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The Political, Social, and Economic Institutions in South Korea
South Korea was considered to be one of the "Asian Tigers," but that designation of strength did not stop the country from experiencing serious problems in the past. These were financial, but they were also social and political. The country went through rapid changes, including a financial crisis, but before that crisis occurred there were other issues with which the country had to deal. Most of these problems began in the 1960s and 1970s, when the Korean government and businesses within that country started "scratching each other's backs." That might sound as though the businesses and the government were simply attempting to help one another out, but that proved not to be the case. Modernization theory will be examined here in an effort to show the effects it had on Korea and what the country was attempting to do…
Aroskar, R. & Swanson, P.E. (2002). "The Asian Crisis and Market Efficiency: A Different
Perspective." Global Business and Finance Review 7: 19-29.
Bello, W., & Rosenfeld, S. (1990). Dragons in Distress: Asia's Miracle Economies in Crisis, Penguin, London.
Friedman, E. & Wong, J. (2008). Political transitions in dominant party systems. Oxford: Taylor & Francis.
The basis of this country attractiveness report is to identify the most suitable target market to launch a sea food enterprise. The two countries within our scope are South Korea and Singapore. In this report we evaluate the level of attractiveness on the basis of political variables, economic variables, and socio-cultural variables. This report includes an analysis of the suitability of the selected markets via an exploration of the already existing seafood market as well as information that is required for the market entry.
The basis of this country attractiveness report is to identify the most suitable target market to launch an sea food enterprise. The two countries within our scope are South Korea and Singapore. In this report we evaluate the level of attractiveness on the basis of…
CIA Fact Book (2003),
Gillman F, (2007), 'Food Industry Market Opportunities in Japan and South Korea', Maine International Trade Centre, viewed 8 July 2008,
RaboBank (2006).The South Korean Seafood Industry:Challenges, Responses and Stakeholder strategy. Available online at http://www.rabobank.com/content/images/Rabobank_The_South_Korean_seafood_industry_Vizzone_February2006_tcm43-34945.pdf
Certainly, this is reinforced by recent legislative efforts currently under discussion in the parliament. The ruling Grand National Party has been the subject of public resistance more recently, perhaps owing to the global economic slowdown which has caused widespread discontent throughout the world. In response, and with elections -- at that time -- approaching, the South Korean government considered the passage of legislation that would both place limitations and legal liabilities on those assembling for protest and would place parameters on the consequences for what may be identified as internet-based libel.
To the second edict, the condition is suggested as a means to "increasing penalties for online defamation and insult. Senior policy coordinator Chang Yoon-seok submitted this bill, which will allow prosecutors to press charges for 'cyber defamation' and 'online libel'. (AHRC, 1) Such legislation does distinctly set South Korea apart from the principles of estern Democracy, even if we…
Achin, K. (2008). South Korea to Push for North Korean Human Rights Progress. VOA News, 6.
Amnesty International. (2008). South Korea: Policing the Candlelight Protests in South Korea. Amnesty.org.
Amnesty International1. (2005). North Korea: Briefing on Present Situation. Amnesty.org.
Asian Human Rights Commission (AHRC). (2008). South Korea: New laws proposed to restrict freedom of assembly and opinion. Human Rights Education Associates. Online at http://www.hrea.org/index.php?base_id=2&language_id=1&headline_id=8241
An 'armistice' was signed in 1953, and this detailed that the two Koreas would be kept separate by the 38th parallel, and friends and relatives were cruelly separated from one another, some never to see each other ever again. The after effects of the Korean War can also be seen in the Gulf War that took place in the years from 1990 to 1991 between the Allied Forces and Iraq, and when Kuwait was invaded by Iraq for the purpose of capturing her oil fields, the U.S. got interested again and tried to interfere, and in 1990, the President Bush sent U.S. troops to the Middle East. The UN declared a deadline for Iraq to quit Kuwait, but war broke out anyway. It is the general opinion today that when the U.S. carries out attacks on quarrelling countries in this manner, there will be war. The Korean War is one…
Critical Review of 'Witness to War, Korea. Retrieved at http://mcel.pacificu.edu/as/students/stanley/kbr.html. Accessed on 2 December, 2004
Clark, Carol. Crossing the Great Divide. 2001. Retrieved at http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/2000/korea/story/overview/. Accessed on 2 December, 2004
Examining the Korean War. Retrieved at http://mcel.pacificu.edu/as/students/stanley/intro.html. Accessed on 2 December, 2004
Global Politics, USA and the world. Retrieved at http://www.learner.org/channel/courses/democracyinamerica/dia_15/dia_15_video.html . Accessed on 2 December, 2004
Korea has been critical of U.S. procedures in tracking tainted products. The as-yet unratified FTA treaty includes a phasing out of South Korean tariffs on all beef products, including bone-in beef, over a 15-year period. However, recent news, exposing the risks of contracting e. coli from U.S. beef may compromise support for the treaty in Korea, while support in America for the FTA is on the wane given concerns about the treaty's other provisions regarding automobiles.
I. Introduction: Protectionism in U.S.-Korean beef trade
II. To what degree is the beef ban due to politics and protectionism?
III. To what degree is the ban due to issues of safety and sanitation?
A. Mad cow
B. e. coli
IV. Conclusion: different cultural attitudes in South Korea and North America
A. Towards trade
B. Towards agriculture
Cooper, illiam H. & Mark E. Manyin (2007, July 18). The proposed South…
Cooper, William H. & Mark E. Manyin (2007, July 18). The proposed South Korea-U.S. Free
Trade Agreement (KORUS FTA). CRS Report to Congress. Last revised July 18, 2009.
Retrieved on October 9, 2009.
South Korea and United States
When Japan lost control over epublic of Korea (OK) at the end of the World War II, the Soviet Union along with the United States split the Peninsula into two territories, as they promised for national elections which never took place. This led to the disagreement of Washington and Moscow, forcing the United Nations to declare the OK with its capital in Seoul as a legitimate government on the Peninsula in 1948.
However, the Soviet rejected the assertion, and in 1950, the Democratic People's epublic of Korea (DPK) was invaded (Lee, 2011). The United States came to the aid of South Korea, and war ensued until 1953, when a ceasefire froze the front line at the thirty-eighth parallel. In summary, this paper will therefore discuss on the relationship between the United States of America and OK (South Korea) from the Korean War to the current…
France-Presse, A. (2013). North Korea attacks 'master-servant' relationship between U.S. And South Korea. The Telegraph. Retrieved July 18, 2014, from http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/northkorea/10048136/North-Korea-attacks-master-servant-relationship-between-U.S.-and-South-Korea.html
Lee, Y. (2011). The U.S.-South Korea Alliance. Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved July 18, 2014, from http://www.cfr.org/south-korea/us-south-korea-alliance/p11459
Power, J. (2007). The Relevance of the South Korea-U.S. Alliance. The Diplomat. Retrieved July 18, 2014, from http://thediplomat.com/2014/04/the-relevance-of-the-south-korea-us-alliance/
U.S. Relations With South Korea. (2014, January 31). U.S. Department of State. Retrieved July 15, 2014, from http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/2800.htm
There are however some similarities that come up every other often that sets the two countries on a same path, these are as below;
In both cultures, there is an urge for development and prosperity. Both Americans and South Koreans have a very strong technological development and prosperity agenda in everything that they do. They always put maximum concentration and energy in all they do, this is the reason why they are competing economically and have very close trade and political ties.
The Americans and South Koreans also have high technological knowhow than the rest of the world. They manufacture very complex technological equipments that are used all over the world ranging from vehicles to smaller home use electronics.
In both cultures there are many immigrants that live with them. Americans have been having the immigrants for years and now the South Korean are also following the same path by…
Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition (CARLA), (2009). What is Culture?
Retrieved June 4, 2011 from http://www.carla.umn.edu/culture/definitions.html
Kwintessential, (2011). South Korea - Language, Culture, Customs and Etiquette. Retrieved June 4, 2011 from http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/resources/global-etiquette/south-korea-country-profile.html
Public Agenda (2000). Americans View Higher Education as Key to American Dream. Retrieved June 4, 2011 from http://www.publicagenda.org/press-releases/americans-view-higher-education-key-american-dream
Autoedge internal and external position is precarious at the moment. The company is in an competitive environment that is being influenced by a variety of factors that are forcing the company to consider various organizational changes such as cost cutting moves. Furthermore, other internal issues are also compounding their situation. Recently the company has had some instances of severe quality issues that have made the market skeptical of the company's ability to manufacture products that bring value to the consumer. In fact, these quality problems were so significant that they caused the stock price to be reduced form over fifty dollars a share, to four dollars a share. The company obviously has to make some dramatic changes in order to survive their current situation.
