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Spanking has been a form of corporal punishment for centuries. Before psychological research on the topic expanded and was made public, it was just an accepted way of teaching children how to behave. However, recently the negative side of spanking has been revealed. Analysis conducted on adults who have experienced spanking as children have proven that the negative aspects of these acts of physical harm are quite real. Though the issue of spanking has been a hot-button topic over the years, it has been proven that spanking can cause long-lasting physical and psychological damage to the child, is sprung from parental anger and not discipline, and is a common denominator among current criminals. It is these effects that shine light on the growing psychopathy that spanking is causing children. These impacts guide children's moral development, therefore widely affecting how these children grow up and act once they reach…
Benjet, C. & Kazdin, A.E. (2003). Spanking children: the controversies, findings, and new directions. Clinical Psychology Review. 23(2), 197-224.
Kazdin, A.E. & Benjet, C. (2003). Spanking Children: Evidence and issues. Current Directions in Psychological Science. 12(3), 99-103.
Nofziger, S. (2008). The "Cause" of Low Self-Control: The Influence of Maternal Self-Control. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency. 45(2), 191-224.
Rodriguez, C.M., & Richardson, M.J. (2007). Stress and anger as contextual factors and pre-existing cognitive schemas: Predicting parental child maltreatment risk. Child Maltreatment. 12(4), 325-337.
Perhaps no topic generates as much heated debate among parents and child development experts as corporal punishment. While defenders argue for the continued necessity of the practice, new research shows more clearly the benefits of sparing the rod and avoiding corporal punishment altogether.
These studies cite numerous reasons against corporal punishment, from increasing aggression in children to the practice's moral repugnance. This paper, however, focuses on studies that show corporal punishment as an ineffective way to address misbehavior. In fact, numerous studies have shown that practices like spanking or slapping do not address the reasons behind a child's unwanted behavior.
In fact, a parent who spanks a child may unwittingly reinforce a child's bad behavior.
Types of corporal punishment
Part of the difficulty in addressing this issue lies in the lack of a common definition of spanking or corporal punishment. Some school districts, for example, equate corporal punishment with…
Children Should Not Be Spanked in Order to Discipline Them for Negative Behavior
Spanking has been used by parents for generations, and various forms of corporal punishment have been deployed for disciplinary measures for centuries. However, the enduring popularity of spanking as a method for disciplining children does not mean that it accomplishes the task it endeavors to achieve. Indeed, spanking has many negative potential consequences that make it an unfavorable method for disciplining children. This paper isolates three negative consequences of spanking, each of which inform the thesis that children should not be spanked in order to discipline children. Specifically, spanking does not actually eradicate the child's mindset that produced the negative behavior. The child may stop performing their negative behavior, but spanking does not facilitate their understanding of the ways in which their behavior is unacceptable. Additionally, spanking is a violent act and so it carries the…
Cox, Randy. "Never Hit a Child." neverhitachild.org. 1 Sep. 2012. Web. 27 Nov. 2012.
Dryburgh, April. "Corporal Punishment: Why Not to Spank Your Child." Yahoo Voices. 19 Feb. 2007. Web. 27 Nov. 2012.
McCoy, Krisha. "Information You Can Quote," 1.
Walters, Rob. "Information You Can Quote," 1.
DISCIPLINE vs. AGGRESSION
Imagine a child doing anything he wants as he grows up and parents only mildly warning him against the ill consequences of certain acts or situations. We all know that a child is launched into this world, not knowing what acts are safe or unsafe and naturally needing not just guidance and protection but also his parents' intervention. Every child wants to explore and is instinctively stubborn and disobedient. In this state of natural ignorance and curiosity, a parent's prohibitions are also naturally in place. Spanking becomes that tool of prohibition. ut all too often, this tool is more often taken to extremes and improperly imposed and thus brings about adverse consequences on the child. In response to popular outcry against the negative effects of spanking, child maltreatment has been banned in 23 countries (Taylor, 2009). These effects include aggression and other anti-social behaviors, depression, and…
Boyles, S. (2009). Kids who get spanked may have lower IQs. Health and Parenting:
WebMD. Retrieved on July 16, 2011 from http://www.webmd.com/parenting.news/20090924/kids-who-get-spanked-may-have-lower-iqs
CPACFH (1998). Guidance for effective discipline. Committee on Psychosocial
Committee on Psychosocial Aspects of Child and Family Health. Vol 101 # 4
spanking is an approved method of discipline in the schoolroom. Spanking is a controversial form of punishment, and many people do not believe in spanking as a discipline measure. However, spanking does have a place in the discipline of a child if it is used correctly.
