Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly
The result is appositive impact on its revenues. A slight slump in the demand for the telecommunication equipment creates a real threat to Samsung's profitability. It therefore has to engage its competitors through innovations. The company must therefore strive to invest as well as improve its businesses so as to protect its market share and financial stability.
Poor profitability of Samsung securities
Sony Corporation's Opportunities
Growing industrial electronic as well as consumer market
The global consumer as well as industrial electronics market is experiencing a considerably high level of growth.By 2008, the global consumer as well as industrial electronics had reached a staggering $92,000M. The market is also expected to expand at a rate of 7.2% annually in order to attain a value of 137,000 Million by 2014. Sony is one of the largest industrial electronic product manufacturers worldwide. The company provides a diversified range of products which ranges from…
Meyer, M. (2003). Performance compensation and the balanced scorecard. Working paper, The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania.
Mintzberg, H. (1994). The rise and fall of strategic planning. New York: Free Press
Datamonitor (2010).Sony Corporation
Sony: Sustainability and corporate social responsibility
Virtually all companies today have publically-articulated commitments to sustainability and the Japanese company Sony is no exception. Broadly speaking, corporate sustainability entails "acting with long-term consequences in mind and managing a business such that its processes or overall state can be maintained indefinitely" (Phillips 2012). Using renewable resources is a key component of sustainability, as is creating products and services that do not tax the environment and ideally help consumers to lessen their ecological footprint. The ecological footprint determines how much an entity consumes of the world's resources -- how much it takes away from the environment, and also how much it gives back (Footprint basics, 2012, Footprint Network)
Sony defines its sustainability initiative as follows: "Sony Group recognizes that its business activities have direct and indirect impact on the societies in which it operates, and therefore sound business practice requires that…
About CSR report. (2012). Sony. Retrieved:
Apple and Sony lead green electronics charge. (2012). Sustainable Brands. Retrieved:
Sony eels From Multiple Hacker Attacks
In the past, many organizations - from Sony to NASA to the New York Times - have fallen victim to hacking incidents. In addition to costing organizations money, data breaches have also taken a significant toll on the trust customers have on affected businesses. It is therefore important to note that as entities continue to accumulate more PII of clients, the relevance of having in place adequate security measures cannot be overstated. This text reviews the 2011 Sony PSN hacking debacle. In so doing, it amongst other things discusses some of the measures that organizations ought to take to protect the private information of users. The text also speculates on why organizations are slow to report or acknowledge instances of data breach.
Sony eels from Multiple Hacker Attacks
In the month of April, 2011, Sony experienced a massive external intrusion on its PlayStation…
Brooks, C. (2012, Nov 12). Personally Identifiable Information: What it is and How to Protect it. Tech News Daily. Retrieved from http://www.technewsdaily.com/15421-personally-identifiable-information-definition.html
Dutton, F. (2012, April 30). The PSN Hack: One Year On. Eurogamer. Retrieved from: http://www.eurogamer.net/articles/2012-04-27-the-psn-hack-one-year-on
Halliday, J. (2013, January 24). Data Watchdog Fines Sony £250,000 Over PlayStation ID Hack. The Guardian. Retrieved from http://www.theguardian.com/technology/2013/jan/24/sony-fined-over-playstation-hack
Hosaka, T.A. (2011, October 12). Sony Hack October 2011: Thousands of PlayStation Network Accounts Targeted by Massive Attack. Huffington Post. Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/10/12/sony-hack-october-2011-playstation-network_n_1006661.html ?
Kutagari's fervor did not impede him from researching potential of market for his idea -- another mark of the succesful entrepeneur. His persistence, belief in his work, tenacity, and originality led to the hugely popular Playstation that launched in December 1994 (Edge taff, 2009).
Kutagari, in other words, epitomized all that innovation requires. Firstly he chose an article that possessed the four qualities of 'opportunity':
(2) Opportunity is attractive -- Playstation is attractive to users in that it offers entertainment and laughs -- always an attractive commodity (2) Opportunity is durable -- Playstation is here to stay as evidenced by its string of successors and continuing stream of success (3) Opportunity is timely -- Kutagari realized that Internet and computer was coming into its own and that video games may well be the fad of the future. He was correct. (4) Opportunity is anchored in a product, service, or business…
Barney, J (1997) Gaining and Sustaining Competitive Advantage. Reading,
Bensen, S. & Farrell, J. (1994) Choosing how to compete: Strategies and tactics in standardization, J. Econ. Perspectives, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 117 -- 131,
Chakravoti, B. (2003) The new rules for bringing innovations to market Harvard Business Review
Sony and Supply Chain Management
Sony Corporation is one of the world's leaders in supply chain management initiatives. The electronics giant has taken considerable steps to modernize its supply chain management, with generally excellent results. However, recent problems with business forecasting, and a continually challenging marketplace suggest that Sony must continue and even step up efforts to improve its supply chain management process. At the same time, the company is faced with a number of ethical considerations that impact this process. Overall, maintaining and improving an efficient supply chain management system will likely remain an important challenge for Sony Corporation.
The flow of materials within and to the Sony Corporation is related closely to the organization's function and the customers Sony serves. The Sony Corporation of America is a subsidiary of Sony Corporation of Tokyo. Sony Corporation had $20 billion in sales in the United States, and an impressive $62.3…
Chase, R, Jacobs, F. Robert and Aquilano, Nicholas J. 2003. Operations Management for Competitive Advantage. McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
Chudykowski, P., Geier, E., Laufenberg, B., Peric, V., and Sternig, M. Supply Chain Management. Production and Operations Management, 2000. 03 March 2004. http://www.snc.edu/socsci/chair/333/shells/scm.htm
CNN.com. Slow sales slash Sony profit. Wednesday, January 28, 2004. Posted: 2252 GMT. 06 March 2004. http://edition.cnn.com/2004/Business/01/28/song.result.reut/
Deloitte & Touche LLP - Canada. Sony Canada launches new high velocity supply chain. 06 March 2004. http://www.deloitte.com/dtt/case_study/0,2300,sid%253D3557%2526cid%253D32458,00.html
Sony's Supply Chain Management Strategies:
Best Practices in High Tech Supply Chains
The strategic series of systems, processes and programs that enable any company to exceed customer expectations on a consistent basis and be profitable is the performance of their supply chains. The synchronization of supply chains ensures that customers will have a consistent positive experience when purchasing from a company, and this holds true for both Business-to-Business (B2B) and Business-to-Consumer (B2C) companies (Cirtita, Glaser-Segura, 2012) . For those companies that compete in industries that have very rapid product lifecycles and supply chains that must support very rapid shifts in product and service strategy, the challenges are multiplied (Li, Lin, 2006). Sony Corporation is one of the most-recognized brands globally in consumer and industrial electronics. The many supply chain best practices that Sony has developed over decades of intensive effort and study have given them the ability to compete in…
Blanchard, D. 2007, "The Perfect Order," Industry Week, vol. 256, no. 1, pp. 24A-24A.
Briscoe, A.P., Pancerella, M.B. & Pleskunas, G. 1997, "The perfect order initiative," Pharmaceutical Executive, vol. 17, no. 7, pp. 82-88.
Cirtita, H. & Glaser-Segura, D. 2012, "Measuring downstream supply chain performance," Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 299-314.
Columbus, L. 2008, The Perfect Order Meets Customer Expectations, Fort Atkinson, United States, Fort Atkinson.
Sony Playstation 2
Sony is introducing the Playstation 2 into a general environment that is very good for those that create and work with video game systems. The reason for this is that the market is not yet saturated, and video game sales are on the rise. Sony is also fortunate that their Playstation sold so well, and so those that already own this game system or have been exposed to it can look forward to the Playstation 2. The graphics and other capabilities are significant for many that enjoy gaming, and since the Playstation 2 also plays the older Playstation games as well as CDs and DVDs, the Playstation 2 console is more valuable and more marketable to those that want a multipurpose system. Playstation gamers that purchase a Playstation 2 will not have to give up playing their old Playstation games or switch between systems, and this makes…
it's difficult to imagine how the disparate business units would come together to create synergies and drive innovation if one considers a quote by the CEO of Sony Pictures Entertainment, Michael Lynton,
"I'm a guy who doesn't see anything good having come from the Internet...(the Internet) created this notion that anyone can have whatever they want at any given time. it's as if the stores on Madison Avenue were open 24 hours a day. They feel entitled. They say, 'Give it to me now,' and if you don't give it to them for free, they'll steal it." (cited in Rosenberg, 2009).
