Soviet Union Essays (Examples)

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Soviet Law

Words: 1661 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99880345

Soviet Law

The legal system of ussia may be viewed through the prism of communism and Marxism, but that is not all that needs to be considered when discussing Soviet than ussian legal ideology and court systems (Bartlett, 2008). In reviewing the development in how western scholars think about the impact on ussian law from Soviet legal practices, Bartlett points out that law is more than just statutes it is also the "social practices norms, behaviors, and expectations" of the public (Bartlett, 2008, p. 4). As one of the world's nuclear powers and the largest country in Eurasia an understanding of the development of Soviet ussian legal practices is essential to an understanding of region.

Origins of USS Legal History

Soviet law was portrayed as socialist law but the ideology behind it was strictly Marxism (Berman, 1948, p.223). In the socialist legal framework, the legal systems under a capitalist regime…… [Read More]

References

Berman, J., (1948). The challenge of soviet law. Harvard Law Review, 62(220), pp. 220-264.

Dobrin, S., (1956). Some questions of early soviet legal history. Soviet Studies, 7(4), pp. 353-372.

Kahn, J., (2008). Law and Legal System of the Russian Federation. Review of Central & East European Law, 33(2), 239-247.

Krygier, M. (1990)., Marxism and the rule of law: Reflections after the collapse of communism. Law & Social Inquiry, 15(4), pp. 633-663.
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USSR Float Historical Precedents Leading

Words: 769 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11301987

While Lenin's economic program benefited the Russians, particularly its working class, Stalin's economic program was advantageous for military personnel and industrialists. In fact, Stalin had changed the nature of USSR economy from being socialist to pseudo-capitalist, a reversal of Lenin's objectives. Thus, Stalinism in the Soviet Union had destroyed the nationalistic objective that Lenin had originally created for the Russian people and the Soviet allies.

Nikita Khrushchev's leadership after the rule of the Stalin government included the abolishment of the Soviet Union. Russia gradually assumed a capitalist economy, although the immediate reform that Khruschev implemented was the destruction of Stalin's Communist regime and its institutions. His administration focused on the abolishment of any trace of Stalin's authoritarian rule in the Soviet Union right after World War II. Russian morale at this time was at its lowest, what with the fall of the 'socialist experiment' and prevalence of poverty and hunger…… [Read More]

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Soviet Active Measures and U S Covert Action

Words: 1098 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67620588

Soviet Active Measures and U.S. Covert Action programs

The focus of this essay is to explore, compare and contrast the U.S. Covert Action programs with the Soviet Active Measures of the same time period. The United States uses the Covert Action program and Soviet Union uses Active Measure to influence the political, economic, and social conditions of foreign countries. While there are similarities in their operations, there are still some fundamental differences.

Explore, Compare and Contrast the U.S. Covert Action with the Soviet Active Measures

Covert action program is the activities of the United States Government used to influence economic, military and political conditions of foreign countries or government. The U.S. uses the covert action to achieve their desired foreign policy goals without necessarily acknowledging their intention publicly. Typically, U.S. uses broad spectrum of covert actions that include:

Propaganda: CIA covertly disseminates specific information to achieve foreign policy goals. However,…… [Read More]

Reference

Bearden, M.(2003). The Main Enemy: The Inside Story of the CIA's Final Showdown with the KGB. New York: Random House.

Daugherty, W.J. (2004). Approval and Review of Covert Action Programs since Reagan. International Journal of Intelligence and Counter Intelligence, 17: 62 -- 80.

Johnson, L.K. & James W. (2008). Intelligence and National Security. New York: Oxford University Press.

Lowenthal, M. (2003). Intelligence: From Secrets to Policy, 2nd Edition. CQ Press: Washington DC.
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USSR Why Did the U S S R

Words: 1254 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64289371

(Strayer, 126)

For the Soviet Union, the period of time during and immediately after the Second World War was in reality, yet another cruel landmark in the numerous wars, revolutions and crises which had been influencing and destroying the country since the year 1905, and when in the year 1985 Gorbachev took over the administration and management of the country, the people of the Soviet Union hoped for some form of relief from the years of oppression that they had been subjected to under various leaders, including Stalin, Khrushchev who denounced Stalin and caused communists to defect from the party in large numbers, Brezhnev, under whose rule the Soviet government gradually changed from a personal dictatorship to oligarchy, Sakharov, who helped create the world's first Soviet H. bomb, Chernenko, Andropov, and several others. (Lecture 16: 1989: The Walls Came Tumbling Down)

Gorbachev was an individual and a leader who was…… [Read More]

References

Kreis, Steven. (2000) Lecture 16: 1989: The Walls Came Tumbling Down. The history guide, lectures on twentieth century Europe. From http://www.historyguide.org/europe/lecture16.html

N.A. Biographies and the Division of Europe. February, 1999.  http://hsozkult.geschichte.hu-berlin.de/TERMINE/1999/kbiog29.htm 

N.A. Russia, the Gorbachev Reforms. At  http://www.russiansabroad.com/russian_history_205.html 

N.A. World War II in the Soviet Union. 2003 http://www.worldwariihistory.info/in/USSR.html
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Soviet-Afgan War Conflict Analysis Focus

Words: 5116 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10933340

(Harvey, 2003) the suspicion of the United States of the "Soviet Expansionist tendencies" had increased by the 1970s and Harvey states as well that "The pervasive mentality of Washington officials during these years was dominated by the communist domino theory which led many Washington politicians to believe that the Soviet Union sought to take over the entire world." (2003) the United States had always received a safeguard provided by the shah for their Middle East interest of oil and it was this that resulted in the United States perceiving the Soviet-Afghanistan relations as a "considerable threat...before 1979." (Harvey, 2003)

Harvey reports that while Department of State records from the early 1970s report that the United States was indifferent to the relationship that was developing between the Soviet Union and Afghanistan that the truth is that "...Recently declassified ntelligence reports also reveal that the "official history record is false."

[26] Contrary…… [Read More]

Isby, David C. (1999) War in a Distant Country. New York: Arms and Armour Press, 1989. Rashid, Ahmed (2000) Taliban. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000.

Terrorism Project. (2001) "Lessons from History: U.S. Policy Towards Afghanistan, 1978-2001." 5 October 2001. Online available at; .

United States Department of State (1976) Annual Policy Assessment, March 9, 1976.
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Soviet Marshall it Is an Undeniable Fact

Words: 2160 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72532844

Soviet Marshall

It is an undeniable fact that the Marshal Georgy Zhukov is the most commended and highly-praised military commander of the Soviet Union, especially for his services in the World War II. It was due to his relentless efforts that the German army was defeated in the East and the war was brought to an end quickly. A good number of historians acknowledge that "the name of Marshal Georgi Konstantinovich Zhukov, the distinguished military leader of World War II and a controversial figure in the postwar military and political hierarchy, conjures up a picture of an outstanding, often ruthless commander, one of a few who led massive armed forces and never lost a battle."

rief iography

Georgi Konstantinovich Zhukov was born Strelkovka (near Moscow) to a peasant family on December 1st, 1896. In 1906, he finished school and was then sent to Moscow to pursue a career in fur-making.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Barbier, M.K. Kursk: the Greatest Tank Battle. London: Amber Books, 2013.

Provides background information of the Battle and comprehensive knowledge about the preparations of Germans and Soviets

Chaney, Otto Preston. Zhukov. Rev. ed. Norman, Okla.: University of Oklahoma Press, 1996.

The account of Zhukov's life is provided in detail along with the history of Russian Federation.
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Soviet-Afghanistan War Specifically it Will

Words: 1980 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75281137

The ed Army lost numerous men and machinery, and ultimately, the cost was too much for the Soviets to bear. The Soviets finally began to withdraw troops in the spring of 1988, and removing all troops by early 1989. They left the country in political and personal chaos, with infighting between ethnic groups and religious sects. Author Esposito continues, "Within a brief period after the Soviet withdrawal, the great Islamic victory had collapsed into interethnic and sectarian warfare, fueled by foreign patrons. The net result was chaos and the devastation of Afghanistan as various warlords vied to set up their own fiefdoms."