Families have used spanking as a method of disciplining children for centuries, and it has been used in school systems as a punishment, as well. While a large segment of society seems to frown on spanking, a large number of parents say they use spanking as a tool in their family. A group of authors note, "In fact, in a national study, more than 90% of parents reported that they had used spanking as a way of disciplining their young children, and the vast majority of adults (approximately 80%) endorsed the use of spanking" (Hanson, Smith & Fricker-Elhai, 2004, p. 453). This is…
Brooks-Gunn, J., & Markman, L.B. (2005). The contribution of parenting to ethnic and racial gaps in school readiness. The Future of Children, 15(1), 139+.
Diller, L. (2008, April 21). The truth about spanking: Promoting a ban is counterproductive. National Review Journal, 60, 42.
Grogan-Kaylor, A. (2004). The effect of corporal punishment on antisocial behavior in children. Social Work Research, 28(3), 153+.
Hanson, R.F., Smith, D.W., & Fricker-Elhai, A. (2004). 24 School-related issues in child abuse and neglect. In Handbook of Pediatric Psychology in School Settings, Brown, R.T. (Ed.) (pp. 451-463). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
ehavioral and Long-Term Effects of Spanking
ehavioral and Long-Term Effect of Spanking
Many of the studies pointed out that violence of adult are traced in the pattern of violence at home, and mostly in the experience of spanking during childhood. Despite the information and advocacy available in almost all media these days, there are still parents who thought that spanking their children to emphasize discipline is still beneficial. The benefits cited by those supporting spanking as acceptable method of discipline varied across culture and race. Generally, there are three views or positions about spanking as a form of discipline (enject C. & Kazdin A, 2003). Pro-corporal punishment, anti-corporal punishment, and conditional corporal punishment, which will be discussed in this paper. I shall outline the two differing arguments (pro-corporal and anti-corporal punishment) and conclude with the conditional corporal punishment which also reflect my own view, and which for me, is a…
American Academy of Pediatrics. (1995). Caring for your School-Age Child: Ages 5-12. New York: Bantam Books.
Baumrind, D. (1996). A Blanket Injunction Against Disciplinary Use of Spanking is Not Warranted by the Data. Pediatrics, 98, 828-831.
____ (2001). Does Causally relevant research support a blanket injunction against disciplinary spanking by parents? 109th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association (p. 1). San Francisco, CA: Americal Psychological Association.
Baumrind, D. Larzelere, R.E. & Cowan, P.A. (2002). Ordinary Physical Punishment: Is it Harmful? Comment on Gershoff (2002). Psychological Bulletin, 128, 580-589.
Parental discipline/spanking Minimum (5) pages content Title page, Reference list (APA style) Minimum (4) peer reviewed journal articles. I EPSCOHOST articles works. Present sides argument . I a side a conclusion.
When concerning parental discipline, there is much controversy regarding punishment and whether it should be corporeal or nonphysical. Considering that the contemporary society has progressed significantly in the recent centuries, it only seems normal for people to have recognized that spanking is detrimental both for their relationship with children and for the mental state of the children. This is particularly important when referring to infants, as they are unaware regarding the reason for their spanking and are unlikely to learn a valuable lesson as a result of being physically punished. It is certainly difficult to take sides in the debate, as both camps have generated theories that support or criticize the practice of spanking. All things considered, in spite…
Davis, Nanette J., Youth Crisis Growing Up in the High-Risk Society (Westport, CT: Praeger, 1999)
Grolnick, Wendy S., The Psychology of Parental Control: How Well-Meant Parenting Backfires (Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2003)
Paintal, Sureshrani, "Banning Corporal Punishment of Children: An ACEI Position Paper," Childhood Education 83.6 (2007)
Richardson Sears, Robert; Maccoby Eleanor E.; Levin, Harry, Patterns of child rearing, (Stanford University Press, 1976).
Spankings. According to the American Psychological Association, "there is general consensus that corporal punishment is effective." Spanking and other gentle but firm types of physical reprimand can have a noticeable effect on human behavior. That effect is usually immediate, which would allow the manager or supervisor to elicit a strong response from employees who are exhibiting behavioral issues such as talking back (American Psychological Association). General ineffectiveness, sluggishness, and other behavioral problems can be easily corrected with a whack of a stick or a slap on the bottom. Corporal punishment "remains a widely used discipline technique in most American families," and families remain one of the most common organizations in the United States (American Psychological Association).