After posting a loss of $1 billion dollars for the year ended March 31, 2009, Sony has not put the bad news behind the company (Kelly, 2009). In fact, the company expects to lose another $1.2 billion for its current fiscal year (Kelly, 2009). The company's primary response has…
Documents submitted to the SEC (EDGAR) Form 20F and others. http://www.sony.net/SonyInfo/IR/ library/sec.html
Harris, R. (2008, October 28). Blu-ray is dead -- heckuva job, Sony! http://blogs.zdnet.com/storage/?p=365
Kelly, T. (2009, May 14). Stringer sticks knife deeper into Sony. Forbes. http://www.forbes.com/2009/05/14/sony-stringer-nintendo-markets-equities-loss.html
King, D. (2008, June 26). Sony shoots for $10 billion in Blu-ray sales by 2011. Video Business. http://www.videobusiness.com/article/CA6573434.html
Sony: IMC Plan
In every component of its IMC marketing plan, Sony takes a customer-focused attitude. Each product is marketed in a carefully segmented fashion and designed to meet highly specific customer needs. Although one weakness of this approach is that the image of Sony is not 'integrated' as some of its competitors, in contrast to the minimalist design of Apple which is consistent throughout Apple's entire product line, Sony's marketing has the advantage of segmentation and flexibility in a diverse marketplace.
Sony invests heavily in a variety of advertising platforms to reach a wide audience. For example, to launch its PlayStation Vita, Sony has spent unprecedented sums of money on TV advertisements based on the theme "you can never stop playing" (Takahashi 2012). According to Sony "we're focusing the attention on the strengths of the Vita platform: the hardware, the great lineup of games, and access…
Beal, Barney. (2006). Tutorials: Sony's new Internet marketing secret. Tech Target. Retrieved:
Sony. (2012). Official Website. Retrieved:
-- Strong brand equity (Kiley and Helm, 2009)
-- Commitment to research and development (Sony Group Corporate Strategy Update FY2008 - FY2010)
-- Hardware and content synergies
-- Market leadership in consumer electronics (Sony Corporation - SWOT Analysis)
-- Difficult to change culture which impedes synergies and innovation (Game on, 2009)
-- Unprofitable across most product lines, with a loss of nearly $3 billion in 2008 (Game on, 2009)
-- Manufacturing in high-cost Japan (Game on, 2009)
-- Declining brand equity (Kiley and Helm, 2009)
-- Cheaper labor markets
-- Innovation in components and semiconductors
-- Consumer electronics leadership offers room for new product introduction as well as the ability to bundle content with the heardware
-- Lower-cost competitors
-- Continued recession with negative implications for consumer electronics in particular
-- Yen's further appreciation
-- Accelerated price wars
Form 20F. Year Ended Mar. 31, 2009. http://www.sony.net/SonyInfo/IR/ library/8ido18000001xz5p-att/FY08_20F_PDF.pdf
Game on. (2009, March 5). The Economist. http://www.economist.com/people/displayStory.cfm?story_id=13234173
Kiley, D. And Helm B. (2009, September 17). The great trust offensive. BusinessWeek. http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/09_39/b4148038492933.htm?chan=magazine+channel_in+depth
Sony Corporation - SWOT Analysis. Datamonitor. http://www.amazon.com/Sony-Corporation-SWOT-Analysis-Datamonitor/dp/B002AMJQNI
Dynamics of the Industry Using the 5-Forces Model
Sony is a company with wide-ranging businesses in video gaming, film making, electronics and financial services. The dynamics of the industry include the following five forces: 1) competition, 2) bargaining power of buyers and customers, 3) bargaining power of suppliers, 4) threat of substitution, and 5) threat of new entrants. The first two forces are the strongest in the industry in which Sony is part of. Competition is fierce in the gaming and filmmaking industries as well as in the electronics and financing industries. The bargaining power of consumers is also strong. With so many competitors in the industry offering a variety of quality products to choose from, and with customers determining which companies will get what market share, Sony’s top focus is on offering competitive products, such as the Xperia phones to the PlayStation at competitive prices, while…
Bhutta, M., Omar, A. & Yang, X. (2011). Electronic Waste: A Growing Concern in Today’s Environment. Economics Research International, 2011, 1-8.
Culpan, T. (2016). Moody’s says ‘game on’ to Sony. Retrieved from https://www.bloomberg.com/gadfly/articles/2016-12-14/sony-debt-upgrade-shows-hirai-s-playing-to-his-strengths
Fritz, B. (2015). Amy Pascal Steps Down as Head of Sony’s Film Business. Retrieved from http://www.wsj.com/articles/amy-pascal-steps-down-as-head-of-sony-pictures-film-business-1423157351
Kharpal, A. (2017). Sony profits rise. Retrieved from https://www.cnbc.com/2017/10/31/sony-earnings-q2-2017.html
Kim, N. (2018). S&P warns high corporate debt could trigger next default cycle. Retrieved from https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2018-02-05/s-p-warns-high-corporate-debt-could-trigger-next-default-cycle
Pressman, A. (2017). Apple’s next iPhone is already facing a stronger field. Retrieved from http://fortune.com/2017/09/05/apple-iphone-8-samsung-lg-sony/
Sakoui, A. & Pickert, R. (2017). Spider-Man comes to Sony’s rescue. Retreived from https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2017-07-07/spider-man-comes-to-sony-s-rescue-looks-to-shake-sequel-fatigue
Sony CSR. (2018). Green management 2020. Retrieved from https://www.sony.net/SonyInfo/csr/SonyEnvironment/ourvision/GM2020/
Also, on April 1, 2004, Sony recognized a charge of 4,713 million yen (net of income taxes of 2,675 million yen) as a cumulative effect of an accounting change. (Form 20F Year Ended Mar. 31, 2008)
220.127.116.11 During the quarter ended December 31, 2004 Sony adopted EITF Issue No. 04-8 which requires that the maximum number of common stock that could be issued upon the conversion of contingently convertible debt instruments be included in diluted EPS computations from the date of issuance regardless of whether the conditions to exercise the stock acquisition rights have been met. As a result of the adoption of EITF Issue No. 04-8, Sony's diluted, Sony's diluted EPS of income before cumulative effect of an accounting change and net income for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2005 decreased by 7.26 yen and 7.06 yen, respectively, as a result of adopting EITF Issue No. 04-8. (Form…
Documents submitted to the SEC (EDGAR) Form 20F and others. http://www.sony.net/SonyInfo/IR/ library/sec.html
These stages could be assimilated with the product life cycles and they are relevant as they signal the strategies to be implemented at each stage. In this line of thoughts, star products generate increased amounts of money (due to a strong market share), but also consume high budgetary levels (due to rapid growth rates). Cash cows consume reduced amounts of money and generate less that stars, but are more stable (they are leaders in a mature market). Dogs are products that consume little money, but also generate low levels of profitability - they are often in the stages of decline. Finally, question marks consume large amounts of money and generate little profits; they could either become stars (and then cash cows) or dogs (Net MBA, 2007).
Sony currently manufactures and produces items belonging to all four categories previously mentioned. The Sony Cyber Shot-DSC-W300 BLACK could be considered a cash cow…
Kim, K.A., 2002, Global Corporate Finance: Text and Cases, Wiley-Blackwell, ISBN 0631229515
Nellis, D., Parker, D., 2006, Principles of Business Economics, 2nd Edition, Pearson Education, ISBN 0273693069
Wilson, R.M.S., Gilligan, C., 2005, Strategic Marketing Management: Planning, Implementation and Control, 3rd Edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, ISBN 0750659386
2007, the BCG Growth-Share Matrix, Net MBA, http://www.netmba.com/strategy/matrix/bcg/lastaccessed on March 19, 2009
Movie mode is accessible from the camera's main mode dial. The function of movie mode allows users to take short digital videos.
Other functional modes accessible on the Sony Cybershot dial include snow, beach, landscape, twilight, twilight portrait, soft snap, and high sensitivity modes. Snow, beach, landscape, twilight, twilight portrait, and soft snap are each pre-programmed settings. The settings are programmed into the camera software to simplify picture taking; their primary function is to allow novice camera users or those who want simplicity to take the best possible shot without having to enter into the camera's main menu. On a traditional single lens-reflex (SL) camera or on manual digital cameras, these functions must be performed manually: such as by adjusting the lens aperture to let in more or less light or by altering shutter speed to adjust the length of exposure. Basic photographic functions like changes to ISO sensitivity are…
Keller, Jeff. "DCRP Review: Sony Cybershot DSC-W80." Jan 17, 2008. Retrieved April 6, 2008 at http://www.dcresource.com/reviews/sony/dsc_w80-review
Sony Music India or SMI, is a solely retained subsidiary of SME, Sony Music Entertainment. The company initiated set-up in India from 1996 to 1997 in order to market both international and national music titles in India. Because of its success and use of state-of-the-art technologies, SMI has become one of the most advanced music companies India. Customers value the added services SMI offers especially if they decide to launch a digital platform for their music and other projects. India has already experienced a boost in sales thanks to the growing E-commerce in the country. The music industry overseas with iTunes and SoundCloud provide consumers with a variety of choices for music making companies like SMI feel a need to compete and therefore generate their own presence within the music industry. Therefore SMI began an "e-initiative" that enabled music lovers along with other users to visit the website, www.sonymusicindia.com, to…
Mani, D. (2013). Case Summary: Sony Music (India). ISBInsight. Retrieved 9 December 2014, from http://isbinsight.isb.edu/case-summary-sony-music-india/
Sony Music India,. (2014). Case Study -- Sony Music India. Retrieved 8 December 2014, from http://www.idealake.com/pdf/CaseStudy/CaseStudy-SonyMusic.pdf
From this standpoint, Sony was successful in using pricing as a significant messaging part of their product mix.
