48+ documents containing “spanish inquisition”.
As Ferdinand and Isabella continued to press forward with the 're-conquest' of Spain, they would increasingly come into command of lands long inhabited by Jewish and Muslim populations. As part of the spoils of conquest, those conquered would be stripped of their faith as a way of either driving them out or bring them under the authority of the church and crown. For those that had at least publicly denounced their faith though, the Spanish Inquisition would represent a new and more prying attack on those of non-Catholic origins. Accordingly, Los Hermanas ool orks, LLC. (2009) reports that "King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain took seriously reports that some Conversos and Mudejars were not only privately practicing their former faiths but were secretly trying to draw others back into their previous religious folds. In 1480, the King and Queen created the Spanish Inquisition to investigate these suspicions. During the….
Crow, John. (1963). Spain: The Root and the Flower: A History of the Civilization of Spain and of the Spanish People. Harper & Row.
Kreger, L. (1996). The Spanish Inquisition: 1478-1834. The Web Chronology Project.
Ogg, David. (1954). Europe in the Seventeenth Century. Adam & Charles Black
Tres Hermana's Wool Works, LLC. (2009). A Short History of the Walking Loom. A Loom With a View. Online at http://tres-hermanas-weaver.blogspot.com/2009/07/where-did-walking-loom-come-from.html
" Although a similar situation regarding sexual deviance, sex between males was deemed a far more serious crime than mere masturbation. In fact, many states in the United States still have laws on the books that make sodomy, of any kind, illegal. This demonstrates that the traditions of colonial America and religious beliefs have continued to be passed down to this day, even in fully developed nations. Yet, the case involving Damian de Morales helps to bring to light another aspect of the Spanish Inquisition: it could be employed as a tool to eliminate potential rivals.
In the era following the Council of Trent (1545-63), when instilling sexual discipline became an important part of the Catholic world's response to the threat posed by the Protestant Reformation, the pecado nefando and the other sins of lust took on a particular importance for secular and ecclesiastical authorities. Yet given the gravity of the….
Abercrombie, Thomas a. 1995. "Affairs of the Courtroom." Colonial Lives. New York: Library of Congress.
Bokenkotter, Thomas. 2004. A Concise History of the Catholic Church. New York: Doubleday.
Few, Martha. 1995. "On Her Deathbed, Maria de la Canderlaria Accuses Michaela de Molina of Casting Spells." Colonial Lives. New York: Library of Congress.
Holler, Jacqueline. 1999. "The Spiritual and Physical Ecstasies of a Sixteenth-Century Beata." Colonial Lives. New York: Library of Congress.
Inquisitions have played a major role in the Catholic Church since early in the Church's history.[footnoteRef:1]. They are considered one of the most shameful part of the history of the Catholic Church and part of the darkest periods in Jewish history. One of the great Catholic theologians, St. Augustine, offered support for the Inquisition process by citing from the ook of Luke, 14:23. Then the master told his servant, "Go out to the roads and country lanes and make them come in, so that my house will be full." [1: Lea, Henry Charles. A History of the Inquisition in the Middle Ages. Harbor Press, 1888.]
The purpose of the inquisitions was to allow the Church's bishops to inquire into possible heresies and punish heretics for violations regarding matters of faith and morals. Coincidental with the authority to inquire came the power to administer capital punishment, excommunicate conduct autos de fe, i.e.….
Altabe, David Fintz. Spanish and Portuguese Jewry Before and After 1492. Brooklyn: Sepher-Herman Press, 1993.
"Edict signed by Ferdinand and Isabella - The Edict of Expulsion of the Jews from Spain." 1492.
Lea, Henry Charles. A History of the Inquisition in the Middle Ages. Harbor Press, 1888.
Martin A. Cohen, Abraham J. Peck. Sephardim in the Americas: Studies in Culture and History. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama, 1993.
Joseph Perez's Spanish Inquisition: A History
Anyone familiar with the inquisition would know that this is the story of 350 years of dread. Recognized by papal bull in the year of 1478, the initial job of the Spanish Inquisition was geared at interrogating Jewish converts to become Christians and to detect and put to death the ones that were being found guilty of relapse. It was a unusually dark period where the powers that be then turned against Spanish Jews in overall, directing 300,000 into banishment. After that came, those who were involved humanism and even those that were Lutherans. There was not a distinction anywhere that was considered exempt. It was a time when children apprised on their parents, traders on their opponents, and ministers upon their bishops. It was a time when people that made the decision to denounce were said to be responsible except they could express their….
Homza, Lu Ann. The Spanish Inquisition, 1478 -- 1614, An Anthology of Sources. Boston: Hackett Publishing, 2006.