The first thing the company will want to make an objective is to investigate the source of their quality issues. Any further quality issues would likely…
Kee, T. (N.d.). Influences of Confucianism on Korean Corporate Culture. Retrieved September 15, 2010. Retrieved from University of Montana: http://portalfsss.um.edu.my/portal/uploadFolder/pdf/Influences%20of%20Confucianism%20on%20Korean%20Corporate%20Culture.pdf
Moniz, E. (2011). Why We Still Need Nuclear Power. Foreign Affairs, 90-96.
The Chose Ilbo. (2009, August 11). Hyundai-Kia Replaces Ford as World's No.4 Automaker. Retrieved from The Chose Ilbo: http://english.chosun.com/site/data/html_dir/2009/08/11/2009081100315.html
economic systems of South Korea and Japan
South Korea and Japan which are two emerging countries have had an extremely close economic relationship between them that dates back from the ancient times of the countries to the present. As a result of this, the countries have experienced similar patterns in their economic growth and development though there have been disparate differences that have been brought about by several factors Smith, 1997()
It is natural to do a comparison of two emerging countries in order to find out similarities and differences in their major characteristics that may have led to the growth of one country being mirrored in another osser & osser, 2004.
Both countries have emerged from a war period which devastated their economy greatly and ruined their infrastructure completely. However, they have both climbed out of these periods and managed to succeed in building global economies by taking advantage…
Arase, D. (2010). Japan in 2009: A Historic Election Year. Asian Survey, 50(1), 40-55. doi: 10.1525/as.2010.50.1.40
Bae, J.-Y. (2010). South Korean Strategic Thinking toward North Korea: The Evolution of the Engagement Policy and Its Impact upon U.S.-ROK Relations. Asian Survey, 50(2), 335-355. doi: 10.1525/as.2010.50.2.335
Coe, N.M., & Lee, Y.-S. (2006). The Strategic Localization of Transnational Retailers: The Case of Samsung-Tesco in South Korea. Economic Geography, 82(1), 61-88. doi: 10.2307/30033047
Dent, C.M. (2003). Transnational Capital, the State and Foreign Economic Policy: Singapore, South Korea and Taiwan. Review of International Political Economy, 10(2), 246-277. doi: 10.2307/4177460
Throughout the 1990s decade however, the South Korean labor force changed to raise new challenges, such as the aging of the population, the declining rates of the young population, and the resulting shortage of skilled labor force. In such a setting then, the vocational training system was extended to promote lifelong training for the employees, and this took the form of the Vocational Competency Development Program.
Despite the advances made, much still remains to be done, as South Korea is among the countries with the lowest investments in worker education. According to a study of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), South Korea invested 0.05 per cent of its gross domestic product in employee training; Germany for instance invested 0.37 per cent and Austria invested 0.40 per cent (Lee and Jeon, 2009).
Aside from the increasing education of the labor force, the economic development of South Korea can…
Arrow, K.J., Ng, Y.K., Yang, X., 1998, Increasing returns and economic analysis, Palgrave Macmillan
Gregg, D., 1999, Park Chung Hee, Time World, http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,2054405,00.html last accessed on April 17, 2012
Groning, V., 2010, Economic growth and development in China: international trade and the "Big Push," GRIN Verlag
Khaled, M., 2007, Park Chung-Hee's industrialization policy and its lessons for developing countries, University of Rajshahi, http://www.geocities.ws/mortuzakhaled/park.pdf last accessed on April 17, 2012
A key factor that has prompted South Korea's growth has been its strong export emphasis where growth of exports climbed 21% each year (3).
The policy makers of South Korea have emphasized on skilled and high quality industries such as the motor vehicle industry and electronics manufactures. This has made South Korea currently to have the sixth largest motor vehicle industry in the world. The country is also now the fourth largest producer of electronics goods. Industry in South Korea contributes about 35% of gross domestic product and provides employment to approximately 20% of the labor force. Important industrial and manufacturing base include computers, telecommunications equipment, consumer electronics, automobiles, ship, semiconductors, petrochemicals, and steel production.
The cost of houses in South Korea is rising rapidly with the increasing household expenses associated with rising house prices reducing the expectation of consumer spending.
The continued rise in house prices increase the interest…
Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs. Background Note "South Korea" October 30, 2009. http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/2800.htm
Country Profile. South Korea Library of Congress -- Federal Research Division, May 2005.
Marcus, Noland. "North Korea and the South Korean Economy," Peterson Institute for International Economics, available from www.petersoninstitute.org/publications/papers, Internet, accessed November 14, 2007. 3.
Manyin, Mark E. South Korea-U.S. Economic Relations; Cooperation, Friction, and Future Prospects: CRS Report for Congress, 2004.
Oak (29) also speaks about dependence on situations in order to communicate that Koreans are very fond of the protocol required by the typologies of situations. On the one hand, this is positive because it provides them with behavioral patterns which are pretty clear and which have proved to be advantageous so far. On the other hand, this might prove to be at least challenging in the circumstances in which the situations involve people coming from different cultural environments. The question which comes to mind is should contemporary South Korea loosen its attachment to Confucian beliefs in order to achieve a greater openness towards its partners or not? The solution is not a simple one.
Emotions play a fundamental part in the interaction between people and it must be underlined that Koreans first establish the category to which their emotions belong and afterward decide on the behavior they must adopt.…
Kim, a.E., Park, G.S. Nationalism, Confucianism, work ethic and industrialization in South Korea, Journal of contemporary Asia, issue 1, 203, pages 37-49
Koo, J.H., & Nahm, a.C. (1997). An Introduction to Korean Culture, (pp. 17-98). Elizabeth, NJ: Hollym International Corp.
Oak, S., & Martin, V. (2000). Understanding influences on American and Korean society. In American/Korean contrasts: Patterns and expectations in the U.S. And Korea, (pp. 14-44).
Elizabeth, NJ: Hollym International Corp., Social structure and values in South Korea in countrystudies.us, Retrieved December 3, 2010 from http://countrystudies.us/south-korea/34.htm
born in South Korea in 1975. There, I finished elementary, middle and high school, and then came to the United States to study biology in 1994. South Korea requires service in the armed forced for all young men; I returned there to complete my military obligation before returning to the United States to finish my undergraduate degree. While military service interrupted my studies in some respects, it had the unexpected benefit of helping me to clarify my career goals.
While serving in the South Korean Army, I worked in the dispensary. I found myself becoming extremely interested in curing and taking care of people. Despite the fact that the work was arduous and the hours long, it was fulfilling and I thought my efforts were fruitful for those I served, as well.
When I returned to school to complete my degree in biology, I began to investigate what form of…
Developmentalism oftentimes takes to the extreme the old adage that 'voters vote their pocketbook'. In other words, voters will vote for the person most likely to help them achieve their financial goals. Developmentalism is a theory often used to show how a third world country gains acceptance through the tacit approval by its own society by granting the State and its local leaders the opportunity to work together in developing internal market with external means. A good example of developmentalism could be Korea, a country that associates itself with capitalistic development (with the ongoing aid of the United States) but is a self-contained market that advance the national interest through internal marketplaces.
Developmentalists however often blame the problems stemming from internal markets on the very international capitalization needed to maintain and grow that internal marketplace. Dirlik (2014) writes that developmentalism "has rendered development into a horse race between nations and…
Dirlik, A.; (2014) Developmentalism, Interventions: The International Journal of Postcolonial Studies, 16(1), p. 30-48
Suh, C-S. & Kwon, S-H; (2014) Whither the developmental state in South Korea?
Balancing welfare and Neoliberalism, Asian Studies Review, 38(4) p. 676-692
Not only is the United States vastly superior to South Korea in military might, the United States also dwarfs South Korea in economic strength. South Korea's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is about 900 billion dollars. The United States, in contrast, has a GDP of 13 trillion.
Perhaps the greatest difference between the two countries is the constitution of their respective populations. South Korea is one of the most homogenous countries in the world, both ethnically and linguistically. Almost every Korean shares the same cultural and linguistic heritage, with the exception of a small Chinese minority. The United States, in contrast, though white people still are the most prevalent, houses people of all races, including blacks, Asians, Hispanics, American Indians, Alaskan natives, and native Hawaiians. And while South Korea has foreign permanent residents solely from China, the United States embraces immigrants from every continent and country on the planet.