When analyzing the pricing strategies Sony has relied on since the introduction of the PSP3 globally, the observations of Porter (1999) on the implications of price as competitive advantage within his Determinants of National Competitive Advantage (sometimes called the Porter Diamond) illustrates how Sony is using price to attempt to create equilibrium across Factor Conditions and Demand Conditions (pg. 78). The approach Sony takes to first ascertain the demand curve by geography first, and second, to create unique and differentiated market positions second, align with the approach Porter (1999) advocates in using as he calls it, the Diamond of National Advantage" to attain demand equilibrium and in balance. Porter advocates innovation and human productivity as the two most potent differentiation strategies for entire industries and their strongest industries, hence the title of…
CRM Buyer (2005) - Searching for Blue Ocean Strategies. Louis Columbus. CRMBuyer.com. September 23, 2005. Accessed from the Internet on October 29, 2007 from location: http://www.crmbuyer.com/story/46292.html
Kotler, P, & Keller, K (2006). A Framework for Marketing Management.Upper Saddle River: Pearson Prentice Hall. Pages 217-236.
McKinsey (2003) - Marn, Michael; Roegner, Eric; Zawada, Craig. "The Power of Pricing," 2003 Number 1. Boston, MA McKinsey Quarterly. Pages 27-36.
Porter, Michael (1999) "The Competitive Advantage of Nations" March - April, 1999. Boston, MA. Harvard Business Review. Page 73-91.
Sony Corporation is a leading manufacturer and producer of game, electronics and entertainment products. For several decades, the company has dominated the market of the electronic sector. However, in the last few years, Sony has recorded a net loss for four consecutive years. In 2010, the company recorded a net loss of 40.8 billion Japanese Yen equivalent of U.S.$347 Million. In 2011, the company also recorded a net loss of 259.5 billion Japanese Yen, which equivalent to $2.2 Billion. In 2012, the company recorded $3.8 billion net loss. In 2014, Sony secures a net loss of equivalent of $1.1 billion. (Sony Corporation, 2014). Sony has been facing both internal and external challenges. Typically, the company has faced a stiff competition from other online game companies. Moreover, the appreciation of Japanese Yen over other major currencies adversely affects the ability of consumer to purchase Sony product from outside…
Armstrong, G. And Kotler, P. (2008) Principles of marketing 13th ed., New Jersey, Pearson Prentice Hall.
Jeanet, J.P., Hennessey, H.D. (2004) Global marketing strategies 6th ed., Boston, Houghton Mifflin pp. 41-45.
Porter M.E. (1980) Competitive Strategy Free Press, New York pp. 27-45.
Slack N., Chambers S. And Johnston R. (2007) Operations Management, Fifth Edition, Harlow, Prentice Hall.
etailers are the primary tier of buyers in the television segment of the global consumer electronics market. There are a variety of retailing channels used in this industry. The primary channel of distribution is through electronics retailers, like Best Buy, which comprises 65% of the total market value. Hyper and supermarkets, such as WalMart and Target, make up only 14.4% of the market. Sales via department stores, like Sears, only contributes 3.7% of the market's value. Although they typically don't sell televisions, music, video, books, and stationery retailers do contribute 3.1% of sales for the overall consumer electronics market. Lastly, a variety of other retailers make up 13.8% of the sales in this industry ("Global consumer," 2010) (See Figure 3).
The primary manufacturers in this market segment, like Sony, are often highly valued by retailers, as they provide branded products that retailers' buyers, the end consumers, have come…
"Global consumer electronics." (May 2010). Datamonitor. Retrieved November 30, 2010, from http://360.datamonitor.com.ezproxy.apollolibrary.com .
Gonsalves, a. (28 Jan 2010). "Samsung 3D TV mass production begins." InformationWeek. Retrieved November 30, 2010, from http://www.informationweek.com/news/personal_tech/TV_theater/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=222600258 ,
"History." (2010). Datamonitor. Retrieved November 30, 2010, from
Sony had several strengths when it entered the video game console market in 1995. It had a strong brand image from its consumer electronics business, which translated to the console, as that was also seen as consumer electronics. The company also had excellent distribution channels, again based on its pre-existing consumer electronics businesses. Sony also benefitted from scale, in both production and marketing, as it was a large global conglomerate. So there were several advantages that Sony enjoyed, and these advantages allowed it to gain access to the market, and leverage a strong brand and marketing muscle to gain traction with the consumer base. While it didn't realize it at the time, there is tremendous crossover opportunity between Sony's movie properties and games, and vice versa. Sony countered this by working with many game developers, including the largest ones in the industry. Sony's reputation gave it instant credibility with developer,…
3.1.1 All reportable segments in fiscal year ended March 31, 2009 are down compared to the proceeding fiscal year with the exception of all other, which is mainly comprised of SME, a global entertainment company.
18.104.22.168 When compared to fiscal years ended March 31, 2007 and March 31, 2008, 2009 results show that electronics, pictures, and financial services are down for two consecutive fiscal years. Even the games sector in 2009 showed only a slight improvement over 2007.
22.214.171.124 the decline in electronics, almost two-thirds of Sony's total business, is attributable to price pressures and the shorter product cycles in a variety of consumer product categories which Sony is having difficulty responding to.
126.96.36.199 the decline in the pictures segment is mainly due to the economic slowdown and the appreciation of the yen.
188.8.131.52 the decline in the financial services segment is mainly due to deterioration in earnings at Sony…
Form 20F. Year Ended Mar. 31, 2009. http://www.sony.net/SonyInfo/IR/ library/8ido18000001xz5p-att/FY08_20F_PDF.pdf
Letter to shareholders: A message from Howard Stringer, CEO.
This measure is -3.34% for FY 2009, compared to 10.66% in FY 2008 and 3.75% in FY 2007.
184.108.40.206 a quick ratio or liquid ratio measures the ability of a company to use its near cash or quick assets to immediately extinguish or retire its current liabilities. The higher the quick ratio, the better the position of the company. Sony's quick ratio has fallen to 0.14 in FY 2009 down from 0.24 in FY 2008 and 0.19 in FY 2007.
220.127.116.11 a high debt/equity ratio generally means that a company has been aggressive in financing its growth with debt. This is important to examine because it can result in volatile earnings as a result of the additional interest expense. Sony's debt/equity ratio has increased to 3.05 in FY 2009 versus 2.62 in FY 2008 and 2.47 in FY 2007.
18.104.22.168 Growth as measured by sales is horrible for Sony in…
Beers, S. And Lund, M. Corporate finance: Using financial ratios. http://www.cooperativegrocer.coop/articles/index.php?id=223
Documents submitted to the SEC (EDGAR) Form 20F and others. http://www.sony.net/SonyInfo/IR/ library/sec.html
Leadership and hanging Environments at Sony
ontinually challenged both by environmental factors and a strong resistance to change internally, Sir Howard Springer faced daunting obstacles in turning around Japanese conglomerate Sony. The case study and myriad of industry analyst and media analyses of Sony during the time period of 2005 to 2009 concentrate heavily on the external factors that Sony contended with during this turbulent time in their corporate history. The macroeconomic factors are attributed as causing much of the turmoil at Sony when in fact it is in lack of emotional intelligence and transformational leadership guiding the firm.
The management issue at Sony and the resulting financial and operational performance failures during the time period of the case is easily explained by economic factors and natural disaster, yet many corporations were able to weather these challenges and emerge stronger than before. Sony failed to overcome these challenges…
Sony suffered through a period of exceptional series of economic and a catastrophic natural disaster yet still stayed in business, and still failed to find the catalyst in these events to galvanize the company together to an urgent, highly relevant goal that would drive all dissension out. Instead of taking a defensive, highly protectionist approach to running their business using leadership paradigms and frameworks more attuned to growth markets, Sony's leadership could have taken the crises they were given and made them a galvanizing moment for the company. Sir Howard Springer failed as a leader in this regard, choosing to look for convenience and safe harbors as evidence by the safe decisions made in the case during severe economic storms instead of striving to make the company strong enough to survive the challenges. Sir Hoard needed to confront the fact that Sony was far out of step with the broader markets it served, and the economic challenges and the aftereffects of natural disasters just accentuated and amplified this fact. Instead of concentrating on how to be brutally honest with the leaders of the company about just how far out of step they were with market served as evidenced by declining sales, Sir Howard kept choosing safe and acceptable paths and in so doing drastically impacted Sony's chances in turbulent, recessionary markets.
