As Ferdinand and Isabella continued to press forward with the 're-conquest' of Spain, they would increasingly come into command of lands long inhabited by Jewish and Muslim populations. As part of the spoils of conquest, those conquered would be stripped of their faith as a way of either driving them out or bring them under the authority of the church and crown. For those that had at least publicly denounced their faith though, the Spanish Inquisition would represent a new and more prying attack on those of non-Catholic origins. Accordingly, Los Hermanas ool orks, LLC. (2009) reports that "King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain took seriously reports that some Conversos and Mudejars were not only privately practicing their former faiths but were secretly trying to draw others back into their previous religious folds. In 1480, the King and Queen created the Spanish Inquisition to investigate these suspicions. During the…… [Read More]
" Although a similar situation regarding sexual deviance, sex between males was deemed a far more serious crime than mere masturbation. In fact, many states in the United States still have laws on the books that make sodomy, of any kind, illegal. This demonstrates that the traditions of colonial America and religious beliefs have continued to be passed down to this day, even in fully developed nations. Yet, the case involving Damian de Morales helps to bring to light another aspect of the Spanish Inquisition: it could be employed as a tool to eliminate potential rivals.
In the era following the Council of Trent (1545-63), when instilling sexual discipline became an important part of the Catholic world's response to the threat posed by the Protestant Reformation, the pecado nefando and the other sins of lust took on a particular importance for secular and ecclesiastical authorities. Yet given the gravity of…… [Read More]
Inquisitions have played a major role in the Catholic Church since early in the Church's history.[footnoteRef:1]. They are considered one of the most shameful part of the history of the Catholic Church and part of the darkest periods in Jewish history. One of the great Catholic theologians, St. Augustine, offered support for the Inquisition process by citing from the ook of Luke, 14:23. Then the master told his servant, "Go out to the roads and country lanes and make them come in, so that my house will be full." [1: Lea, Henry Charles. A History of the Inquisition in the Middle Ages. Harbor Press, 1888.]
The purpose of the inquisitions was to allow the Church's bishops to inquire into possible heresies and punish heretics for violations regarding matters of faith and morals. Coincidental with the authority to inquire came the power to administer capital punishment, excommunicate conduct autos de fe,…… [Read More]
Joseph Perez's Spanish Inquisition: A History
Anyone familiar with the inquisition would know that this is the story of 350 years of dread. Recognized by papal bull in the year of 1478, the initial job of the Spanish Inquisition was geared at interrogating Jewish converts to become Christians and to detect and put to death the ones that were being found guilty of relapse. It was a unusually dark period where the powers that be then turned against Spanish Jews in overall, directing 300,000 into banishment. After that came, those who were involved humanism and even those that were Lutherans. There was not a distinction anywhere that was considered exempt. It was a time when children apprised on their parents, traders on their opponents, and ministers upon their bishops. It was a time when people that made the decision to denounce were said to be responsible except they could express…… [Read More]
The 'justification' for such actions could be said that many converted Jews still secretly practiced aspects of their faith, given that they could not do so openly, for fear of being persecuted.
Technically, unconverted Jews were supposed to be beyond the reach of the Inquisition because they were not baptized as Christians. However, in the actual practices of the Inquisition, given that individuals were tortured to such an extreme level, people would say they were Christians who were 'guilty' of Jewish practices simply to relieve their suffering, or the suffering of their loved ones, as in the case of a man whose wife was tortured before him.
After the converted Jews of Spain attempted to strike back against the Inquisition by stabbing one of the primary inquisitors, persecution increased. This was an act of treason against a man of God and King Ferdinand's appointee. Yet given the horrific and unjust…… [Read More]
Gender in Mexican Intellectual History
Juana Inez Ramirez de Asbaje, also known as Juana Ines de la Cruz, was an amazing woman in both Latin American and world history. Here was a woman writing in the 17th century who was willing to discuss the sexual practices of the males around her and to criticize them. Being a nun, this was even more out of the ordinary and makes Asbaje an even more extraordinary figure. In the 1600s, a woman's place was at the home either as a servant or as a bearer of children to a proper husband. It was not proper for a female to be educated or to think. For many women who were born with an untimely and unfortunate intellect, the only venue for them to learn was by entering the church. In her "Response to Sor Filotea," she states that as a young girl, Asbaje asked…… [Read More]
Catholic Church in Mexico underscored both its conquest and its independence. Organizationally, the church prior to the liberation theology of the 20th century has always been more cogent than the Mexican government. The church has traditionally been amalgamated with conservative interests that include the military and wealthier landowners. The institution of tithing and the role of the church as a colonizer through its missions helped to make the church the most powerful pre-revolutionary institution in Mexico. Additionally, at a time before the existence of broad-based commercial lending, the church not only acted as the principal lender in the colony and early republic, but served as the nexus for all public activity in many smaller communities. However, the influence of the church was severely limited under liberalism. Although the iaz government returned to the Catholic church some of its former glory, the 1916 Constitution ultimately spelled an end to the church's…… [Read More]
I think I could definitely say that if one's personality were completely changed, then one would cease to function as the same identity and would instead be someone new, even in the same body. And -- to head you off before you ask -- yes, I believe the reverse is also true: the same personality (that is, the same mind) transferred over to a new body would retain the same identity that had previously occupied the original body.