Supreme Court of United States recently ruled that any state-level laws that ban same-sax marriage violate the rights of citizens under the provisions of the Fourteenth Amendment of the Constitution. As a global leader and trendsetter regarding social and cultural norms as well as public policy, The United States may have taken a great step towards global rights and freedoms. The American ruling obviously helps minimize discrimination domestically, but also has the potential to inspire other countries to examine their own laws related to marriage equality. Because of widespread discrimination against same-sex couples and indeed against all non-traditional social contracts, it becomes important that democratic societies entrench anti-discrimination clauses into their laws.
However, outmoded norms related to gender and sexuality continue to permeate the consciousness and culture of traditional societies. Even societies that are advanced in terms of economic and political development may continue to reveal overt and covert elements…
Borowiec, Steven. "South Korea's LGBT Community is Fighting for Equal Rights." Time. Feb 11, 2014. Retrieved online: http://time.com/6575/south-koreas-lgbt-community-is-fighting-for-equal-rights/
Novak, Kathy. "The Problem with Being Gay in South Korea." CNN. 19 Oct, 2015. Retrieved online: http://edition.cnn.com/2015/10/18/asia/south-korea-being-gay/
Wee, Darren. "South Korean Women Overwhelmingly Support Gay Marriage, Men Not So Much." Gay Star News. 6 Aug, 2015. Retrieved onlinehttp://www.gaystarnews.com/article/south-korea-women-overwhelmingly-support-gay-marriage-men-not-so-much/#gs.hAfBhA0
Yoon, Julie. "LGBT People in Conservative S. Korea Find Hope." The China Post. 18 September, 2015. Retrieved online: http://www.chinapost.com.tw/asia/korea/2015/09/18/446124/LGBT-people.htm
Furthermore, an outright war could embroil the United States in a conflict far bigger than Iraq or Afghanistan, causing serious detriment to life, liberty and economic stability (Farrell, 2006).
At this point, North Korea is still engaged in a process of saber-rattling. Their ability to impact markets and security is limited, but should the North Korean government make a bolder move, or force the est into a response, the situation on the Korean peninsula could destabilize the entire world.
CIA orld Factbook: North Korea. (2009). Retrieved April 20, 2009 from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/kn.html
Heliker, Stephanie. (2009).
North Korea Missile Crisis Escalates. SDSU Universe. Retrieved April 20, 2009 from http://www.sdsuniverse.info/sdsuniverse/news.aspx?s=71092
Moon, Sung Hwee. (2009) Side Effects of Tension Raised by North Korea Regime. Daily NK. Retrieved April 20, 2009 from http://www.dailynk.com/english/read.php?cataId=nk01500&num=4773
Yoo, Choonsik. (2009). How ill N. Korea's Rocket Affect South's markets, economy? Reuters. Retrieved April 20, 2009 from http://www.forbes.com/feeds/reuters/2009/04/05/2009-04-05T231745Z_01_SEO107164_RTRIDST_0_KOREA-NORTH-MARKETS-Q-A.html
CIA World Factbook: North Korea. (2009). Retrieved April 20, 2009 from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/kn.html
Heliker, Stephanie. (2009).
North Korea Missile Crisis Escalates. SDSU Universe. Retrieved April 20, 2009 from http://www.sdsuniverse.info/sdsuniverse/news.aspx?s=71092
Moon, Sung Hwee. (2009) Side Effects of Tension Raised by North Korea Regime. Daily NK. Retrieved April 20, 2009 from http://www.dailynk.com/english/read.php?cataId=nk01500&num=4773
Hat Stand and Globalization
The South Korean hat stand has been impacted by globalization over time in multiple ways. First, it has introduced larger corporations like Wal-Mart and Tesco into Asian markets. Second, it has created new demand for global goods and for Western items especially. Thirdly, through digitalization and the rise of the Internet, it has encroached on the meaningfulness of the street stall retailer -- i.e., the hat stand vendor -- and his ability to offer a novel product that cannot be obtained anywhere else.
First, globalization has impacted the hat stand over time because it has introduced larger competitors into the region -- giant wholesalers whose aim is to offer consumers goods at discounted prices. Wal-Mart and Tesco both entered into South Korea with this objective.[footnoteRef:1] And while only Tesco succeeded over time (Wal-Mart failed to connect with the values of the local population),[footnoteRef:2] the fact that…
North and South Korea
The war between North and South Korea is now a few decades old. Ever since the two countries split in the 1950's, the world has been trying to find a way to reunite both the land and its citizens, some of whom have not seen their family for many decades. No other country in the world exists in the same complete (literal) darkness as North Korea. Sheltered from the world, the country and its citizens are living stuck in time, without modern technology and conveniences. However, North Korea does show its prowess once in awhile to discourage other from encroaching upon its authoritarian territory. This short analysis will focus on the situation between the two countries, complete with an analysis of their respective populations. [1: McDonald, M. (2010). "Crisis Status' in South Korea After North Shells Island." New York Times. Retrieved April 19, 2011, from .…
Long-Term Care in South Korea: Strengths of the Korean Long-Term Care Insurance Scheme (LTCI)
Adopted in 2008, the South Korean Long-Term Care (LTCI) Insurance seeks to advance care to the elderly, and assumes the social insurance format (Rhee, Done, Anderson, 2015).
To begin with, LTCI succeeds in the further enhancement of the health of the country’s elderly citizens. It is important to note that the incidence of chronic diseases, as it has been demonstrated in various research studies, rises with advancement in age. These diseases and conditions could have a serious impact on not only the health of those affected, but also on their overall wellbeing. South Korea, as Rhee, Done, Anderson (2015) observe, “is an example of a rapidly aging country that is currently experiencing the demographic transition that many middle-income countries will soon experience…” LTCI ensures that the livelihood of the country’s citizens is stabilized. This is particularly…
political structure and philosophy of South Korea is a unique interplay of four major forces: first, and most obvious, the individual native customs and beliefs of the Korean people; second, Confusion notions and ideals; third, estern European and U.S. political models; and fourth, Marxist philosophy. The internal notions of governance have been greatly influenced by these three outside ideologies and come together to form the current South Korean form of government. To understand the modern South Korean government is to recognize it as a conglomeration of philosophies that appear on the surface to be contradictory, but arose out of several periods of economic and political strife.
The fifteenth century saw the rise of Neo-Confucianism in South Korea; this came out of a response to the established system of noble overlords. The new political movement sought to establish a government that addressed the issues of the citizenry rather than simply act…
1. "Korea, South." Infoplease.
Pearson Education, publishing as Infoplease.
14 Nov. 2004 .
2. Macdonald, Donald Stone. The Koreans: Contemporary Politics and Society. Boulder: Westview Press, 1996.
Some of the biggest incentives for manufactures are the outrageously low tax bases in southern states. "When taxes are paid, southern levies are lower than most Northern states. GM's Hamtramck, MIG, plant, for instance, has one of the highest property tax mileages in the United States at 88 mills." (Corbett, 2002) Taxes are some much lower than in say Michigan or New Jersey and southern state officials are very open to negotiations to land the new factories and the plethora of jobs. In other words, land values are low and government incentives are extraordinary so the automobiles industry would be crazy to not migrate south for those reasons alone. "Furthermore, utilities costs are lower. After the products have been assembled, the South's location is superior to the Midwest or the East Coast for delivery." (Corbett, 2002) but there are other incentives.
Not only is the land for the new facilities…
Corbett, Brian (2002). Southern hospitality. Ward's Auto World, August.
This has helped to protect the economy against sudden shocks from different events.
The government policies that are supporting growth are designed to encourage foreign direct investment in the South Korean economy. What happened was the Asian financial crisis (in 1997), underscored how government officials needed to open their economy up to foreign investors. As a result, the total amounts of money that was coming in began to increase dramatically with these figures currently sitting at $115.6 billion dollars. This is a part of an effort to diversify the economy away from the manufacturing sector. Over the course of time, this has allowed South Korea to build up their infrastructure and improve personal income with this coming in at $30,000.00 per year. This is significant, because in the early 1970's the average South Korean earned $1,200.00 per year. ("South Korea")
The different policies that were enacted have meant that the…
"Japan." CIA World Fact Book, 2011. Web. 13 Dec. 2011
"South Korea." CIA World Fact Boo, 2011. Web. 13 Dec. 2011
Chung, Young. South Korea in the Fast Lane. London: Oxford University Press, 2007. Print.