Transformational leadership centers on four foundational elements including idealized influence, inspirational motivation, individualized consideration and intellectual stimulation (Warrick, 2011). Transformational leaders rely on emotional intelligence (EI) to orchestrate all of these areas, and often
Sony: A case study
Change is constant in the technology industry and in contrast to some other product categories, there is relatively little consumer loyalty when the next new thing is looming on the horizon. Although the Sony Corporation had distinguished itself in the past, its fortunes were flagging in the early 21st century. Critical to its lack of development was the absence of cohesion: different divisions were more interested in preserving their territory than advancing the interests of the organization (Jones, 2007, p. 118). Operating costs were nearly double as a result of organizational inefficiencies. The new CEO Howard Stringer worked to downsize the organization, eliminating divisional leaders whom he perceived did not have the organization's interest at heart. Stringer had a difficult task because he was attempting to streamline the organization's bureaucracy and managers were inevitably protective about their jobs and power.
As the company continued to flounder,…
Jones, G. (2007).Organizational theory, design and change. Pearson.
Sony returns to profit after marathon restructuring effort. (2015). Associated Press. Retrieved From: http://www.nytimes.com/aponline/2015/10/29/world/asia/ap-as-japan-earns-sony.html?_r=0
This represents a risky move in this oligopolistic industry. The price of the PS3 was set at $499 for the 20 GB model and $599 for the 60 GB model. The Xbox360 is $200 less and the ii was priced at $250 (Ono, 2006). Sony's goal with the pricing strategy was twofold -- to connote the premium nature of the product and to cover the costs. The cost structure of the ii is less well-known, but Nintendo's business is game consoles. They are dependent on gaining market share, and their involvement in the ii games indicates that console diffusion may be a loss leader to spur games sales. ith the Xbox360, it is widely known that Microsoft is selling the product below cost. They were a late entrant into the console business and as a result have kept prices low in order to gain market share.
ith respect to product,…
Sony UK Website: About Sony. Retrieved April 25, 2009 from http://www.sony.co.uk/article/id/1060176719725
No author. (2008). 2008: Essential Facts about the Computer and Video Game Industry. Entertainment Software Association. Retrieved April 25, 2009 from http://www.theesa.com/facts/pdfs/ESA_EF_2008.pdf
Eran, Daniel. (2006). The Next Generation Game Consoles. Roughly Drafted. Retrieved April 25, 2009 from http://www.roughlydrafted.com/RD/Q4.06/5B47C6B2-0191-4825-80C9-F6EBCA0E3B23.html
Shaw, Anne. (2008). The Gaming Console War is Still Undecided, Wii to Take Lead. eFluxMedia. Retrieved April 25, 2009 from http://www.efluxmedia.com/news_The_Gaming_Console_War_is_Still_Undecided_Wii_to_Take_Lead_14062.html
Successful marketing strategies are done in order to create a desire for a product. A marketer needs to understand what the consumer likes and what they dislike. They must also know what information will convince consumers to buy their product, and whom and what consumers perceive as a credible sources of information. "Some marketing strategies use fictional characters, celebrities, or experts (such as doctors) to sell products, while other strategies use specific statements or "health claims" that state the benefits of using a particular product or eating a particular food" (Marketing Strategies 2008).
Sony needs to make sure that it has done a market analysis to make sure that they are producing the products that its customers want. They want to make sure that they are producing the right product for the right people. Then they need to make sure that they create a need for that product by using…
Kotler, P & Keller, K 2008, Marketing Management, 13th edn, Prentice Hall, New Jersey.
Marketing Strategies, 2008, Advameg viewed 15 June 2009, < http://www.faqs.org/nutrition/Kwa-Men/Marketing-Strategies.html>
McNamara, Carter, 2009, All About Marketing, Free Management Library, viewed 15 June 2009,
What Sony needs to do is concentrate on creating a mobile Web-enabled series of devices, supporting services, and segmented digital content in both music-based and video content. In short, Sony needs to create an economic ecosystem that rivals the Apple ecosystem as shown in Figure 2, Apple Digital Content Ecosystem:
Figure 2: Apple Digital Content Ecosystem
Source: (Apple Investor elations, 2009)
The most critical objective for the three-year planning horizon for Sony is to emulate the model shown in Figure 2 and apply entirely new series of metrics to how they evaluate integration and cross-model compatibility of their entire product line. The strategic objective for the coming three years has to be centered on creating a scalable ecosystem that can deliver a continual stream of revenues through the licensing of digital music and video content in addition to the introduction of entirely new devices into this ecosystem that have not…
Apple, Investor Relations (2009). Investor Relations. Retrieved May 21, 2009, from Apple Investor Relations and Filings with the SEC Web site: http://www.apple.com/investor/
Kemal Altinkemer, Wendi Shen. (2008). A Multigeneration Diffusion Model for it-Intensive Game Consoles*. Journal of the Association for Information Systems, 9(8), 442-461.
Steven Cherry. (2008). Blu-ray's Empty Victory. IEEE Spectrum, 45(3), 16. ).
Lee G. Cooper. (2000). Strategic marketing planning for radically new products. Journal of Marketing, 64(1), 1-16.
Strength of the Sony Mission Statement
"Sony is committed to developing a wide range of innovative products and multimedia services that challenge the way consumers access and enjoy digital entertainment. By ensuring synergy between businesses within the organisation, Sony is constantly striving to create exciting new worlds of entertainment that can be experienced on a variety of different products."
~Sony Corporation Global Mission Statement
Sony Corporation has been in operation for nearly seventy years. It is a company that provides a variety of consumer and professional electronics including audio and video equipment. The homebase of the Sony Corporation is in Tokyo, Japan. Though Sony is consistently a leader in the industry, the company is relatively small and keeps their employee count very low relative to other companies who may be larger in staff and may be a competitor in a similar industry. What are the reasons why Sony…
Sony Corporation -- Europe. (2012) Mission Statement and Vision. Available from http://www.sony-europe.com/article/id/1178278971157 . 2012 June 03.
Sony Corporation -- Global. (2012) Corporate History. Available from http://www.sony.net/SonyInfo/CorporateInfo/History/history.html . 2012 June 04.
Many products need to be timed to critical points in the business cycle. The new product must be tested to be sure that it has the features the customer wants, as well as making sure the distributor and sales organization are comfortable selling it. Sony also tests its advertising and promotion, as there are significant up-front selling costs involved in introducing new products, and all parties in the channel need assurance that the investment of time and money will be recovered.
Sony has also demonstrated a capability to manage the complexity of marketing channels by analyzing distribution in the marketing mix. The industry that Sony operates in is also very easy to enter, as many companies are able to manufacture cheap products overseas. In other words, all existing channels (local, regional, and global) are accessible to the competitors and opportunities for growth may be exploited (Kimerling & Sood, 1998). As…
Fujitsu Limited. (2005). Sony Marketing. Retrieved November 8, 2007 at http://www/fujitsu.com.
Kimerling, L. & Sood, S. (1998). Nike: Building a Global Brand. Prentice-Hall Inc.
Siebart, M. (2007). Consider Franchising an Existing Business? Retrieved November 5, 2007, at http://www.entreprenuer.com .
With Sony coming out with the 1270 projector, with 75 kHz, arco has the option of developing the D700, an advancement from the D600, the G800, an advancement from the G400, or using the ideas of D700 as a springboard for the G700. ecause arco can only develop one product, there are concerns. All projects have been put on hold, including the D700. The engineers have already committed to a higher work load for the D700, including giving up vacation days, and have been working on it from the summer months. Compression of development on the D700 could have repercussions on the quality of the end product, which has the capability of being superior to the 1270. It is unknown when the 1270 would hit the market, the pricing of the 1270, or how customers would respond to the 1270. The G800 has a 40% chance of making the…
Allen, C., n.d. What is Strategic Maketing Planning. [Online]
Available at: http://www.allen.com/cgi-bin/gt/tpl.h%2Ccontent=125
[Accessed 7 June 2012].
Anon., n.d. Alternative Ways to Distribute Products. [Online]
esistance to Change Within Sony Corporation
propose strategies that the current CEO Howard Stringer can Ilise to try to manage this resistance
Morgan identified eight organizational perspectives that can be used as frameworks for organizational resistance. In the case of Sony Corporation, the CEO Howard Stringer faced resistance when he tried to introduce the western way of management. The employees resisted the changes, and this brought about many other issues. Using Morgan's organizational metaphors, Howard Stringer could have managed to overcome this resistance. The machine view suggests that employees will operate as expected, work by following laid out procedures, and operate like clockwork. Using this metaphor, Howard could have initiated top-down commands that employees would have to follow (Muller et al., 2010). This metaphor works by reducing waste, increasing efficiency, and product standardization. At Sony Corporation, this metaphor might not work since most of the work is not repetitive, or…
MULLER, S.D., MATHIASSEN, L. & BALSHOJ, H.H. 2010. Software Process Improvement as organizational change: A metaphorical analysis of the literature. Journal of Systems and Software, 83, 2128-2146.