The use of spanking is generally discouraged in the childhood education sector. However, corporal punishment may have a distinct and measurable effect in the workplace. There are some drawbacks with the recommendation…
American Psychological Association. "Is Corporal Punishment an Effective Means of Discipline?" APA. Retrieved online: http://www.apa.org/news/press/releases/2002/06/spanking.aspx
Against Spanking as a Way of Disciplining Children
Spanking is a subject that has sparked controversy for a long time. The debate has been raging in academic circles, among caregivers and psychologists alike. The idea of spanking is blended with cultural views, religious beliefs, laws imposed by government and a myriad of other factors. The practice of spanking has immense effects that are both psychological and physical. The issue of whether spanking is right is still controversial in both lay and professional realms (Kazdin & Benjet, 2003). The argument presented in this paper is to the effect that since spanking is subject to abuse and the fact that the act seems to send a wrong message to children and is likely to lead to a less than ideal relationship between children and their parents, it should be avoided. It should be avoided because it leads children to act out of…
Bitensky, S. (2006). Corporal punishment of children: A human rights violation. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
Kazdin, A., & Benjet, C. (2003). "Spanking Children": "Evidence and Issues, Current Directions in Psychological Science," 12(3), 99-103.
Moyer, M. W. (2016, May 03). What Science Says -- and Doesn't -- about Spanking. Retrieved 13 November 2016, from https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/what-science-says-and-doesn-t-about-spanking
Pratt, L. (1973). Child Rearing Methods and Children's Health Behavior. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 14(1), 61-69.
When a parent spanks a child he or she sends a negative message and essentially silences the child.
If the child is not treated with respect, he or she is also more likely to act out years later. As King points out, spanking diminishes the bond of trust between parents and their children. A child who is spanked grows up with a certain degree of fear. The parent who spanks the child will always seem like a formidable figure to the child, and as someone who can never be pleased or reasoned with. Even when the parent stops using spanking as a form of punishment the child will remember the pain. Ironically, the child will probably not remember the specific incident that triggered the spanking, which proves that spanking doesn't even work.
I will take what King says directly to heart. Talking with children when they misbehave and offering constructive…
These findings are consistent with those reported in studies of children older than 2 years but extend these findings to children who are spanked beginning at a relatively early age (issow Pp).
In the January 2002 issue of "Journal of Counseling and Development," Lisa Fontes states that Latino parents who engage in harsh physical discipline need help, however, they are far from homogeneous and their needs vary (Fontes Pp). She believes that many are "loving and devoted parents who practice traditional forms of child rearing that may include an authoritarian style and harsh corporal punishment, side by side with high levels of intimacy and support" (Fontes Pp). Fontes states that some Latino parents are often "incorrectly accused of abusing or neglecting their children because non-Latino professionals are puzzled by their unfamiliar yet harmless practices" (Fontes Pp). hile other Latino parents, like parents from other groups, punish their children in ways…
Straus, Murray a. "Spanking and the making of a violent society." Pediatrics;
Fontes, Lisa Aronson. "Child discipline and physical abuse in immigrant Latino families: reducing violence and misunderstandings."
Journal of Counseling and Development; 1/1/2002; Pp.
If the child is punished for small infractions of the rules and other children are not, this makes him feel that life is unfair, and makes him act in the ways that he is expected to act. Formal labeling is manifest when teachers treat students labeled as gifted as brighter, which motivates the children to perform better on tests, or when students labeled as 'special education' or 'ESL' are assumed to be capable of less than other children. If less is expected of them, they will naturally perform at a lower standard.
Q5. Identify some of the factors that could lead to inept parenting in single parent family households.
Even the best single parent faces considerable challenges. Single parent households tend to be less affluent economically, which automatically presents a difficulty in terms of ensuring that children have safe and healthy environments in which to live. Single parents…
The article specifically listed school shootings as one connection! One thing I noticed as I read through results was that animal abuse before the age of ten seems to be a very definite indicator of adult violence. I did not find anything on Los Angeles laws, but I was ready to look at the various cases of random violence.
I searched on this term in all the same places and came up with nothing useful until I added the word "schools." Even then, the results showed far too much. In fact, random violence is far more prevalent than I thought, so my topic narrows again to random school violence. However, these results were very difficult to find. So I tried searching on Columbine and Dawson College in hopes to get more. There is lots written on these, though Dawson is so recent that these are mostly news articles. Most of…
Hoffman, Frank L. 2006. SHOOTING OURSELVES IN THE FOOT
The Sanitizing of Violence in Our Society
PetAbuse. Cruelty Connections. 2006. http://www.pet-abuse.com/pages/abuse_connection.php
Bender, William N.; Shubert, Terresa H.; McLaughlin, Phillip J.