The country disintegrated into Civil War, with some of the mujahidin factions of the Northern Alliance surviving to fight against the Taliban with U.S. forces in 2001. The Taliban took control of Afghanistan in 1996, controlling every aspect of life from dress to worship and commerce. The Taliban…… [Read More]

References

Editors. 2007. The Soviet-Afghan War. Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas Press. Online. Available from Internet: http://www.kansaspress.ku.edu/grasov.html, accessed 11 June 2007.

Esposito, John L. 2003. Unholy War: Terror in the Name of Islam. New York: Oxford University Press.

Joes, Anthony James. 1996. Guerrilla Warfare: A Historical, Biographical, and Bibliographical Sourcebook. Edited by Robin Higham. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Strmecki, Marin. 1986. Can the Afghan Rebels Win?. National Review, 4 July, 32+.
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USSR Russia China

Words: 1561 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23888606

U.S.S.R., Russia, and China: A Comparison

Factors Contributing to the demise of the U.S.S.R.

Many factors contributed to the downfall of the U.S.S.R. One of the main things was the lack of leadership that the country had. This is not to say that it did not have a leader, only to say that the leadership itself had difficulties that the leaders tried to hide but ultimately could not. It was not the people that were flawed, although they were certainly not perfect, but it was the leadership ideals that the country held that were the problem. This was the main reason that the country fell, but a lack of leadership contributed to a great many other things that worked against the country as well.

For example, divorce, corruption, alcoholism, and economic problems were prevalent, and no one was really doing anything to prevent them from getting worse. This helped work…… [Read More]

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Fall of the USSR

Words: 3983 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20415392

Fall of the Soviet Union: Internal Causes Were to lame, Not External

In December of 1991, as the world watched in sheer perplexity and wonder, the mighty Soviet Union disintegrated into fifteen separate smaller countries. Its collapse was hailed by the west as a convincing victory for freedom, a triumph of democracy over totalitarianism, and evidence of the final proof of superiority of capitalism over socialism. The United States rejoiced as its sworn enemy was brought to its knees, thereby ending the unprecedented Cold War which had hovered over these two superpowers like a thunderhead since the end of World War II. In fact, the end of the Soviet Union transformed the entire world political situation, leading to a complete reformulation of political, economic and military alliances all over the globe, not to mention spurred a whole new set of political-economic theories.

What were the causes of this monumental historical…… [Read More]

Bibliography www.nytimes.com www.washingtonpost.com www.brookingsintitute.com

The Times of London.

Encyclopedia Britannica.

The Volume Library.

Sakwa, Richard. Rise and Fall of the Soviet Union.
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Nazi and USSR Holocaust

Words: 2269 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51901630

Nazi Holocaust

It was in the World War 2 that something so huge was tried by The Nazi Germany that it was just impossible to continue it. Genocide was attempted by Adolf Hitler and his comrades; they made systematic and deliberate attempts to kill all of the Jewish community. Jews were blamed by the Nazis for the misfortune that they faced in World War 1 because of which after the war Hitler made it his mission to kill all the Jews. This genocide started in 1939 and lased till 1945. Adolph Hitler was the one by whom this whole thing was introduced as he wanted to get rid of all the minority races from Germany (Bergen, 2009).

In the World War 2 there was a lot of suffering but what happened with the Jews can't be forgotten. The Jewish people had a set of laws for them which were known…… [Read More]

References

Bergen, Doris (2009). The Holocaust: A Concise History. Rowman & Littlefield.

Longerich, Peter. (2010). Holocaust: The Nazi Persecution and Murder of the Jews. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
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Plato's Republic and Soviet Russia

Words: 2642 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19935947



The issue of justice is also very closely related to that of morality. In the epublic, morality is again a function of the class division dictated by soul dominance. With every individual's place in society rigidly defined, social interaction were also defined. There would be a prescribed way of dealing with someone lese based on which class each member was, and since most immoral behavior has some form of jealousy at its root, the ideal state has carefully removed all such temptations to jealousy. The reason for the ascetic life of the philosopher-kings and warriors is so the commoners see the way of life that the rulers lead and are turned off by it; being ruled by desire and seeing nothing in that way of life to desire, they would cease even to desire power. For Plato, it would have been immoral for someone not equipped to rule to attempt…… [Read More]

References

Andreev, D. (2008). "The Soviet college student in the first half of the 1920s." Russian Education and Society, vol. 50, no 6, June 2008, pp. 77-90.

Constitution of the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic. (1918). Hosted on the Marxists Internet Archive. Accessed 6 December 2008. http://www.marxists.org/history/ussr/government/constitution/1918/index.htm

Plato. The Republic. Richard Sterling and William Scott, trans. New York: Sterling, 1985.

Ross, K. (2004). "Plato's Republic." Friesian.com. Accessed on 6 December 2008.  http://www.friesian.com/plato.htm
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Post-Soviet Culture the Union of

Words: 1315 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19577733

Ethnic nationality comes when a "consciousness of a shared identity within a group, rooted in a shared culture and a belief in common ancestry. Ethno-nationalism is a term that refers to nationalism based on this consciousness of ethnic nationality, as opposed to civic nationality" ("Week 1"). This is in direct contrast to civic nationality.

Civic nationality centers on the shared territory of the group of people. It matters little what each individual's ancestry is, as long as the person was born or is permanently residing within a geographic area ("Week 1"). For the Ukraine, it mattered little that the ussians were permanent residents, or that many had been born within the Ukrainian borders, what mattered was the shared culture of the Ukrainian people, and their ancestry.

It should have been little surprise that ethnic nationalism took hold over civic nationalism. Civic nationalism usually occurs in well-institutionalized democracies ("Week 1"). However,…… [Read More]

References

Developments in Selected Non-Member Economies: The Russian Federation." OECD Economic Outlook (Dec 2001). June 7, 2005 http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m4456/is_2001_Dec/ai_83566086.

History of Post-Soviet Russia. 25 May 2005. Wikipedia.org. June 7, 2005 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_post-Soviet_Russia.

Ringo, Ringvee. "Religious Freedom and Legislation in Post-Soviet Estonia." Brigham Young University Law Review (2001). June 7, 2005 http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3736/is_200101/ai_n8947384/pg_2.

Russia. 4 Jun 2005. Wikipedia.org. June 7, 2005 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russia.
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European Union Member States Relations With Their Overseas Territories

Words: 17554 Length: 50 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16781713

political framework of EU and OCT

European Union (EU) and Overseas Countries and Territories (OCTs) are in association with each other via a system which is based on the provisions of part IV of the Treaty on the Functioning of the EU (TFEU), consisting of detailed rules and measures which are laid down in the document issued on 27th November 2001 title Oversees Association Decision. The expiry date of this association decision is 31st December 2013. Stress has been laid down by the European Council in its conclusions issued on 22nd December 2009 that the relationship between OCT and EU should continuously be updated in order to reflect latest developments not only in EU and OCT but thorough out the world. The commission has also been encouraged to make revisions to the Overseas Association Decision and present it in front of the council prior to July 2012 (Hill et al.,…… [Read More]

References

Agnew John, "Geopolitics re-vision world politics," Routledge Taylor & Francies Group, pp 1-5

Alan Taylor, American Colonies: New York: Viking, 2001, pp. 57 -- 8.

Baldwin, David. Ed. Neo-Realism And Neoliberalism: The Contemporary Debate, New York: Columbia University Press, 1993.

Balzacq, T. (Ed.). Understanding securitization theory. The design and evolution of security problems. Oxon: Routledge, 2010.
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KGB Summary of Soviet Intelligence

Words: 1610 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50115287

S.-Soviet partnership lasted only a year and a half. With World War II over and the OSS disbanded in October 1945, the Cold War was looming on the horizon.

