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Song of Roland
The idea of the perfect knight of the Middle Ages even today engenders a clear ideal, an ideal associated with valor and insurmountable strength under pressure.
The idea of the mounted knight brings up romantic thoughts of inhumanly handsome and strong men covered from head to toe in armor, or possibly carrying only the helmet, as he gallops across a former field of battle to celebrate his victory and briefly lament his losses. The Middle Age Knight is brave without error, loyal beyond the average, inhumanly strong, filled with the wisdom of leadership, tireless and always, always mounted on a noble steed. "Roland is brave and Oliver is wise; / Both are marvelous vassals. / Now that they are armed and mounted on their horses / Neither will avoid the fray for fear of death." (Burgess 36)
t is without a doubt that the tireless knight will…… [Read More]
Song of Roland essentially functions as folklore, which lionizes and creates legends of the works and characters of Charlemagne the Great and his men. The author of this epic poem is unknown, as is the exact date in which it was written. It is commonly believed to have been written in the 12th century. The poem's central action utilizes elements of the history of Charlemagne and his Muslim enemies quite loosely. It takes certain historical events and effectively distorts them for the author's own purpose, which is linked to the encouragement of the spread of Christianity. However, many of the major events depicted within this work actually took place. How and why they did, as well as the intimacy of details that poem supplies by effectively flushing out those particulars, is largely fictional and merely helps to spread the legend of Charlemagne, his men, and the perceived greatness of Christianity.…… [Read More]
These characters possess freewill, such as Ganelon and his plotting against the Franks. ut the God in the epic does intervene to make sure that good really comes out victorious in the end, such as when he makes Thierry win over Pinable in a duel.
The unknown author of the epic presents the Muslims as unquestionably and inherently evil and base, the reverse of the Christians (ouneuf 2005). Although the Muslims are more monotheistic than Christians and that Christians of the early Middle Ages took Islam merely as another form of paganism, they assumed that Muslims worshipped Apollo. In making this presentation, the poem employs a technique of opposite images, such as 12 Saracen peers matching 12 Frankish peers in battle, opposing armies organizing themselves in the same form, but with Christians outperforming the Muslims and fighting more nobly.
Awesome medieval Christian heroism centers on the idea of vassalage (ouneuf…… [Read More]
oland's fame is legendary, and so, he seems larger than life to the reader, but not so large that he is unconquerable.
oland is also extremely proud, and this pride also helps lead to his death. He refuses to sound the oliphant and call back Charlemagne's troops, and so, his pride is larger than his common sense. He says, "Better to die than to learn to live with shame -- / Charles loves us more as our keen swords win fame'" (44). Sadly, too much pride is a sin, but oland cannot admit this, and cannot admit that he might need help. Oliver is the wiser of the two men, and understands the odds they face, but he cannot convince his friend to call back the King and his men to help in the fight. Oliver rebukes him for his pride, but not until it is too late, and all…… [Read More]
Lais of Marie de France and the Song of Roland -- Epic Expressions of Romantic Cultural Imagination and a Romantic Epic of National Identity
Both The Lais of Marie de France and The Song of Roland are early works of medieval verse. The Lais hail from France, The Song from England. Both are stories that depict an area of history now lost to most readers. However, there the similarities between the two tales seem to effectively end, stylistically and thematically. The Song of Roland is an epic tale of the reign of the Great Emperor Charlemagne. Thus, The Song of Roland, for all of its use of medieval and fantastic narrative tropes, such as a woman who dies for love and the healing and miraculous value of prayer, has its basis in an historical and national French reality. In contrast, the Lais are short stories that are relatively self-enclosed and…… [Read More]
Everyman," and "The Song of Roland," both written by anonymous authors. Specifically, it will compare and contrast the two texts, illustrating their commonalities and distinct differences.
COMPARE AND CONTRAST
Both of these medieval manuscripts, written by people long gone and forgotten, are extremely important historically. They give the reader a deeper understanding of medieval times, from the chivalry and bravery in "The Song of Roland," to the moral condition of the time in "Everyman." They both use different forms of writing to get their significant messages across to readers, and they both have messages they hope the reader will learn from and act on in their own lives.