Kamen, Henry,. The Spanish Inquisition: A Historical Revision. Yale: Yale University Press, 1997.
Parker, Geoffrey. "Some Recent Work on the Inquisition in Spain and Italy",." Journal of Modern History 54, no. 3 (1982): 23-45.
Perez, Joseph. The Spanish Inquisition: A History. Yale: Yale University Press, 2006.
The 'justification' for such actions could be said that many converted Jews still secretly practiced aspects of their faith, given that they could not do so openly, for fear of being persecuted.
Technically, unconverted Jews were supposed to be beyond the reach of the Inquisition because they were not baptized as Christians. However, in the actual practices of the Inquisition, given that individuals were tortured to such an extreme level, people would say they were Christians who were 'guilty' of Jewish practices simply to relieve their suffering, or the suffering of their loved ones, as in the case of a man whose wife was tortured before him.
After the converted Jews of Spain attempted to strike back against the Inquisition by stabbing one of the primary inquisitors, persecution increased. This was an act of treason against a man of God and King Ferdinand's appointee. Yet given the horrific and unjust actions….
Gender in Mexican Intellectual History
Juana Inez Ramirez de Asbaje, also known as Juana Ines de la Cruz, was an amazing woman in both Latin American and world history. Here was a woman writing in the 17th century who was willing to discuss the sexual practices of the males around her and to criticize them. Being a nun, this was even more out of the ordinary and makes Asbaje an even more extraordinary figure. In the 1600s, a woman's place was at the home either as a servant or as a bearer of children to a proper husband. It was not proper for a female to be educated or to think. For many women who were born with an untimely and unfortunate intellect, the only venue for them to learn was by entering the church. In her "Response to Sor Filotea," she states that as a young girl, Asbaje asked her….
Catholic Church in Mexico underscored both its conquest and its independence. Organizationally, the church prior to the liberation theology of the 20th century has always been more cogent than the Mexican government. The church has traditionally been amalgamated with conservative interests that include the military and wealthier landowners. The institution of tithing and the role of the church as a colonizer through its missions helped to make the church the most powerful pre-revolutionary institution in Mexico. Additionally, at a time before the existence of broad-based commercial lending, the church not only acted as the principal lender in the colony and early republic, but served as the nexus for all public activity in many smaller communities. However, the influence of the church was severely limited under liberalism. Although the iaz government returned to the Catholic church some of its former glory, the 1916 Constitution ultimately spelled an end to the….
Despite this relatively recent accommodation, the Church has not remained quiet on the issue of poverty. Historically, as the government failed to care for the people, the Church assumed greater responsibility and became more vocal in complaining about the government's shortcomings. Today the Church, which once strove mainly to preserve its own authority, has emerged as an outspoken opponent of the government. Yet aggressive Church actions were evident early in the century, both in opposition to the anti-clerical language of the 1917 constitution and in the violent Cristero rebellion of the 1920s. From 1926 to 1929 Mexico faced strong resistance by Catholics who opposed the anticlerical component of the Constitution of 1917 that regulated the affairs of the Catholic Church. After the emergence of liberation theology among Latin American Catholic priests in the 1970s, Mexican clerics became vocal in their condemnation of oppressive government policies. In 1991 clerical officials leveled a broad range of charges against the government including torture, abuse of prisoners, political persecution, corruption, and electoral fraud. These charges were repeated by Pope John Paul II in his 1999 visit when he called for an end to "violence, terrorism, and drug trafficking." The Church has been critical of the government by supporting the rebellion in the southern state of Chiapas. Tension between church and state emerged again as recently as 1994 when the government attempted to blame the Chiapas uprising on the language and actions of various clerics.
Traditionally regarded as a woman's issue, birth control has become a mainstream political issue since the 1970s. After all, through the combined effects of cultural expectations to raise large families and the Catholic Church's ban on birth control, the population grew dramatically. Women who chose not to have children resorted to crude abortions. In 1970, the year Luis Echeverr'a became the first Mexican president to call for a reduction in the nation's population, as many as 32,000 Mexican women died from abortion complications. Although discussions of population control have long been taboo by the Catholic Church, 1972 saw a reversal when Mexican clerics called for reduced family size. Thereafter government support enabled family planning clinics and educational programs to be developed. By 1988 the Mexican annual population growth rate was nearly halved, to 1.8%.
Women in Mexico have been pushing for significant changes within the political and social arenas, and they are slowly gaining access to previously male-dominated spheres. For example, they are now elected as state governors and as representatives in the Chamber of Deputies. Increasingly they are leaving bad marriages in spite of condemnation from the Church and hostility from their own families. Indeed, there is growing liberation from the traditional roles and expectations for women in Mexican society.