Ghosn, Carlos. Shift Inside Nissan. New York: Random House, 2006. Print.
in the newly ormed Ministry o Finance drew rom a talented pool o
economists rom the Hebrew University in Jerusalem. Privileged positions
were illed rom within the bureaucracy and were obtained through
exceptional perormance instead o cronyism or nepotism. O great
importance to their autonomy, oicials were able to disconnect themselves
rom total reliance on local unding thanks to inancial assistance rom
the international community and reparations rom Germany. Two igureheads
within the government guaranteed a decisive and coherent economic policy:
Levi Eshkol o the Ministry o Finance, and Pinhas Sapir o the Ministry o
Commerce and Industry. They worked hand-in-hand to ormulate a uniying
agenda that bureaucrats rom both departments could pursue towards a single
The end-product o this labor in both nations was a inancial
structure in which banks, and by extension the government at large,
controlled the low o capital. On one hand, banks…
formulated and guided a successful investment endeavor was in the case of
textiles. Israeli officials, in particular MOCI chief Pinhas Sapir,
envisioned in the Textile Industry Development Plan that by 1966, twelve
major textile manufacturing plants would be operational and ultimately
produce 26% of Israel's
North/South Korea + Korean-Americans
The Two Koreas:
South Korea is known today as one of the rising economic giants of the industrialized world. The nation is a respected U.S. ally, and a center for fashion and technology, not to mention other industries. While South Korea's "star" is on a constant rise, its neighbor, North Korea, continues to live in a tightly closed society, with restrictive and degrading practices, whereby its citizens are almost like robots, not allowed to think for themselves, to eat properly, or to explore their world. The different between the two countries is stark, and in order to even begin to understand South Korea's ability to progress so much, one must analyze its history. However, for the purposes of this paper, three main questions will be analyzed in order to begin to understand the two countries in an initial phase:
South Korea's path of democratization in the…
The Modernization approach and industrial policy in the period of Park Chung-Hee were considered to be much influenced by the South Korean social learning and accepting of Japanese ideologies and institution. The colonial modernity, localization of division of labor, government assisted bilateral cooperation were considered detrimental to the strategic parameters of economic development and industrialization, modernization strategy and industrial policy replicated the emulation of Japanese ideologies and institution.
Most of the Koreans believe Japan to be a perennial evil. The colonial domination by Japan over the Korea have led to massive economic exploitation and also called upon the national dignity severely. However, ever since 1980 a revisionist thought was initiated to being formed around the concepts of the perspective of colonial continuity, the notion of horizontal division of labor, and the movement towards the export led growth. The influence of the ideology of 'Fokoku Kyohei' and the emerging Modernization strategy…
Between Learning and Policy Innovation: Japanese Economic Institutions and South Korea's
Economic Policy in the 1960s. Prepared for presentation at the annual convention of the International Studies Association. New Orleans Marriot Hotel. March 24-27, 2002. Retrieved at http://www.isanet.org/noarchive/moon_nishino.html. Accessed 16 September, 2005
Lee, Grace. The Political Philosophy of Juche. Retrieved at http://www.stanford.edu/group/sjeaa/journal3/korea1.pdf . Accessed 16 September, 2005
Sigmund Freud (1932): Lecture XXXV-Philosophy of Life. Retrieved at http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/at/freud.htm . Accessed 16 September, 2005
U.S. Role in Development of South Korean Economy
The end of the Second orld ar saw the division of the Korean Peninsula into two separate countries: North Korea, under the control of the Communists, and South Korea, under the control of the United States and it's allies. (Carter 2010) In June of 1950, the North Koreans, with Soviet support, invaded the South in an effort to re-unite the two countries in a "People's Republic of Korea." (Hickey 2000) ith the intervention of the United States and it's U.N allies, the North Koreans were pushed back and, when on the verge of collapse, the Communist Chinese enter the war on the side of the North Koreans. The Americans were then pushed back to the area around the original dividing line between the two countries; and the war then see-sawed back and forth for two more years. In the end, the two…
Carter, David. "The Korean war at 60 part one: origins and outbreak." Contemporary Review 292.1697 (2010): 158+. Academic OneFile. Web. 20 Apr. 2011.
Hickey, Michael. The Korean War. New York: Overlook Press, 2000. Print.
Mason, Edward S. The Economic and Social Modernization of the Republic of South Korea. Cambridge, MA: Council on East Asian Studies, Harvard University, 1980. Print.
Medhurst, Martin J. "Text and Context in the 1952 Presidential Campaign: Eisenhower's 'I Shall Go to Korea' Speech." Presidential Studies Quarterly 30.3 (2000): 464. Academic OneFile. Web. 20 Apr. 2011.
Countries are very much representative of human nature. If you were to examine a microcosm of a nation at its basic level, it would be a local community or neighborhood. The people who live in the same community usually tend to share similar economic levels and cultural attitudes. Neighbors also influence the behaviors of each other. For example, affluent neighborhoods tend to have good school systems, active kids (as in after school programs), and involved parents. To a certain degree, these things are expected. This notion is applicable to the nations of China, Korea, and Japan. This paper will examine similarities and differences between these counties in a historical context. China and Japan were traditional societies that responded differently to the external stimuli of foreign relations. Korea is also similar in this regard but their foreign invaders were Japanese not estern imperialists. All three nations also suffered under…
Cumings, Bruce. "We look at it and see ourselves." London Review of Books. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2014. .
Hedges, Frank. "Japan is Speeding Korean Education." New York Times [New York City ] 6 Aug. 1939: 12. Print.
Takaki, Ronald T.. Strangers from a different shore: a history of Asian-Americans. Boston: Little, Brown, 1989. Print.
Thomson, James Claude, Peter W. Stanley, and John Curtis Perry.Sentimental imperialists: the American experience in East Asia. New York: Harper & Row, 1981. Print.
Korea's Economic Development
Korea's economy has been focused on developing the chaebol and export markets, as well as on the growth of existing industries. The country's economic strength thus lies in its export-dependent businesses. The particular strength of these strategies lies in the extreme concentration of its industries. The chaebol system allows economic focus on a few already prosperous business factions, and this concentration leads to the prosperity known by the country as a result. Indeed, the superchaebol in the four top positions account for 40 to 45% of Gross National Product in South Korea, which is higher than even Japan, from which the system was adopted.
The chaebol system is however very dependent on government approval, since there is no central financial institution for each chaebol. Furthermore Korea's banks had been nationalized until the mid-1970s, which resulted in a prohibition from owning large shares in these banks. The…
Japan and Korea Occupation
How and why did the Allied occupations of Japan and Korea differ?
Allied occupations of Japan and Korea date backs to year 1945 when orld ar II got ended. Both the occupations occurred as a consequence of victory of allies over the axis. The allied powers included the United States of America, United Kingdom, Soviet Union, France, and China whereas axis included Germany, Empire of Japan, and Italy (Schaller 1985, 1-11). The causes and effects of both these occupations were dependent on occupation of Japan by the allied forces. This paper will investigate and analyze that how and why did the allied occupations of Japan and Korea differ? After stating a brief hypothesis of this study, the paper will briefly inform the reader about the background that led to both these occupations. This will set the stage for understanding that how and why did both of…
Dower, John W. Embracing defeat: Japan in the wake of World War II. WW Norton & Company, 2000.
Molasky, Michael S. The American occupation of Japan and Okinawa: Literature and memory. Routledge, 2001.
Oberdorfer, Don. The Two Koreas: A Contemporary History. Addison-Wesley, 1997.
Schaller, Michael. The American occupation of Japan: the origins of the Cold War in Asia. Oxford University Press, 1985.
Korean War, just like most other wars in history did not occur in a vacuum. It started because of the North Korean attack on the South Koreans with the belief that they would be able to win the war and communize the whole Korean peninsula (Chang, 2010). The confidence of North Koreans in their ability to win the fight against the South was not based on hope, but on the intense confidence that it will be an easy victory for the North Korean forces in the war (Chang, 2010). As a matter of fact, the North Korean forces were far more superior to the forces of the South in every category of the fighting abilities and capabilities (Chang, 2010). They were well armed with very heavy weapons and equipment the Soviet Union supplied, adequately trained by the cautious guidance of Soviet military education and training personnel, vastly reinforced with the…
Boose, Donald W. (1995). Portentous Sideshow: The Korean Occupation Decision. Volume 5, Number 4. Winter 1995-96. Parameters. U.S. Army War College Quarterly. pp. 112-29. OCLC 227845188.
Creative Commons Attribution. (n.d.). Korean War. Retrieved from: http://saylor.org/site/wp-content/uploads/2011/03/Korean-War.pdf
Devine, Robert A.; Breen, T. H.; Frederickson, George M.; liams, R. Hal; Gross, Adriela J.; Brands, H.W. (2007). America Past and Present 8th Ed. Volume II: Since 1865. Pearson Longman. pp. 819-21. ISBN 0-321-44661-5.