BOB: Now you've complicated things -- is identity of the personality or the mind? Or is the mind the seat of the personality, and also identity? In our first supposition of one who suffers a trauma and undergoes a personality change, suppose also that the memory is unaffected. Would identity have changed here, even though the two personalities share a consistent history?
CIN: Yes, I think that would be a fair assessment…… [Read More]
Goya and Redon
Francisco Goya was an 18th-19th century Spanish painter and printmaker. Odilon Redon was a 19th-20th century painter and printmaker. The two artists, though separated by a century, share a similar style and perspective. Goya lived through the Romantic-Enlightenment era and saw the unraveling of society on the Continent as the Old World values were swept away be Enlightenment philosophy and Romantic dreams. Redon lived to reflect the aftermath of that era: his symbolist paintings show a world that is half-mad, yet totally focused on itself and its grandiose ideas. Together, Goya and Redon cover three centuries of thought and activity in Europe. Goya’s Saturn Devouring His Son (1819-1823) and Redon’s The Smiling Spider (1887) both show strangeness in the extreme and depict a frightening aspect of the world that is at once nightmarish and bizarrely humorous. This paper will provide an analysis of Goya’s and Redon’s respective…… [Read More]
Spain is rich in tradition and culture, but it is important to note that this diversity is the product of centuries of war and conflict. From her early beginnings, Spain has been a rift of conflicting religious and political ideas, and those characteristics are present in every aspect of Spanish life today. Historically, the path from religious persecution to independence has been a journal of religious and political differences. Those political differences have lead to a varied and unique political system, which combines monarchy with a democratic government. Finally, the culture of Spain is an obvious representation of the religious history and conflicting cultures, displayed by the Carnival festivals and the wide variety of cultural traditions, such as bullfighting and the Flamenco. These combinations of cultures combine to effectively form one of the most diverse cultures in the world today.
Bureau of European and Eurasian Affairs. (2005). Spain. etrieved…… [Read More]
Lazarillo De Tormes
The Spanish Picaresque Novel: The Life of Lazarillo de Tormes (1554): Its Social Structure and Its Characters
The Spanish picaresque novel Lazarillo de Tormes written in 1554 by an anonymous author, possibly a Jewish converso (that is, a Jewish individual forced to convert to Catholicism during the time of the Spanish Inquisition) (Rudder, 1988)), details a series of unfortunate, but frequently ironic and comical adventures of a young orphan/vagabond or "picaro." ("Picaro" is the Spanish word for such a character, thus the description "picaresque" given Lazarillo de Tormes and other, similar 16th and 17th century novels published in Spain, including La vida del buscon by Quevedo, and Guzman de Alfarache by Aleman ( Febres, 1988)). As Rudder (p. 6) states: Some critics . . . think the author was a Jewish convert to Christianity because of certain phrases which point in that direction." The boy Lazarillo…… [Read More]
Some Chinese researchers assert that Chinese flutes may have evolved from of Indian provenance.
In fact, the kind of side-blon, or transverse, flutes musicians play in Southeast Asia have also been discovered in Africa, India, Saudi Arabia, and Central Asia, as ell as throughout the Europe of the Roman Empire. This suggests that rather than originating in China or even in India, the transverse flute might have been adopted through the trade route of the Silk Road to Asia. In addition to these transverse flutes, Southeast Asians possessed the kind of long vertical flutes; similar to those found in Central Asia and Middle East.