Promoting the understanding of cultural differences is crucial, because a large number of child abuse and neglect cases involve allegations against minorities.
As a result, in some areas a psychologist may interview the involved caregivers and children to help the courts decide whether parents have behaved abusively and to determine their children's placement. However, sometimes the psychologists' unfamiliarity with a culture leads to unfair decisions. In some Hispanic cultures, for example, parents may not be socialized to express anger directly. Sometimes a child's action may cause that repressed anger to erupt. In such instances, parents may need training in anger management and discipline, instead of a prison sentence and denied access to children.
Because of this situation, the American Psychology Association offers assessment standards for culturally varied populations:
Learn about the culture of the person being assessing. Consult with others who know the culture because there is not always literature…
Besharov, Douglas J. Recognizing and Reporting Child Abuse: Protecting Children from Abuse and Neglect. Washington, D.C. University of Maryland's Welfare Reform Academy, 2000.
Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA) of 1974. 23 November 2006. http://laws.adoption.com/statutes/child-abuse-prevention-and-treatment-act - capta-of-1974.html.
Dershowitz, Alan. M. Contrary to Popular Opinion. New York: Pharos Books, 1992.
Murray, Bridget. Cultural insensitivity leads to unfair penalties. Monitor 30.9, October
Parental Discipline Methods in Public Places
In the past, the biblical imprecation to "spare the rod, spoil the child" (Proverbs 13:24) has been replaced by a more enlightened view of discipline and corporal punishment is becoming increasingly rare. To determine the current state of affairs in this area, this paper provides a record of empirical observations of the discipline methods used on children by parents in public places, including a shopping mall, a park and an amusement park. An analysis of the frequency of physical punishments to discipline children and in what situations is followed by an assessment concerning the effects of differing locations, situations and social classes of the parents influenced their public behavior. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings concerning the discipline methods used by parents in public places are provided in the conclusion.
eview and Analysis
Disorderliness and misbehaviors in children have been a…
Ewald, M. (2004, June 4). To spank or not? Let the town vote. The Christian Science Monitor,
Hassan, T. & Titilayo, A. (2012, March). Differential effectiveness of self-management and token reinforcement in the treatment of adolescents' disorderliness. Ife Psychologia,
Group Social Work: Nurturing Father's Program
The group investigated for this paper is the Nurturing Father's Program. I encountered the Nurturing Fathers Program while working for my state's child protective services division (DCFS). The NFP is an evidence-based, 13-week training course designed to teach parenting and nurturing skills to men. Each 2 1/2-hour class provides proven, effective skills for healthy family relationships and child development" (Nurturing Fathers, 2012). The goal of the program is to help men transform themselves into nurturing fathers by enabling cognitive, behavioral, and affective changes in the group participants. The NFP program has been used successfully in a wide variety of contexts, including, but not limited to schools, preschools, churches, government child-safety programs, and the military.
This particular NFP group meets at First Presbyterian Church, 270 Franklin Street, Quincy, MA on Tuesday evenings from 6:00pm to 8:30pm. There is no charge for participation, and group participants…
Association for the Advancement of Social Work with Groups, Inc. (2006). Standards for social work practice with groups. Alexandria, VA: AASWG, Inc.
Brandler, S., & Roman, C.P. (1999). Group work: skills and strategies for effective interventions. New York: Haworth Press.
Department of Children and Families. (2012). Report child abuse. Executive Office of Health
and Human Services website: http://www.mass.gov/eohhs/consumer/family-services/report-child-abuse.html
281). Those regularly spanked children were also six times more likely to "become juvenile delinquents, and later as adults, to use physical violence against their spouses"; it is also asserted in the research that those same children tended towards "sadomasochistic" behaviors and were known to suffer from depression (Chang, p. 281).
The difference between physical punishment and "abuse" is significant, according to Chang. Physical punishment is meant to cause pain in the child, but abuse implies "injury." Meanwhile, in a survey of Japanese and American college students conducted by Chang and colleagues, "U.S. respondents were more likely to perceive physical punishment as being appropriate discipline than were Japanese respondents" (p. 284). The survey participants included 120 U.S. college students and 107 Japanese college students. As to what kind of punishment they received, 91% of U.S. respondents said they had been "physically punished" and of those, 62% said they had been…
Chang, I.J., Pettit, Rebecca W., and Katsurada, Emiko. (2006). Where and When to Spank: A
Comparison Between U.S. And Japanese College Students. Journal of Family Violence, Vol.
