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Space exploration he Space Shuttle Columbia disintegrated Texas 2003 return Earth. The Challenger exploded shortly launch 1986. An Apollo 1 spacecraft imploded fire launch pad 1967. In case, lives crew members lost. The hugely complex shuttle a bit airplane
What are the pros and cons of manned space exploration from an ethical perspective? Should the U.S. spend billions of dollars to return an astronaut to the moon?
During the Cold War, manned space flights were a powerful symbolic image of the success of the U.S. space program. For the ussians to send cosmonauts into space and the Americans to send computers would have been an admission of defeat, a sign of inferiority of the U.S. government. Also, the computerized technology of the 1950s and 1960s was far inferior to what is available today. However, now that the Cold War is at an end, the question remains: why explore the cosmos…
Rahls, Chuck. (2005). Manned vs. Unmanned. PhysOrg.com. Retrieved February 21, 2011 at http://www.physorg.com/news8442.html
All these life saving technologies are indeed very useful today and it's not easy to imagine them resulting from the NASA research. The eye tracker technology is one of the marvelous technologies which have made the world of the disabled people to be open up in particular those having impairment in speech and movement. The view's precise gaze point is distinguished at the computer screen through the tracking of movements of the eye and this allows for environmental control and communication using several interface tools array. The eye's movement is used in the communication by people using the Eyegaze System. The individual's communication is thus no longer inhibited. The funding of life science and research and technology for NASA has resulted to these and many other benefits (Griffin).
Another argument against space exploration is the dangers that manned space travel portends. There are many perils which can affect a launch…
Dobbs, Locke. " Revisiting the final frontier." Caribbean Business 32.18 (2004): 24-24.
Dubner, Stephen J. Is Space Exploration Worth the Cost? A Freakonomics Quorum 11 Jan.
2008. 18 Apr. 2010.
Griffin, Michael. Why Explore Space? 21 May. 2007. 18 Apr. 2010.
Manned vs. Unmanned
There are many advantages and disadvantages to men being hurled into outer space. The United States as a nation has a long and distinguished history of doing just that. "October 1, 1958, the official start of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), was the beginning of a rich history of unique scientific and technological achievements in human space flight, aeronautics, space science, and space applications. Formed as a result of the Sputnik crisis, NASA inherited the earlier National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA), and other government organizations, and almost immediately began working on options for human space flight." (NASA) One of the very first successful operations on the part of the new agency was its high profile Project Mercury program because it laid the foundation of all future manned travel into outer space. Once NASA understood that humans could in fact survive the…
NASA. (2009). "NASA History in Brief." Retrieved on December 10, 2009, from http://history.nasa.gov/brief.html .
Any information about the possible existence of life in the remote regions of the universe would also have to be acquired remotely rather than through manned exploration. In principle, astronomers already understand how the ig ang unfolded and when it occurred (Hawking, 2002); they only piece of information still missing is exactly why it occurred at all and why there is a universe at all. Ultimately, that information is unknowable whether or not there is a continuation of the space program for reasons having to do with the fundamental incompatibility of quantum mechanics and gravity (Feynman, 2001; Goldsmith, 2003; Hawking, 2002; Sagan, 1997).
Human Space exploration served a valuable purpose in the 1960s. In addition to yielding many important scientific breakthroughs with beneficial applications on Earth, it also played an important role in the ability of the U.S. To win the Cold War (Roberts, 2000). Today, all of the…
Dubner, Stephen J. Is Space Exploration Worth the Cost? The New York Times (January
11, 2008) Accessed 17 Apr 2010 from:
Feynman, Richard P. Six Easy Pieces. New York: Helix. 2001.
United States Should Continue Space Exploration
For those who believe the United States should forego any further exploration of the universe, even of our own Solar System, whether through manned spacecraft or with un-manned probes, this paper offers a well-thought-out rebuttal to that viewpoint. It would be short-sighted on the part of the U.S. To turn our backs on the potential for new and exciting discoveries, and on the investment in future technologies that is has been a product of our space program. Are we to tell our children that American is closing the door on learning about the universe? Are we to sit and watch as Russia, China, the European Union and other nations develop new knowledge about our universe, knowledge that can help societies become more sustainable here on Earth?
President Barack Obama asserted that it's vital to continue exploring space "…Because broadening our capabilities in space will…
Economist. "Apollo plus 40." Vol. 398, Issue 8934, p. 36.
Obama, Barack. "Remarks by the President on Space Exploration in the 21st Century." The
White House. 15 April, 2010.
Griffin, Michael D. "Space: Serving the Nation's Essential Interest." Vital Speeches of the Day.
hen the Soviets successfully launched Sputnik I, the first ever artificial satellite, in orbit on October 4, 1957, the event took the Americans and the entire western world by surprise. Sputnik I was just a 2-foot sphere with nothing more than two tiny radio transmitters on it, but the symbolic significance of the event -- the implication that Communist Russia had taken a significant technological lead over the United States was a massive blow to the American nation's pride. It signaled the start of the Cold ar space-race between the two major super powers of the time and developed into a race for putting the first man on the moon that culminated in the historic "giant leap for mankind" on July 20, 1969 when Neil Armstrong became the first man to walk on the moon. This paper focuses on the history of the U.S. Space Program, the role…
Chaikan, Andrew. "Space Exploration." Article in Encyclopedia Encarta, 2003
Ezell, Clinton E. And Linda Neuman Ezell. "The Partnership: A History of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project." NASA Special Publication-4209,1978 Chapter 1: The Space Race Competition vs. Cooperation: 1959-1962. April 21, 2004 http://www.hq.nasa.gov/office/pao/History/SP-4209/ch1-4.htm
History of the Space Programme." Scenta Website. March 16, 2004. April 21, 2004. http://www.scenta.co.uk/news/viewFeature.cfm?ciid=207&iCurrSubSection=2
Koman, Rita G. "Man on the Moon: The U.S. Space Program as a Cold War Maneuver." Organization of American Historians. Reprinted from the OAH Magazine of History
Space Vehicles for Future Space Tourism
Developing Space Vehicles for Future Space Tourism
Today, certain individuals in the developing countries could be viewing "space tourism" as vocabulary. Nonetheless, in the developed countries, this term is turning to be more familiar and gradually becoming a holiday experience for world Forbes. This is an expensive venture that is exciting, stunning, adventurous, and relatively remains the least exploited phenomena in the world history. Since the first "space tour" in 2001, the rich stamps their foot on a fact that wherever they can go, the poor cannot manage to go, and what the poor can do, they can do best. Over the past few decades, the general perception about space tourism has been changing yearly. History reveals that this perception considered space tourism as a "science fiction." However, this term currently gains recognition and is becoming the most important grand target for the growing…
Ashford, D.M. (1984). Space tourism: Key to the universe? Journal of Spaceflight, 26(4), 123-
Bono, P. (1973). The reusable booster paradox: Aircraft technology or operations? Journal of Space Flight, 9(3), 379-387.
Broz, T.A. (1985). NASA administrator rules out shuttle for space tourism. Commerce on Space Tourism, 9(8), 68-77.
Gerard, M. & Jefferson, P. (1998). International cooperation in space: New government and industry relationships. Journal of Space Exploration, 9(5), 27-39.
computers in space science. Specifically, it will look at the roles computers have in current space technology and how they have effected the lives of everyone in the world. Without computer technology, space science would be confined to the ground, and man's imagination. efore large-scale computing was developed, the technologies necessary to design, build, and maintain a space program simply did not exist. Computers have made it possible to explore the moon, stars, and beyond.
Computers in Space Science
Computers play an integral role in the science of space, and without them most of modern space exploration would not be possible. As the NASA report, "Computers at NASA" states, "Since the 1950's, the computer has been the main tool that has enabled scientists and engineers to visualize the next frontier and then make it a reality" (NASA). NASA employs literally thousands of computers throughout the world to monitor, design, and…
Author not Available. "Computers at NASA." NASA. 1994. 29 Oct. 2003. http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/news/factsheets/computers.pdf
Barber, Jennifer Lauren. "Close Encounters on Your Desktop." Bright Magazine. 2001. 29 Oct. 2003. http://journalism.medill.northwestern.edu/journalism/magazine/bright/brightlite/peer4.html.