Conclusion

The research showed that the KGB was established in 1917 and was official deactivated in 1991. The research also showed that the KGB was not the stuff of the James Bond movies, but rather was characterized by an enormous sense of internal rivalry, a profound sense of paranoia and a desire on the part of many of its agents to defect to the West at their first opportunity. In this environment, it was little wonder that the KGB would resort to some of the tactics it used to achieve its mission, and it is reasonable to assert that current ussian intelligence agents will have taken a lesson or two from their KGB predecessors as they seek to maintain hegemony with…… [Read More]

References

Andrew, Christopher and Vasili Mitrokhin. 1999. The Sword and the Shield: The Mitrokhin Archive and the Secret History of the KGB. New York: Basic Books.

Ebon, Martin. 1994. KGB: Death and Rebirth. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.

Kalugin, Oleg D. 2002. "Window of Opportunity: Russia's Role in the Coalition against Terror." Harvard International Review 24(3), 56.

Ebon, Martin. 1994. KGB: Death and Rebirth. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, p. ix.
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Post -Soviet and Soviet Era

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6004252

If these countries have a choice of two strategies of development, then Russia is left none. Russian foreign policy was historically based on domination over its neighbors and imperialist model of foreign policy over neighboring countries.

oreigners who visit former Soviet Union countries are often shocked by existing poverty, poor social infrastructure and corruption which erodes society from inside. It may be explained taking into consideration different historical factors: Soviet Union was based on strict dictatorship, where the interests of individual were not taken into consideration. Individual got basic facilities for living: in 1930's it was a great progress as USSR turned into a quickly developing industrial economy from a conservative and outdated agricultural one. ormal equality of all citizens created favorable conditions for unavoidable corruptions which made citizens to exploit their positions illegally in order to improve the living. There is an ethical explanation too: several generations of Soviet…… [Read More]

Foreigners who visit former Soviet Union countries are often shocked by existing poverty, poor social infrastructure and corruption which erodes society from inside. It may be explained taking into consideration different historical factors: Soviet Union was based on strict dictatorship, where the interests of individual were not taken into consideration. Individual got basic facilities for living: in 1930's it was a great progress as USSR turned into a quickly developing industrial economy from a conservative and outdated agricultural one. Formal equality of all citizens created favorable conditions for unavoidable corruptions which made citizens to exploit their positions illegally in order to improve the living. There is an ethical explanation too: several generations of Soviet people didn't know what religion and morality are, as the official religion of the U.S.S.R. was atheism. Atheism resulted the decline of social morals as more and more believed in impunity. It resulted the growth of organized crime, corruption and mafia. Term mafia may be not only referred to Russian federation, but to any country of former Soviet Union, as symbiosis of bureaucrats who have official power and organized crime leaders who have "real power" became a reality. Privatization process which started in early 1990's on the territory of former Soviet Union created favorable conditions for organized crime to legalize their capital and get legal profits in future. In order to find additional funds for budget governments of NIS allowed to "privatize" state owned enterprises, often by extremely low prices. Understandably it created favorable conditions for flourish of corruption. To change the system of values is quite difficult and it will take a long period in order reevaluation of moral values to take place in people's mentality.

Another characteristic feature of former communist countries is the growth of nationalism and religious extremism. Military conflicts took place on the territory of the following former republics of the U.S.S.R.: Armenia, Georgia, Tajikistan, and Moldova. If Central Asia remained to be relatively quick region, as only Tadjikistan had experienced horrors of Civil war, than in Caucasus region, the tragedies of war became common for every country. But ideas of religious extremism are very common for Central Asia:

Uzbek President Islam Karimov has declared on numerous occasions that the country is seriously threatened by Islamic fundamentalists. One Islamist movement, known as the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU), has called for Karimov's overthrow and the
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Ltg Nabi Azimi Dra and 2nd Battle of Zhawar During the Soviet Afghan War

Words: 1695 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12841161

Battle of Zhawar in the Soviet-Afghan War

"Afghanistan is a country of strong beliefs and traditions in the population oppose the Soviets and the hostile communist ideology of the government of Afghanistan. The communist ideology directly attacked the ethnic structure, community structure and religious beliefs of the people and the people violently rejected this ideology," which eventually led to the most embarrassing Soviet defeat in the history of the Soviet Union. There were a number of decisive battles where the Soviets completely dropped the ball, including the Second Battle of Zhawar, partly because of their reliance of poor commanders. In this battle, LTG Nabi Azimi of the Democratic epublic of Afghanistan, which had sided with the Soviets, illustrated his shortcomings as a commander and failed to execute the mission because he had clearly underestimated the Mujahideen fighting force in the caves around the Ghar Mountains and provided poor guidance for…… [Read More]

References

Bahmanyar, Mir, 2012. Afghanistan Cave Complexes 1979-2004: Mountain Strongholds of the Mujahideen, Taliban, & Al Qaeda. Osprey Publishing.

Clements, Frank, 2003. Conflict in Afghanistan: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO.

Grau, Lester W., 1996. The Bear Went Over the Mountain: Soviet Combat Tactics in Afghanistan. National Defense University Press.

Garu, Lester W., 2004. "The Soviet-Afghan War: A Superpower Mired in the Mountains." The Journal of Slavic Military Studies, 17(1), Web.  http://fmso.leavenworth.army.mil/documents/miredinmount.htm
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European Union's Common Foreign and

Words: 3705 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74502704



To achieve these various purposes, NATO embarked on a series of interlocking efforts during the 1990s that were intended to provide some aspect of an overall concept of security. A series of initiatives resulted in NATO accepting new members with the possibility of still further additions in the future, crafted the Partnership for Peace and created the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council; entered into a Founding Act with ussia and a Charter with Ukraine; revised its command arrangements; and, simultaneously, became increasingly aware that developing a new relationship with the Western European Union was clearly in its best interests (Hunter, 2003).

In this regard, Dannreuther (2004) maintains that the EU's engagement with its immediate periphery represents a highly important, and potentially the most important, post-Cold War geopolitical challenge for its foreign and security policy; the nature of these obstacles can be considered to have three major dimensions, as follows:

There has been…… [Read More]

References

Cohen, L.J., Moens, a., & Sens, a.G. (2003). NATO and European security: Alliance politics from the end of the Cold War to the age of terrorism. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Dannreuther, R. (2004). European Union foreign and security policy: Towards a neighbourhood strategy. New York: Routledge.

Dunn, DH, & Zaborowski, M. (2003). Poland: A new power in transatlantic security. London: Frank Cass.

A rtner, H., Hyde-Price, a., & Reiter, E. (2001). Europe's new security challenges. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.
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Labor Union Acts the Rights

Words: 1869 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27926544

This was certainly needed as technology has also evolved from time to time and the nature of labor that was being used in the 1920s or so is not the same as is the nature today. This is certainly commendable. Along with the changes in laws, the emphasis on labor and its problems have also been shifted out of the center stage and matters that were directly being dealt with by the Secretaries Office have shifted out. This shows clearly that importance of the problems of labor have now become of a much lower priority and this is also clearly seen in the patterns of development of American business and industry where many production units have transferred their labor problems by shifting them out of United States. The government has also clearly remained out of the ambit of labor laws as no laws are applicable to government laborers. Thus it…… [Read More]

References

Norris-LaGuardia Act" Wikipedia. Retrieved at  http://www.answers.com/topic/norris-laguardia-actAccessed  2 September, 2005

Taft-Hartley Labor Act" (2001-05) The Columbia Encyclopedia. Sixth Edition. Retrieved at http://www.bartleby.com/65/ta/TaftHart.html. Accessed 2 September, 2005

The NLRB: The Wagner Act of 1935" United States National Labor Relations Board.