Doug Bandow. (2010). The Role and Responsibilities of the United States in the Korean War: Critical Foreign Policy Decisions by the Truman and Eisenhower Administrations. International Journal of Korean Studies. Vol. XIV, No. 2.
The fundamentals of exchange theory are illustrated at Appendix a. This approach to analyzing the current situation in North Korea will help add to the existing body of knowledge by developing fresh insights into the possible motivating factors that have characterized North Korea's negotiations with the West in general and the United States in particular in the past and will help address the hypothesis to be tested which is stated below.
The likelihood that it will be possible to persuade North Korea to dismantle its nuclear capability will be increased if American military forces are removed from South Korea.
This hypothesis will be qualitatively tested based on a preponderance of the evidence that results from the critical review of the literature described above.
Auton, G.P. (2007). "North Korea: Another Country." Korean Studies 31, 100-101.
Barry, M.P. 2007. "North Korea equires Long-Term Strategic elationship with the U.S."
Auton, G.P. (2007). "North Korea: Another Country." Korean Studies 31, 100-101.
Barry, M.P. 2007. "North Korea Requires Long-Term Strategic Relationship with the U.S."
International Journal on World Peace 24(1): 37-38.
Catchpole, B. 1998, November. "The Commonwealth in Korea." History Today, 33.
Confucianism promotes the "ideal of the scholar, who cultivates virtue in oneself and shares it through service in government, teaching, and daily life," Canda explains on page 1. The pure idea of Confucianism is to benefit all the citizens and those benefits have a ripple effect starting with the individual, through the family, and out to the Korean society and then the world (Canda, p. 1).
Confucianism has had an influence on many spiritual and physical Asian-based traditions; for example, Confucianism had a big influence on the development of martial arts, acupuncture, and meditation, according to Canda.
Shamanism: There are about 300 shamanistic temples within an hour of the capital of Seoul, according to an article in the New York Times (Sang-Hun, 2007, p. 1). The article points out that shamanism is presently enjoying a renaissance after "centuries of ridicule and persecution"; indeed, shamans were "demonized by Christian missionaries and…
Beaver, R. Pierce. "Chondogyo and Korea." Journal of the American Academy of Religion.
Buddhism Today. Buddhism in Korea. Retrieved Dec. 6, 2010, from http://www.buddhismtoday.com . (1997).
Buswell, Robert E., and Lee, Timothy S. Christianity in Korea. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press, 2007.
Tensions between the united states. And north korea are escalating once again, following president trump’s landmark tour of asia. President trump is calling on all nations to work together to prevent north korea’s nuclear program from reaching completion. A new report indicates that no matter how many deterrents are put in place, north korea is continuing its push to extend its missile-launching abilities.
Satellite imagery collected by a news outlet “38 north” shows that north korea’s attempt to deploy its first operational ballistic missile submarine could be successful in the near future.
In another news article conducted by roberta valencia for newsweek reports that the u.S. Intelligence chas confirmed that if completed, the north korean submarine, at more than 2000 tons, will be “the largest vessel ever constructed for the north korean navy since the najin-class frigates”.
The fact that the us president has called for all nations to aid…
opportunities in Asia (South East and South Asia) are huge and so are the challenges
For the last decade the countries like Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Hong Kong and South Korea that collectively forms the part of South East Asia have registered consistent growth year after year making an impressive position in the economic development on the international level (Pempel, 1999). These countries have shown the growth in terms of Gross Domestic Product at an average rate of 6% to 9% annually. The dawn of 1997 has darkened the glory of these courtiers with a major slump in the economic conditions and financial development. Asian financial crisis that erupted in 1997 has miserably affected the local stock market and currency market of the Asian countries. The Stock market of these countries had declined by 70% and with the same figure the currency of has also depreciated against dollar, forcing them…
Allen, F, & Gale, D 2000, 'Financial contagion', Journal of Political Economy, vol. 108, no. 1, pp. 1 -- 33.
Brunnermeier, M 2009, ' Deciphering the liquidity and credit crunch 2007-2008', Journal of Economic Perspectives, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 77 -- 100.
Bulow, J, Geanakoplos, J, and Klemperer, P 1985, ' Multimarket oligopoly: strategic substitutes and strategic complements', Journal of Political Economy, vol. 93, pp. 488-511.
Burnside, C, Eichenbaum, M, & Rebelo, S 2008, 'Currency crisis models', New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, 2nd ed.
Endowment Theory (Hecksher-Ohlin-Samuelson) account North-South economic relationships? Illustrate point(s)
Generally speaking the world is economically divided into two blocks; North and South. North is characterized by stronger, more stable and powerful economies whereas south constitutes the less developed, weaker nations. 1 One of the popular economic arguments is that although North encompasses the major economies of the world which dominate the important institutions but South cannot be overlooked as it consists of the bulk of inhabitants. The world cannot ignore the importance of south due to certain emerging powers of the North like China, Brazil, and India. However, in this radical world where every state is independent and there is absolutely no self-governing power keeping an account of the governments, the hegemonic, influential and powerful countries similar to the United States of America (USA) will not ever leave their central place in the world.
The bargaining power of the countries…
Helpman, E. (1984). A simple theory of international trade with multinational corporations, The Journal of Political Economy, vol. 92, Issue 3. Pp. 451 -- 471, retrieved March 16, 2011 from http://www.jstor.org/stable/1837227
Markusen, J.R. (2000). The theory of endowment, intra-industry and multi-national trade, Journal of international economics, vol. 52, Issue 2, pp. 209-234, retrieved March 16, 2011 from http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/s0022199699000550
Markusen, J.R.(1995). The boundaries of multinational enterprises and the theory of international trade, The Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 9, Issue 2, pp. 169 -- 189, retrieved March 16, 2011 from http://www.jstor.org/stable/2138172
working average cost of capital (WACC) is an important component of determining what operations to finance and comparing different alternatives. This calculation takes into account the costs that go into providing the capital that a firm can use for different ends. It is sometimes referred to as the "hurdle" rate because projects must always return a require amount to make the investment viable; with a few exceptions. The cost of capital is determined by first considering the firms equity and debt structure. Each time of investment in the business will have a different rate of return that it offers investors. For example, assets that were financed through a bank will have a different repayment structure and rate than assets that were financed through the sale of stock. The company must first average the cost of all the different financing activities that it has engaged in before it can calculate a…
Forbes. (2014, December). Best Countries for Business. Retrieved from South Korea: http://www.forbes.com/places/south-korea/
Heritage Foundation. (2015). 2015 Index of Economic Freedom. Retrieved from Heritage Foundation: http://www.heritage.org/index/country/southkorea
Ree, J., Yoon, K., & Park, H. (2012, November). FX Funding Risks and Exchange Rate. Retrieved from IMF Working Paper: https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/wp/2012/wp12268.pdf
US Trade Representative. (N.d.). U.S. - South Korea Trade Agreement. Retrieved from U.S. Trade Representative: https://ustr.gov/uskoreaFTA/manufacturing
However, they faced an entirely new problem; the currency was pegged to the U.S. dollar. This allowed interest rates to remain artificially low, because the peg would make the different investments in Korea look less risky. Once interest rates began to rise, a divergence would occur as the policy of the maintaining the peg would invite speculators to take advantage of this. This could cause the financial system to collapse, as the central bank would lose control of the economy. If they removed the peg, this would allow the forces of supply and demand to balance everything out. Where, the currency would face increased short-term pressures and interest rates could rise even more. Yet, over the long run this policy would help to force the banks to address various balance sheet issues. Once this took place, is when they could begin to have confidence in the financial system.…
Hahm, J. (2000). Causes of the Korean Financial Crisis. Seoul. Korean Development Institute.
Family Law eform
Briefly describe major features of women's roles and positions in Confucian patriarchal and patrilineal family.
The Confucian patriarchal and patrilineal family had very limited roles for women. This occurred with them serving as second class citizens when it comes to their inheritance and overall place in the family. In other words, the male family members were first in line for power, authority, influence and assets. If something happened to them, is the when women would receive property and play a greater role. In many cases, they were less influential in their ritual responsibilities when it comes to their ancestors. Inside the kin group, they were subservient to males. This meant that they were not educated and served as the nurturer for raising the lineal heirs. While at the same time, they were expected to remain silent in public and perform various duties around the house. (Shin, 2006)…
Shin, K. (2006). The Politics of Family Law Reform Movement. Journal of Korean Studies, 11 (9), 93-125.