A considerable amount of similarities exist beteen the vertical flutes of Southeast Asia and flutes from Muslim countries. This type of flute possibly came from Persians during the ninth century; during the religious migration to SEA. Likeise, the nose-blon flute culture, common to a number of…… [Read More]
In principle, it would be entirely possible to replace religious-inspired morality with logically derived concepts of morality in human life. Generally little else would be required besides suspending religious teachings and substituting the rules of organized religion with very basic ideas such as "do no harm." In that regard, the commandment "do unto others" is a perfectly useful and easily understandable ethical principle that could be taught with much better results without the cloak of its religious context.
Instead of teaching that human beings are incapable of ascertaining what is right and what is wrong without divine help and that we are morally tarnished by our involuntary thoughts, we would learn that one ought not to treat other unfairly or cause them harm and that the worse our involuntary desires and thoughts, the more moral credit we deserve for resisting the impulse to act on them. Ultimately, one of…… [Read More]
Juana Inez De La Cruz
The Achievements Of Sor Juana Inez De La Cruz
Considering the times in which she lived, Sor Juana Inez de la Cruz (1648 to 1695) achieved many amazing things that to this day are unrivaled in the annals of the Catholic Church and the history of Mexico, her native land. As the alleged illegitimate daughter of Dona Isabel Ramirez and Pedro Manuel de Asbaje, Inez de la Cruz as a child was very precocious and curious about all things in her environment which, by itself, is rather unexpected, due to being raised in the small and impoverished Mexican village of San Miguel, a place without schools or educational mentors except for the Catholic Church which, at the time, did not see much potential in educating a girl of her social stature.
As Geoffrey Kantaris points out, Inez de la Cruz learned "to read very early.…… [Read More]
organized religion today has become an issue of controversy. Human intelligence and technology have developed to the point where it is difficult to find a spiritual foothold. This is perhaps why materialism has dominated the earlier part of the 20th century in the Western world. It is however interesting that there seems to be a return to spirituality during the first part of the 21st century. People have taken spiritual refuge in everything from the strangest new-age religions to the most traditional forms of Christianity. When considering the question of how Christianity particularly has changed then, there are many similarities and also differences between Christianity today and its earlier counterpart.
Firstly, the question of current and earlier Christianity is multi-faceted. Christianity as a religion, as I see it, has experienced several stages. The first stage occurred right after the death and resurrection of Christ. There was an extreme rise in…… [Read More]
Art through the Ages
1. (Ch. 27) What is the interpretation of Goya's Saturn Devouring his Children?
The interpretation of Goya’s Saturn Devouring his Children is based on the myth of Saturn who feared that his children would overthrow him, so he devoured them one by one to avoid that risk. Goya lived many centuries after this ancient myth of antiquity originated. However, his own contemporary situation reflected the old myth in terms of the way the powerful rulers of the time were frantically lashing out, trying to preserve their own power by destroying the least possible threat. The wild-eyed and frenzied look of Saturn in Goya’s painting, produced between the years of 1819 and 1823, reflects what was happening in his own time. The effects of the French Revolution had spread throughout Europe and Spain had gotten to enjoy the Napoleon’s conquests. Goya’s painting reflected the insane frenzy for…… [Read More]
If any of them was found without a token he was either murdered or had his hands severed to die more slowly in front of his community to serve as a warning against defying Columbus's orders.
Perhaps the greatest irony in these atrocities is that the Spaniards (and the other European explorers) all sailed flying the flags of Christianity and that they referred to themselves as "civilized" and the native peoples as "savages." Meanwhile, it was the native "savages" who had lived in peace for thousands of years and it was the Spaniards whose homeland was, at the very time of their explorations, fully engaged in torturing and killing some of their own population in connection with the infamous Spanish Inquisition and the reign of the "civilized" religious authorities who oversaw it. The Arawak Indians, who had never heard of Christianity or of Christ's teachings, had developed a society in…… [Read More]
In year 1799 anesthetic properties of Nitric Oxide were discovered by Humphery Davy (1778-1829) he advised that the by using nitric oxide, pain and shock of the surgical procedure can be negated. Third person who continue with Morton and ells philosophy was Charles T. Jackson. The Fourth man who contributed to anesthetics was Thomas Mortan (Blatner, 2009). In the year 1848 James Simpson used chloroform in obstetric surgery, he used diethyl ether to anesthetize a women with a pelvic deformity for delivery (kodali, 2009) and in year 1853 John Snow did a successful induction of chloroform to her Majesty Queen Victoria at the time of Prince Leopold's Birth and also on Fenny Longfellow who wrote to her poet brother that this use of ether is certainly the greatest blessing of this era (Longfellow, 1956). In the year 1885-illiam Halsted introduced the nerve block. In 1891 Heinrich Quincke demonstrated the process…… [Read More]
And just as different divisions of Christianity are more or less fundamentalist in their interpretation of religious texts and traditions, different divisions of Islam are more or less strict. The most fundamentalist version of Islam, one that is primarily associated with Saudi Arabia, is Wahhabism. Muslims who follow this minority version of Sunni believe that they are the only true Muslims and that other branches of Islam are illegitimate (Cleveland, 2004, p.123). In some ways, the division between Wahhabism is like that between Catholics and Protestants during the eformation and Counter-reformation or that between Orthodox and eform Judaism. All major religions have internal divisions, and all major religions -- including also Hinduism and Buddhism -- can be organized along a spectrum from most conservative to most liberal.