Retrieved at http://www.stfrancis.edu/ba/ghkickul/stuwebs/btopics/works/wagner.htm. Accessed 2 September, 2005
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East-Asian Union Emerge in the

Words: 1265 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7880282

In this regard, Francis adds that, "The determining factor will be ASEAN's ability to provide the leadership necessary to create a strong, independent East Asian Union" (Francis, p. 77). In addition, Bowles (2002) notes that the ongoing efforts to create improved Asia/Pacific regional cooperation are fundamentally efforts intended to balance the influence of the United States on the region and the world in general.

4. What are the main hypotheses of the work?

The guiding hypotheses of the proposed study are as follows:

H1: Encouraging China to participate in as a coalition leader in an East Asian Union in the future would serve to ensure that the price it would have to pay in terms of loss of trade and investment if it acts against the interests of the union's other members would be prohibitively high.

H2: Former Cold War alliances will be replaced by new ones in the future…… [Read More]

References

Bowles, Paul. 2002. "Asia's post-crisis regionalism: Bringing the state back in, keeping the (United) States out," in Review of International Political Economy (London) 9(2): 244- 270.

Francis, N. 2006. For an East Asian Union: Rethinking Asia's Cold War alliances. Harvard International Review 28(3): 76-77.

Gowan, P. 2003, July-August. "U.S. Hegemony Today." Monthly Review 55(3): 30-31.

Gratton, C., & Jones, Ian. 2003. Research Methods for Sport Studies. New York: Routledge.
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Former Soviet Satellites and the European Union

Words: 4334 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31871191

Former Soviet Satellites and the European Union

Recent decades have been decades of great change for the nations and peoples of Europe. The est has witnessed the gradual demise of interstate rivalries, the former system of wholly independent states being replaced by an increasingly close union of partner nations. Meanwhile, in the East, these same years saw nearly the whole of Europe from the Baltic to the Black Sea fall under the domination of the Soviet Union. However, with the collapse of communism in the early 1990s, these former Soviet satellites were transformed, almost overnight, into a collection of fledgling democracies. And though the nations of Eastern Europe, at least ostensibly, now share the same political values as their neighbors to the est, their transformation has not been without its problems. Years of Communist rule, has left these countries economically backward and underdeveloped. Yet each of these former Communist nations…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Grabbe, Heather. "Enlargement, Ready or Not?" Guardian Unlimited. 8 December 2002. URL: http://politics.guardian.co.uk/comment/story/0,9115,855941,00.html.

Gorobets, Alexander. "Russia Wants to See Ukraine Rich and Prosperous - President Putin." Pravda. Trans. Dmitry Sudakov. 14 December 2001. URL: http://english.pravda.ru/cis/2001/12/14/23674.html.

Patten, Chris. "EU's Relations with Ukraine: Overview." Europa, European Commission, European Union in the World. Directorate of International Relations: January, 2002. URL: http://europa.eu.int/comm/external_relations/ukraine/intro/index.htm#top.

Prodi, Romano. "The Final Lap." Commission Press Room, European Parliament. Brussels, 9 October 2002. URL: http://europa.eu.int/rapid/start/cgi/guesten.ksh-p_action.gettxt=gt&doc=SPEECH/02/463|0|RAPID&lg=EN&display=.
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Georgia the Former Soviet Republic

Words: 3591 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96113922

Lastly, a loss of Ajaristan (Ajaria) would weaken Georgias buffer with Turkey and increase loss of lack Sea shoreline:

In the conflict between the Ossetians and Ingush, the Russian government favored the "always loyal Ossetians" over the discontented Muslim Ingush. The conflicts with the Georgians in the south and the Ingush in the west have fueled the growth of Ossetian nationalism, but the majority hope for autonomy, not full independence, fearing the loss of Russian protection in the volatile region they have inhabited since ancient times. The Ossetians, although needing Russian protection in the mostly Muslim region, continue to work for the unification of their small nation in a single political entity. In 1996, the governments of North and South Ossetia signed a treaty of friendship and cooperation. Relations between the South Ossetians and the Georgian government improved in the late 1990s. The Georgian government of Eduard Shevardnadze proposed in…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Abbott, Wilbur Cortez. The Expansion of Europe: A History of the Foundations of the Modern World. Vol. 2,. New York: H. Holt and Company, 1918.

Atal, Yogesh, ed. Poverty in Transition and Transition in Poverty: Recent Developments in Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania, Georgia, Russia, Mongolia. New York: Berghahn Books, 1999.

Black, Cyril E., Robert D. English, Jonathan E. Helmreich, a. James McAdams, and Paul C. Helmreich. Rebirth: A Political History of Europe since World War II. 2nd ed. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2000.

"Bulgaria, Romania Pledge Support in Georgia's EU Aspiration" May, 9th 2005, http://www.washprofile.org/en/node/6355
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Unconventional Warfare in Afghanistan During the Soviet Occupation

Words: 2051 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89284261

Unconventional Warfare: The Mujahidin of Afghanistan

esistance is not futile. It was one of the lessons learned from the Soviet Union's invasion of Afghanistan: that any resistance force can counter effectively against a powerful aggressor. esistance - with the proper tools, strategy, and determination - can countermeasure any unwanted entity. The anti-Soviet forces in Afghanistan not only pushed the invaders out of their country, but it helped precipitated the eventual fall of the U.S.S.. As a world power. The question on the table is: what happened in that poor Southwest Asian country? How did the Soviets lose that war, or how did the mujahidin - the soldiers of God - win? First and foremost, the Soviet political and military leaders made strategic and tactical errors. The Afghan rebels employed unconventional warfare in Afghanistan: it was their only possible means in defeating the Soviets. Eventually, though too late, the ussian troops…… [Read More]

References

Bonosky, Phillip. Washington's Secret war against Afghanistan. New York: International Publishers. 1985.

Isby, David C. War in a Distant Country Afghanistan: Invasion and Resistance. New York: Sterling Publishing Company. 1989.

Kakar, M Hassan. Afghanistan: The Soviet Invasion and the Afghan Response, 1979-1982. Berkley: University of California Press. 1995.

Kaplan, Robert D. Soldiers of God: With Islamic Warriors in Afghanistan and Pakistan. New York: Vintage Books. 1990.
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Carter Before Soviet Disintegration in

Words: 601 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7759571

President Carter believed that Russians planned to control the strategically important locations of South Asia, and resolved his commitment towards ensuring right of sovereignty to people of that region.

President warned Soviets was diplomatic isolation if it persisted towards military aggression, President revealed that, 'In the meantime, neither the United States nor any other nation which is committed to world peace and stability can continue to do business as usual with the Soviet Union'. President planned to impose possible diplomatic, trade, economic barriers not only from United States but from platform of United Nations.

President warned that if Russians continued their military campaign, violation of International law, the United States has the right to review its commitment towards SALT II treaty, which restricted the development of nuclear arsenal. President reaffirmed, 'we will of course, keep the ratification of SALT II under active review in consultation with the leaders of the…… [Read More]

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Inter-Parliamentary Union and Its Role

Words: 16130 Length: 59 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43330627

8).

Likewise, the Institute of Agriculture required a quorum of two-thirds of its members for voting purposes and for the balancing of votes according to the size of the budgetary contributions (owett, 1970). While this analysis of these early forms of public international unions is not complete, it does suggest that they were beginning to identify the wide range of interests involved in modern international commerce and what was required to mediate disputes rather than war over them. According to owett (1970), despite the growing body of research into the history and purpose of international public unions, the authorities have not reached a consensus on their classification; however, the constitutional developments and innovations made by the public unions are important considerations for policymakers today because they presaged those made by contemporary inter-governmental organizations (owett, 1970).

In the first instance, the trend towards permanence of association was distinct, no matter whether…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Armstrong, D., L. Lloyd and J. Redmond. 2005. International Organization in World Politics, 3rd ed. New York: Palgrave-Macmillan.