Edited by Glenn D. Paige and Chung-Si Ahn, Nonkilling Korea is a collection of scholarly essays and material delivered at the Asia Center/Seoul National University and the Center for Global Nonkilling in Seoul during August 18-19, 2010. The material is written primarily about Korean values and culture, with the purpose of creating a shift in the discourse used to discuss modern Korean history. Whereas most Korean historiography focuses on war, and the political and militaristic aspects of 20th century conflicts surrounding Korea, the authors that contribute to Nonkilling Korea try to reframe history to include spiritual values and ethics. The book does not limit itself to a discussion of Korean history or culture per se, either. The editors cull material from sources that address other nations and cultures in relation to both South and North Korea, including the United States, China, Japan, and Russia. Nonkilling Korea includes an…
What is the situation of Korea at the end of 19th century, in terms of international relations and domestic responses?
Before 1910, Korea was a part of an Asian empire known as the Joseon. In the 1800s, religious persecution laid the way for a rebellion by the people which would alter the course of the history of the country. The idea of a unified religious sect was to further strengthen the nation. Instead people were resentful that the government was trying to influence such a personal aspect of an individual's life. A "peasant" religion known as onghak was making its way into what would become Korea. The teachings of this religion discontented the lower classes from their stations and there was a rebellion in 1864. This all coincided with the attempts of the western world to gain access to Korea, something the government strictly refused.
In this period the…
During the war years, Japan would enlist Korean soldiers to fight, often through coercion or sometimes by force. As a colony population, the Koreans had far less power within the nation state and thus they were considered less important than their Japanese counterparts. This lack of fairness was battle against through several attempted revolutions. One of the most famous of these was the March 1st Movement. In 1919, in response to the oppressive regime of Japanese rule as well as the seeming incongruity of the League of Nations, a faction in Korea established a movement designed to completely alter the country and allow the common population to have sovereignty.
3. Describe the situation on the Korean peninsula from 1945 to 1950 when the Korean War breaks out.
Following World War II, Korea was finally given sovereignty and a chance to create a government more or less for and by the population. However, tensions were high from the outset. Many people within the country wanted to create a governmental format completely different from what they had experienced under Japanese rule. Influenced by the large country of China, a group within Korea believed that the best form of government for the newly freed country should be Communism. Another group however wanted a form of democracy similar to those they had witnessed from their interactions with western nations like the United States, England, and France. With neither side willing to compromise, it was only a matter of time before a schism would break the nation in two. That is exactly what happened in 1950 when the country of Korea was divided into two: North Korea which was controlled by a Communist government, and South Korea which was more democratic than its northern counterpart. This was not a suitable resolution to the distress of the warring nation and what happened was a bloody police action involving many countries of the world who each had their own individual reasons for helping. Communist countries such as China provided support for North Korea in the form of weapons and other supplies. Much of the free world, such as the United States, England, and France gave equal support to South Korea, hoping that by providing this aid the west would be able to prevent and retard the spread of Communism.
Coldest ar: A Memoir of Korea, a novel written by James Brady. This paper clearly outlines the summary of the book and highlights some of the events written by the author in his book. This paper explains Brady's purpose behind writing his masterpiece and clearly defines its theme. Critical analysis of the novel and information about the author are also included.
The Coldest ar: A Memoir Of Korea
The Coldest ar: A Memoir of Korea written by James Brady gives a first person's account of the second Korean war. In the book the author compares the tactical approach of the army vs. marine rifle companies. Serving as a young marine lieutenant in the United States Marine Corps for a year, Brady tells the story by illustrating to his audience the deplorable conditions of the soldiers and the critical experience they underwent, through his analysis and encountering. The author talks about…
Dennis D. The Forgotten War Is Remembered. Newsday. 16 Jun. 2000.
Smith H. Tales Making Courage, Hardships In Korean War. The Washington Times.11
James B. The Coldest War: A Memoir of Korea. Thomas Dunne Books-St. Martin's
South Sudan gained independence from Sudan in 2011, but has been embroiled in civil conflict ever since. This instability has hampered the ability of the country to lay the groundwork for developing its economy. The evidence shows that there is a pathway to economic development, even for the least-developed country, and this paper will elaborate on what those steps might be.
South Sudan is a landlocked country of 12.5 million people that split off from the Sudan in 2011. South Sudan is a multiethnic society, with different tribal groups living in the basin of the White Nile, which flows from Lake Victoria until it meets with the Blue Nile. The split of Sudan came after years of civil war. The north of Sudan was Muslim, the south Christian, and that is largely the fault line along which the border between Sudan and South Sudan is presently split. The country is…
International Marketing -- South Korea Country Study
The primordial question at the basis of this study revolves around the attractiveness of South Korea to American investors. Otherwise put, is this country able to determine the American investor to launch business operations in this global part? In order to answer the posed question, a series of analyses will be conducted. Some of these will refer to the general context, whilst others will detail specific issues.
The country is located in the eastern part of Asia; enjoys a temperate climate and owns less than 20% arable land. South Korea is characterized by a tormented historic past, which explains well the differences emerged between the two regions of the Korean Peninsula. The total population of the country exceeds 48 million, and their life expectancy at birth is of almost 79 years. The interactions with the South Koreans are generally formal and follow protocols,…
Gonzales, J., Sherer, T.E., 2004, The Compete Idiot's Guide to Geography, 2nd Edition, Alpha Books
1992, A Country Study: South Korea, American Memory for the Library of Congress, http://rs6.loc.gov/frd/cs/krtoc.html last accessed on November 25, 2009
2008, South Korea, Industry Canada, http://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/ibi-iai.nsf/eng/bi18583.html last accessed on November 25, 2009
2009, Definition of Current Account Balance, Economics About, http://economics.about.com/cs/economicsglossary/g/current_account.htm last accessed on November 25, 2009
The opinions that people hold on an individual's behavior or their personality have great impact on the person. There are instances where one can underestimate or even overestimate how other people think of them and how the peers consider them or the social perspective they hold of him. I have been in a situation where I totally overestimated how much other people were thinking about me. This occurred during the first few days that I had joined college. I usually made sure that I was early for class and would sit at the front of the class. I would always answer all the questions that were asked even if I was not sure of the answer. I used to do all these so that I could attract attention and hence be noticed by the rest of the class. Looking back at those early days, I reckon it was a…
Korea had gone from 22% literacy in 1945 to almost 90% by the end of the 1970s. Thus the Korean workers' knowledge level picked up the slack - Koreans were working smarter rather than simply harder.
One of the reasons productivity decline in the 1970s was increased political instability. A wealth gap had emerged in Korean society, evidenced by a reduction in the Gini coefficient. Park was assassinated, resulting in increased instability. After the economic boom was established, further changes were made in economic policy at the political level. Deregulation was imposed in order to rectify some of the social sacrifices that had occurred as a result of the nation's push to prosperity. The Park government had been roughly modeled on a colonial system and reforms were required. Inflation was high and the country was developing strong class divisions that threatened the social order.
These reforms brought South Korea its…
Gregg, Donald. (1999). Park Chung Hee. Time Magazine. Retrieved December 10, 2008 at http://www.time.com/time/asia/asia/magazine/1999/990823/park1.html
Menarguez, Francisco Garcia-Blanch. (2002). Economic Growth in South Korea, 1961-2000. Universidad Complutense Madrid. Retrieved December 10, 2008 at http://www.ucm.es/info/eid/pb/Book02FGB.pdf
No author. (no date) the Economy Country Studies - U.S. Library of Congress. Retrieved December 10, 2008 at http://countrystudies.us/south-korea/45.htm
Myung Soo Cha. (No date). The Economic History of Korea. EH.Net. Retrieved December 10, 2008 at http:/ / the.net/encyclopedia/article/cha.korea
North Korea Info Collection
Over the many decades that it has had a dictatorial regime, North Korea has attempted to use a number of different approaches to gain access to the vital information it believes it needs to counter the forces of its warring enemy, South Korea. Even so on just about every level it is assumed that North Korea is quite far behind in its abilities to compete effectively in the challenge to confront or spy on other nations that it doesn't like or distrusts -- including the United States.
For the most part, North Korea funnels its strategies regarding the capturing of information through its military and spy networks (Pike, 2011). However, it has also begin using other more contemporary methods of information gathering and monitoring, including adjusting their military systems to facilitate better control and provocation strategies. This is thought to be occurring because of the country's…
Associated Press (2009). N. Korea reshuffles key spy agencies. Hindustan Times. Viewable at http://www.hindustantimes.com/world-news/RestOfAsia/NKorea-reshuffles-key-spy-agencies-Report/Article1-409400.aspx .
Breitbart (2009). N. Korea operating cyber warfare unit. Viewable at http://www.breitbart.com/article.php?id=D97VRISG0 .