Some followers of Wahhabi Islam have been responsible for horrific violence. There is no justification for their actions. It is true that --…… [Read More]
According to Kant, men cannot be used as a means to an end, even to achieve a positive action for a greater number of men and women: "For he whom I propose by such a promise to use for my own purposes cannot possibly assent to my mode of acting towards him and, therefore, cannot himself contain the end of this action. This violation of the principle of humanity in other men is more obvious if we take in examples of attacks on the freedom and property of others. For then it is clear that he who transgresses the rights of men intends to use the person of others merely as a means, without considering that as rational beings they ought always to be esteemed also as ends, that is, as beings who must be capable of containing in themselves the end of the very same action." No human being…… [Read More]
Paradoxically, states with harsher criminal statutes and higher conviction rates tend to maintain fewer inmate developmental programs because high-volume prisons tend to be run on a for-profit basis that discourages "unnecessary" spending. The most cynical suggestion is that decreasing recidivism is against the financial interests of private prisons and (although to a lesser extent,) those of government-run prisons as well (Schmalleger, 2008).
Other aspects of many types of contemporary criminal trends may also significantly undermine any strategy of deterrence through awareness of strict prosecution and sentencing. In that regard, law enforcement authorities across the nation have catalogued volumes of information about criminal subcultures in general and of the street gang mentality in particular (Pinizzotto, Davis, & Miller, 2007). Urban street gangs in particular have given rise to a culture of remorseless violence and disregard for the consequences of even the most violent crime that largely precludes any real deterrent value…… [Read More]
However, the reasons why people commit crime are as different as the individuals themselves. Intentional murder comes in two different flavors. The first is the carefully plotted, well thought out, planned act. In this scenario, motivational theory takes over. The person must feel that they will gain some type of value from the action. It may be that they gain something, such as money, or they may feel that eliminating a person will offer them some type of protection. In any case, the person justifies their actions through a perceived reward in the future (Horisch and Strassmair).
In the case of an intentional murder, the death penalty may deter the action. However, several conditions must be met for the fear of death to act as a deterrent. The person must feel that there is a significant possibility that they will be caught and punished for their crimes. In many cases,…… [Read More]
Therefore, even staunch proponents of capital punishment share the concern that it be (1) imposed only where extreme punishment is appropriate to the nature of the crime, and (2) applied in a manner that does not cause unnecessary pain or prolonged suffering. Assuming those elements are satisfied, capital punishment is warranted in certain situations.
The prospect of conviction in error is one of the strongest positions against capital punishment, precisely because the concept of valuing the preservation of the freedom of the innocent from wrongful conviction over the value of ensuring punishment for the guilty is fundamental to American justice. By extension, one could argue convincingly that protection against wrongful execution is even more important than wrongful criminal conviction in general. However, it is possible to establish more stringent standards of proof, judicial review, and myriad other conceivable procedural safeguards short of abolishing capital punishment altogether. Therefore, that approach would…… [Read More]
There are ten Fraud Detection Centers across the United States, and these are meant to detect refund fraud and to identify prevention measures. Each of these offices has a Resident Agent in Charge to direct, monitor, and coordinate operations supporting electronic and paper tax filing, and each Center performs activities that include educating Submission Processing Center and Customer Service Center personnel on fraud awareness and detection.