Dubinski, John. "Cosmology." Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics. 26 June 1997. 29 Oct. 2003. http://www.cita.utoronto.ca/webpages/CITA/annrep96/node20.html
Editors. "Hubble's Computers and Automation." HubbleSite. 2003. 29 Oct. 2003. http://hubble.stsci.edu/sci.d.tech/nuts_.and._bolts/spacecraft_systems/#comp
Most application of economic policy is done on either the national, supranational or subnational scales. Seldom is economic policy enacted on the non-national scale. Yet, there is the question of whether there is benefit to applying economic doctrine to space exploration. There is a corollary, in Antarctica, where various nations have signed a treaty committing to scientific activity only on that continent, and not economic activity. Yet, realistically, with space the horse is well out of the barn. Nations all over the world have launched satellites, thus far, and the more powerful nations have engaged in a broader scope of scientific exploration. Yet, the question still exists, as to whether any economic system should be applied to space, space exploration and the terrorities that exist in space. And if so, what should that economic system look like? This paper will start to explore this concept in more detail, from…
There was one thing or the other to delay the launch of the Challenger, until the D-Day, when the shuttle was launched at 11:38 AM as against the scheduled take off time of 9:38 AM on January 28. About seventy three seconds into the mission, the Challenger exploded in mid air, and all the seven crew members were killed instantaneously. For the hundreds of people, the family and friends and others who had gathered at the site to watch the launching of the Challenger, it was a sight that they would never be able to forget. They were forced to watch helplessly and fearfully, as the fiery flames consumed their loved ones. The entire nation, which was watching events as they unfolded on their television sets, was rendered speechless. (Challenger Disaster, a National Tragedy)
onald eagan, the President of the United States of America at the time, stated, "Today is…
Administrator Goldin issues statement on Tenth Anniversary of Challenger Observance.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration. January 16, 1996. http://www.hq.nasa.gov/office/pao/History/administrator.html
Baura, Gail D. Engineering ethics, an industrial perspective.
Academic Press. 2006.
it's a combination of efforts from NASA and Disney Imagineering that make it so popular for kids and adults (Houston Space Center).
With the behind-the-scenes journey through NASA's Johnson Space Center, you may visit the Historic Mission Control Center, the Space Vehicle Mockup Facility, Training Facilities, or the current Mission Control Center. You may even get to see astronauts training for upcoming missions.
The Level Nine Tour, for die-hard space fans, takes you behind the scenes to see the real world of NASA up close and personal. On this four-hour tour you will see things that only the astronauts see. You even get to eat what and where they do (Greene).
Greene, Nick. "Space Center Houston - Visiting Johnson Space Center." n.d. about.com. 3 Apr 2009 .
"Houston Space Center." 2008. Destination 360. 3 Apr 2009 .
Thackston, David. "The history of the NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas…
Greene, Nick. "Space Center Houston - Visiting Johnson Space Center." n.d. about.com. 3 Apr 2009 .
"Houston Space Center." 2008. Destination 360. 3 Apr 2009 .
Thackston, David. "The history of the NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas ." n.d. Helium. 3 Apr 2009 .
Structure of Animals
Two animal phyla that can be compared and contrasted are Nematoda and Annelida. Nematoda are roundworms. There are more than 15,000 known species, with scientists estimating there may be as many as half a million species yet to be discovered (Waggoner, 2009). Nematoda have a worm-like appearance outside and a simple internal body structure. The phylum Annelida includes earthworms and their relatives, leeches, and a large number of mostly marine worms known as polychaetes (Waggoner, 2006). Annelids are characterized by their segmented bodies. They also have bristles on their bodies. It is estimated there are approximately 9,000 species of annelids today.
The Animal Phylogenetic Tree ("Mastering Biology," 2012) is a useful visual learning aid that is helpful in demonstrating the similarities and differences between these two phyla. The first diagram shows eight phyla, of which Nematoda and Annelida are two. Only one of the phyla, Porifera, is…
"Mastering biology." (2012). Retrieved from http://media.pearsoncmg.com/bc/bc_campbell_
Waggoner, B. (2009, January 21). Berkeley. Retrieved from http://www.ucmp.berkeley.
European Voyages of Exploration of the 15th and 16th Centuries
For several centuries following Columbus's historic discovery the North American Continent, pain enjoyed riches from overseas that allowed it to be the most influential country in Europe. Originally inspired by a combination of a quest to prove that he could reach the Far East by sailing west and the desire to reap the rewards of precious metals and spices, Columbus left Portugal for pain, after failing to achieve the support he needed from the king to finance his first voyage (Hayes & Clark, 1966). With the eventual support of Queen Isabella in pain, he managed to stumble onto North and outh America while looking for the Indies. Initially, the silver, gold, and spices imported from the first panish conquests in the Americas enabled pain to become the most powerful nation in Europe.
That happenstance was fortunate for pain, at least…
Stannard, David, E. (1993). American Holocaust: The Conquest of the New World. New York: Oxford University Press.
Zinn, Howard. (2003). A People's History of the United States. New York: Harper-
An intergalactic space mission from Earth tries to create a scientifically-based cooperative. The name of the ship is the Nefertiti, after the ancient Egyptian Queen. Captain Reeftart, his first mate Jane, and their enthusiastic crew first set foot on the friendly planet Stauron. The Stauronians share the Earthlings' hope for an interplanetary federation based on science. Although the Stauronian leader Glastia is skeptical, Reeftart believes that the Dirgonians will be receptive. However, Dirgon is a xenophobic, insular, and isolationist planet who, though benevolent, do not generally support measures to collectivize resources. Reeftart's optimism is tempered by Jane's pragmatism.
Faced with the potential for failure, Reeftart conspires to trick the Dirgonians into starting their own collective; he believes that if the Dirgonians believe that they initiated the idea they would feel fully in charge. Reeftart obviously knows little about Dirgon or their core culture, for when the Nefertiti arrives on…
Industrial psychology: Two issues
One workplace-related issue I have consistent problems with is getting to work on time. In the morning, no matter how early I set my alarm clock, I find myself constantly rushing to get to my desk at the last minute. To better understand why this has become a habit, for two days I will write down the time I set my alarm to go off; what time I actually got up; how long it took me to get ready; and how long it took to drive to work. This will help me identify what aspects of my morning I need to work on to better plan out my daily routine. Also, to motivate me to change those behaviors, I will write down the concrete consequences of my lateness, such as not being adequately prepared for an early, unplanned meeting or not being able to eat…
Jewish Movie Moguls: An Exploration in American Culture, Lary and Elaine Tyler Mae explains why Jewish immigrants replaced their Protestant predecessors in the film industry by the 1920's. The theory that these authors present is that Jews brought a more expressive, non-traditional way of managing the business that was readily accepted by America's urban middle class. This group found the upgrades of theaters into luxurious move palaces and the creation of the Hollywood movie star appealing because they became expressions of the middle-class desire for a freer life, moral experimentation, and entertainment. The new Jewish movie moguls were also savvy business managers that learned how to control production, distribution and supply.
Author Joyce Antler criticizes the images of Jewish women as portrayed in film, theater, literature and television. She sees these women as being portrayed as exaggerated stereotypes involving unattractive, materialistic, and loud personalities. This is best depicted by the…
The presence of water is also central to the architecture of mosques, albeit for religious more than aesthetic purposes.
Conclusion: Two Squares, Two Cultures
The Place de la Concorde shares more in common with the Maidan-i-Shah than is immediately apparent. The two squares are about the same size: around 8 hectares. Both have been used for multiple purposes and whisper the changes that have taken place within their respective cities. Political and social life has centered on each of these public spaces.
More than a century separates the two squares, as the Maidan-i-Shah in the early seventeenth century and the Place de Louis XV in the mid-eighteenth century. The architecture and intended use of the two squares proves to be radically different. Unlike the Maidan-i-Shah, the Place de la Concorde serves no religious function. The lack of places of worship as part of the city square speaks directly to the…
Boyer, M.C. (1996). The City of Collective Memory: Its Historical Imagery and Architectural Entertainments. MIT.