Avruch, Kevin, Peter W. Black and Joseph A. Scimecca. Conflict Resolution: Cross-Cultural Perspectives. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Bar-Siman-Tov, Yaacov. 2004. From Conflict Resolution to Reconciliation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Bell, Lynda S., Andrew J. Nathan and Ilan Peleg. 2001. Negotiating Culture and Human Rights. New York: Columbia University Press.
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Euro Monetary Union the Admission

Words: 2701 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6287832

The eurozone package is politically more complicated. it's designed to show that 16 nations sharing the euro currency will stand united behind the debts of member nations to stave off a potential crisis of confidence that could damage them all." (Trumbull, 1)

This complexity is underscored by the inherently questionable imperatives of the European Monetary Union. Indeed, one of the core challenges of free trade, globalization and the establishment of intra-continental unions is the inherent difficulty in facing up the inherent incongruity of the aligning markets. The European Union has served as a prime example of this, matching a widely varied set of nations in a single economic pact. The result is that in many contexts, visible distinctions remain even as economic policy is set with the collective in consideration. These distinctions are not necessarily irreconcilable, but under the current structure of the European Monetary Union, they most certainly are.…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Baetz, J. (2010). Merkel: $1 Trillion Rescue Package Only Buys Time. Atlanta Journal -- Constitution. Online at http://www.ajc.com/business/merkel-1-trillion-rescue-528257.html

Bilefsky, D. (2010). Greece's Stumble Follows a Headlong Rush Into the Euro. The New York Times.

Brouwer, K. (2010). Is it the Euro or the Yugo? MarketWatch.

Greek Embassy. (2007). Greece in the E.U. Embassy of Greece; Washington, D.C.
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European Union Mccormick John The

Words: 1369 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23625856

One of the phenomenal things about the European Union is its extraordinary capacity to be able to work both as a unified entity, in which all 27 voices act as one, and as a federation, in fact, of its member states. In order to be able to function in this manner, the European Union also needs functional institutions. John McCormick is keen in this part of the book to describe both how all these European institutions operate internally (the European Commission, the Council of Ministers, the European Parliament, the European Court of Justice and the European Council and Specialized Agencies) and, additionally, how they are able to work with one another in a functional manner. Each of these institutions is allocated a separate chapter, with generally the same structure that includes the institution's structure, its evolution, functionality and the way it works etc.

The final part of the book deals…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. McCormick, John. The European Union: Politics and Policies. Westview Press; Fourth Edition (December 24, 2007)
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Russia Ussr There Are Certain Events

Words: 2392 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19791231

At the same time, the socialist views of Karl Marx and Frederic Engels came to be known in Russia and offered the intellectuals a new consideration of the relation between work, remuneration, and the relationship between the worker and its employer. This in turn created a new sense of national unity and a reconsideration of what nationality really meant.

Taking all these perspectives into account, it is essential that the precise reason for the revolution. First and foremost, there was a need for change and the socialist views considered that change cannot occur through evolution, but rather revolution. In this sense, at the time, it was considered that the tsarist rule had brought the Russian empire to its ruin through the constant attempts to support social exclusion and differentiation. Thus, "for more than a century Russia's progressive forces stubbornly and tirelessly labored for the destruction of the most despotic governmental…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Basil, John. "Russia and the Bolshevik Revolution. Russian Review." The Editors and Board of Trustees of the Russian Review, 1968.

Don Levine, Isaac. The Russian Revolution. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1917.

Hobsbawm, Eric. The Age of Empire 1875-1914. Oxford: Abacus, 1995.

Jahn, Hubertus. Patriotic Culture in Russia During World War I. Ithaca,.: Cornell University Press, 1995.
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Realism and the End of

Words: 1070 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54528994

S.S.R. stands the fact that civil strife is less dangerous if it takes place on the losing side that it is on the winning side (p99).

Realists and Their Critics

Predictive failure: realism through structural realism failed to predict the fall of the U.S.S.R. And instead foresaw stability in the bipolar system. However, no theory considered the idea of the way in which the Cold War would end. Even so, theorists did not have a clear understanding of the actual capabilities of the two actors because these capabilities contain non-material aspects as well.

Correlation between "power" and "change": it is difficult to make because a clear focus must be placed on the need of the U.S.S.R. To revitalize its economy in order to maintain its power in the 1980s that may have brought about the change. Further, this correlation is based on the internal and international factors such as the…… [Read More]

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Charlie Wilson's War in the

Words: 1491 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6488133

But by doing so, Zia and ilson gained the most powerful ally one could want when it came to appropriations. ith Doc Long's support, ilson was able to obtain $40 million from the Defense Appropriations subcommittee; a group of eleven elected officials who meet behind closed doors and decide how to spend billions of dollars. And since the recommendations from the committee have to be voted on by the full House without the specifics of where the money is being sent, Charlie ilson was able to appropriate the money without any public knowledge. This was important because the participation of the United States in the arming of Afghan mujahideen had to be kept a secret or else it risked direct war with the Soviet Union.

Part of Charlie ilson's ability to convince the other members of the U.S. House of Representatives to vote for his appropriations was the fact that…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Crile, George. Charlie Wilson's War: The Extraordinary Story of the Largest Covert

Operation in History. New York: Atlantic Monthly, 2003. Print.

Grau, Lester, and Michael Gress. The Soviet Afghan War: How a Superpower Fought and Lost. Lawrence, Kansas: University of Kansas, 2002. Print.

Sperling, Godfrey. "Mondale in '84, He May Run if Jimmy Carter Doesn't." the
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U S Foreign Relations and the Cold War

Words: 917 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38655790

Rise of Soviet Union Power and the Fall of U.S.-USSR Relations: United States and Soviet Union in the Post-World War II Period

The onset of 20th century in the history of human society is characterized by three important events that changed the present socio-political landscape of nations of the world today: World War I, World War II, and the Cold War. These events are linked with each other, with the First World War being the primary reason for the eventual development and declaration of the Second World War. Similarly, WWII became one of the precursors that triggered the Cold War.

The Cold War, a long-term conflict between the Communist states in the Eastern region and the United States, began after WWII, wherein the rise in the popularity and increasing influence of Socialist (Communist) ideology was happening. While the rise of Communism became popular in USSR, China, and other countries like…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Henriksen, M. (1997). Dr. Strangelove's America: Society and Culture in the Atomic Age. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Roberts, B. (1995). Order and Disorder after the Cold War. Cambridge: MIT Press.
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Nuclear Weapons Analysis

Words: 1143 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98824224

ACH

The United States and the Soviet Union participated in a unique standoff that sought to achieve dominance through the use of technological weaponry and the ideas of mutually assured destruction (MAD). The intelligence community during this time was often caught up in ways to truly understand the enemy and find ways of deflecting the political and military impact that this weapons race produced during the Cold War. Looking back on the situation, it appears that there were many ways to interpret the actions of this enemy and provide new and important insight that could contribute to the common defense of this country and its way of life.

The purpose of this essay is to re-evaluate the Intelligence Community's effort against the Soviet Union during the Cold War. This will be accomplished by utilizing a system of Analysis of Competing Hypothesis to determine the actions and behavior of the Soviets…… [Read More]

References

Central Intelligence Agency (nd). Analysis of Competing Hypotheses. Viewed 30 Aug 2014. Retrieved from  https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/books-and-monographs/psychology-of-intelligence-analysis/art11.html 

Nitze, P.H. (1997). Is it time to junk our nukes?. Washington Quarterly, 20(3), 97-101.

Parrington, A.J. (1997). Mutually Assured Destruction Revisited. Strategic Doctrine in Question. AIR UNIV MAXWELL AFB AL AIRPOWER JOURNAL.