Criminal investigation in the agency started shortly after the Revenue Act of 1913 was passed, and that act imposed a modest tax of 1% on net incomes of individuals, estates, trusts, and corporations. In addition, another tax, or surtax, graduated from 1 to 6%, was applied to income exceeding $20,000. Over time, many laws have been passed that have changed the rates and other aspects of revenue assessment. Tax evasion was noted as early as 1919, when many serious allegations concerning alleged tax frauds…… [Read More]
And maybe mass suicides are the old way's means of presenting their final argument. "Whether this is truly the case or not, suicides both individual and collective are only going to increase as frenetic technological changes tear apart tradition and destabilize cultures throughout the world."
Mass suicides are a form of protesting against the changing systems of beliefs; a means of escaping the unsatisfactory world around or pathways to heaven, conducted by weak and sometimes ill minds, led by a diabolic genius who has the capability of playing with others' minds. They exploit religious beliefs in order to make a less or more well founded statement.
And religious exploitation towards the advantage of an individual or group of individuals is not a procedure we are strange from. We should however bear in mind that we are beginning to demolish universal values. And after all, what will happen to…… [Read More]
iolence in scripture occurs in a certain context, and with the direct sanction of God. While some imagine themselves to be instruments of God on earth, it has to be taken into account that we no longer live in a world where violence is at the order of the day. We no longer live and die in wars to gain territory or to fulfill prophesies. Instead, the main purpose of religion today is comfort in times of trouble as well as a guide for living well. The Rabbi should therefore emphasize these qualities. Followers should gain an understanding of the Scripture not only in the context of today's life, but also in the context of the time of writing. God is not a perpetrator of violence merely for its sake. His followers should not take it upon themselves to perpetrate violence in the context of a world that is ruled…… [Read More]
heard of the story of Don Quijote because of the musical "Man of La Mancha" about this pitied character, there is another piece of literature that was written in Spain approximately the same time of 1544 that is just as noteworthy. This is called Life of Lazarillo de Tormes (by Anonymous). Both of these publications were examples of a new literary genre, the picaresque novel, which was usually satiric in fashion and depicted in realistic and humorous detail the adventures of a roguish hero of low social degree living by his or her wits in a corrupt society: he/she is a "picaro" who serves several masters and must use mischief and/or deceit to escape defeat, failure and starvation. Irony, comedy and satire run throughout the book, as the author continually makes light of the main character and all those with whom he has contact. In addition, the author uses Lazarillo's…… [Read More]
Myths to Live by, it is clear that Joseph Campbell believes in the evolution theory as opposed to the creation story in the Bible. He seems horrified at both a mother and teacher trying to teach a little boy that the myth is true to the exclusion of scientific evidence (4). The author goes on to explain the misconceptions existing about the earth from the Middle Ages onward, in order to demonstrate that none of these were proved correct. He also addresses the religious issue (8), relating that many different cultures have similar myths to the ones in the Western world. Nonetheless, the author warns against failing to recognize these myths for the value that they do hold for humanity. Myths, while not historically accurate, are yet a creative part of society that teaches morals and values (12). These do not have a place in science, and should not be…… [Read More]
Science and religion have historically possessed a tumultuous relationship based upon the fact that the latter claims to hold the ultimate answers to the most fundamental questions of existence, while the former claims to hold the means to discovering many of these answers. Consequently, for much of human history they have been viewed as being analogous avenues to gaining knowledge of the world, merely attacked from different directions; science must eventually prove with reason what is already accepted upon faith. However, a number of scientific observations and interpretations have come into direct conflict with established doctrines of the western, Christian Church. These scientific theories have caused many to question the validity of their faith, and many others to question the validity of science. Usually, the conflicts originate from formalized interpretations of Christianity rather than upon the fundamental basis of faith. In other words, science can neither prove nor disprove the…… [Read More]
Melvin Konnor's Unsettled
In his text, entitled Unsettled: An Anthropology of the Jews, the professor of Jewish studies, biology, and human anthropology of Emory University Melvin Konnor ties the unsettlement or displacement and persecution of the Jewish people to their essential identity and integrity as a people. He asks the questions -- how did the Jews as a people survive such unsettlement and displacement so well, and keep the Jewish religion and even their ethnicity relatively intact, or at least in recognizable enough form that the Jewish religion still survives today? How did the Jewish people retain their uniqueness as a people in so many distinctive foreign territories? "Other people have suffered greatly; others have survived. But the Jews seem to garner a kind of attention focused on no other people ... hy? That is the mystery at the heart of this book, and it took me, and will take…… [Read More]