SUDDABY, R., HARDY, C. & HUY, Q.N. 2011. Introduction to special topic forum: Where are the new theories of organization? Academy of Management Review, 36, 236-246.
SUMI, A. & SCHUETZ, M. 2011. Is Sony Turning Around?, Pokfulam Road, Asia Case Research Centre, University of Hong Kong.
Cultural Analysis of Sony
Defining Organizational Culture:
Organizational culture can be defined in several ways. The definitions that apply to this essay are discussed below. Morgan (1986) defined organizational culture as the development patterns as mirrored by the society's ideology, laws, knowledge system, daily rituals and laws. Schein (1985) says that organizational culture has relations with observed norms, behavioral regularities, policies, philosophies or values, the acceptable behavior and the sense of belonging that an individual has by being part of an organization (p.6,9). An organization's culture is essentially a product of the organization's members. The members are driven to achieve the goals of the organization which in turn has an effect on the organization's life. The data used in this essay has been sourced from secondary electronic and print sources.
The Nature of Sony's Business
Sony is a leading brand in a wide range of electronic products like home entertainment…
Nilay Patel, (2009), 'Sony Posts 1b loss', Engaget. Also available at: http://www.engadget.com/2009/05/14/asus-eee-pc-1008ha-seashell-review-roundup/http%3A%2F2F20092F142F Retrieved: 13 January, 2015.
Sony Corporation, (2002), Sony and the People, Also available at: http://www.sony.net/SonyInfo/csr_report/issues/report/2002/qfhh7c00000dls35-att/e_2002_04.pdf Retrieved: 13 January, 2015.
Sony Corporation, (2003), CSR Report, Also available at: http://www.sony.net/SonyInfo/csr_report/issues/report/2003/qfhh7c00000dlrty-att/e_2003_04.pdf Retrieved: 13 January, 2015.
Richard Gershon and Tsutomu Kanayama, (2002), "The SONY Corporation: A Case Study in Transnational Media Management," The International Journal on Media Management
Sony Flexible Budget Analysis
Sony is a company that has long dominated the electronics market. However, in recent years, it has seemed to loose its primary grip over the market. Still, examining the financials of 2013, one can see that there have been new advancements in growth, especially in regards to net income, operating income, and financial and mobile sales revenues.
After several years of disappointing sales, Sony has seen some recent growth streams. Sales and operating revenue is up from the past two years by 4.7% (Sony, 2013). Additionally, net income is also up since 2012. There have also been increases in the sales of financial services and mobile devices over the past year (Sony, 2013). This has helped increase the overall operating revenue and net income overall, which was desperately needed by Sony after several years of the company loosing its grip on the marketplace. Numbers…
Accounting Tools. (2014). Flexible budget. Budgeting: A comprehensive guide. Web. http://www.accountingtools.com/flexible-budget
Sony (2013). Annual Report. Web. http://www.sony.net/SonyInfo/IR/ financial/ar/2013/shr/pdf/AnnualReport_E.pdf
hacking of Sony's network information systems last year that led to the pulling of a big-budget comedy from theaters and the resignation of head Amy Pascal remains a current problem for businesses and not just Sony. As he Wall Street Journal reports, this incident shines a light on the protection that businesses need against hackers -- but it also highlights the need for management to communicate with more self-awareness, always considering that someone somewhere might be listening. Words do come back to haunt us, as Amy Pascal has learned the hard way. Fritz (2015) of the Journal reports that "Ms. Pascal was outraged and upset at the way her emails were picked apart by the media and even found herself chased by paparazzi amid the controversy over whether Sony would release the Seth Rogen comedy "he Interview," which the hackers -- said to be connected to North Korea -- wanted…
The strengths and interests I have gained in the study of management/leadership during my journey are that I now understand the importance of a strong leadership theory and the value of organizational culture as well as the importance of security. I'd like to research these topics, therefore, in a case study like the one described.
Fox News. (2016). Hacker group releases information about Cincinnati Police
Department employees. Fox News. Retrieved from http://www.foxnews.com/us/2016/02/22/hacker-group-releases-information-about-cincinnati-police-department-employees.html
A Sony NEX camera was on sale for $250 at Best Buy, as I gleaned from the newspaper insert. The price was fully half of what it was being offered for at other stores, even though it was a brand new camera. Surely this was one of their loss leaders, a pricing strategy that has "a history of bringing return customers, increased sales and new customers," (Griffin, 2012). Truthfully, I was planning on going to Best Buy anyway, but I had not thought about buying this model. This model of camera was out of my price range -- until now. Therefore, the loss leader did not necessarily bring me to a store that I would not have gone to otherwise. Yet if the flyer were for a different electronics store, I would have gone there to buy the camera.
When I was at the store, I did make…
De Graba, P. (2003). Volume Discounts, Loss Leaders, and Competition for More Profitable Customers. Retrieved online: http://www.ftc.gov/be/workpapers/wp260.pdf
Griffin, D. (2012). Loss leader pricing strategy. Houston Chronicle. Retrieved online: http://smallbusiness.chron.com/loss-leader-pricing-strategy-2729.html
Corporate Level Strategy
Corporate level strategy is the decisions made at the corporate level that can affect the operations of the entire company. Typically, decisions related to the selection of new businesses, mergers, business environment and competition are corporate level strategies. These strategies will have a reach across the entire company. The aim is to improve the overall profitability of the company and tap any possible future niche besides tackling competition. Creating a competitive advantage is also a part of corporate level strategy.
Its working and implementation has been explained by Watson and Wooldridge (2005; p.1) as, Corporate level strategy "allows the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) and the "corporate office" to set corporate strategy, while delegating more detailed matters to the managers of business-specific subunits. It might thus appear that, although these business unit managers may be formulators of business strategy, they are implementers of corporate strategy."
Sony implemented a…
Kobayashi (November, 1970). The Creative Organization -- a Japanese Experiment. Personnel p:8.
MarketWatch. (January 2009). Company Spotlight: Sony Corporation. MarketWatch:Technology 8(1). p 36-44.
no author. (4th April 2010). 3D Tv Formats explained. Retrieved from: http://www.practical-home-theater-guide.com/3d-tv-formats.html
Williams, Ian. (March 22nd 2010). Maybe there won't be a 3D Format War. Retrieved from: http://www.theinquirer.net/inquirer/feature/1597331/maybe-won-3d-format-war Sherer, Peter.D; Lee, Kyungmook. (February 2002). Institutional Change in Large law Firms: A Resource Dependency and Institutional Perspective. Journal of Management. 45(1). pp 102-119.
Nearly every large, well-known corporation transacts business in multiple countries and states. The relationship between corporations and the countries and states they transact business in has traditionally resembled a double-edged sword. On the one hand, countries and states need businesses in order to generate tax revenues and stimulate economic growth by creating new jobs. However, countries and states often have varying cultural, legal, political, and social norms and desire that businesses conform to such norms. In order for corporations to succeed and maintain a balanced relationship with the various countries and states business is conducted in, there must be respect, understanding, and willingness to adapt.
This paper analyzes and examines the multitude of issues related to Sony Corporation conducting business in Germany. Part II gives an overview of Sony Corporation, including the cultural, legal, and political environment both in the United States and Germany. In Part III, issues…
Marx, Thomas. "Doing Business in Germany, Part 1 of 2." Retrieved at http://www.legamedia.net/legapractice/marx_thomas/2001/01-08/0108_marx_thomas_business-germany_01.phpon December 14, 2002.
Marx, Thomas. "Doing Business in Germany, Part 2 of 2." Retrieved at http://www.legamedia.net/legapractice/marx_thomas/2001/01-08/0108_marx_thomas_business-germany_02.phpon December 14, 2002.
Sony.com- Sony Corporation of America." Retrieved at http://www.sony.com/hitbox/goto-footer-sca.shtml . On December 14, 2002.
Sony.com- Sony Corporation of America- Corporate Profile." Retrieved at http://www.sony.com/SCA/corporate.shtml on December 14, 2002.
Clinique and Sony invested in the Web Sitcom "Sufei's Diary" because they were trying to reach out to their target audience in non-traditional ways. Clinique has a small market share and this is a way to improve the market share by targeting an older, more upscale demographic because Sufei comes from a wealthy family. The Clinque products are actually used in the storyline (called product placement) and due to the popularity of the series, they can get into the minds of potential customers. Additionally, there are a number of other advantages, where the Sony followed this premise by having their products such as televisions and digital cameras used in the show. This is a way for a brand with a lot of competition to differentiate itself. Sony was also the producer of the video series, so they could also have name recognition at the beginning and ending of each…
The oston Matrix
1. Cash Cow: DVDs and DVD recorders are excellent sources of profit and revenues for Sony, as they have been for the last couple of years. Additionally, the electronics and game consoles, especially Playstation 2, even if encountering losses in 2004, may also be included in this category, as having a still consistent market share.