Everyman" is known as a "morality play." This genre of 15th century writing urged readers to examine their own morals and beliefs, and make sure they were aligned with those the church and state deemed were correct. As such, morality plays were…… [Read More]
Everyman and the Song of Roland focuses on the leading characters of the plays, namely, Everyman and Roland. This paper gives an in depth analysis of Everyman and the ingredients necessary for any man to abode paradise. This paper also reviews the character of Roland and how he earned great praise and respect not only among his mortal friends but also among angels and saints in heaven. By comparing both characters, this paper emphasizes on life after death according to Christian ideals.
Compare And Contrast Everyman And The Song Of Roland
Everyman is a medieval morality play, written anonymously between 1509-1519. This play may have been inspired by an anterior Dutch morality play, Elckerlijk. The play Everyman is an allegory of Death and the destiny of the soul. Everyman calls for Fellowship, Goods and Strength when he is summoned by death but sadly they betray him due to their true…… [Read More]
In this duty as well as in others, Roland somewhat pales in comparison to the unquestionable figure of leadership cut by Charlemagne, who not only emerges victorious and unscathed where Roland and his men are killed, but also establishes a clear system of justice that both makes sense to the participants and fully serves the needs of his men and their shared values and beliefs. In other words, it is necessary for a leader to maintain leadership, both by presenting a continually strong presence at the head of the community, and by ensuring that there will be a common community for this leadership to preside over in coming years and generations.
It is impossible to state with any certainty whether or not Roland's men perceived him as a good leader overall or not; this is not something that is directly addressed in The Song of Roland nor are there enough…… [Read More]
These warriors are unique in that they stand out from the typical images we normally associate with knights and warriors. Soldiers and knights, as well as chivalry were aspects of life that were first examined through Christianity. The fight was not just a fight on this world -- it had an otherworldly aspect to it in that it was also for and about God. These men were energized by this higher calling and people wanted to hear these astonishing stories of defeat in the name of the church. Just like fight was not just fighting, death was not just death. It was all for a higher calling and a higher purpose. Information like this allows us a greater appreciation for cultures different from our own. hat we learn is that even with all of the advancements of technology and education, we are still the same people underneath. e still love…… [Read More]
villains in Beowulf and the Song of Roland, I believe those in the last-mentioned work are more justified in their actions than those in Beowulf. This at least is true from the perspective of the 20th century religious paradigm. In the modern world, it is vitally important to display a tolerant attitude towards all pardigms of religion and other directions of philosophy. In Beowulf there is a direct rivalry between the villagers and the monster, Grendel. There is little doubt that Grendel is a monster and a bully, without any right to reprieve or defense. His mother is the only one prepared to defend him, and she does so to her own demise. Of course this could be understood from the perspective of the family paradigm. Nonetheless, Grendel was never justified in his slaughter of the celebrating party. His villainy is apparently inherent, and he simply enjoys terrorising people without…… [Read More]
Yin and Yang in Literary Relationships
Yin and Yang in eastern philosophy constitute two parts of a whole. The one cannot exist without the other. They also represent perfect balance; if one dominates, the balance is disturbed and there is conflict. This idea can be applied to several literary relationships, including Adam and Eve from Milton's Paradise Lost and Gilgamesh and Enkidu from the epic Gilgamesh.
Adam and Eve
The Biblical Adam and Eve begin their lives in perfect wholeness and bliss. God makes them equal, they share everything and they lack nothing. Their love binds them in complete unity and balance. They are also bound together by their obedience and love for God.
The imbalance comes with the arrival of the snake. The snake tempts Eve away from what she knows is right. When she tempts Adam, there is an imbalance between the two of them and Adam attempts…… [Read More]
El Cid and Medieval History
Medieval Spain was a constant battlefield where Christians and Moors fought constantly. The Moors had invaded Spain in the early stages of the 7th century and remained in control of the area well into what are now known as the Middle Ages. The Moors had begun their campaign in Europe intent upon conquering the entire continent but had been stopped at the Pyrenees by Charles the Hammer. Nevertheless, the Moors remained in Spain for over 700 years and their influence on Spanish culture remains evident to this very day. These influences include the Spanish language and its architecture.