This was racism at its worst. The enslaved Africans and the native Indians began to get closer to each other, and started to share certain ethic traditions between themselves, and soon, they started to marry each other, especially because of the disproportionate number of African males to females. A number of red-black people began to emerge from these unions, and these people formed traditions of their own. However, slavery continued to flourish and all these people were technically termed slaves. Having decided to take maters into their own hands to protest against the indignities being perpetrated against them in the name of slavery, Africans, Cherokees or Native Americans, and also Irish workers put up small acts of resistance and revolutions. (Chronology on the History of Slavery 1619 to 1789)
In the year 1790, in the United States of America, a census revealed that about 19% of the entire population of…… [Read More]
Evans-Pritchard was the founder and first president of the Association of Social Anthropologists. His seminal work on indigenous, African tribes has preserved a unique perspective of primitive societies or societies that retain their aboriginal features even in modern times -- their mental processes more than the social constructs. This essay will present a societal perspective of the Azande tribes of southern Sudan. This research was conducted at a time when every Zande (singular for Azande) paid abeyance to either the British or the Arabs, whichever happened to wield influence at the time. The thesis of this essay: "The Azande society (as a whole) and each individual was driven by a quest to avoid the ill effects of witchcraft." The significance of witchcraft is necessitated by a unique context and definition. This entire essay is about defining societal ramifications of witchcraft among the Azande, which will make the meaning of witchcraft…… [Read More]
Voltaire's "Candide" (lake and Kazin, 1976) contain aspects of anti-religious sentiments. oth epics are quasi-historical -- they provide a commentary on the prevailing times; both works also provide a view into lake and Voltaire's personal opinions and leanings. Voltaire was educated by the Jesuits -- priests belonging to the society of Jesuits. Voltaire railed against the prevailing cultural and religious mores that sought to forget socio-economic conditions to satisfy some pre-ordained, religious (mis)interpretations of divine mandates. lake, similarly, was mortified by the dualism practiced by the religious of the time. He did not like or appreciate the way in which every thing was seen from the point of black or white. If the Church deemed something unfit, the practitioner of that aspect of life came under severe remonstrations and even met the ultimate penalty of death. oth authors struggle against the fact that these rules were beneficial to those in…… [Read More]
Origins and Demise of the Concept of ace by Charles Hirschman
In modern times, the reality of race is indisputable, especially for American eyes. acial discrimination is not just skin deep and based on skin color, features and hair texture, but it has rather existed since ancient times to date, with age-old exploitation and discrimination. Through this essay, Hirschman discusses the theory of racism history, in relation to social science. He concludes that this concept of race and racism is not a primordial or ancestral belief rather it has developed with modernity over the past 40 decades and reached its pinnacle in the early twentieth century (385).
Since ancient times, cultural diversity evolved naturally as people learned to survive and settle in different climatic zones and their physical features like skin color and hair varied according to climatic conditions. Different outcomes were recorded as they interacted; some were accommodated calmly…… [Read More]
The Rationale for and the Efficacy of Torture during Interrogation
Although information from interrogational torture is unreliable, it is likely to be used frequently and harshly. ==John W. Schiemann, 2012
The epigraph above is indicative of the growing consensus concerning the lack of efficacy of torture in providing interrogators with reliable concealed information Concealed information is the foundation of the majority of security issues. In most cases, concealed information is a situation wherein one individual knows something that someone else does not know. Consequently, the majority of security issues could be resolved if there was a dependable method of determining those cases in which an individual was concealing information and extracting that information effectively. To date, though, there has not been a dependable method developed.1 For instance, polygraph research has been unable to achieve an accuracy level that would make the results acceptable in courtrooms in the United States…… [Read More]
Speaking of the United States, for example, since 9/11, there has been an increased in intolerance regarding Muslims. This prejudice toward Muslims has also sparked increased intolerance for Christian people, as Christianity is the dominant religion in America and is the religion most often associated with American culture. 1492 is also the fabled year with the Spanish armada arrived on the shores of what we know now as the United States of America. Therefore this film is a strong choice as it is an intersection of the history of the country and the history of my family.