2. Dog: The classic CRT TVs and games software have encountered significant losses and decreasing sales over the last years, so it seems that there low market share/low market growth possibilities mark the end of their booming years.
3. Problem Child: The LCD TVs and the media ventures operated by Sony have high potential (high market growth), but the company is still under-represented of the market, with a low market share, even if prospects for improving it still exist.
4. Star: The flat screen TV seems the best representative of this category.…
1. JUSTIN MCCURRY (April 2004). Restructuring costs eat into Sony surplus. The Guardian.
JUSTIN MCCURRY (April 2004). Restructuring costs eat into Sony surplus. The Guardian.
The Blu-Ray player is a media player that is produced and marketed by the Sony Corporation. It was first introduced in Japan in 2000. Over the course of the next several years, the Blu-Ray entered into competition with the DVD, in particular the HD DVD that was championed by rival Toshiba. In early 2008, Toshiba announced that it was going to discontinue the HD DVD, effectively ceding the market for movie playing formats to Sony (Toshiba, 2008). The two products were competing as digital video formats for playing movies and television shows in particular. The result of this move is that the Blu-Ray was expected to be the dominant format for this service offering. That has not come to pass, and this paper will seek to explain why, from a marketing perspective.
There is a brief note to be made about the historical context. Sony engaged…
Chacksfield, M. (2010). Blu-Ray sales double in Europe, DVD still dominant. Tech Radar. Retrieved November 28, 2012 from http://www.techradar.com/news/video/blu-ray/blu-ray-sales-double-in-europe-dvd-still-dominant-906434
Corrigan, B. (2012). Tech at home: Winner is Blu-Ray, but not for long. Financial Review. Retrieved November 28, 2012 from http://afr.com/p/technology/tech_long_home_winner_is_blu_ray_Kuo3YCOzhgJMbrxkIk5T5I
Digital Digest. (2012). Blu-Ray: State of play -- May 2012. Digital Digest. Retrieved November 28, 2012 fromhttp://www.digital-digest.com/blog/DVDGuy/2012/05/09/blu-ray-the-state-of-play-may-2012/
Fournier, S. (1998). Consumers and their brands: Developing relationship theory in consumer research. Journal of Consumer Research. Vol. 24 (1998) 343-373.
But in a world that changes so drastically in such short periods of time and in a market filled with fierce competition and customers which change and increase their needs on daily basis, achieving customer loyalty is quite difficult; ergo, Apple's need to develop and implement better and stronger CM policies.
Current Features of Apple's CM
Given the specific nature of their businesses and the fact that after the purchase has been completed, several customers need additional services, the Apple Corporation encourages all current and potential customers to address their questions and complaints to an Apple representative. The corporate website contains detailed information on how customers can contact a service support department within both Canada and the United States.
In addition, for a specified fee, Apple customers can benefit from AppleCare, a service of extended support for the Apple products. There are large numbers of Apple customers who declare themselves…
Hafner, K., August 23, 2007, at&T Overstuffed iPhone Bills Annoy Customers the New York Times
Lyons, C., 1993, Disk-based, interactive marketing yields greater response rates, Business Perspectives, Volume 6
Payne, a., 2006, Handbook of CRM: Achieving Excellence Through Customer Management, Elsevier Science and Technology Books, ISBN: 9780750664370
CRM = Customer's don't Really Matter, IntelliNova, http://intellinova.com/crm/crm-customers-dont-really-matter/last accessed on February 21, 2008
4. Do you think that Astro Boy will be successful? Why?
This is a difficult question to answer simply and unequivocally. On the one hand, it is relatively certain that the character of Astro Boy will be a success in a financial and commercial sense. Part of the reason for this is that the impetus and popularity of global youth culture is behind anime and characters like Astro Boy. The large companies like Sony have taken cognizance of this global enthusiasm and popularity and they are fully prepared to exploit it and to raise the character to the level of cult status through marketing, advertising and film.
However, there is a certain degree of danger in this commercialization. It may have the effect of alienating the hardcore fans and fan base. Anime as a global youth culture has been firmly rooted in the unconventional aspects of the medium and in…
Kahn R. And Kellner D. Global Youth Culture. November 12, 2007. http://22.214.171.124/search?q=cache:Q5IwlKLQ-4UJ:www.gseis.ucla.edu/faculty/kellner/essays/globyouthcult.pdf+Japanese+indicative+of+the+emergence+of+a+global+youth+culture%3F&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=5&gl=uk
There are three models that can be used calculate the cost of capital for the firm. The first such model is the capital asset pricing model (CAPM). The CAPM formula is: E (rj )= RRF + b (RM - RRF). This means that the company's cost of capital is a function of the risk free rate, the market premium and the firm-specific risk. In CAPM, the firm-specific risk is based on the correlation of the company's stock price to the broader market, a statistic known as the beta.
Another method is the dividend growth model. In this model, the assumption is that a stock's value derives solely from the dividends that it is paying, or that investors assume it will pay in the future. It is assumed that investors will not pay for capital gains, because those are uncertain. The formula for the dividend growth model is:
Investopedia. (2011). Dividend discount model. Investopedia. Retrieved November 20, 2011 from http://www.investopedia.com/terms/d/ddm.asp#axzz1eCRhOJF0
Capm, Dgm, APT
There are three primary means by which a company's cost of equity can be calculated. These are the capital asset pricing model (CAPM), the dividend growth model (DDG) and the arbitrage pricing theory (APT). Each of these methods has certain advantages and disadvantages. This paper will analyze these three models in the context of their usefulness in determining the cost of capital.
The first method, and the most popular, is the capital asset pricing model. At the core of the model is the assumption that the value of a firm's share is determined by the expectation of future returns. The firm's value is therefore determined by a combination of market risk and firm-specific risk. These elements, along with the risk free rate, form the core of the CAPM equation. The capital asset pricing model uses the beta, ?, which is the historic correlation of the firm's stock…
Wikipedia: Capital Asset Pricing Model. From http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capital_asset_pricing_model
Otuteye, E. (1998). The arbitrage pricing theory. Canadian Investment Review. Vol. 11 (4) 60.
Chapter 13: Dividend discount model. In possession of the author
movie industry in America has been controlled by some of the monolithic companies which not only provided a place for making the movies, but also made the movies themselves and then distributed it throughout the entire country. These are movie companies and their entire image revolved around the number of participants of their films. People who wanted to see the movies being made had to go to the studios in order to see them. They made movies in a profitable manner for the sake of the studios, but placed the entire industry under their control and dominated over it. The discussion here is about some of those famous studios inclusive of that of names like Metro Goldwyn Mayer, Culver, RKO, Paramount Studios, Warner Bros, 20th Century Fox, Walt Disney Studios, Universal Studios, Raleigh Studio, Hollywood Center Studio, Sunset Gower Studio, Ren-Mar Studios, Charlie Chaplin Studios and now, Manhattan Beach Studio.…
"What better way to annoy the Hollywood liberals than to remind them every single day that
George W. Bush is STILL the President?" Retrieved from https://www.donationreport.com/init/controller/ProcessEntryCmd?key=O8S0T5C8U2 Accessed 15 September, 2005
"What's interesting about the business is that it's no longer the movie business" Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/hollywood/picture/corptown.html Accessed 14 September, 2005
ecovery: Disaster and Crisis
Disaster recovery has become an important aspect of a company's strategic plan. The main reason for an increased concern can be attributed to the fact that integration and alliances at an international level have increased so that there are more linkages and higher interdependencies that have increased the exposure of people to international risk. This also means that companies are more prone to be affected by a force majeure impacting a vendor located in another part of the world. Some cases that have recently come to light in the spate of the Japanese Earthquake are the impact on General Motors leave alone Nissan. Moreover, giants such as Sony have been impacted in the wake of natural disasters in Thailand where a Tsunami impacted the Integrated Chip provider, making it difficult for Sony to continue to manufacture its products.
In light of these vulnerabilities it…
Jones, V.A. (2011). How to Avoid Disaster:RIM's Crucial Role in Business Continuity Planning. Information Management Journal .
Keenan, G. (2011). After a year of disasters, Japan's auto sector fights back. Retrieved January 20, 2012, from CTV News: http://www.ctv.ca/generic/generated/static/business/article2284601.html#ixzz1k0x14zsf
Momani, N.M. (2010). Business Continuity Planning: Are We Prepared for Future Disasters . American Journal of Economics and Business Administration, 272-279.
Omar, A., Alijani, D., & Mason, R. (2011). Information Technology Disaster Recovery Plan: Case Study. Academy of Strategic Management Journal .