Dies, H. (2011). North Korean Special Operations Forces: 1996 Kangnung submarine infiltration. Viewable at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0IBS/is_4_30/ai_n13822276/ .
Jin, H.Y. (2007). NSC's Detection of Cell Phone Usage is Strengthening. Inside North Korea. Viewable at http://www.dailynk.com/english/read.php?cataId=nk01500&num=2792 .
Significance of the Study
This study is significant because it sheds light on a very important contributor to local and international trade. Trade fairs have a long history in providing a meeting place for buyers and sellers. They are an important channel of communication for B2B buyers and sellers. This is a significant area for study because there are limited channels of communication between B2B buyers and sellers. The previous sections have diversified the importance of communication to trade. B2B buyers and sellers cannot use mass channels of communication such as television advertising or newspaper advertising. In this market usage of personal visits and demonstrations are the common channels of marketing and communication. The B2B selling and marketing activities are less highlighted in research than B2C activities. Therefore, this study is significant because it explores a very important channel of marketing and communication in the B2B market.
The study is…
UFI.(2009). The Trade Fair Industry in Asia, 5th edition: A UFI report researched and compiled by Business Strategies Group Executive Summary -- for UFI members only." Business Strategies Group Ltd. [online] Available at http://www.ufi.org/media/membersarea/studies_reports/2009_bsg_report_summary_andorder_form.pdf [Accessed 10 May, 2012].
Viardot, E. (2004). Successful Marketing Strategy for High-Tech Firms. Volume 5. NY: Artech House
Yeshin, T. (2006). Sales Promotion. NY:Cengage Learning
Korean History: The Climate and Culture of Foreign Business
The challenge of any cultural history undertaken to determine the foreign business fitness of a location is to make sure that there is due respect afforded the society with regard to issues that might not be seen as directly affecting the bottom line. So much of the time in the business world we are collectively focused on the ideas that surround the continued development of the global world economy, without regard for the existence of prior national issues. An easily made mistake for a researcher addressing issues of Korea from the United States would be to distill Korean history into a form that only include the interests of this country after the Korean-American ar.
This account will attempt to address those issues by addressing the culture through its earliest history to its present state through modern demographics, religion, education, housing, leisure…
North Korean crisis starts to hurt South Korea economically." February 11, 2003. American
City Business Journals Inc. February, 11 2003 ( http://tampabay.bizjournals.com ).
South Korea gross national income soars." February 9, 2003. American City Business Journals
Inc. February 11, 2003. (
North Korean Intelligence:
Throughout its history, North Korea has continued to harass South Korea for as long as these countries have been separated by imaginary line and roadblocks. Since the country invasion upon South Korea in June 1950, North Korea has been a thorn in the daily lives of South Koreans. North Korea has been able to maintain such relations because of intelligence collection capabilities on the Korean Peninsula. The Democratic People's Republic of Korea or North Korea has a comprehensive intelligence gathering structure and several people conducting the intelligence operations. The three main agencies in the intelligence unit are the Ministry for Protection of State Security, Korean Workers Party, and the military intelligence arm.
North Korea's Intelligence Collection Methods:
One of the most evident aspects regarding North Korea is that the country seems to be in a constant mission to gather intelligence on the Korean Peninsula. This is largely…
Erickson, Ryan. "Foreign Intelligence Organizations: Mid Term; North vs. South Korea." Ryan
Erickson, 2009. http://ryanerickson.com/foreign-intelligence-organizations-mid-term-north-vs.-south-korea / (accessed December 15, 2011).
Jin, Han Young. "NSC's Detection of Cell-Phone Usage Is Strengthening." Daily NK
Brightening the Future of Korea, 2007. http://www.dailynk.com/english/read.php?cataId=nk01500&num=2792 (accessed December 15, 2011).
It would likely also require the diplomatic alignment of the U.S. with United Nations interests, which has traditionally not been a guarantee. This would combine with the established potential of counter-terrorist cells to strike on U.S. soil to place unprecedented emphasis on securing U.S. borders from entities clearly designated as enemies of the U.S. Such an enemy list that includes a nuclear power such as North Korea could therefore pose grave consequences for the U.S. And for the entire world.
The history of North Korea's nuclear program has frequently been shrouded in secrecy, sheltered from the IAEA and denounced by the United Nations Security Council. With the announcement of the arrival of the nation as a nuclear power, there is little for North Korea to shield from the rest of the world beyond the tenuous nature of its political machine. It remains to be seen if North Korea can maintain…
Globalsecurity.org. Weapons of Mass Destruction: Nuclear Weapons Program.
McDonald, Mark. "North Korea Suggests Libya Should Have Kept Nuclear Program"
New York Times (New York), March 24, 2011. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com /2011/03/25/world/asia/25korea.html
Economic conditions that have forced both parents to work and have caused teenaged unemployment have also been associated with delinquency, as children are not only unsupervised, but also unoccupied. In addition to this, children who face undue hardships, such as physical and sexual abuse, as well as failure to perform academically, also often turn to delinquency (oberts, 2005). Like Kim and Kim (2008) point out for South Korean children, stress is a likely culprit for the fact that dealing with difficult situations turns into delinquency in youth. This problem is further compounded if the youth has not had instruction in making good choices from parents and teachers (oberts, 2005).
Thus, although they are on separate sides of the world, the United States and South Korea face many of the same problems when it comes to juvenile delinquents. In both countries, the lack of a definite role for criminal justice personnel…
Kim, H. & Kim, H. (2006). Discriminative Factor Analysis of Juvenile Delinquency in South Korea. Taehan Kanho Hakhoe chi, 36(8), 1315-1323.
Kim, H. & Kim, H. (2008). Juvenile Delinquency and Youth Crime. New York: Nova.
Library of Congress (2009). A Country Study: South Korea. Retrieved August 18, 2009,
from the Library of Congress Web Site: http://memory.loc.gov/frd/cs/krtoc.html
Hats and Globalization
The hat stand in South Korea is visible in the picture "global" in a cultural sense because it is reflective of the cultural changes swirling all around the South Korean market. It sits, first of all, in front of a Western bakery shop -- a Dunkin' Donuts -- which is in and of itself an emblem of a foreign culture within the Asian culture of South Korea. The hat stand benefits from the sign hanging over the stand, like a cultural guardian angel, pointing to the hats to show how Western culture is available for sale to the South Koreans not just in the form of food but also in the form of attire. Secondly, the hats themselves are a Western fashion statement. They stand out as a cultural statement of globalism. As Hansen points out, in the era of globalization, "dress has been analyzed, by and…
Marketing International Conference
Seoul- an Emerging Destination for International Convention Industry
International conferences are emerging as a major global industry over past few years. Despite its growing size, it has been largely ignored in terms of academic research. Where western part of the world has been locus of conference industry with major locations in U.S. And UK, Asian cities are now emerging as better options for conducting international conference. Furthermore, international conference industry is also growing well with the international trade show industry. Where South Korea is becoming a new hub of international trade show industry, its capital city Seoul is transforming into an ideal location for international conferences with many promising events scheduled for upcoming years.
International conferences are becoming substantial peripheral element of trade industry. And, this is the reason why tourism regulation authorities worldwide are paying major attention to this area of revenue generation. In order to…
Conference Alerts, 2012, Conferences in Korea (south): Major Conference Cities-Seoul, Retrieved from http://www.conferencealerts.com/country-listing?country=Korea+ (south), Accessed on 31st July, 2012
Deery, Margaret., Jago, Leo., Fredline, Liz. And Dwyer, Larry, 2005, National Business Events Study: An Evaluation Of The Australian Business Events Sector, Common Ground, and Melbourne
Foster, Brad, 2011, Korea MiceExpo 2011, the Seoul of Asia, Retreived from http://www.btp.net.au/userfiles/file/supplements/micenetJun11Seoul.pdf, Accessed on 31st July, 2012
Imex-Frankfurt, 2010, Benefits of the G20 Seoul summit, beyond the visitor spend, Retrieved from http://www.imex-frankfurt.com/documents/SeoulCaseStudy1.pdf , Accessed on 31st July, 2012
Some of the reasons why Hyundai relocated to Alabama State of the U.S.A. include the failure that she suffered in Korea. With the influx of cheap imported cars and the violent nature of the labor unions in Korea, the company had started to suffer serious decline in profits; this necessitated the move to look for other alternatives of operation. This landed the company in the U.S. As the revolution of the manufacturing companies and industries in the country (Carmel & Tjia, 2005). This is the place that provided the utmost and best labor regulations for the company. Another significant factor is the state government's incentive package. The incentive was very attractive to Hyundai as they could abate tax if they relocated there. This was a massive boost to the process of adaptation and profit realization. Moreover, the company was offered a site for setting their operations and a good access…
Lansbury, R.D., So?, C., Kwo-n, S., & Hyo-ndae Chonghap Sangsa (Korea). (2007). The global
Korean motor industry: The Hyundai Motor Company's global strategy. London:
Motherson sumi systems limited: 2009 company profile edition 2: Chapter 6 SWOT analysis.