Carmona, M. (2003). Public Spaces, Urban Spaces: The Dimensions of Urban Design. Oxford: Architectural Press.
The Center for Design Excellence (n.d.). Public space. Urban Design. Retrieved online: http://www.urbandesign.org/publicspace.html
Craven, J. (n.d.). Public spaces: cities, towns, and landscapes. About.com Guide to Architecture. Retrieved online: http://architecture.about.com/od/urbandesign/u/PublicSpaces.htm
Air, Space, And Cyber Space Security
Air, Space, and Cyberspace Power Studies
"Since the birth of military aviation, airmen have claimed that airpower offered a new approach to warfare. Even in the earliest days of aviation, airpower's range of action, its ability to react and refocus quick across a wide area without having to consider the terrain or access, and its inherent above -- the surface perspective all pointed to a new era in warfare" ("AFDD 1, Air Force asic Doctrine"). Within the military, the United States air force has a great strength and makes a considerable contribution to the well-being and safety of citizens of the United States. As society progresses into a new technology age, where computers no longer take up entire rooms but can fit in the palm of our hands, the USAF must also change with the times. How is the air force going to keep…
"AFDD 1, Air Force Basic Doctrine." 2003.www.dtic.mil/doctrine_jel/service_pubs_afdd1.pdf (accessed August 22, 2011).
Boyne, Walter J. Air Warfare: An International Encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, 2002.
Daniel, Lisa. "New Strategy Shows Importance of Space Domain, Lynn Says." February 16, 2011. http://www.defense.gov/news/newsarticle.aspx?id=62844 (accessed August 22, 2011).
Hess, Bill. "Senior officer stresses growing importance of cyber ecurity." June 12, 2011.http://www.svherald.com/content/news/2011/06/12/senior-officer-stresses-growing-importance-cyber-security (accessed August 22, 2011).
They could do it time and time again with success. The first electric car was used on the moon during the Apollo 14 (Endeavor and Falcon) mission (Kennedy Space Center).
Meanwhile in Russia
hile the space program in the United States was busy becoming a popular culture icon, the Russian space program took on a different personality. They still launched missions for "national prestige" (ade). However, the majority of Soviet missions were for military purposes. The Soviet economy played a major role in space efforts. The soviet economy was planned in five-year increments, with long-range military plans being made for the next ten years (ade). This significantly affected the pace of space program development. The Russian space plan was slow to react to American successes.
First generation Soviet launchers had poor reliability. The ten-year plan for the second generation was not approved until 1976 (ade). Third generation plans were approved…
Aerospace. A Brief History: Space Exploration. Last Modified: January 21, 2005. http://www.aero.org/education/primers/space/history.html . (Accessed October 30, 2008).
Angleo, J. Space Technology. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. 2003.
CNN.com. India launches first moon mission. October 22, 2008. CNN.com/Technology. http://www.cnn.com/2008/TECH/space/10/22/india.space/index.html (Accessed October 29, 2008).
Grayzeck, E. Apollo 13 Command and Service Module (CSM). NSSDC ID: 1970-029A. National Space center Data Center. http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/masterCatalog.do?sc=1970-029A (Accessed October 29, 2008).
Apollo 13 analysis and diagnosis using the 1995 film "Apollo 13" starring tom hanks
Apollo 13 analysis and diagnosis
The exploration of the space brought a lot of excitement. The super power countries, each has sought to establish its dominance and security by exploring the space. NASA is the United States agency for exploring the space. This report has evaluated the Apollo 13 incident in view of the film that was released of the same. The discussion centers on the two groups that is the ground and space teams.
The exploration of the space began in the late 1950s. It started after the Second World War ended. It was as a result of the United States and the Soviet Union having a cold war (McCray 2013). The space exploration hence provided the arena for this competition. Hence, this was the basis for the need for an organization that…
Gorn, M.H., & Aldrin, B. (2005). NASA: The complete illustrated history. Norwalk, CT: Easton
Goodloe, A.E., Person, S., & International Symposium on Nasa Formal Methods, NFM. (2012).
Nasa formal methods: Third international symposium, NFM 2011, Pasadena, CA, USA,
Strangely, America's role as policeman in Europe actually led to its becoming involved in military conflicts in Southeast Asia. Although the U.S. did not fight the Soviet Union directly in Korea or Vietnam, both conflicts were due to the U.S.'s policy of defeating the spread of Communism no matter where it might occur. Fears of escalation during both the Korean and Vietnam conflicts caused the U.S. To adopt a military strategy that favored limited warfare (Brodie).
The Cold ar had a tremendous impact on the growth of the United States as an industrial and world military power. America's presence throughout the world militarily and the dependence of estern Europe and Japan on the American economy for the sustenance of their own economies caused America's political and economic influence to expanded substantially. Beginning with the Berlin airlift (Reeves) where the United States provided food and other vital items to est Berliners…
Brodie, Bernard. War and Politics. New York: Macmillan Co., 1973.
Comstock, Douglas A. "NASA's Legacy of Technology Transfer and Prospects for Future Benefits." AIAA Space Conference & Exposition. Long Beach, CA: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2007. 1-9.
Cox, M. "The Cold War as a system." Critique (1986): 17-82.
Lieber, Keir A. "The Rise of U.S. Nuclear Primacy." Foreign Affairs (2006): 42-67.
Despite these constraints, it is reasonable to assume that anyone able to invest $100,000+ in a five-minute space flight will be able to afford the trip.
Given NASA's historic lack of enthusiasm for commercial space travel, it is reasonable to conclude that private initiatives such as SpaceShipOne are going to remain at the forefront of private space travel in the near future. In fact, NASA's Strategic Plan only contains a minor reference to the importance of the commercialization of space in the section entitled "Administrator's Strategic Outlook," wherein the NASA administrator references six areas of interest as NASA priorities with commercial space ventures being only briefly mentioned at the end of the last area of interest (Hudgins, 2002). According to this author, "Barriers to space enterprise result from the way these important space policies treat space commerce. One can readily conclude that commercializing space is not a high…
Coren, M. (2004a, June 20). Commercial space travel next leap for mankind? CNN: Science and Space. Retrieved October 5, 2007 at http://www.cnn.com/2004/TECH/space/06/18/ssone.flight.history/index.html .
2004b, July 14). Private craft soars into space, history. CNN: Science and Space. Retrieved October 5, 2007 at http://www.cnn.com/2004/TECH/space/06/21/suborbital.test/index.html .
Graham-Rowe, D. (2007, January 18). UK rocket man who's racing the billionaires into space. The Evening Standard (London, England), 14.
Hudgins, E.L. (2002). Space: The free-market frontier. Washington, DC: Cato Institute.
-29 and -26 bombers were used by U.S. forces to decimate Korean cities through round-the-clock air war using incendiary bombs, delayed demolition explosives and an "infernal jelly" called napalm.[footnoteRef:38] Created secretly during World War II, napalm was basically a mixture of petroleum and a thickening agent, designed to fiercely adhere to the target and severely burn it. Though first used against enemy structures and humans in World War II, napalm was used in the Korean War to devastating effect.[footnoteRef:39] the results of the U.S. air war against North Korea were intentionally catastrophic: at the commencement of the War, North Korea had 22 major cities, 18 of which suffered at least 50% obliteration.[footnoteRef:40] Furthermore, the U.S. government seriously considered using the atomic bombs that had so decisively ended World War II in the Pacific Theater. Particularly in September and October of 1951, -29 bombers were used for multiple runs to drop…
Bizony, Piers. The Space Shuttle: Celebrating Thirty Years of NASA's First Space Plane. Minneapolis, MN: Zenith Press, 2011.
Blight, James G., and Janet M. Lang. The Fog of War: Lessons from the Life of Robert S. McNamara. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 2005.
Boyne, Walter J. Beyond the Wild and Blue: A History of the United States Air Force, 1947-2007, Second Edition. New York, NY: St. Martin's Press, 2007.
Chant, Christopher. The World's Greatest Aircraft. New York, NY: Crescent Publishing, 1991.