How we remember our world, national, and personal history is often closely related to the geography and nature of the spaces wherein we lived and migrated to. These are the connections that I see among the texts by Nabokov, Bishop, and "The Passion of Joshua the Jew." These issues from history continue to…… [Read More]
Atlantic Revolutions and How the Structure of the Atlantic World Created the Environment for These Revolutionary Movements to Form
The objective of this study is to examine the American, French, and Haitian Revolutions, known as the Atlantic Revolutions and to answer as to how the structure of the Atlantic World created the environment for these revolutionary movements to form. The North American Revolution took place between 1775 and 1878. The French Revolution took place between 1789 and 1815, and the Haitian Revolution between 1971 and 1804 and finally the Spanish American Revolutions between 1810 and 1825. These revolutions were found because of the issues of slavery, nations and nationalism, and the beginnings of feminism. In fact, the entire century from 1750 to 1850 was a century of revolutions. Political revolutions occurred in North America, France, Haiti, and Spanish South America. All of the revolutions were derived from ideas concerning Enlightenment.…… [Read More]
This leads to many false stereotypes and assumptions about cultures which most of us have never experienced.
2) When the structure of colonialism set in on Latin America, the Catholic Church established Counter-Reformation initiatives ordered by Spain's Holy Inquisition. The Counter-Reformation discouraged cultural endeavors in Latin America if they were not directly affiliated to specific Church celebrations. This resulted in much illiteracy and general ignorance of advances being made in the world during the 17th and 18th centuries, specifically the Enlightenment. Additionally, the Catholic Church, in this role, was less involved in being true missionaries, but rather functioned as a cultural censor that enforced regulatory social practices. Peninsular bureaucrats seemed to have no interest or care for the vast lands of Latin America, and developed an increasing disdain for the growing mixed Spanish and indigenous population (Mestizo). They were suspicious of indigenous and mestizo people, and also of Spanish people…… [Read More]
Indeed the Germans, the French, and the rest looked back to an antiquity in which their ancestors had been subjugated by the legions. Nothing is more remarkable therefore than the rapid and irrevocable penetration of Italian ideas and practices among the "barbarians," as the Italian writers referred to them, some of whom were currently invading the peninsula." (Wiener, 124) it's also important to note that influence of antique classicism typical for Italian architecture of the 14-16th centuries is not observed in the north. Classical style of Italian cathedrals and churches, typical for Ancient Greek and oman pagan temples is usually not observed in buildings of enaissance epoch in Germany, Britain or France, where architecture was influenced by Gothic style, which got earlier spread in Europe.
eformation and Counter eformation
The spread of Protestantism over Europe, which is considered to be one of the most historically significant achievements of enaissance and…… [Read More]
A young Orthodox Jew may consider him or herself "orthodox," but no longer feels the need to read and write exclusively in Hebrew (Singer 2008). The demands of modern U.S. society have put a strain on many Orthodox Jews, but others see these demands and cultural or social responsibilities as opportunities to continue to redefine what it means to be a young Orthodox Jew in American society.
A major motivator behind the rethinking of the Jewish religion, as happened in the mid 19th century, was the fact that as the Jewish religion grew and more and more Jews found themselves in incongruous cultural living situations, there was a need to reinvent what it means to be Jewish (Erlich, 2009). The very same thing is going on today, in America and Israel especially, among those youth who consider themselves to be "orthodox." Certainly the very idea that an Orthodox Jew needs…… [Read More]
The beautiful coasts also reminded me of another aspect of Spanish history -- the great Armada. The Spanish were known for having one of the greatest and largest armadas in European history, besides the British. This illustrated itself to me as another way that the geography and the history of a country are closely connected.
I was not entirely surprised to learn of the cultural diversity within Spanish culture. I know of the Moors and of the subculture of Catalan, which also has its own language. It is important to learn of a country's mainstream culture and language, and it is also important to include, as opposed to disregard, the other subcultures within the main culture that influence the overall culture and history, too. These groups may have not been the dominant cultures in Spain, but they are vibrant and contribute the richness of the country's history and heritage.
As…… [Read More]
Eye and the Story of O. are both very early examples of erotic fiction. n many respects, they establish themes that will often be repeated in this modernist genre. Such themes include the almost overwhelming use of sensual imagery and the development of specific sexual identities in the characters in the books that are reflected in the non-erotic aspects of how they conduct themselves.