There are three different models for estimating the cost of capital -- the capital asset pricing model (CAPM), dividend discount model and arbitrage pricing theory (APT). Of these, CAPM is the best model. CAPM utilizes the returns on the company's stock to calculate the firm's cost of equity. The underlying theory is that the firm's cost of capital should "equal the rate on a risk-free security plus a risk premium" (Investopedia, 2012). The risk premium is related to the return on the company's stock. Arbitrage pricing theory is similar, using the same formula but instead of equating risk with the market return on the company's stock vs. The broad market index, the return on the company's stock is compared to a basket of macroeconomic indicators (Pietersz, 2011). These are chosen by the user, and the correlations must be calculated by the user and the weightings of the different indicators…
Investopedia. (2012). Capital asset pricing model -- CAPM. Investopedia. Retrieved January 16, 2012 from http://www.investopedia.com/terms/c/capm.asp
Pietersz, G. (2011). Arbitrage pricing theory. MoneyTerms.co.uk. Retrieved January 16, 2012 from http://moneyterms.co.uk/apt/
"And there is, above all, that whole sphere of music whose lifeblood is standardization: popular music, jazz, be it hot, sweet, or hybrid" (Adorno, 2004, p. 212). Taking this definition, then within the line of disdainful art we must place hakespeare, Longfellow, even Hemingway; all of whom used a pattern to their writing, not simply for mass consumption, but as a skeletal structure of being. Within this rubric, then, "it is critical… to distinguish between the motivations for and the actual effects of listening" (Christenson, p. 103). Thus, despite the fact that Cook's "Permanent" follows a poetic pattern, the two major considerations again come forward: the motivation for writing and performing as a tribute to a specific occasion, and the relevance and commonality of reaching out for an emotional connection between humans.
Finally, for Adorno, the "vulgarization and enchantment… dwell together in the arrangements which have colonized large areas of…
Since this type of music is a commodity, and standardization means it follows a pattern that is familiar to audiences, it must have little social value, other than brief entertainment. "And there is, above all, that whole sphere of music whose lifeblood is standardization: popular music, jazz, be it hot, sweet, or hybrid" (Adorno, 2004, p. 212). Taking this definition, then within the line of disdainful art we must place Shakespeare, Longfellow, even Hemingway; all of whom used a pattern to their writing, not simply for mass consumption, but as a skeletal structure of being. Within this rubric, then, "it is critical… to distinguish between the motivations for and the actual effects of listening" (Christenson, p. 103). Thus, despite the fact that Cook's "Permanent" follows a poetic pattern, the two major considerations again come forward: the motivation for writing and performing as a tribute to a specific occasion, and the relevance and commonality of reaching out for an emotional connection between humans.
Finally, for Adorno, the "vulgarization and enchantment… dwell together in the arrangements which have colonized large areas of music" (Adorno, 2001, p. 41). That is to say that the only viable way art may exist is without entertainment value. This has some truth, one would certainly not argue that many of the films of the 1930s, for instance, showing synchronized swimming, lavish set productions of tap dance, and tuneful songs with very little soul, were nothing but grand escapes for the masses from the ravages of the Great Depression.
However, lighting, electronic enhancement, instrumentation,
There are several different models that can be used to help determine the cost of capital for a company. Each is based on a model, and can be understood not only in terms of its formula but also in terms of its underlying assumptions. These assumptions will provide the foundation for the model, and will inform the financial manager about the strengths and weaknesses of each model. This report will outline in detail three such major models for determining the cost of capital. The first is the capital asset pricing model, known as CAPM. The second is the dividend discount model, and the third is arbitrage pricing theory.
The capital asset pricing model is the first of the three major models for determining the cost of capital. CAPM is widely used to determine the cost of equity in particular. The underlying theory of CAPM is that stock returns relative…
Investopedia. (2013). Capital asset pricing model. Investopedia. Retrieved September 15, 2013 from http://www.investopedia.com/terms/c/capm.asp
Investopedia. (2013). Digging into the dividend discount model. Investopedia. Retrieved September 15, 2013 from http://www.investopedia.com/articles/fundamental/04/041404.asp
Investopedia. (2013). Definition of arbitrage pricing theory Investopedia. Retrieved September 15, 2013 from http://www.investopedia.com/terms/a/apt.asp
Video Games Available on USB Instead of CDS
USB are moveable storage devices and people use these devices to store huge amount of data. These devices are also called flash memory data storage devices. One can also store games in these devices and can directly run these store games.
Normally games are available on CDs or DVDs. But there are many limitations associated with these CDs like most of the games are available on multiple CDs, so carrying these CDs is difficult while on the other hand video games available on USB flash drives are very easy to carry.
USB devices are very useful. People are also using these devices for backing up PS2 games. According to data of 2010, these devices can store data of up to 128 GB (gigabytes). USB drives are also very easy to carry and can be carried even in pocket. The installation process of…
"COMPACT DISC." www.wong-sir.com. 13 JUNE 2011
Gerry. "The Benefits Of Portable USB Drives." 26 DEC 2010. xbox360kinectreviewed.com. 13 JUNE 2011
Plambeck, Joseph. "As CD Salezs Wane, Music Retailers Diversify." 31 May 2010 The New York Times. 13 June 2011
In the face of current economic slowdown, no industry is likely to survive if it sticks with its old business models and refuse to adapt to change. Besides economic problems, there are some other factors, which are forcing corporations to adopt new and better business strategies and discard old ones since they are not producing positive results. These factors include political conditions in the country, global rise in terrorist activities and rapid development of technology, most specifically the Internet. With American households and corporations getting wired at lightening speed, it is only logical to incorporate this technology in a new business model to make business strategies produce desired results.
Apart from technological change, companies are also required to focus more on pricing models. It has been noticed that with consumer spending shrinking, only those corporations that have a viable pricing model are likely to stay afloat.…
The Music Industry In a spin, The Economist, Feb 27th, 2003
Frank Rose, The Civil War Inside Sony, WIRED Magazine Issue 11.02 - February 2003
Jon Hilkevitch, FAA predicts airline industry recovery Chicago Tribune March 18, 2003
Shares fall but Easyjet figures grow, Birmingham Post, 01-09-2003, pp 22.
The approach Sony continues to take is one of concentrating on continual process improvement to become more agile and resilient in the face of environmental factors (Olenick, 2010) while at the same time seeking to comply with national requirements for sustainability and green initiatives including supply chain compliance (Svensson, 2009).
Legal Factors -- Sony has a culture that embraces learning as a virtue, and continually strives to gain insights from the experiences of other Japanese companies and their legal and regulatory lessons learned. The case mentioned earlier of Toshiba Machinery Company and their sales of unauthorized milling machines to the ussians decades ago still is a foundational element of Japanese ethical training for managers (Ohishi, Naoto, 1993). As the United States and other western nations have continually seen the level of compliance and reporting escalate up through government edict, Sony has continually had to increase its focus on contract management…
Marketing of Small and Medium Sized High Tech Companies. Journal of Euro - Marketing, 12(2), 5-27.
Bernoff, J., & Li, C.. (2008). Harnessing the Power of the Oh-So-Social Web. MIT Sloan Management Review, 49(3), 36-42.
Business Line: MARKETING: TV, laptop to lead Sony sales. (2010, December). Businessline.
Luis J. Callarisa Fiol, Miguel a. Moliner Tena, & Javier Sanchez Garcia. (2011). Multidimensional perspective of perceived value in industrial clusters. The Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 26(2), 132-145.
Corporate Business Marketing Structure
Analysis of the Sony Corporation's Market Structure
Sony Corporation is a leader in consumer and professional electronics around the world. It is a company founded in Japan in 1946 with headquarters in Tokyo, Japan. Sony produces a variety of products such as cameras, headphones, speakers, and more. Sony Corporation also generates a great deal of income in the entertainment industry, distributing media such and film and television. It is a brand recognized for quality worldwide. This is a company that makes business partnerships that are prudent and profitable. Japanese cultural and economic histories influence and contribute to Sony's market structure and general success.
Sony is heavily involved with audio recording and engineering technologies. It is possible to construct and supply and high caliber, professional recording studio using only Sony products. This corporation has an outstanding reputation for its cameras. Sony produces numerous consumer cameras, lenses, and…
Barrett, Jimmy, Mike Bridges, Steve Day, Matt Klingman, & Chris Mattie. Sony Inc. [Webpage] http://www.boydassociates.net , 2011, [cited 2011]. Available from
Hacker Culture and Mitigation in the International Systems
The explosion of the internet technology in the contemporary business and IT environments has assisted more than 300 million computer users to be connected through a maze of internet networks. Moreover, the network connectivity has facilitated the speed of communication among businesses and individuals. (Hampton, 2012). Despite the benefits associated with the internet and network technologies, the new technologies have opened the chance for hackers to attack the information systems of business organizations and collect sensitive information worth millions of dollars. Each year, businesses have been a victim of cyber-attacks in the United States. As an increasing number of people and businesses own internet-enabled devices, more businesses have become a victim of cyber-attacks, which has become a critical concern in the business and governmental environments. (Hacker news, n.d.).