In addition, the Rogers Commission made specific recommendations related to these issues. They suggested that NASA restructure its management system, including bringing astronauts into management positions, which will increase attention to flight safety issues. They suggested a full examination of all critical systems before conducting any more shuttle launches. They were instructed to establish an Office of Safety, Reliability and Quality control. These suggestions bring safety back to prominence in decision-making, and should downplay the effect of pressure to meet deadlines (Harwood, 1986).
The Rogers Commission also criticized NASA's communications and instructed them to devise ways that information flows from bottom to top as well as from top to bottom. In addition they expressed concern about a tendency for management to be somewhat isolated from others, further interfering with communication (Harwood, 1986). If middle management had been able to communicate effectively with upper levels in 1986, the GDSS would have…
Eberhart, Jonathan. 1986. "Challenger disaster muddles NASA's future." Science News, March 15.
Editorial. 2003. "Bad News Rising." Air Safety Week, Feb. 17. (Editorial, 2003)
Forrest, Jeff. 1995. "The Challenger Shuttle Disaster," in Aviation & Aerospace. Accessed via the Internet 11/1/05. http://frontpage.hypermall.com/jforrest/challenger/challenger_sts.htm
Harwood, William. Voyage Into History. CBS, 1986. Accessed via the Internet 11/1/04. http://www.cbsnews.com/network/news/space/51Lintro.html
NASA and Integrated Financial Management Project
Like most government organizations, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) passed through several stages of development and bureaucracy. Upon its creation in 1958, the agency was run with a combination of research freedom and tight management. This combination helped foster a strong, integrated organizational culture within NASA.
Since then, however, NASA has grown into ten separate research agencies situated around the country. Each agency was run as an autonomous unit, with its own vision, research tasks, staff and organizational culture.
The last few years have seen another shift in NASA's organizational culture, as the organization implements "ONE NASA," a plan to move towards a more implemented space organization.
This first part of this paper examines the current structure of NASA, and the problems that are spawned by its fragmented structure. The paper then looks at the goals, obstacles and potential benefits of the…
Bell, Mary F. (2002). NASA's Organization: Introducing NASA Personnel, Programs, and Facilities. Washington, DC: NASA Headquarters Department of Public Affairs.
Bromberg, Joan Lisa (1999). NASA and the Space Industry. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Integrated Financial Management Program (2003). IFMP Frequently Asked Questions. Retrieved 10 February 2003 at http://ifmp.nasa.gov/faq/faq.html.
McCurdy, Howard E. (1993). Inside NASA: High Technology and Organizational Change in the U.S. Space Program. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press
speech "Challenger Address to the Nation" by President onald eagan. Specifically, it will analyze the elements of the rhetorical situation in the address. It will also discuss how the elements relate to eagan's presidency and popularity at the time of the speech in January 1986. onald eagan endures as one of the most popular American presidents, and speeches such as this one are one indication of his popularity. They are poignant, resilient, and emotional, all of which characterize his administration and his outlook as a politician and a person.
When the Challenger space shuttle exploded during take-off in 1986, the event shocked and saddened the nation. America lost seven of its brightest and best astronauts, and the country grieved over the loss. eagan's speech acknowledged that grief and mourned along with the nation. The speech is quite indicative of eagan's public popularity at the time. Just like eagan himself, the…
Cannon, L. (2001). Ronald Reagan: The Presidential portfolio: a history illustrated from the collection of the Ronald Reagan library and museum. New York: Public Affairs.
Ritter, K., & Henry, D. (1992). Ronald Reagan: The great communicator. New York: Greenwood Press.
White, J.K. (2004). Ronald Reagan: The power of conviction and the success of his Presidency. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 34(1), 173+.
Reagan, Ronald. (1986). Ronald Reagan: The space shuttle Challenger tragedy address. Retrieved from the American rhetoric.com Web site: http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/rreaganchallenger.htm 29 Aug. 2005.
Sky -- a Great Movie with Profound Values
Back in the late Fifties, more than ten years after the end of orld ar II, the United States and the Soviet Union were in a struggle called the "Cold ar." The Soviets were trying hard to extend their influence to third world countries (and other nations around the world) and the U.S. was doing the same. And then in October, 1957, the Soviets shocked Americans -- and made U.S. technology seem far behind what the Soviet communists were doing -- by launching the first man-made satellite. It was called "Sputnik," and it caused the U.S. government to gear up its space (and rocket) program. But the movie goes much deeper than that, as it tells the story of a young boy (Homer Hickam) who was fascinated with the idea becoming part of America's space exploration and yet his father wanted him…
IMDB. (1999). October Sky. Retrieved May 1, 2013, from http://imdb.com .
Potentially, this changes the way profit is used to build a larger network of computer users who now wish to harness the power of technology to develop a new world.
Chapter: 9 Socioeconmics
Berlin Wall Falls/Soviet Union Collapses
Citation: Koeller, D. (2003), Fall of the Berlin Wall. WebChron.
Tags: Political innovation, political/social upheaval, modernism in Europe
Summation: By the end of 1989, the Soviet-backed regimes of Eastern Europe no longer existed and the Berlin Wall, the quintessential symbol of the Cold War, had been decimated. This dissatisfaction with communism as practiced Soviet style was now being openly criticized, even in the ussian epublic, the so-called "homeland of communism." Extreme vocal critiques came first from the outlying republics and the ethnic minorities, many of who had been living in a tradition of autocracy for centuries. Gorbachev's message of change and openness, despite the appeal in the West, stripped the…
1972 in Review." (January 1973). UPI.Com.
Retrieved from: http://www.upi.com/Audio/Year_in_Review/Events-of-1972/1972-Election/12305688736666-2/#title
Butterworth, T. (May 24, 2007). Fifteen People Who Changed The World. Forbes.
Retrieved from: http://www.forbes.com/2007/05/23/people-changed-world-tech-07rev_cz_tb_0524changers.html
Computer Games esearch
When considering the short history of computers, video and PC gaming are very recent on the timeline of technology. This is one of the reasons why there have not been many conclusive studies on the negative and/or positive effects of electronic games on children and young adults -- the most formative years. With the ever-increasing interest and involvement of children in this activity, much concern has been expressed about the impact of these games, especially ones of a more violent nature, on physical and psychological development. At the crux of the debate is the question of whether they are detrimental to a young person's health. There are specific concerns about such factors as aggression, addiction, criminal activity, obesity and reduced academic achievement.
Studies thus far show both positive and negative results from playing video and PC games. Some research finds that the playing or observing of violent…
Anderson, C.A., and K.E. Dill "Video Games and Aggressive Thoughts, Feelings, and Behavior in the Laboratory and in Life. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2000, 78, 772-790.
Ask, A., Autoustinos, M., and A.H. Winefield, "To kill or not to kill: Competitive aggression in Australian adolescent males during videogame play." Children in the New Media Landscape. C. van Feilitzen and U. Carlsson (Eds.). Goteborg, Sweden: UNESCO International Clearinghouse on Children and Violence on the Screen, 2000.
Bowman, R.P. And J.C. Rotter. "Computer games: Friend or foe?" Elementary School Guidance and Counselling, 1983, 18, 25 -- 34
Calvert, S.L., and S. Tan, (1994). "Impact of Virtual Reality on Young Adults' Physiological Arousal and Aggressive Thoughts." Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 1994, 15, 125-139.
Fuel Cells in Green Engineering
The energy tomorrow is beginning to be available today. Fuel cells, which just a very few years ago were a pipe dream, are becoming g a reality, and they are used in areas ranging from space exploration to toy motivation (Joy). The promise of the fuel cell can be seen in the fact that they use the most abundant source of energy on the planet, Hydrogen atoms (Birch). They are also being seen as the energy savior because they emit a common, non-toxic waste which can also be utilized as a saving grace around the globe, water (Joy; Patturaja). A fuel that uses the most abundant element on the planet and emits clean, pure water does seem like science fiction, but there are already being used with it as a motive force.
The space shuttle has always been powered by hydrogen fuel cells (Joy). Although…
Birch, Amanda Sue. "Microbial Fuel Cells: Converting Waste to Water and Watts." Engineering and Technology for a Sustainable World. (2010). Print.