Shultz, G.P., Perry, W.J., Kissinger, H.A., & Nunn, S. (2007). A world free of nuclear weapons. Wall Street Journal, 4, A15.
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Guevara Perceptions of Che Guevera Perceptions of

Words: 4154 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87743533

Guevara

Perceptions of Che Guevera

PERCEPTIONS OF CHE GUEVARA

Che Guevara was born as Ernesto Guevara de la Serna in 1928 to a middle-class family (Castaneda 1998, 3). He was Argentinean by birth but was later awarded with an honorary Cuban citizenship in recognition of his contribution towards the armed struggle in the Cuban revolution. Studying to become a doctor, Guevara became influenced by Marxist ideals and teachings upon a motorbike trip across South America at the age of twenty-four where he observed the exploitation and deprivation of the poor people under capitalism (Castaneda 1998, 50). He became a champion of the class struggle against capitalism on an international level. He joined Fidel Castro in 1955 in overthrowing the Cuban government of atista. Subsequently, he became an important figure in Cuban diplomacy and a vocal critic of the United States and the Soviet Union. Later on he helped revolutionary groups…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Anderson, Jon, L. 2010. Che Guevara: A Revolutionary Life. Grove Press

Castaneda, Jorge, G. 2008. Companero: The Life and Death of Che Guevara. Bloomsbury Publishing

Harris, Richard, L. 2010. Che Guevara: A Biography. ABC-CLIO

Salmon, Gary, P. 1990. The Defeat of Che Guevara: Military Response to Guerrilla Challenge in Bolivia. Greenwood Publishing Group
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Halfway in Many Ways Yevgeny

Words: 1232 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91564699



Gorbachev most certainly did undertake policies that were not half measures, and for which he did all in his power as a government official to implement systemic, nationwide (and international) change. The degree of efficaciousness of these measures and their results, however, is somewhat dubious. An excellent example of a measure implemented by the General Secretary that no one can claim was done in a halfhearted attempt was the Soviet Union's prohibition of alcohol consumption, selling and purchasing. Alcoholism had long been a problem in the Soviet Union by the time Gorbachev became its leader, and prohibition was an earnest effort on his part to address and even correct this seriously debilitating issue. However, the most long-range result of this measure was the rise of Russian mafia and the underground market that this law produced. Although he made a noble effort, Gorbachev did not succeed in curing the Soviet Union…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Rosenberg, Jennifer. (2012). "Mikhail Gorbachev." About.com. Retrieved from http://history1900s.about.com/od/people/p/gorbachev.htm

Yevtushenko, Yevgeny. (1991). "Half Measures." Los Angeles Times. Retrieved from  http://articles.latimes.com/1991-09-08/books/bk-2773_1_half-measures
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History of US Space Program

Words: 2217 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86230318

Space Program

hen the Soviets successfully launched Sputnik I, the first ever artificial satellite, in orbit on October 4, 1957, the event took the Americans and the entire western world by surprise. Sputnik I was just a 2-foot sphere with nothing more than two tiny radio transmitters on it, but the symbolic significance of the event -- the implication that Communist Russia had taken a significant technological lead over the United States was a massive blow to the American nation's pride. It signaled the start of the Cold ar space-race between the two major super powers of the time and developed into a race for putting the first man on the moon that culminated in the historic "giant leap for mankind" on July 20, 1969 when Neil Armstrong became the first man to walk on the moon. This paper focuses on the history of the U.S. Space Program, the role…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Chaikan, Andrew. "Space Exploration." Article in Encyclopedia Encarta, 2003

Ezell, Clinton E. And Linda Neuman Ezell. "The Partnership: A History of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project." NASA Special Publication-4209,1978 Chapter 1: The Space Race Competition vs. Cooperation: 1959-1962. April 21, 2004  http://www.hq.nasa.gov/office/pao/History/SP-4209/ch1-4.htm 

History of the Space Programme." Scenta Website. March 16, 2004. April 21, 2004. http://www.scenta.co.uk/news/viewFeature.cfm?ciid=207&iCurrSubSection=2

Koman, Rita G. "Man on the Moon: The U.S. Space Program as a Cold War Maneuver." Organization of American Historians. Reprinted from the OAH Magazine of History
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Country's ER Systems the Intent

Words: 2994 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41406488

Australia began shifting to a limited Welfare State at the end of the Second World War (1945) and has continually supported privatization and deregulation. The 1904 Industrial Conciliation and Arbitration Act and 1988 Industrial Relations Act (IRA) both have set a strong precedent for workers' rights and the right to create and form unions. From an ER standpoint these laws and compliance requirements are also constrictive as they are one-size-fits-all in approach.

Role of Stakeholders- the Government, Unions, Workers,

Both Australia and Germany are comparable in the depth and sophistication of systems, processes and procedures to support stakeholders. Of the two, Germany ahs been architecture far more to support and protect the unionized work. The German Trade Union Confederation, combined with the German series of laws to protect the worker has lead to protectionist approaches when it comes to allowing new businesses into Germany. MNCs looking t expand into Germany…… [Read More]

Labour Laws

China is very clear on its use of labour laws, with a country-wide precedent set in 1995 with their Labour Law of China. This was the first employment law enacted by the CCP. There is also the Labour Contract Law passed in 20087 that require all employers to provide employees a written contract within a year of employment, and fines employers who do not do this. There are also labor dispatch providers and support for verbal contracts in the Labour Contract Law of 2008. In 1993 China based the Enterprise Minimum Wage Regulation and amended it in 2004 to serve as a framework for the countries' growing economy.

The Labour laws in Australia on the other hand are much more oriented towards a shared level of responsibility and arbitration. The Australian ER reform includes the ACTU/Federal ALP Government accord passed in 1983 and 1993 and the Industrial Relations Reform Act of 1993. The Workplace Amendment (Work Choices) Act of 2005 and Fair Work Act of 2009 all support the more progressing nature in ER relative to Germany.
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Country Leave the EU or

Words: 2858 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94149322



The UK needs to build good economic relationships with emerging markets even more than with its EU neighbors. China is already highly competitive in manufacturing and is gaining competitiveness in high-technology manufacturing. India is a leader in Information Technology and, being an English speaking country, also has the ability to be globally competitive in Professional Services. Latin American and Southeast Asian economies, such as Brazil or Indonesia, will become increasingly competitive in agriculture and energy. The WTO and various other bilateral free trade agreements are reducing the barriers to these types of goods, making them increasingly attractive to the European consumer.

Considering the competition for European markets, the EU's greatest value and likely greatest priority will be the protection of European markets, not the opening of global markets. The UK, because of its focus on global finance and professional services, has little to gain from the protection of its own…… [Read More]

Vicarelli, Claudio & De Santis, Roberta & De Nardis, Sergio, 2008. "The Single Currency's Effects on Eurozone Sectoral Trade: Winners and Losers?," Economics - the Open-Access, Open-Assessment E-Journal, Kiel Institute for the World Economy, vol. 2(17), pages 1-34. P. 13

http://europa.eu/index_en.htm

http://www.fas.usda.gov/itp/policy/nafta/nafta.asp  http://www.mercosur.int/
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U S S R and the United States

Words: 2430 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70205403

" It seems perfectly apparent that this was the original policy of the U.S. In Afghanistan specific to the Soviet Union. The CSR Report for Congress entitled: "Afghanistan: Current Issues and U.S. Policy" Kenneth Katzman, Specialist in Middle Eastern Affairs writes that the policy objectives of the United States in Afghanistan have: "...long gone beyond establishing political stability and combating terrorist groups operating in Afghanistan." (Katzman, 2005)

IV. PRESENT U.S. INVOLVEMENT in AFGHANISTAN

Some of the areas targeted by the United States include: "...ending discrimination against women and girls, the eradication of narcotics production, and alleviating severe humanitarian difficulties, and promoting long-term economic development...with varying degrees of intensity." (2005) Further reported is landmine eradication and retrieval of some U.S. Stingers that are in the country. In relation to long-term economic development in the country of Afghanistan the $2.5 billion Central Asia Gas Pipeline immediately became a focus after the U.S.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Threat from the East? Soviet Policy from Afghanistan and Iran to the Horn of Africa

2007) Democratization and Security in Central Eurasia - ARI Movement 9th International Security Conference Istanbul 14-15 June 2007. Online available at http://www.ari.org.tr/english/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=86&Itemid=2

Kuczewski, Andre (1984) Threat from the East? Soviet Policy from Afghanistan and Iran to the Horn of Africa - Book Reviews. Nov. 1984. Online available at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1132/is_v36/ai_3496626.