In the course of over 700 years many legends and tails arise both fictional and real. When these legends and tails begin, at least when they are based upon living characters, they tend to accurately reflect the conditions and events as they occurred. As time progresses, however,…… [Read More]
knight was "a mounted warrior in the service of his liege-lord." Knights were professional soldiers. They were higher in rank in the cavalry. They wore coat of arms that bore the names of their heritage. They carried the colors of their Lords. (Hopkins, 1990) Their job was protecting the lands that belonged to their Lords and by extension the domain of the king. The rise of knights was associated with a martial meritocracy and an eventual aristo-meritocracy. Those knights who won battles for their masters rose through the hierarchical ranks. They were accorded greater power, lands and servants. The raison d' tre for knights was martial supremacy. Fighting was an often occurrence, because the common person could not defend themselves against an invading foe. In time of danger the people fled to the castle. When not engaged in combat, knights would participate in tournaments to win favors, power, and money.…… [Read More]
The author of this report is asked to answer to a number of questions relating to the Dark Ages. Specifically, the author is asked to define what "Dark Ages" means. Second, the author is asked to ask how this society unwittingly paved the way for a preservation of literature and art from the classical era. In particular, the author is asked to identify how Ireland was instrumental in this re-emergence. Finally, there is to be a summation of the Arthurian legend and how modern ethics is driven in part by this literature and dynamic and a definition of chivalric code is also to be offered.
In terms of history, the Dark Ages is the millennia or so that followed the end of the oman Empire. It refers to the cultural and economic downfall that ostensibly happened in Western Europe after the oman Empire was reduced to…… [Read More]
In total contrast with these heroes lies the modern hero or better said the modern man defined by his struggle for power. The idea of an individual selling his or her soul to the devil for knowledge is an old motif in Christian folklore, one that is centered upon in Cristopher Marlowe's "Doctor Faustus."
Doctor Faustus, a well-respected German scholar unsatisfied with the traditional forms of knowledge decides he wants to learn to practice magic. He begins his career as a magician summoning Mephastophilis, a devil while Valdes and Cornelius instruct him in the black arts. Despite the devil's warnings about hell Faustus tells the devil to return to his master Lucifer with an offer of Faustus's soul in exchange for twenty-five years of service from Mephistopheles. As the twenty-five years have passed, Faustus begins to dread his impending death and on the final night he is overcome by…… [Read More]
When Grendel tries to attack the place, it is seen as the attack of chaos aimed at structure and order. "Then a powerful demon, a prowler in the dark, / nursed a hard grievance" (86-87). Grendel is not an intelligent enemy but he is definitely powerful. His immense power turns him into a dangerous force since reason doesn't reside inside him. The hall was a symbol of civilization as the poet informs us: "inside Heorot / there was nothing but friendship" (1017-1018). Thus hall has immense symbolic value in the book and is aptly described as the "greatest house / in the world" (145-146).
Beowulf is perfectly aware of the importance of Heorot. He knows that by saving the place, and defeating Grendel, he could actually be presented with the greatest house on earth. In a passage, he acknowledges the worth and value of this place:
The men hurried forward,…… [Read More]
I know that the last two years have seemed arduous and that you all have missed me terribly, as I have missed all of you. It has not been easy trying to prevent injustice and to right a horrendous wrong. Usurper Harold has been in control of the English army and he is the most dangerous foe that has ever existed, I believe. It is truly mindboggling that Harold believes himself the rightful king when my claim is so strong and his so very weak. King Edward's mother was my own great-aunt after all. Harold can only state that Edward, Edward the Confessor, was his brother-in-law. He is connected by marriage! The right he has not as strong than that the woman who connects the man to our belated king. I am linked to the throne through blood which is something Harold can never claim. He…… [Read More]
Carlos also proved that the music of ach was dimensionally ever-changing and could be expressed quite well through the use of electronics.
Pink Floyd, one of the most influential "psychedelic" groups from England, utterly transformed the entire spectrum of music in the late 1960's and early 1970's through the use of the synthesizer and other electronic devices. On their "Dark Side of the Moon" album, Pink Floyd, especially bassist/keyboardist Roger Waters and keyboardist Richard Wright, completely altered all previous ideas concerning how the synthesizer could take the listener on a new voyage of discovery into uncharted territories of sound. For Pink Floyd, the synthesizer was far more than just a tool -- it was a machine with the capabilities of transforming the landscape of sound into something cosmic in origin.
