail for which the report is being prepared. This report was prepared after careful consideration of the earlier reports on the basis of the conditions of the jails and the habits and norms and regulations of the jails, along with the facilities for the inmates of for physical exercise and recreation. The report took into consideration the best practices in the U.S. prison and other prisons of the world as depicted in the studies and compared them with the prison for which the report is being prepared. The results and recommendations of the variousprevious studies were considered while preparing the recommendations for suggesting a health training regimen for the physical and mental well-being of the inmates of prison being considered.
Along with studying previous reports and researches of mental health in other prisons, the report also took into account a detailed survey among the prison inmates of the jail in question. The survey was conducted among the inmates who had been diagnosed with having mental illness problems from mild to severe to acute. The survey also inquired with the inmates about their views of the regular regimen and the regular exercise opportunities that they got in confinement and the recreational opportunities present in the prison under consideration. The study also included views of the jail doctor about the possible reason for the mental illness and the prison authorities about the extent to which the rules and regulations could be flexed in order to include and adopt a health training and fitness regimen along with a plan for better and effective recreation facilities within the prison premises.
The survey included a written questionnaire for the inmates that had 15 questions regarding their view of about the health care system in the prison and their suggestions for a better health care regimen. Those who refused to answer the questions in writing were aided in answering by verbally placing the question with them and taking the answer. The questions were closed questions with multiple options to tick on. Each of the options carried a value according to the Likert scale. The results of the survey, carried out on 550 inmates, were then analyzed using statistical methods and the most number of answers in favor of a question was considered to the answer from the majority of the inmates. The answers were analyzed using simple statistical tools. Lastly, the results of the survey were compared with the results from the study of previous research and studies and then they were combined together to form…