Savranskaya, Svetlana (2001) the Soviet Experience in Afghanistan: Russian Documents and Memoirs - Volume II: Afghanistan: Lessons from the Last War. Online available at http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB57/soviet.html.
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Tear Down That Wall Has Been the

Words: 2314 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40388415

Tear down that wall," has been the one sentence legacy of Ronald Reagan's presidential administration (Boyd). Ask any conservative political pundit and you are likely to hear that Reagan's defense strategy and, in particular, his Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), was the direct cause of the Berlin all coming down, the collapse of the Soviet Union, and the eventual end of the Cold ar. Yet, in reality, how instrumental was Reagan and his policy in these occurrences or was the actual cause due to other factors?

Reagan, unlike his predecessors, Jimmy Carter, Gerald Ford, and Richard Nixon, adopted a much sterner posture relative to relations with the Soviet Union. Reagan entered office initially on the coat strings of President Carter's problems with the Iran hostages and Reagan campaigned on the strength of his strong militaristic positions. hen Reagan entered office the Cold ar was forty years old. The Soviet Union and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Address to Members of the British Parliament," June 8, 1982, Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: Ronald Reagan, 1982 (Washington, D.C.: United States Government Printing Office, 1983), 742-48.

Blum, Bill. "Ronald Reagan's supposed role in ending the cold war." 7 June 2004. Centre for Research on Globalisation. 22 May 2011 .

Boyd, Gerald M. "Raze Berlin Wall, Reagan Urges Soviet." New York Times 12 June 1987: 1.

Collins, Susan Margaret. Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union in the World Economy. Washington, D.C.: Institute for International Economics, 1991.
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Cuban Missile

Words: 5521 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6435999

Cuban Missile Crisis

There are two views, as with any conflict or issue, on the reasons and reactions of the major players in the Cuban Missile Crisis that took place at the end of October 1962. The crisis pitted two world powers, the United States and the Soviet Union, against each other in what many describe as the closest the world has come to World War III and a nuclear holocaust.

In order to understand the Crisis, it is important to first understand the events leading up to the crisis. This paper examines the background of the crisis from the Cuban/Soviet point-of-view in depth. Toward the end of the paper, the United States' perspective of the crisis is discussed with regard to what is described previously from the perspective of supporters of the Castro regime and the now collapsed Soviet Union.

ackground

After the devastation that the bombs left in…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Alleged Assassination Plots Involving Foreign Leaders," 20 November 1975. The National Security Archives. 147.

Bay of Pigs: Forty Years After," Chronology, National Security Archives (Cuban Problems 11 December 1959), 24 June 2004. http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/bayofpigs/chron.html.

Bay of Pigs." Cuban History: Missile Crisis. Marxists.org. 25 June 2003. http://www.marxists.org/history/cuba/subject/missile-crisis/index.htm.

Crisis de Octubre: Cronologia." Informe Especial: 1960 and 1961. Centro de Estudios Sobre America.
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U S History and Foreign Policy

Words: 3087 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44277503

The events leading to the Vietnam conflict were determined by the administration in place at that time (VIETNAM CONFLICT (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vietnam_War).

Initially it was decided that Vietnam would be occupied by Chinese and British troops and that they would supervise the surrender of Japan.

In 1960 Hanoi instructed the southern communists to establish an organization called the national liberation front. The purpose of this organization was to overthrow the government of the south. The organization was made up of two groups. The intellectuals of the South and who opposed the foundation of the government of South Viet Nam and the communists who had remained in the south after the partition.

The Di-m government was initially able to cope with the insurgency with the aid of U.S. advisers, and by 1962 seemed to be winning. Senior U.S. military leaders were receiving positive reports from the U.S. commander, Gen. Paul D. Harkins of…… [Read More]

References

CONTAINMENT of SOVIET UNION

http://www.foreignaffairs.org/19870301faessay7847/george-f-kennan/containment-40-years-later-containment-then-and-now.html

An Outline of American History (1994) http://www.let.rug.nl/~usa/H/1994/ch11_p5.htm

CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS
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Labor Policies

Words: 2462 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85384672

labor policies of the former Soviet Union and how they contributed to the downfall of the Soviet Union. The writer explores the labor policies that were in force at the time and explains their contribution to the eventual downfall. There were ten sources used to complete this paper.

It was one of the more historic moments in recent world history. As the world watched in awe, the Soviet Union began to dismantle itself so that it could rebuild from the ground up. After many decades of communist regime, the government was taken apart from the inside out, the entire nation brought itself to the ground and the process to rebuild began. For years it had been accepted as a superpower and those who lived there felt that the United States was its only rival.

American residents had been raised to fear the Soviet Union and believe that they were the…… [Read More]

References

On the Development of the Productive Forces  http://www.mltranslations.org/Germany/susr04.htm  and the Class Relations in the Soviet Union by Elisabeth Wagner

Understanding political change in post-Soviet societies: A further commentary on Finifter and Mickiewicz. (response to Ada W. Finifter, American Political Science Review, vol. 90, p. 138, March 1996)

Arthur H. Reisinger, William M. Hesli, Vicki L.

Furtado, Charles F. 1994. "Nationalism and Foreign Policy in Ukraine." Political Science Quarterly 109:81-104.
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Cold War This Is a

Words: 3144 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96020467

They did not like the reforms or the way Gorbachev was running the country allowing all the freedoms -- glasnost and perestroika. They presented him with documents signing away his powers as General Secretary. Gorbachev exploded and ordered them to leave. They did, but Gorbachev knew he was in a grave situation, cut off from the world, not telephones, and guarded.

Yeltsin

However, the "old guard" had made one huge mistake. They had failed to take into account or arrest the second most powerful man in the country, a man by the name of oris Yeltsin. He had just been elected as the first President of Russia, and he and Gorbachev were bitter rivals to control the entire USSR. However, not today. y Yeltsin's choice, he joined with Gorbachev in spirit and ideology, rushed to the Russian parliament and declared the supposed coup the act of mad men and threw…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Au, K.-N. (2006, May 9). The causes and consequences of the collapse of the Soviet Union. Retrieved November 19, 2009, from Rutgers University:  http://newarkwww.rutgers.edu/guides/glo-sov.html  coldwar.org. (n.d.). The cold war museum: Fall of the Soviet Union. Retrieved November 19, 2009, from coldwar.org:  http://www.coldwar.org/articles/90s/fall_of_the_soviet_union.asp 

Gorbachev, M. (1991, December 25). Gorbachev speech dissolving the Soviet Union. Retrieved November 19, 2009, from publicpurpose.com:  http://www.publicpurpose.com/lib-gorb911225.htm 

Graham, J. (n.d.). The collapse of the Soviet Union. Retrieved November 19, 2009, from historyorb.com: http://www.historyorb.com/russia/intro.shtml

Langley, A. (2007). The collapse of the Soviet Union: The end of an empire. Mankato, MN: Compass Point Books.
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Cohesive Examination of Arms Sales

Words: 2358 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23102616

"

But evidence indicates the true motive for the increased arms sales since the dismantling of the former Soviet Union is not about peacekeeping at all but about the bottom dollar.

According to the annual assessment, the United States supplied $8.1 billion worth of weapons to developing countries in 2005 -- 45.8% of the total and far more than second-ranked ussia with 15% and Britain with a little more than 13% (Bender, 2006)."

Arms sales (agreements) ranked by Supplier, 1998-2005 (in constant 2005 million U.S. Dollars and percentage of world sales).