Asian Economic Crisis
In the summer of 1997, an economic and currency crisis rocked the Asian markets. One by one, southeast Asian countries such as Thailand, Indonesia, Korea and Japan saw their economies crash in the wake of heavy foreign investment. An economic boom had made the region an attractive investment opportunity for much of the 1990s. y 1997, however, domestic production and development had stalled, and foreign investors grew nervous. A divestment run on the Thai baht triggered the crash. Large corporations, extremely dependent upon the confidence of foreign investors failed to meet debt obligations and began to fail throughout southeast Asia. Currencies throughout the region faltered and nosedived from their mid-1990s positions of stability. The causes of the Asian economic crisis are varied. Lax oversight of corporations had ramifications in economic downturns that were not a concern in the mid-90s boom. Macroeconomic policies of the southeast Asian countries…
Chronology of the Asian Currency Crisis.(n.d.). Retrieved July 1, 2004 from Web site: http://www.stern.nyu.edu/globalmacro/AsiaChronology1.html
Corsetti, G., Peneti, P., & Roubini, N. (1998). What caused the Asian currency and Financial crisis? Part I: A macroeconomic overview. Downloaded June 26, 2004 from Stern School of Business, NYU, Web site: http://www.stern.nyu.edu/globalmacro/asiacri1.pdf
Khor, M. (2000). The economic crisis in East Asia: Causes, effects, lessons. Downloaded June 28, 2004 from World Bank. Web site: http://www.worldbank.org/poverty / wdrpoverty/malaysia/khor.pdf
Lee, Y-S. (1998). A political economy analysis of the Korean economic crisis. Journai of Asian Economics, Vol. 9, No. 4, 627-636.
K. The advertising campaign does not differ from that in other countries, since it is integrated in the company's global marketing strategy.
egarding the consumer behavior strategy, it is recommended that The Body Shop implements a marketing approach that is more centered on competitive advantage. The company did not manage to distinguish its competitive advantage. The Body Shop is not sufficiently differentiated from other cosmetics producers that also address the South Korean market.
It is also recommended that the company analyzes consumers' needs that have not yet been addressed by their competitors. Such situations present opportunities that can be exploited by the company in order to gain more customers.
egarding the website strategy and its relation with the localization theory, it is recommended that the company's website is active enough in educating and informing consumers about the company's social values and campaigns. In addition to this, the website should…
1. Multi-Channel Marketing. Making Bricks and Clicks Stick (2000). McKinsey Marketing Solutions. Retrieved December 7, 2009 from http://www.mckinsey.com/practices/retail/knowledge/articles/Multichannelmarketing.pdf .
2. Chaffey, D. (2009). Online revenue models and business models. Retrieved December 7, 2009 from http://www.davechaffey.com/Internet-Marketing/C2-Internet-micro-environment/Online-revenue-models .
3. Value Proposition (2009). Investopedia. Retrieved December 7, 2009 from http://www.investopedia.com/terms/v/valueproposition.asp .
4. Perner, L. (2009). Consumer Behavior: The Psychology of Marketing. University of Southern California. Retrieved December 7, 2009 from http://www.consumerpsychologist.com/ .
Women of today have come along way because society has recognized that they have voices as well as men do. From the entire world, women have maintained their place due to the new customs that have arisen over the years. They have been able to go vote and work, which puts them as equals with men For example, South Korea; there is a female president instead of a make. Therefore, women have overcome the stereotypes that society has created from sixty years ago. No matter what country or culture women are in, it has been proven during the last two decades they are no longer inferior when it comes to being equals with men. In other words, regardless of what society throws at women, they become stronger and more powerful every day.
In Mexico, Mexicans place a high value on family and traditional values. lthough women make up an increasingly…
Along with India, South Korea has build up support for women so that they can be equal. The Korean Women's Development Institute or KWDI was established in 1983 to promote women's social participation and welfare by carrying out research and studies on women, by providing education and training for women, and by assisting women's activities. A law passed by the Korean National Assembly in 1982 mandates the KWDI to assist government in popularizing gender consciousness, as well as in promoting gender equality in policy formulation and implementation. Originally under the auspices of the Ministry of Health and Welfare, and then under the Ministry of Political Affairs, KWDI is now being coordinated by the Special Committee on Women's Affairs directly under the Office of the President (South Korea).
KWDI has three anchor programs, namely; the Research Center, the Lifelong Education Center, and the Women's Information Center. The Research Center carries out basic research and policy studies to promote gender consciousness in various fields of society and life as well as to formulate and implement policies that supports gender equality. The Lifelong Education Center provides gender consciousness education, women's leadership training, women's capacity development, and training of international experts. It also hosts international activities, and acts as a comprehensive assistance center for women's non-formal education. Last but not the least, the Women's Information Center produces and distributes information about the research and projects of the KWDI, as well as information about women's issues and concerns. It systematizes and computerizes various kinds of women's information through databases, and provides information service through its library, various publications, and its nation-wide electronic information network (South Korea). Therefore, women in South Korea have become very strong and determined without the help with men which only means they are growing more powerful every day.
In that case, women in most societies were denied some of the legal and political rights accorded to men. Although women in much of the world have gained significant legal rights, many people believe that women still do not have complete political, economic, and social equality with men. In South Korea, through AWORC, the KWDI hopes to share its resource and library holdings to women outside of South Korea, and to make resource and information generated by women's organizations and institutes accessible to the communities it serves. Throughout each countrywomen are becoming more self-made and the only people that they rely on themselves.
Resulting from the devaluation of China's currency was an exacerbation of problems throughout Asia.
VII. 1995-96 -MINI-RECESSION, DET PROLEM, ACCUMULATION
In the summer of 1995, the reversal of the chronic weakness of the dollar resulted in the depreciation of the Japanese yen, which had been approaching an acute deflationary crisis with a steep fall in the stock market. (Makin, 2000; paraphrased)
VIII. 1996-97 - DET / FOREIGN EXCHANGE, RESERVE RATIONS DETERIORATE
The work of Williamson (1999) entitled: "Implications of the East Asian Crisis for Debt Management" relate that a countries debt can be viewed from four different external perspectives in terms of debt composition which include: (1) FDI; (2) Portfolio Equity; (3) Long-term loans; and (4) short-term loans. This is the ideal composition of a countries debts however the debt profile of countries in East Asia are known to profoundly differ from the foregoing profile in that they had too…
Banking System Developments in the Four Asian Tigers (1997) Economic Research and Data. Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco. 8 Aug 1997. Online FRBSF Economic Letter. Available at http://www.frbsf.org/econrsrch/wklyltr/el97-22.html
Barro, Robert J. (1998) the East Asian Tigers Have Plenty to Roar About. Economic Viewpoint Business Week 27 Apr 1998. Online available at http://www.economics.harvard.edu/faculty/barro/files/bw98_04_27.pdf
Hughes, Christopher W. (1999) Japanese Policy and the East Asian Currency Crisis: Abject Defeat or Quiet Victory. 1999 February Online available at http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/soc/csgr/research/workingpapers/1999/wp2499.pdf
Hughes, Christopher W. (1999) Japanese Policy and the East Asian Currency Crisis: Abject Defeat or Quiet Victory. CSGR Working Paper No. 24/99. February 1999. Online available at
Weapons of Mass Destruction and the Next Terror: Assessment of How a Significant Terrorist WMD Attack Might e Conducted by a Non-State Actors Perpetrator and Why They Can't Stage an Attack
Weapons of Mass Destructions (WMD) have considerable effect to the economies of both developed and developing countries. In the modern world, most terror groups have resolved to use Weapons of Mass Destruction to harm their enemies. The entire syndicate comprises state actors and the terror group, which intends to destroy the target country. The state actors have direct links or channels of communication with such attackers, foreign allies, and several residential alliances with almost similar connections to the terror groups. Most of the terror groups lack essential materials that would aid in the making of some of the most dangerous weapons such as nuclear bombs. The various forms of attack involved when using lethal weapons include dispersion, dissemination, and…
Anthony Cordesman, Terrorism Asymmetric Warfare, and Weapons of Mass Destruction, (New
Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002).
Eric Croddy, James Wirtz, Weapons of Mass Destruction, (London: ABC-CLIO, 2005).