In conclusion, electronic music, from its humble beginnings in the 1940's and into the present day, has greatly influenced most…… [Read More]
Societal Themes and Media
Several different themes, narratives and ideas of the society are taken up by the media and presented to the masses in many different ways. In some cases, the purpose behind this adaptation is pure entertainment, meanwhile in the other cases; the media tries to put forth a message for the population[footnoteRef:1]. Media has the potential to positively as well as negatively affect the thought process of the people pertaining to any story, theme or narrative[footnoteRef:2]. In this paper, the theme or concept of having a fair skin, as a key to all kinds of success, in the Indian subcontinent and South Asia shall be discussed in its relationship with the media. [1: Barthes and Lavers 1972] [2: Eco 1982]
The preference of fair skin in the subcontinent- An Overview
Color has always created issues in the society. hen we talk about the est, we can see…… [Read More]
" James a.S. McPeek
further blames Jonson for this corruption: "No one can read this dainty song to Celia without feeling that Jonson is indecorous in putting it in the mouth of such a thoroughgoing scoundrel as Volpone."
asserts that the usual view of Jonson's use of the Catullan poem is distorted by an insufficient understanding of Catullus' carmina, which comes from critics' willingness to adhere to a conventional -- yet incorrect and incomplete -- reading of the love poem. hen Jonson created his adaptation of carmina 5, there was only one other complete translation in English of a poem by Catullus. That translation is believed to have been Sir Philip Sidney's rendering of poem 70 in Certain Sonnets, however, it was not published until 1598.
This means that Jonson's knowledge of the poem must have come from the Latin text printed in C. Val. Catulli, Albii, Tibulli, Sex.…… [Read More]
It was a film based on a novel authored by E.B. White and it received widespread critical acclamation. The limited animation technique posed threat to the success of the company later in the 1970's. With the earning of $60million a year Hanna Barbera now failed to produce new characters and shows. Hence in 1987 the Great American Communications Group acquired the company. Further in the year 1991, Turner Broadcasting System was purchased by Hanna Barbera. In 1992, the Cartoon Network was aired by Turner Broadcasting and this set the need for library of cartoons. So the Hanna Barbera buy provided them with 3000 half-hours cartoons. The marketing strategy of Hanna Barbera was now changed with the help of Fred Siebert, the company's president. More importance was given to the international market as a result of shift in its production to Asia. The extension gave birth to new characters and a…… [Read More]
The creation and enjoyment of music has been a part of our collective human culture since long before the beginnings of recorded history. It is believed that once upon a time even cavemen and Neanderthals were able to create music using their prehistoric instruments and technologies. Archaeologists and historians have discovered remnants of musical instruments in dig sites from all across the globe. The various instruments or what may or may not have at one time been instruments, that have been found at each of these locations have been a reflection of the culture in which it was used. As modern culture is reflected in current musical interests, so too the cultures of past civilizations have been reflected in the instruments and music that those cultures had left behind. Part of the culture invariably involves the tools and available materials that the population would utilize in order to…… [Read More]
He stated that, "I mean printed works produced ostensibly to give children spontaneous pleasure and not primarily to teach them, nor solely to make them good, nor to keep them profitably quiet." (Darton 1932/1982:1) So here the quest is for the capture and promotion of children's imagination through stories and fables that please as well as enlighten. There is always the fallout that once a child learns to love to read he or she will read many more things with greater enthusiasm than before.
The children's literature genres developed in Mesopotamia and in Egypt over a roughly 1,500-year period - proverbs, fables, animal stories, debates, myths, instructions (wisdom literature), adventure and magic tales, school stories, hymns and poems - pass down to the Hebrews and the Greeks. The Old Testament owes much to both Mesopotamian and Egyptian literature (Adams 2004:230)
One can see that, as stated previously, children's literature is…… [Read More]
Beijing EAPS Consulting, Inc." After evaluating the case study the paper has described various learning from it. The case study has described a situation of BES and the problems that it was facing related to project planning and project management. The paper has analyzed the situation and offered solutions to the problems.