Fields, Scott. "Making the Best of Biomass: Hydrogen for Fuel Cells." Environmental Health Perspectives. (2003). Print.
Joy, Linda E. "A Basic Overview of Fuel Cell Technology." Automotive Community. (2007). Web.
Khan, Abdul Majeed. "Electricity Generation by Microbial Fuel Cells." Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences. (2009). Web.
Global Positioning Satellites
The History of Global Positioning Satellites
The First Global Positioning Satellite
Transmission Functions of the Global Positioning Satellites
eception of Information from Global Positioning Satellites
Advantages of the Global Positioning Satellites System
Introduction to the Global Positioning Satellites
As the name suggests, the global positioning satellite system is based on satellites. It is a navigational system that comprises of a complex arrangement of satellites that orbit round the earth. Twenty-four in all, these satellites are eleven thousand nautical miles far in space. There are six dissimilar orbits wherein the satellites continually keep revolving. It takes these satellites twenty-four hours to complete two orbital revolutions round the Earth. Upon calculation, the revolutionary speed of these satellites is computed to be around 2,600 meters per second (JA-GPS.com).
The radius of every orbit of the global positioning satellites is approximately 25,000 kilometers from the center of the earth, making them…
Federal Radio Navigation Plan (FRP). (1994) USNO NAVSTAR Global Positioning System. www.tycho.usno.navy.mil
Hobbs, Mike. Global Positioning Satellites (GPS) and Dirt Bikes. www.off-road.com
JA-GPS.com. Johnny Appleseed GPS: The Theory and Practice of GPS. www.ja-gps.com.au/whatisgps.html
PBS. (May, 21, 1998) Online News Hour: Global Positioning Satellites. You Are Here. www.pbs.org
Second, a major benefit for many computer programmers is the option of working on a variety of very interesting and challenging projects. Often the projects require months off planning, programming and continual work to get the applications to performing at their highest possible performance levels. Third, many companies now sponsor in-house training and development seminars, with a few even having local universities come in and teach the latest techniques on programming. This is a major time-saver for programmers as it gets them more knowledge to do their jobs, and also make them more valuable in their careers for the long-term. Fourth, programming is a profession that lends itself well to individual achievement and accomplishment. For those programmers who are exceptionally good at their work, they become well-known in their fields and often get promoted. Companies also provide many conveniences to programmers to alleviate time drains on them. Google for example…
Gul Agha (2008). COMPUTING in PERVASIVE CYBERSPACE. Association for Computing Machinery. Communications of the ACM, 51(1), 68-70. Retrieved May 14, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1407575171).
Josh Bernoff, Charlene Li. 2008. Harnessing the Power of the Oh-So-Social Web. MIT Sloan Management Review 49, no. 3 (April 1): 36-42. http://www.proquest.com (Accessed May 16, 2008).
Ryan Blitstein (2 June 2007). Engineers wanted! Will pay very well: WEB 2.0 DEVELOPERS in GREAT DEMAND. Knight Ridder Tribune Business News,1. Retrieved May 16, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Dateline database. (Document ID: 1281144381).
Roxanne E. Christ, Jeanne S. Berges, Shannon C. Trevino. 2007. Social Networking Sites: To Monitor or Not to Monitor Users and Their Content? Intellectual Property & Technology Law Journal 19, no. 7 (July 1): 13-17.
Perhaps the Puffin project could be incorporated into the Spaceship 2 project in the future by allowing the six passenger Spaceship 2 craft the unique ability to give individual passengers the option of individual exploration of space or the air.
Technologically speaking, the Spaceship 2 project represents a hybrid of humans' best technologies. Since the ship itself would be carried to high altitudes by the White Knight, it does not have to incorporate any fuel weight into the flight vehicle itself. Considerations like these allow for greater scope of development of the passenger vehicle itself, as well as a roomier, more comfortable experience. The Puffin vehicle, while environmentally friendly, would be difficult to use in space without large fuel sources or solar panels. The technologies that are being developed and tested by NASA and the Ames esearch Center are more forward-looking.
These future technologies include ion engines, which would…
Ames Research Center (2011). "Advanced Propulsion." White paper found online July
22, 2011 at:
NASA (2011). "NASA Issues Announcement For Solar Electric Propulsion Studies."
Physiological Issues in Human Spaceflight: Review and Proposed Countermeasures
This article by Grant Bonin explores some of the physiological problems faced by astronauts during extended periods of space travel. Bonin notes that early stages of exploration under hostile conditions have primarily been dominated by technological concerns, with matters regarding the health and well-being of explores themselves limited to issues of basic survivability. This phenomenon can be traced back to early maritime exploration. Early focus on manned spaceflight followed the pattern. Space exploration over the past half century has focused mainly on the development of propulsion systems capable of lifting humans beyond the boundaries of Earth's gravity. Physiological concerns have generally been dealt with on a per issue basis rather than a preventative basis.
Bonin contends that learning to combat the physiological issues of exploration has been a largely iterative process throughout history. However, an iterative methodology and slow evolution are…
Bonin, Grant. "Physiological Issues in Human Spaceflight: Review and Proposed Countermeasures." Carleton University, Ottawa, ON. 6 December 2005. Web. 9 September 2012. < http://www.4frontierscorp.com/dev/assets/00%20-%20MAAE%204906%20-%20Biomechanics%20Final%20Project.pdf >
Wickman, Leslie A. "Human Performance Considerations for a Mars Mission." Center for Research in Science, Azuza Pacific University. (2006). Web. 9 September 2012.
" he spectacular effect achieved by the Russians therefore had a significant effect upon the minds of citizens around the globe (Dick, March 24).
he financial and political implications of the Apollo program became significant once the president made the decision to commit the United States to a Lunar landing. It was important to the president to set a goal that his country had a good chance of achieving before the Soviet Union. After a definite decision for the launch of the project was made, further important issues of politics and financing became deciding factors in the growth and development of the program.
he decision proved to be sound if the reaction of the nation could be used as a measure of effectiveness. he American imagination was captured, and they lent overwhelming support for Kennedy's decision to sponsor the moon landing. In the eyes of the nation, difficulty, expense and…
Transcript of Presidential Meeting in the Cabinet Room of the White House. Topic: Supplemental appropriations for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 21 November 1962.
Webb, James E. Letter to President Kennedy. October 29, 1962. NASA History
There are few Carl Sagans in the world today. Sagan was a dynamic scientist whose discussions about the universe were conveyed an excitement about the unknown and the opportunities for exploration that was contagious. There is a weighty apathy that permeates the American collective that needs to be reinvigorated with the excitement, hope, pride and enthusiasm of yesterday. It is perhaps time to move beyond the shuttle and space station programs, and time for more in depth exploration and colonization of the moon with an eye towards that as a jumping off point for a manned mission to Mars. It is time for NASA to be innovative, and to think of tomorrow by encouraging and attracting the youth of today - perhaps with video games that incorporate the science of space exploration and development. One never knows what untapped young genius might become the next great space explorer.
Apollo 11 Remembered." The Washington Times 20 July 1999: 20. Questia. 4 Dec. 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001794564 .
Ruffo, C. Christine. "Before This Decade Is out.": Personal Reflections on the Apollo Program." The Oral History Review 28.2 (2001): 149+. Questia. 4 Dec. 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001045457 .
NASA (2003), Voyager the Intestellar Mission, found online at http://voyager.jpl.nasa.gov/spacecraft/goldenrec.html , retrieved 2 December 2007.
The Mars exploration program announced by President Bush in 2004 relies on first establishing a prolonged human presence on the Moon, in conjunction with completion of the International Space Station by 2015. The President envisions returning to the Moon by 2020 at the latest, for the purpose of being able to launch robotic missions to Mars (Whitehouse, 2004). According to the American Physical Society and many independent scientists, the President's goal overvalues the symbolic significance of landing on Mars at the expense of research that is more immediately beneficial to human society, and a more prudent financial expenditure (APS, 2004). This is a view with which I am inclined to agree.
Abbate, M. (1992) Blueprint for Space: Science Fiction to Science Fact.
Smithsonian Institution Press: London
American Physical Society. (2004) Panel on Public Affairs, Nov./04
The Moon-Mars Program.