Bataille, a contemporary of Sartre, wrote The Story of the Eye (Histoire de l'Oille) in the late 20's. His intention was to exaggerate sexual encounters to the level of absurdity so as to illustrate the purely sensual, irrational nature of sex. n order to do this, he provides us with fantastic imagery. One such 'scene' from the book involves Simone developing a fetish for breaking eggs with her ass. Whereas sadism and voyeurism had played a part in eroticism before in France, Bataille exaggerates this to…… [Read More]
Hector Perez Garcia has been described as "a man who in the space of one week delivers 20 babies, 20 speeches, and 20 thousand votes. He understands delivery systems in this country," ("Justice for My People: The Dr. Hector P. Garcia Story"). Trained as a physician, Hector P. Garcia became the "medical doctor to the barrios," ("Justice for My People: The Dr. Hector P. Garcia Story"). He also served in the United States Army, stationed in North Africa and Italy during the Second World War. For his service as infantry officer, combat engineer officer, Medical Corps officer, and Medical Corps surgeon, Garcia received six battle stars and a Bronze Star. As a highly decorated veteran of a war that should have united the country against its common enemies, Garcia might have expected that Hispanic-Americans like him would enjoy equal rights and social justice. He was wrong. Fed up with discrimination…… [Read More]
eligion, World History
ise of China
It would not seem likely for the previous thousand years that not Europeans, but Indians and Chinese would take over the world by 2000 and that the Chinese would settle Australia and America rather than the people of Britain; except for the time of oman Empire, China was richer, more cosmopolitan and advanced than any other European place. For example, Hangzhou had a population of a million when it was the capital of China in the twelfth century and facts state that Guangzhou had more than two million foreign inhabitants that included Turks, Africans, Indians, Malays, Persians and Arabs. In comparison, Paris, which was the largest city in Europe in the 1400s, had a little more than a million inhabitants. China at that time cared about filial piety, religion, ancestors, education, arts, culture, honor and prestige, and money was not on top of the…… [Read More]
The universe viewed through a telescope looked different, and this difference in itself played into the Protestant argument that received truths may be fallible. In fact, the notion of truth outside empirical evidence became unsteady:
For most thinkers in the decades following Galileo's observations with the telescope, the concern was not so much for the need of a new system of physics as it was for a new system of the world. Gone forever was the concept that the earth has a fixed spot in the center of the universe, for it was now conceived to be in motion…gone also was the comforting thought that the earth is unique (Cohen 79)
However, while the telescope was transforming ideas about the shape of the cosmos and the relationship between science and faith, the microscope essentially remained a toy through much of the early modern era. If anything, the revelation of the…… [Read More]
The Wall: Through the Eyes of Heidegger
Sartre's short story "The Wall" exemplifies the writers' philosophy regarding the meaning of life. He uses a true to life moment of individuals facing the inevitability of his own death to reveal the true nature of human life. In "The Wall" the reader is introduced to three primary characters: Juan Mirbal, a child who is the brother of an enemy of the State who has been arrested; Tom Steinbock, also arrested for undetermined crimes against Spain, and Pablo Ibbieta, the main character through whose eyes this short story is narrated. Sartre's philosophy, the accepting ourselves for who we are without exaggeration is exemplified in the final hours leading up to the primary character's reported demise.
Heidegger, in his famous work, "Being and Time" raises the issue of 'Being', in essence, to make sense of humans capacity to make sense of things. Moreover,…… [Read More]
History As Myth
This-based Myth Atreus Thyestes In paper I conversational I supposed a myth teacher a continuing education program geared library patrons aged 50+, a conversation actual essay. Below directions assignment: Briefly describe a historical event, a controversy, a world event, a current event, a military group action, a political event group, a religious group action, a similar phenomenon.
Thyestes and Atreus: The great Civil War of Mycenae
Once upon a time, long, long ago there lived two brothers named Thyestes and Atreus. These two brothers were extremely power hungry and even their own father King Pelops was forced to exile them when they killed their half-brother to better their chances to ascend to the throne. Undeterred, the two brothers found another kingdom to dominate, the land of Mycenae. Proving there is no honor amongst thieves; Atreus was determined to be the sole ruler of this new kingdom. One…… [Read More]
Although his brother features prominently in the narrative, Nabokov cannot know, as most people cannot know, what it is like to be one of a set of triplets. The mental energy and power that comes from being one of a set is in part related to the practical issues related to our upbringing, such as the need to formulate a unique identity in spite of being treated and viewed as equals. We competed for our parents' attention, unlike typical siblings whose birth order defines much of who they are in the family.
When Nabokov's family is in exile, and they live as immigrants, the comparisons between his story and my own become even more salient. The comparison raises the question: to what degree does our environment shape our identity? Is it possible to separate the self from one's culture, class, and creed?
Like Nabokov, I had a privileged childhood with…… [Read More]