Supplier

Total Dollars

Percentage of total sales

Source:

Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, http://www.globalissues.org/i/pdf.gif

eport for Congress, U.S. Congressional esearch Service, Library of Congress, October 23, 2006. (Dollar values are constant 2005 dollars)

Each country shown as follows:

developing countries industrialized countries

If you are viewing this table on another site, please see http://www.globalissues.org/Geopolitics/ArmsTrade/BigBusiness.aspfor further details and context.…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Bender, Brian (2006) U.S. is top purveyor on weapons sales (Accessed 3-22-07) list http://www.boston.com/news/world/articles/2006/11/13/us_is_top_purveyor_on_weapons_sales_list/?page=2Shipments grow to unstable areas by Bryan Bender, Globe Staff

Lewis, James (2005) Arms Control Today. LOOKING BACK: Multilateral Arms Transfer Restraint: The Limits of Cooperation

Roberts, Tom (1999) New battles brew over defense spending, arms sales.

National Catholic Reporter
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Contemporary History

Words: 3249 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55406124

influential factor in the evolution of the international world of politics following the end of World War II was the interrelationship between the United States and the Soviet Union. The conflictive positions between the two states influenced both the evolution of highly dominant states as well as minor governments. The world divided into two military fronts, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) -- 1949, and the Warsaw Pact in 1955. The international relations were dominated by tensions between the East and the West that shaped a conflict of ideological, political, and strategic manner but not military. This bilateral contention has since come to be known as the Cold War. This image of non-conventional warfare was unfamiliar decades of years ago when massacres and slaughterous mayhem was the representative picture of battlefields that most would have associated wars with up until the emergence and unfolding of the Cold War. In 2013,…… [Read More]

Reference List

Arnold, J.R., & Wiener, R. (Eds.). (2012). Cold War: The essential reference guide. Santa Barbara, California, Denver, Colorado, Oxford, England: ABC -- CLIO.

Feng L., & Ruizhuang, Z. (2006). The typologies of realism. Chinese Journal of International Politics, 1(1), 109-134. doi: 10.1093/cjip/pol006.

Hurst, S. (2005). Cold War U.S. foreign policy: Key perspectives. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press Ltd.

Jones, H. (1989). A new kind of war?: America's global strategy and the Truman Doctrine in Greece. Oxford, New York, Toronto, Delhi, Bombay, Calcutta, Madras, Karachi, Kuala Lampur, Singapore, Hong Kong, Tokyo, Nairobi, Dar es Salaam, Cape Town, Melbourne, Auckland, Berlin, Ibadan: Oxford University Press.
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Social Impact of Cold War & Terrorism

Words: 1772 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30854973

Social Impact of Cold War & Terrorism

The Cold War is often associated with the idea of making great and physical divides between the good and the bad of the world. It was a symbolic representation that extended for about 30 years on the expectation that the greatest powers of the world could, under the right circumstances, impose a sort of benign order on the planet by isolating the evil empires and showcasing how the non-evil ones could administer their own ideas of peace, justice and liberty .

In reality, what was happening was much different. The Cold War was about engagement, not separation (Tirman, 2006). No matter that the Berlin Wall was its most powerful symbols of division, the world as a whole was learning that military might was not all that it was made out to be (U.S. History, n.d.). Together and separately, the biggest countries across the…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Diamond, L. (n.d.). Winning the new cold war on terrorism. Hoover Institute. Stanford University. Retrievable from http://www.stanford.edu/~ldiamond/papers/coldWarOnTerrorism.pdf.

Levine, D. And Levine, R. (2006). Deterrence in the Cold War and the War on Terror. National Science Foundation Grant publication. Retrievable from  http://www.dklevine.com/papers/inimical.pdf .

Tirman, J. (2006). The War on Terror and the Cold War: They're not the same. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The Audit of Conventional Wisdom. Retrievable from  http://web.mit.edu/cis/acw.html .

US History (n.d). Berlin Wall. Viewable at  http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1867.html .
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Hitler-Stalin Pact Beyond Doubt the World Was

Words: 2881 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27781557

Hitler-Stalin Pact

Beyond doubt, the world was in an anarchical state in the 1920s and 1930s, particularly as the Great Depression devastated the global economy and aggressive, fascist regimes took power in Germany and Japan. International organizations hardly existed at the time, and in economic policy most countries adopted strategies of nationalism, autarky and protectionism, while the 'revisionist' states like Germany, Japan and Italy made it perfectly clear that they intended to solve their economic problems through creating new empires and spheres on influence at the expense of older empires like Britain and France. Hitler made no secret of the fact that the chief goal of his Lebensraum policy would be conquest of the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, which would become a source of raw materials, foodstuffs and slave labor for the Germans. He was also determined to exterminate the 'Jewish-Bolshevik worldview', as he always described Communism, and the…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

D'Agostino, A. 2011. The Russian Revolution, 1917-1945. Greenwood Publishing Group.

Fleischhauer, L. 1990. Der Pakt: Hitler, Stalin und die Initiative der deutschen Diplomatie. Frankfurt.

Hildebrand, K. 1980. Deutscher Aussenpolitik, 1933-1945: Kalkuel oder Dogma?, Fourth Edition. Stuttgart.

Hillgruber, A. 1982. Der Zweite Weltkrieg, 1939-45: Kriegszide und Strategie der Grossen Maechte. Stuttgart.
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U S Foreign Affairs Since 1898

Words: 3090 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8617183

President Johnson became even more fearful of a communist take-over.

In 1964, when two American ships were attacked by the North Vietnamese in the Gulf of Tonkin "the American Senate gave Johnson the power to give armed support to assist any country requesting help in defense of its freedom," effectively beginning the Vietnam War without a formal declaration of war (BBC 2009). The wide-scale bombing of the North in 'Operation olling Thunder' began in February 1965. By March 1965, the first American ground troops had landed in South Vietnam and by December 1965, there were 150,000 servicemen stationed in the country (BBC 2009).

ichard Nixon was elected to the presidency in 1968, promising a policy of Vietnamization or the taking-over of the war against the North by native Vietnamese troops. However, it would be four more years before substantial withdrawals of American servicemen occurred. Nixon also supported dictators in Laos…… [Read More]

References

An overview of the crisis. (1997). The Cuban Missile Crisis. Crisis Center. Thinkquest.

Retrieved January 1, 2009 at http://library.thinkquest.org/11046/days/index.html

The Berlin Airlift. (2010). Cold War Museum. Retrieved January 1, 2009 at  http://www.coldwar.org/articles/40s/berlin_airlift.asp 

Chang, Laurence & Peter Kornbluh. (1998). A national security archive documents reader.
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U S Ignorance of Stalin's Crimes

Words: 6893 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3919657

In many ways, Russia is still recovering from it, trying to deal with the fact that only a few decades ago, it inflicted on itself one of the worst holocausts in human memory" (Hochschild, 1993). Therefore, the purges were used on the one hand to discourage the people and the elites in particular from establishing a dissident opposition or a negative pole of power that could have countered the Soviet regime.

Also, another possible justification of the way in which the Soviet regime acted in that period was the complete elimination of the possible negative influences from the old regimes or more precisely of the opposing forces in Russia. More precisely, "the decade of the 1930s saw the renewal of the Soviet leading stratum. During the period the.regime progressively unburdened itself of its legacy of class prejudice and rose to its full totalitarian posture" (Unger, 1969, 2). The regime of…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Beichman, Arnold. "Pulitzer-Winning Lies." The Daily Standard. 2003. http://www.theweeklystandard.com/Content/Public/Articles/000/000/002/791vwuaz.asp

Bernard, Henri. Le communisme et l'aveuglement occidental (Soumagne, Belgium: editions Andre Grisard, 1982)

Boris Bajanov, Avec Staline dans le Kremlin. Paris: Les editions de France, 1930, pp. 2 -- 3.

Connor, Walter D. "The Manufacture of Deviance: The Case of the Soviet Purge, 1936-1938." American Sociological Review, Vol. 37, No. 4, 1972, pp. 403-413.