Implications of co conducting a project plan:
Conducting a project in itself isn't any easy task; there are a number of complications in the implementation stage. These issues are multiplied when there are two or more projects going on simultaneously. In the case of "Beijing EAPS Consulting, Inc.," Mr. Zhang and Ms. Song were involved in co conducting projects. Their relationship was a positive one since the beginning however they were facing some issues among themselves which was making it extremely hard for the whole team to work out. They were at the same level of business hierarchy…… [Read More]
First was the portrayal of the Indians in the nursery rhyme. Their deaths were violent, and they certainly portrayed as minorities, and how minorities were viewed at the time. In addition, as the guests began to group together and form alliances, it seemed the film could be referring to the alliances of the Allies against Hitler and Japan in 1945. There were different groups forming alliances in the film, and they could have represented the alliances of Britain and the United States against Germany, Italy, and Japan. There were also veiled insinuations about other races, such as when one of the guests comments that the Butler could not be the killer, because the "shape of his head" indicated he was not smart enough to come up with the idea. This could have referred to the Japanese, who were consistently portrayed as buck-toothed, slant-eyed, black-haired caricatures in the newspapers of the…… [Read More]
1950s was a decade of change for the U.S. - cinema was no exception, as it modeled itself to accommodate the social changes U.S. society was going through. Films not only provide entertainment to masses but are also believed to express the general outlook of society by the way it sets and adopts trends. 50s was marked by postwar prosperity, rising consumerism, loosening up of stereotype families, baby boom and growing middle-class. It was the time of reaction to the aging cinema, especially by the freedom loving youth who were keyed up with fast food (Mc Donald's franchised in '54), credit card (first in 1950) and drive-in theaters (Filmsite.org). Young people were fed-up with the conventional illustration of men and women. With growing interest in ock-n-oll and break-free attitude prevailing, a social revolution was very much in the offering, and that was to transfer the cinema as well…… [Read More]
HUMANITIES215 Discovering Humanities Sayre Pearson 2 9781256735007 1304A HUMA215-07 Please reference include sayre. DISCUSSION BOAD -2 in 12th century, literacy women increased. Though literacy Latin limited specific social classes, literacy local vernacular languages increasingly commo
Initial Post: Write 100 words within the Discussion Board responding to the following questions. Create a substantive and clear post expressing your research, thoughts, and ideas:
• Discuss common characteristics of romantic or courtly love poems.
• What are your reactions to these expressions of romantic love?
• Does the content of the poetry surprise you in any way?
omantic or courtly love poems expressed the devotion of a knight for his lord's lady. The love of the knight in the courtly love scenario was thus never likely to be consummated. It was supposed to be chaste and pure, much like the love a worshipper might feel for the Virgin Mary. The main audience of…… [Read More]
arrior Hero: A Stranger in a Strange Land
The figure of the hero is set apart from the common herd of ordinary men by virtue of his special qualities and abilities; in some works, this separateness is literal - he is in a strange land apart from his own kin. To see how this alienation enhances the tale of the hero's conflict, The Odyssey, Beowulf and The Tragedy of Othello, the Moor of Venice will be considered.
Odysseus, Beowulf and Othello are all warrior heroes. Odysseus, in The Odyssey, has been instrumental in the victory at Troy, and now fights to return to Ithaca and bring his men safely home; more struggles await him there. Beowulf, a great fighter who has proven his mettle in many conflicts, hears about the depredations of Grendel on Heorot Hall and journeys there to rescue Hrothgar's people. His role in the conflicts against the…… [Read More]
Gnostics believed that they belonged to the "true church" of an elect few who were worthy; the orthodox Christians would not be saved because they were blind to the truth.
Part E -- Content - if we then combine the historical outline of the "reason" for John's writings with the overall message, we can conclude that there are at least five major paradigms present that are important in a contextual analysis of John.
John 5:13 - I write these things to you who believe in the name of the Son of God so that you may know that you have eternal life. This seems to point that John saw a clear difference between those who believed in Jesus as the Son of God, but were unsure about eternal life. However, if we look back at other parts of his Gospel, we do find repetition of this theme. In John 1:5-7,…… [Read More]