I think I could definitely say that if one's personality were completely changed, then one would cease to function as the same identity and would instead be someone new, even in the same body. And -- to head you off before you ask -- yes, I believe the reverse is also true: the same personality (that is, the same mind) transferred over to a new body would retain the same identity that had previously occupied the original body.
BOB: Now you've complicated things -- is identity of the personality or the mind? Or is the mind the seat of the personality, and also identity? In our first supposition of one who suffers a trauma and undergoes a personality change, suppose also that the memory is unaffected. Would identity have changed here, even though the two personalities share a consistent history?
CIN: Yes, I think that would be a fair assessment --….
Goya and Redon
Francisco Goya was an 18th-19th century Spanish painter and printmaker. Odilon Redon was a 19th-20th century painter and printmaker. The two artists, though separated by a century, share a similar style and perspective. Goya lived through the Romantic-Enlightenment era and saw the unraveling of society on the Continent as the Old World values were swept away be Enlightenment philosophy and Romantic dreams. Redon lived to reflect the aftermath of that era: his symbolist paintings show a world that is half-mad, yet totally focused on itself and its grandiose ideas. Together, Goya and Redon cover three centuries of thought and activity in Europe. Goya’s Saturn Devouring His Son (1819-1823) and Redon’s The Smiling Spider (1887) both show strangeness in the extreme and depict a frightening aspect of the world that is at once nightmarish and bizarrely humorous. This paper will provide an analysis of Goya’s and Redon’s respective works.
Spain is rich in tradition and culture, but it is important to note that this diversity is the product of centuries of war and conflict. From her early beginnings, Spain has been a rift of conflicting religious and political ideas, and those characteristics are present in every aspect of Spanish life today. Historically, the path from religious persecution to independence has been a journal of religious and political differences. Those political differences have lead to a varied and unique political system, which combines monarchy with a democratic government. Finally, the culture of Spain is an obvious representation of the religious history and conflicting cultures, displayed by the Carnival festivals and the wide variety of cultural traditions, such as bullfighting and the Flamenco. These combinations of cultures combine to effectively form one of the most diverse cultures in the world today.
Bureau of European and Eurasian Affairs. (2005). Spain. etrieved April 19,….
Lazarillo De Tormes
The Spanish Picaresque Novel: The Life of Lazarillo de Tormes (1554): Its Social Structure and Its Characters
The Spanish picaresque novel Lazarillo de Tormes written in 1554 by an anonymous author, possibly a Jewish converso (that is, a Jewish individual forced to convert to Catholicism during the time of the Spanish Inquisition) (Rudder, 1988)), details a series of unfortunate, but frequently ironic and comical adventures of a young orphan/vagabond or "picaro." ("Picaro" is the Spanish word for such a character, thus the description "picaresque" given Lazarillo de Tormes and other, similar 16th and 17th century novels published in Spain, including La vida del buscon by Quevedo, and Guzman de Alfarache by Aleman ( Febres, 1988)). As Rudder (p. 6) states: Some critics . . . think the author was a Jewish convert to Christianity because of certain phrases which point in that direction." The boy Lazarillo travels around, parentless….
Anonymous. The Life of Lazarillo de Tormes, Parts One and Two. (Trans. Robert Rudder, 1995). Project Gutenberg Etext.Retrieved March 1, 2005, from:
Febres, Eleodoro. "Life of Lazarillo de Tormes: Evil Tongues, Unity, and Success." Torre de Papel, Vol. 8, No. 1 (Spring 1988). 1.
Fiore, Robert. "Preface." Lazarillo de Tormes. Boston: Twayne Publishers,
Some Chinese researchers assert that Chinese flutes may have evolved from of Indian provenance.
In fact, the kind of side-blon, or transverse, flutes musicians play in Southeast Asia have also been discovered in Africa, India, Saudi Arabia, and Central Asia, as ell as throughout the Europe of the Roman Empire. This suggests that rather than originating in China or even in India, the transverse flute might have been adopted through the trade route of the Silk Road to Asia. In addition to these transverse flutes, Southeast Asians possessed the kind of long vertical flutes; similar to those found in Central Asia and Middle East.
A considerable amount of similarities exist beteen the vertical flutes of Southeast Asia and flutes from Muslim countries. This type of flute possibly came from Persians during the ninth century; during the religious migration to SEA. Likeise, the nose-blon flute culture, common to a number of traditional African….
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In principle, it would be entirely possible to replace religious-inspired morality with logically derived concepts of morality in human life. Generally little else would be required besides suspending religious teachings and substituting the rules of organized religion with very basic ideas such as "do no harm." In that regard, the commandment "do unto others" is a perfectly useful and easily understandable ethical principle that could be taught with much better results without the cloak of its religious context.