Engelbert, P., Dupuis, D. (1998) the Handy Space Answer Book.…
Abbate, M. (1992) Blueprint for Space: Science Fiction to Science Fact.
Smithsonian Institution Press: London
American Physical Society. (2004) Panel on Public Affairs, Nov./04
The Moon-Mars Program.
Search for Extraterrestrial Life: The Existence of Non-Human Intelligent Beings in Our Galaxy
The possibility of extraterrestrial life has always intrigued philosophers, scientists, theologians and even lay people for centuries. The fascinating question of whether there are other intelligent creatures in space, however, remains unsolved despite technological advancements in science particularly because thus far, there still lacks conclusive evidence. Motivations for the search for non-human life range from scientific and philosophical levels, technical and practical levels, to even the need to eliminate the loneliness of the human race in time and space. Scientists and astronomers remain committed to the search because the answer to this question has profound consequences: it will explain the nature and destiny of intelligent life on the universe, the culmination of evolution in different galaxies and provide more insight on the role of human beings on the universe, as well as what they are capable of…
Aczel, A. D (1998). Probability 1. Florida: Harcount, Inc.
Drake, F. (1988). The Search for Extraterrestrial Life. Los Alamos Science Fellows Colloquium. Retrieved 3 June 2015 from http://permalink.lanl.gov/object/tr?what=info:lanl-repo/lareport/LA-UR-88-1000-04
Hawkin, S. (n.d). Life in the Universe. Retrieved 3 June from http://www.hawking.org.uk/life-in-the-universe.html
Kelly, M. (2012). Expectation of Extraterrestrial Life Built More on Optimism than Evidence, Study Finds. Princeton University Library. Retrieved 3 June 2015 from http://www.princeton.edu/main/news/archive/S33/52/89I01/
Real trial-based evidence shows a
clear success in reduced cracking in cement which is reinforced thusly.
Our research tells that these reinforces cement bodies "have aspect ratios
of 500 or more and diameters - about the same size as the distance between
layers in hydrated cement - so that cracks in the matrix would quickly
encounter well-dispersed SCNTs, inhibiting their growth." (Makar, 1) In
order for these findings to be used in any real-world setting, we must
continue to refine and broaden the field of empirical study on this
Beyond concrete, the far-reaching potential yielded by the
proliferation of the carbon nanotube is not simple exciting, but may prove
itself to be one of the most important revelations of its time. The sheer
diversity of its usability and the relative novelty in the exploration of
its properties suggests that its capacity for as yet unimagined
technological applications is still…
Adler, R. (2006). Carbon-nanotube 'Strings' May ID Single Molecules. New
Scientist. Online at http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn9857 -
AzoNano. (2005). Prestigious award for Nano-fiber Reinforced Concrete.
Nanotechnology. Online at http://www.azonano.com/news.asp?newsID=1718
To succeed in a highly dynamic and competitive environment, business organizations must effectively execute their planning activities. They must judiciously formulate their long- and short-term goals and objectives. This ensures better anticipation of the ever uncertain future (Hill & Jones, 2013). Effective planning also ensures better utilization of organizational resources (Wittman & Reuter, 2008). With reference to Galaxy Toys, an American toy manufacturing company, this paper explores the planning process. In the first part, a SWOT analysis of the company is provided, along with a choice and justification of the best long-term planning decision for the company. In the second part, the paper differentiates between goals and objectives based on a formulated list of goals and objectives.
Part One: SWOT Analysis and Long-Term Planning
Founded in 1956 by George Jepson and his wife, Galaxy is involved in designing, manufacturing, and selling space-themed children's toys primarily in the U.S. The company…
Project Management: Case Study in Managing a Complex Shipyard Project in Singapore
Background of Complex Shipyard Construction Project
Project Overview and Objective
ork Process of Building Construction
Issue Analysis in Shipyard Construction Project Management
Literature Review of Project Management
Issues in Scope Management
Methodology of Scope Management
Lessons Learned from Scope Management
Issues in Cost Management
Methodology of Cost Management
Lessons Learned from Cost Management
Issues in Human Resources
Methodology of HR Management
Lessons Learned from Human Resource Management
Case Study in Managing a Complex Shipyard Construction Project in Singapore
This paper introduces the special features of a completed shipyard project, together with its construction and human resource management processes as well. The organization of the paper provides an introduction to the topic, an overview and background of the In the first part, this project illustrates overview of the complex background of a complex ship-building project as…
Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge. Best Practices for Project Scope Planning. [Online]. Available: http://www.tensteppb.com/5.2.02TSProjectScopePlanningTechniques.htm .
About Us. (2004). Keppel Shipyard. [Online]. Available: http://www.keppelshipyard.com/corporate/aboutus.asp.
Badiru, Adedeji Bodunde. Quantitative Models for Project Planning, Scheduling and Control. Westport, CT: Quorom Books, 1993.
BP awards U.S.$20 million follow-up job to Keppel yard. (July 26, 2004). Keppel Corporation. [Online]. Available: http://www.kepcorp.com/press/press.asp.
President Nixon also was personally fascinating with this area of policy has hand-written notes to astronauts are enclosed in plastic for reading and review. What's fascinating about this exhibit is the budget for the space programs including NASA is also posted. By today's figures, it looks quite small, and it's deliberately posted to show how small the investment is for how much value is generated as a result. This is one of the most patriotic exhibits there are in the entire library and museum.
Richard Nixon's involved in Watergate is lightly touched on; there is not that much investigative analysis of the events as there is an exhibit which was closed. Domestic policy including the Vietnam War and the plight of prisoners of war is shown graphically. The anti-war protests are also given equal presentation. The curators of the library and museum attempt to show how complex and…
(The Model 2 Organization: Making Your Company Safe for Zealots) Thus the main strength is in the organization while the weaknesses are in the diversifications that it has gone through.
To summarize, Lockheed Martin is one of the largest players in the defense industry and they are well diversified so that they can take advantage of any changes. Whatever may happen, it does not seem that the business of war is going out of fashion. The company has to continue looking out for areas in which business of war is going to get into in the future and shift their activity in that line to the extent possible.
Golden, Liesel A; Harris, William S; Jackson, Jeffrey A. (April 1998) "Winning wars quicker with less casualties and resulting in a better State of Peace" A esearch eport Submitted to the Faculty In Partial Fulfillment of the Graduation equirements. etrieved from…
Golden, Liesel A; Harris, William S; Jackson, Jeffrey A. (April 1998) "Winning wars quicker with less casualties and resulting in a better State of Peace" A Research Report Submitted to the Faculty In Partial Fulfillment of the Graduation Requirements. Retrieved from www.fas.org/man/dod-101/sys/ship/docs/98-103.pdf. Accessed 11 August, 2005
Kocourek, Paul. F; Hyde, Paul. "The Model 2 Organization: Making Your Company Safe for Zealots" Retrieved at http://www.strategy-business.com/article/10797?gko=6e7b7-1876-10797Accessed 11 August, 2005
Lockheed Martin Co" (28 May, 2004) University of Oregon Investment Group. Retrieved at http://uoig.uoregon.edu/reports/2004/Spring/LMT%20Final.pdf. Accessed 11 August, 2005
Steps in Preparing a Comprehensive Written Analysis" Retrieved at http://www.businessfaculty.utoledo.edu/tschramko/BUAD%204020%20Fall%202005/Analytical%20framework%20format.doc. Accessed 11 August, 2005
It was founded on the knowledge that spurred during the Renaissance and has placed significance on rational thought and cultural emphasis, which was not present before.
Furthermore, with regards to the popularity of Baroque during this period, it is important to note that this style was able to combine the principles of science and the philosophies and doctrines of early Christianity, which has been very prominent in architectures built on such style. During the earlier period, the Renaissance, art was simpler and characterized by simple rhythms. With Baroque, however, a dynamic change has occurred, as art and architecture became more ostentatious and it has shown how art can move from the previous period (Saisselin).