The objective of this paper is to analyze the cyber incidents of the Sony…
Atkinson, S (2015). Psychology and the hacker - Psychological Incident Handling. Sans Institute.
Christopher, A. & Vasili, M. (2006). The KGB and the World: The Mitrokhin Archive II. Penguin. 41: 120-1.
FBI (2014). Update on Sony Investigation. Federal Bureau of Investigation. USA.
Fotinger, C.S. & Ziegler, W.(2004). Understanding a hacker's mind -- A psychological insight into the hijacking of identities. Donau-Universitat Krems. Commissioned by RSA Security.
Product: Xperia Z1 Twist plus ear
Enrolling a product in the market attracts subsequent challenges that seek to examine its validity. Therefore, it is inopportune that modern companies develop products that will seek to minimize issues related to the incorporation. The impetus behind this approach is in the knowledge that a good product might fail because of implementation because of the ever-increasing incorporation problems. This becomes challenging if the product in question is affecting several markets. This report will present a product; Xperia Z1 twist plus ear owned by the Sony roup. The report will specify on considerate techniques on how to enroll the product in the market. The report is segmented into three main sections; firstly, the generation of a new idea. Secondly, this report will second an argument of innovation through the democratizing process. Finally, the report will present brief changes that are instrumental in customizing the product…
Guellec, Dominique, and Bruno Van Pottelsberghe De La Potterie. "The Value of Patents and Patenting Strategies: Countries and Technology Areas Patterns." Economics of Innovation and New Technology 11.2 (2002): 133-148. Print.
McMillan, G. Steven, Alfredo Mauri, and Robert D. Halmilton. "The Impact of Publishing and Patenting Activities on New Product Development and Firm Performance: The Case of the U.S. Pharmaceutical Industry." International Journal of Innovation Management 07.02
(2003): 213-221. Print.
Network Security Management
From the onset, it is important to note that for data to flow from one computer to another, such computers should be interconnected in what is referred to as a network. With such interconnectedness comes the risk of data interception and it is for this reason that network security is considered crucial.
In the recent past, the number of corporations that have experienced attacks on their computing resources has been on the increase. Outages in this case have ranged from denial-of-service-attacks to viruses to other more sophisticated forms of attack. It is important to note that these attacks, which are rarely publicly acknowledged by the affected companies, are coming at a time when organizations are increasingly becoming dependent on information systems and networks to conduct their business. Today, business communications between an entity and the various groups of stakeholders, including but not limited to employees and customers,…
BBC. (2013). Sony Fined Over 'Preventable' PlayStation Data Hack. BBC. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-21160818
Canavan, J.E. (2001). Fundamentals of Network Security. Norwood, MA: Artech House.
Cole, E., Krutz, R.L. & Conley, J. (2005). Network Security Bible. Indianapolis, IN: John Wiley & Sons.
Finkle, J. & Hosenball, M. (2014). Exclusive: More Well-Known U.S. Retailers Victims of Cyber Attacks -- Sources. Reuters. Retrieved from http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/01/12/us-target-databreach-retailers-idUSBREA0B01720140112
Both firms use an array of distribution channels, focusing on large retail stores. There is an Internet strategy for both, focused on the presentation of information. Xbox also allows users to plug their system into the Internet and play games online. Sony runs a similar program called PlayStation Network. Both of these networks feed into the customer service strategy through the use of memberships. Beyond this, there is little in the way of relationship management.
V. The target of the Xbox website is the mass market. Images typically show families and multi-player scenes to reinforce the idea that the Xbox is for everyone. The main benefit being promoted is fun. There are few specific benefits listed and no testimonials on the website. There is only limited contact information provided. The PlayStation website is more focused on graphics and gameplay - indicative of their premium strategy and targeting of hardcore gamers.…
Sony financial information from Reuters. Retrieved November 13, 2008 at http://www.reuters.com/finance/stocks/incomeStatement?stmtType=BAL&perType=ANN&symbol=SNE.N
Microsoft financial information from Reuters. Retrieved November 13, 2008 at http://www.reuters.com/finance/stocks/incomeStatement?stmtType=BAL&perType=ANN&symbol=MSFT.O
No author. (2008). 2008: Essential Facts about the Computer and Video Game Industry. Entertainment Software Association. Retrieved November 13, 2008 at http://www.theesa.com/facts/pdfs/ESA_EF_2008.pdf
Pham, Alex. (2008). Games for the Rest of Us. LA Times. Retrieved November 13, 2008 at http://articles.latimes.com/2008/jul/21/business/fi-games21
Boone, L.E., & Kurtz, D.L. (2011). Contemporary Marketing. Ohio: Cengage Learning.
Jin, D.Y. (2010). Global Media Convergence and Cultural Transformation: Emerging Social Patterns and Characteristics. Hershey: Igi Global.
Kim, T., Adeli, H., Fang, W.C., Villalba, J.G., Arnett, K.P., & Khan, M.K. (2011). Security Technology:…
Boone, L.E., & Kurtz, D.L. (2011). Contemporary Marketing. Ohio: Cengage Learning.
Jin, D.Y. (2010). Global Media Convergence and Cultural Transformation: Emerging Social Patterns and Characteristics. Hershey: Igi Global.
Kim, T., Adeli, H., Fang, W.C., Villalba, J.G., Arnett, K.P., & Khan, M.K. (2011). Security Technology: International Conference, SecTech 2011, Held as Part of the Future Generation Information Technology Conference, FGIT 2011, in Conjunction with GDC 2011, Jeju Island, Korea, December 8-10, 2011. Proceedings. New York: Springer-Verlag New York Inc.
So increased voltage results in a drop in current. As the voltage continues to increase the junction begins to function as a normal diode as electrons travel by conduction through the p-n junction and no longer tunnel through it. Therefore the most important region for operation in a tunnel diode is the negative resistance area.
Used in reverse direction Esaki diodes are called back diodes and act as very fast rectifiers with a zero offset with extreme linearity for power signals and have an accurate square law characteristic in the reverse direction. As back diodes, with reverse bias at high reverse voltage, electrons actually flow in the opposite direction, as electron states on each side of the p-n junction become increasingly aligned, allowing electrons to tunnel through the p-n junction going the opposite direction -- this is called the Zener effect which also occurs in zener diodes.
Above is a…
Barrier Penetration." Hyperphysics. 2006. http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/quantum/barr.html .
Quantum Tunneling." Canada Connects: Quantum Physics. September 4, 2006. http://www.canadaconnects.ca/quantumphysics/10067/10074/.
Sony History: The Esaki Diode." Sony History. 2007. http://www.sony.net/Fun/SH/1-7/h5.html .
Scrupski, Steve. "Wide Application of Esaki Diode Near." Electronic Design. March 6, 2000.
Market penetration is one strategy that many businesses consider when they decide to expand their business operation to other regions but within the same market. Market penetration usually involves the establishment of business relationship to other region. With market penetration, businesses will be able to measure their success. For instance, the measure of percentage of sales in different region is one way to determine where a company is harvesting success and where it needs improvement in terms of operation and provision of services.
An example of a company that successfully gains from market penetration is FSI International, Inc., a supplier of surface conditioning equipment and technology for microelectronics manufacturing (FSI-International.COM). Since FSI decided to penetrate the Asian market with direct sales and support, they found a considerable growth in revenue. According to Electronic News Online, 40% of FSI's current sales in 2004 were from Asian customers. This is equivalent to…
2004. FSI Enjoying Greater Asian Market Penetration.
Retrieved on 25 October 2004, from Electronic News Online. Web site:
http://www.reed-electronics.com/electronicnews/article/CA452884?industryid=22115& ; industry=Supply+Chain
FSI International, Inc.
A high rate of turnover may indicate too strict credit policies or an inability to extend credit. It is the tradeoff between sales and tying up funds in receivables.
Sales to Working Capital - measures the relationship between sales and the working capital of a business. Too high a ratio may indicate an insufficient amount of working capital. Too low a ratio may indicate unproductive assets.
Sales to Total Assets - measures the ability of a business to use assets productively. This ratio may be indicating conditions of excess capacity, inefficient or obsolete equipment, or temporary changes inn demand.
ertelsmann appears to be healthy in terms of short-term liquidity. The Acid Test Ratio is normal for companies of this size and the Current Ratio is higher than normal and indicates that the company should have no trouble meeting short-term financial commitments. The capital structure ratios also appear to indicate that…
Apuzzo, Matt. "Lawsuit: Sony BMG Blacklisted Agent." Associated Press. 1 April 2005. 5 April 2005. http://news.yahoo.com/news?tmpl=story&u=/ap/20050401/ap_on_bi_ge/gospel_music_lawsuit_1
Bernstein, Leopold a. Financial Statement Analysis. Homewood, Illinois: Ricard D. Irwin Inc., 1978.
Bertelsmann Media Worldwide. 4 April 2005. http://www.bertelsmann.com .
Bertelsmann Media Worldwide. 2004 Annual Report. Blelefeld. 4 March 2005.