Lallanilla, Marc. (2010). Should Parents Spank Young Kids? Spanking May Lead to Behavioral
Now, teachers are complaining that they feel abused and harassed with the young students.
The students tend to become abusive. They do not respect the teachers. They swear and shout at the teachers. They throw things at the teachers and in some instances, the students physically assault the teachers.
This is the reason why most teachers feel threatened and would want to resign from their works.
Thus, without the corporal punishment, the students do not learn the real value of discipline and they do not maintain proper conduct. The students who did not receive any corporal punishment when they were still on their younger years tend to have deviant behaviors as they grow older.
Meanwhile, there are also studies which have proven that corporal punishment offers nothing but negative effects to both the psychological and emotional aspects of a child. Some of the proven negative impacts of corporal punishment are:…
Curry, Lisa M. Effective Teaching through High Expectation and Class Management. 2000. USA Gymnastics. http://www.usa-dymnastics.org/publications/technique/2000/4/effective-teaching.html
Effective Instructional Strategies. http://www.flstw.fsu.edu/integrate/efins.html
Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew. 2004. "The effect of corporal punishment on antisocial behavior in children." Social Work Research
Lombardo, Lucien X. And Polonko, Karen A. 2000. "Comparative Analysis of the Corporal Punishment of Children: An Exploration of Human Rights and U.S. Law," International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice. Vol. 29, No.2, Fall 2005 pp. 173
The protagonist in "Secretary," Lee (played by Maggie Gyllenhaal), goes from recently having been released from a mental institution, to learning how to type, to a job with an odd, controlling lawyer, to being his mistress of pain, to becoming his happy, horny lover at the end. It is quite a bizarre and sometimes erotic ride through this "R-rated" film. James Spader plays the part of the attorney (E. Edward Grey), and he leads this naive but attractive woman -- who is on her very first job -- through some cruel, creepy scenes.
Referring to this picture as a romantic comedy would be a stretch. On the face of it, it's about a woman struggling to become a normal working woman who is into cutting herself on a regular basis -- until her lawyer boss provides hard spanking as a substitute for the pain from cutting her legs. This…
IMBD. (2002). Secretary. Steven Shainberg, Director. From the short story by Mary Gaitskill,
"Bad Behavior." Screenplay by Erin Cressida Wilson. Retrieved March 14, 2015, from http://www.imbd.com.
Secretary. (2002). Directed by Steven Shainberg. Distributed by Lionsgate Films.
hile many articles tend to deal with the fact that victims of child abuse tend to become abusers, I wanted to go in another direction, looking at how child abuse can actually affect the life of the abused. In order to consider this, I contemplated Belik et al.'s study, "Relation Between Traumatic Events and Suicide Attempts in Canadian Military Personnel." In this article, the authors' purpose wanted to "determine whether exposure to particular types of traumatic events was associated with suicide attempts in a representatives ample of active military personnel" (Beilik et al. 93). In order to test the connection between certain traumatic events and suicide attempts, the authors drew data from the Canadian Community Health Survey, which asked respondents to mark whether they had been victims of 28 different traumatic events during their lives. One of these events was child abuse. The survey was representative of such variables including…
Belik, S., Stein, M.B., Amudson, G. JG., and Sareen, J. "Relation Between Traumatic
Events and Suicide Attempts in Canadian Military Personnel." La Revue canadienne de psychiatre. 54.2. (2009): 93-104.
Kim, Min Jung. Tajima, Emiko A., Herrenkohn, Todd I., and Huang, Bu. "Early Child
Maltreatment, Runaway Youths, and Risk of Delinquency and Victimization in Adolescence: A Mediational Model." Social Work Research. 13.1 (2009): 19-28.