The Scientific Revolution has presented a new perspective and shows a shift from the orthodox. It has also allowed the use of the past in order to create the future. In the field of arts, the…
SWOT Company Analysis & Evaluation Project
Like any and every sector in the competitive world, the Information Technology sector has become highly competitive. There are primarily two reasons behind it. The first reason is the effects of the rapidly increasing globalization. This has triggered a sharp wave of raging competition in the corporate sector and organizations are trying to perfect the art of their marketing, management, human resource, production, supply chain and a lot of other functions all at the same time with a single objective of achieving a sustainable competitive advantage. The second reason, which makes the Information Technology sector much more competitive, is the rapid progression and development in this field. Technology gets updated at a rapid rate that calls for excessive research and development. With newer players entering the Information Technology market with much more creative ideas than ever before, the existing firms are forced not only…
Pughes, E. (1995). Building IBM, USA: MIT Press.
Watson, T. (2003). A business and its beliefs: the ideas that helped build IBM. New York: Mc Graw Hill.
Knowing in advance the terrain, the vegetation, and the water sources prepares the mission teams with the knowledge to confront the elements associated with the geographical conditions of the site. Analysis provides information for determining in advance the best sites to set up base camps, where the terrain is less vulnerable to hostile advances. t demonstrates in advance how supplies will most efficiently and expeditiously be delivered to the site. The GS can indicate to military coordinators how many helicopters, ground armored vehicles, and other military transport vehicles the use of which is dependent upon conditions of terrain. Whether or not supplies can be delivered via ground or air is an important consideration in planning and supplying a military exercise or event. GS is a valuable tool for military logistical purposes.
f we look at the layered data GS is capable of delivering, we find that the information is essential…
Intoccia, Greogry F., and Moore, Joe Wesey, Communications, Technology, Warfare, and the Law: Is the Network a Weapon System?, Houston Journal of International Law, vol 28, 2006, p. 467.
GAO, 2003, op cit.
Sznaider, 2005, p. 5.
The two organizations being discussed in this paper are SPACE, a government-funded space exploration program, and Electric Innovators, an electrical engineering firm that provides semi-conductors to SPACE as well as to other vendors. SPACE has a closed organizational model; it is a government-run organization that interacts with, but is not dependent upon, outside vendors in order to do business. Moreover, it has a single customer: the U.S. government. Electric Innovators has an open organizational model; it competes in the free market for customers and has to negotiate prices from suppliers as well as market price to customers. The fact that Electric Innovators is one of SPACE's providers is one of the few ways that the companies are linked.
"A closed system organization is the one that is self-sufficient and its operations are not influenced by external influences like competition, economy, suppliers, or external resources" (Gupta, 2009). SPACE is…
Gross, H. (2013). Organization: Open vs. closed. Retrieved September 16, 2013 from HG
Communications website: http://hgcommunications.com/organization-open-vs.-closed/
Gupta, A. (2009). Organizational fundamentals. Retrieved September 16, 2013 from Practical
Management website: http://www.practical-management.com/Organization-Development/Organization-fundamentals.html
Club (XPDC) is a bidde's confeence fo the poject of conveting technology developed fo NASA into civilian use, specifically ocket technology fo space tavel. The confeence is fo biddes in all of the diffeent aspects of this poject. Conveting existing technology stock into pivate space exploation vessels is a complex task, so thee will be a wide ange of oppotunities fo vendos with a specialization in aeospace.
This Request fo Poposal seves the pupose of soliciting poposals fom vendos who ae able to meet some of the poject specifications, and bid on one o moe aspects of the oveall poject. X-Pize is an oganization fomed by a team of aeospace industy veteans that has been tasked by the fedeal govenment to take the lead on tansitioning NASA and militay technology elating to space tavel into the civilian secto. The Bidde's Confeence is being held in ode to attact aeospace and…
references from clients that may be available will be beneficial
A list of resources that will be used in this project, and attestation that the company possesses these resources
Acceptance of the XPDC's time frame, as outlined above
A point of contact for additional questions about the project
A point of contact should the bid be accepted, if different from above
"Once every 248 Earth years, Pluto swings inside the orbit of Neptune. It stays there for twenty years. During those twenty years, Pluto is closer to the Sun than Neptune. During this period of time, like the other eight planets, Pluto's atmosphere undergoes a fundamental change in character, briefly developing an atmosphere. As methane and nitrogen frozen at the poles thaw. As it moves toward its farthest point from the Sun, Pluto's atmosphere freezes and falls back to the ground" (Dejoie & Truelove 2008).
These eccentricities further suggested that Pluto was really much more "like a new group of objects found in the outer solar system," called dwarf planets and not worthy of the status of the other eight (Inman, 2008, p.2). Still, many astronomers argued in favor of a more inclusive definition that would still retain Pluto's status as a planet. In fact, one radical proposal: "would have made…
Britt, Robert Roy. "What is a planet>" Space.com. 2 Nov 2000. August 2, 2008. http://www.space.com/scienceastronomy/solarsystem/planet_confusion_001101-2.html
Britt, Robert Roy. "Scientists decide Pluto's no longer a planet." MSNBC.com. August 24, 2006.
August 2, 2008. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/14489259/
Cain, Fraser. "Why is Pluto not a planet>" Universe Today. April 10, 2008. August 1, 2008. http://www.universetoday.com/2008/04/10/why-pluto-is-no-longer-a-planet/
This also means that the prices must be reasonable. The resort also has an opportunity to make substantial revenue from this asset because it is open to the general public.
Entertainment- entertainment also has the capacity to generate revenue for the resort. The resort has banquet facilities that can accommodate bands and other types of entertainment. These banquet facilities were added on as part of the restoration of the resort and have proven to be a valuable revenue generating asset.
Gift Shop/Souvenir Items- ecause the resort is located so close to Disney land and designed to accommodate families the resort sells souvenirs and other products in its gift shop. Therefore the gift shop is a revenue generating asset. Once again the resort has to be careful to sell the memorabilia and other items at a discounted price because these items are available throughout the city.
Rentals/services-there are several things that…
United States ArmyFiscal Year 2004 MWR Annual. Retrieved September 11, 2005 from; Report. http://www.army.mil/cfsc/documents/planning/Annual_Report2004.pdf
Armed Forces Recreation Center. Retrieved September 11, 2005 from; http://www.armymwr.com/portal/travel/recreationcenters/
Armed Forces Recreation Centers Expand in Florida, Germany. Retrieved September 11, 2005 from; http://www.defense.gov/news/Jul2002/n07012002_200207015.html
Armed Forces Recreational Center Uses Federal Government ESPC to Achieve Goals. Retrieved September 11, 2005 from; http://www.trane.com/commercial/library/shdsgreen.asp
Human Resources Management at Boeing
Corporate Governance Strategies at Boeing 5
CSR and Ethical Training
Boeing's CSR Progress
Boeing is the world's largest aerospace company and the leading manufacturer of commercial jetliners and military aircraft combined. Boeing has built a model that focuses on operating sustainably and being good corporate citizens. However, to effectively integrate an effective CSR model so that the employees use this on a tactile level this will require a significant training effort. This analysis will provide a brief overview of the company, their CSR statements and desired outcomes, as well as provide some analysis on the training that the organization will need to conduct in order to meet its objectives.
Boeing is the world's largest aerospace company and the leading manufacturer of commercial jetliners and military aircraft combined; Boeing also designs and manufactures rotorcraft, electronic and defense systems,…
Boeing. (2008, October). Getting eco-engaged. Retrieved from Boeing Frontiers: http://www.boeing.com/news/frontiers/archive/2008/october/mainfeature.pdf
Boeing. (2012). Corporate Governance. Retrieved from Boeing: http://www.boeing.com/corp_gov/
Boeing. (2012). Global Corporate Citizenship. Retrieved from Boeing: http://www.boeing.com/companyoffices/aboutus/community/gcc.html
Boeing. (2015). Boeing Overview. Retrieved from Boeing: http://www.boeing.com/assets/pdf/companyoffices/aboutus/overview/boeing_overview.pdf
The spirit of competition also negatively impacted the manner in which employees communicated. The lack of specific definition as well as the highly isolationist company mentality ultimately resulted in a communication breakdown which prevented the effective running of the company.