Instead of teaching that human beings are incapable of ascertaining what is right and what is wrong without divine help and that we are morally tarnished by our involuntary thoughts, we would learn that one ought not to treat other unfairly or cause them harm and that the worse our involuntary desires and thoughts, the more moral credit we deserve for resisting the impulse to act on them. Ultimately, one of the saddest….
Juana Inez De La Cruz
The Achievements Of Sor Juana Inez De La Cruz
Considering the times in which she lived, Sor Juana Inez de la Cruz (1648 to 1695) achieved many amazing things that to this day are unrivaled in the annals of the Catholic Church and the history of Mexico, her native land. As the alleged illegitimate daughter of Dona Isabel Ramirez and Pedro Manuel de Asbaje, Inez de la Cruz as a child was very precocious and curious about all things in her environment which, by itself, is rather unexpected, due to being raised in the small and impoverished Mexican village of San Miguel, a place without schools or educational mentors except for the Catholic Church which, at the time, did not see much potential in educating a girl of her social stature.
As Geoffrey Kantaris points out, Inez de la Cruz learned "to read very early. . . And….
organized religion today has become an issue of controversy. Human intelligence and technology have developed to the point where it is difficult to find a spiritual foothold. This is perhaps why materialism has dominated the earlier part of the 20th century in the Western world. It is however interesting that there seems to be a return to spirituality during the first part of the 21st century. People have taken spiritual refuge in everything from the strangest new-age religions to the most traditional forms of Christianity. When considering the question of how Christianity particularly has changed then, there are many similarities and also differences between Christianity today and its earlier counterpart.
Firstly, the question of current and earlier Christianity is multi-faceted. Christianity as a religion, as I see it, has experienced several stages. The first stage occurred right after the death and resurrection of Christ. There was an extreme rise in….
Mythology - Religion
As Ferdinand and Isabella continued to press forward with the 're-conquest' of Spain, they would increasingly come into command of lands long inhabited by Jewish and Muslim populations. As…Read Full Paper ❯
Mythology - Religion
" Although a similar situation regarding sexual deviance, sex between males was deemed a far more serious crime than mere masturbation. In fact, many states in the United States…Read Full Paper ❯
Literature - Latin-American
Inquisitions have played a major role in the Catholic Church since early in the Church's history.[footnoteRef:1]. They are considered one of the most shameful part of the history of…Read Full Paper ❯
Literature - Latin-American
Joseph Perez's Spanish Inquisition: A History Anyone familiar with the inquisition would know that this is the story of 350 years of dread. Recognized by papal bull in the year…Read Full Paper ❯
Mythology - Religion
The 'justification' for such actions could be said that many converted Jews still secretly practiced aspects of their faith, given that they could not do so openly, for…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Women
Gender in Mexican Intellectual History Juana Inez Ramirez de Asbaje, also known as Juana Ines de la Cruz, was an amazing woman in both Latin American and world history. Here…Read Full Paper ❯
Mythology - Religion
Catholic Church in Mexico underscored both its conquest and its independence. Organizationally, the church prior to the liberation theology of the 20th century has always been more cogent…Read Full Paper ❯
I think I could definitely say that if one's personality were completely changed, then one would cease to function as the same identity and would instead be someone…Read Full Paper ❯
Goya and Redon Francisco Goya was an 18th-19th century Spanish painter and printmaker. Odilon Redon was a 19th-20th century painter and printmaker. The two artists, though separated by a century,…Read Full Paper ❯
Literature - Latin-American
Spain is rich in tradition and culture, but it is important to note that this diversity is the product of centuries of war and conflict. From her early beginnings,…Read Full Paper ❯
Lazarillo De Tormes Undergraduate The Spanish Picaresque Novel: The Life of Lazarillo de Tormes (1554): Its Social Structure and Its Characters The Spanish picaresque novel Lazarillo de Tormes written in 1554 by…Read Full Paper ❯
History - Asian
Some Chinese researchers assert that Chinese flutes may have evolved from of Indian provenance. In fact, the kind of side-blon, or transverse, flutes musicians play in Southeast Asia have also…Read Full Paper ❯
Mythology - Religion
Conclusion In principle, it would be entirely possible to replace religious-inspired morality with logically derived concepts of morality in human life. Generally little else would be required besides suspending religious…Read Full Paper ❯
Mythology - Religion
Juana Inez De La Cruz The Achievements Of Sor Juana Inez De La Cruz Considering the times in which she lived, Sor Juana Inez de la Cruz (1648 to 1695) achieved…Read Full Paper ❯
Mythology - Religion
organized religion today has become an issue of controversy. Human intelligence and technology have developed to the point where it is difficult to find a spiritual foothold. This…Read Full Paper ❯