Knowledge Sharing: Mentoring and cross-training have been declining leading to less knowledge sharing and familiarization opportunities for younger less experienced staff. Section members lack the opportunity to share knowledge and to share in lessons learned. This enforced specialization of employees will ultimately result in poorer results. Cross discipline work is essential in the successful integration and most efficient use of employed experts (Forrester, 1971). It could potentially take months longer to reach a favorable outcome if indeed the most efficient and effective outcome is ever reached at all.
Compartmentalizing of Data and Ideas: There are silos / compartments of information that was not readily communicated across departments (ichmond, 2001). As…
1. Ackoff, R.L. 1981 Creating the Corporate Future. New York: John Wiley, and Son.
2. Ackoff, R.L., & Emery, F. 1972 On Purposeful Systems. Chicago: Aldine-Atherton.Beer, Stafford, Brain of the Firm. Harmondsworth: Penguin Press, 1967.
3. Boulding, K.E. 1956 The image, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press
4. Churchman, C. 1971 Design of Inquiring Systems. New York: Basic Books.
However, there is some common sense in knowing when government is necessary and when too much government is detrimental to quality of life.
A world without government would be a much worse world, one in which crimes proliferated, in which an economy would be impossible to maintain on a global scale, and in which public works projects could not be maintained feasibly. Too much government, such as with socialist and communist systems, do not work well because they restrict the rights and freedoms of people. However, too many Americans believe that any government is bad. Before Americans forget what government is good for, they should remember that governments pay for schools because citizens agree that an educated population is a safe and happy population. Governments also create public works projects that allow citizens to enjoy clean drinking water, communication networks, and transportation systems. Anarchy and complete privatization might be fun…
Amy, D.J. (2007). Stealth Deregulation: The Untold Story.
Benson, E. T (1968). The proper role of government. Retrieved online: http://laissez-fairerepublic.com/benson.htm
Feinman, R.D. (2004). Government's Role. Retrieved online: http://robertdfeinman.com/society/government_role.html
Halloran, L. (2011). Deficit Forces Question: What Is Government's Role? NPR. Retrieved online: http://www.npr.org/2011/04/12/135352906/deficit-forces-question-what-is-governments-role
It wasn't until the 1920s and '30s that their blue-collar counterparts began to get paid vacations as well.
Americans in the late 20th century "worked more days per year than workers in other prosperous nations, such as those in Europe, yet on average, had less vacation time (Sabga, 2001)." Americans averaged two to three weeks off a year, in sharp contrast to many European nations which guaranteed up to six weeks a year. This is due to the fact "unlike in other countries, particularly Europe, vacations in the United States are not guaranteed by the government (Sabga, 2001)."
oles of Women
Women have played important roles in science and technology, however many times they have faced "social, economic, and intellectual obstacles (Kohlstedt, 2004)." In the early 20th century, the United States benefited from the efforts of "women of distinction like Anna
Botsford Comstock and Ellen Swallow ichards, while in Europe…
Asmar, Marwan. Dr. (31 December, 1999). "The makers of the 20th century." The Star (Jordan,
Cowen, Tyler. (January, 2000). "Who Says the Arts Are Dying?" USA Today (Magazine). (accessed 28 November, 2004). www.findarticles.com/cf_dls/m1272/2656_128/58576593/p1/article.jh).
Kohlstedt, Sally Gregory. (22 March, 2004). "Sustaining gains: reflections on women in science and technology in 20th-century United States." NWSA Journal.
Leadership -- Power and Responsibilities / Integrity
hen it comes to the concept of "leadership" there are numerous definitions that can be applied. Every leader uses his or her own approach to leading, and while there are similar aspects to the behaviors of most leaders, how leaders approach their strengths is played out differently. In literature (like the blind man in Cathedral) and in real life (like the way Abraham Lincoln conducted himself in a political situation) leaders provide robust examples of how to get things done and how to influence the actions of others.
This paper uses the leadership styles and behaviors of several individuals to demonstrate their qualities (or, in the case of Jimmy Cross, lack of leadership qualities) as they lead -- and the paper points to the integrity the individuals showed in the process of their leadership.
Leadership and Integrity
Abraham Lincoln -- the subject today…
Abrashoff, Michael D. It's Your Ship: Management Techniques from the Best Damn Ship in the Navy. New York: Warner Books. 2002
Carver, Raymond. Cathedral: Raymond Carver, in The Wadsworth Casebook Series for Reading, Research, and Writing, Ed. Laurie Kirszner. Independence, KY: Cengage
Moreton, Catherine L. "10 Qualities that Made Abraham Lincoln a Great Leader." Business & Legal Resources. Retrieved February 16, 2013, from https://hr.blr.com . 2008.
For most individuals, the decision whether to attend college is one of their first major decisions in life. In fact, this decision is one of a handful of decisions individuals make in life which arguably significantly impact the rest of their lives, both career wise and personally. The process of obtaining a college education is rather complicated, both on a practical level as well as an emotional level. On a practical level, individuals must devote a large portion of time to taking the SAT, touring college campuses, filling out college applications, writing personal statements, obtaining letters of recommendation, deciding upon a major, etc.
Emotionally, the decision whether to attend college involves a great deal of learning, much of which starts before an individual ever sets foot on a college campus. While most individuals enter college directly out of high school, I chose not to. Instead, I went to…
Endothon and Techfite have different corporate cultures. Endothon, a space exploration agency, has a customer-oriented culture, which can also be referred to as a task-oriented culture. The organisation focuses on results and productivity, and is driven by safety and innovation. This shows that the organisation is more concerned about the task and fulfilling the needs of its customers. While a task-oriented culture is important for enhancing productivity and customer satisfaction, it can result in reduced work morale, motivation, and commitment as there is little or no focus on the needs and welfare of employees. Techfite, on the other hand, has an employee-oriented culture. This is a culture that values the contribution of employees, and seeks to maximise their welfare by fulfilling their needs. Techfite achieves this by offering flexibility and empowerment. Though an employee-centred culture is important for motivating employees, it can result in less focus on productivity.…
Hayes, J. (2014). The theory and practice of change management. 4th ed. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Energy: A Bright Future Through Diversification
The energy industry has been a lucrative and growing one for generations, and will continue to be so in the future. Multiple sectors depend on the robustness of the energy industry for their long-term success, ensuring the relevance of and reliance on the energy business for the foreseeable future. From space exploration and military technology to utilities and essential services, quality energy sourcing, processing, generation, and distribution are all crucial to life on earth. Furthermore, the world's population is growing at an alarming rate, necessitating new products, services, and innovations to fit growing energy needs. The industry's ability to adapt to change, mitigate risks, and manage market forces makes it certain that my future in the energy field is a bright one.
Granted, a "massive transformation" is predicted for the future of the energy industry due to the boom in solar projects around the…
Reply to Guy
I have met someone who believed that the moon landing was fake, and yet I did not listen to their arguments. Reading these specific arguments now clarifies why some people might believe that the moon landing was fake. If these people did not believe the photographic evidence, they are actually thinking critically. Ironically, though, too much skepticism can be as irrational as too little. Personally I think that it would be impossible to have manufactured a fake moon landing without any reporter or government spy having noticed. The moon landing did take place during the Cold War, which would mean that any attempt to discredit the United States by the Soviet Union would have been made. Also, the current advancements of space exploration are built upon those initial landings.
Reply to Sarah
This is an interesting topic of discussion. I have heard about John Edwards…
From God to Man
The ideas of power and responsibility changed dramatically between the inaugural addresses of Abraham Lincoln and John Fitzgerald Kennedy. An evaluation of each of these addresses proves that power and responsibility has shifted from centering on God with man essentially doing his behest, to centering on man with few limitations, including God.
Lincoln makes it clear early on in his inaugural address that the responsibility for the Civil War does not lie with man, but rather with God. He describes this war as some manifestation of the volition of Providence that “fervently do we pray” (Lincoln) to end. The pronoun “we” refers to the warring parties of men. This quotation demonstrates the Civil War is occurring because of God’s power and responsibility. Conversely, Kennedy (1961) makes it apparent that men, and those within the U.S. specifically, are responsible for waging war, and even threatens to engage…