El Cid was a courageous and brave knight, who was born in Burgos in circa 1040, and was, during his lifetime, a great and popular hero. He was given the title of 'seid' or 'cid', which meant 'Lord' or 'Chief', by the Moors, and also that of 'Campeador' or 'Champion' by his own admiring countrymen. Unfortunately, tradition and legend have competed with one another through time, to such an extent that today, the real problem is that one must indeed regard him as a sort of a 'dual personality', wherein doubts have been cast over whether he really existed, or whether he was just a figment of the imagination. However, there is no doubt at all that this person actually existed in real life, and that he was a true hero of his times. One must distinguish this person from the historical Cid and the legendary Cid. (New Advent, El…
Armstrong, Richard. Spanking and Occentricity, some psychological consequences of the Greek ideal in the Construction of Westernness. Retrieved From
Accessed 24 September, 2005
El Cid in Literature, Film and other Media. Retrieved From
Discipline for Children
Understanding effective parental discipline, defined as social projection of parents' concepts onto their children, their impact and hence its development in the children's mind, comes under a number of mechanisms and paradigms of research literature. They range from learning theories, morality theories, and parental styles of social delivery to socio cultural cum environmental approach (Halpenny, et al., 2010).
According to Clinton and Sibcy (2006), it is deemed that children are emotionally sensitive parts of the society who need parents, care, leadership, love and nurturing from someone whose primary duty is to take care of the child. According to the authors, it is possible that some decisions undertaken by the guardians in the name of love may result into deteriorative outcomes detested by the children and may form a bad effect on their lives. Following is a table (p. 6) extracted from Clinton and Sibcy defining different traits…
Wissow, L.S. (2001) 'Ethnicity, income and parenting contexts of physical punishment in a national sample of families with young children', Child Maltreatment, Vol. 6, pp. 118-29.
Woodward, L.J. And Fergusson, D.M. (2002) 'Parent, child and contextual predictors of childhood physical punishment', Infant and Child Development, Vol. 11, No. 3, pp. 213-36.
Wolfner, G.D. And Gelles, R.J. (1993) 'A Profile of Violence towards Children: A National Study', Child Abuse and Neglect, Vol. 17, No. 2, pp. 197-212.
Carter, P. (1988). The Road to Botany Bay
The book by Carter contains a description of travel to and around Botany Bay, making specific comparisons to the current experience of such an excursion with the first explorers', headed by Captain James Cook. The author also addressed history and the role of historians in creating narratives of history. He refers to a statement made by Australian historian Clark, that a historian is "history's secretary," recording events as an observer that views the events from a non-judgmental point-of-view. The author also points out, however, that historians tend to edit their writings according to each writer's point-of-view. In this way, they are no longer history's observers, but rather its editors. In this way, the introduction then sets the stage for the rest of the book, which is then not only an historical account of Botany Bay and its discovery, but also an effort…
child refuses to take a nap, punishment is one option of creating the desired behavior. A parent may rely on several classical behavioral learning techniques to gradually encourage the child to nap. The technique of punishment is one of many methods of reinforcement, based on basic operant conditioning and behaviorism.
With punishment, an aversive stimulus is added to decrease the behavior (Heffner, n.d.). The idea is that the subject associates the undesirable behavior with negative consequences and therefore avoids that behavior in the future. If it is applied immediately and directly after the behavior is exhibited, and applied consistently and clearly after each instance, punishment may be effective.
However, punishment can also lead to suppressed emotions like anger or resentment, and may create other undesirable behaviors if not used properly (Heffner, n.d.). Therefore, the punishment for not taking a nap must be consistent and appropriate. Examples of types of punishments…
Beck, H.P. (2001). General psychology. Retrieved online: http://www1.appstate.edu/~beckhp/reinforcementdefinitions.htm
"Corporal Punishment: Key Issues," (n.d.) Australian Institute of Family Studies. Retrieved online: https://aifs.gov.au/cfca/publications/corporal-punishment-key-issues
Heffner, C.L. (n.d.). Reinforcement and reinforcement schedules. AllPsych. Retrieved online: http://allpsych.com/psychology101 /reinforcement/#.VdtPE9OrSRs
Social Work Spirituality
There are a number of fields where personal beliefs and practices can run counter to what is present and obvious in the life of one's clients and even one's coworkers. This can present a challenge as it is hard for many people to separate their personal values and their professional values. Often times, these values are one and the same even when that is not the mandate and requirement of the employer in question. The problem with that mindset is that passing judgment or aspersions of the choices and mindsets and others when they have just as many rights to feel as they do, at least in most cases, is not the right thing to do. While setting aside one's personal beliefs and convictions is not the easiest thing to do, it is the right thing to do unless the conviction or belief is clearly illegal or…
This is the result of the child's physical and cognitive growth. Nature pursues a given path. One asks how does the world surrounding the child help or hinder the child's development. This is the question that is answered by Bronfenbrenner's theory (Paquette & yan, 2001).
Bronfenbrenner believed that the family suffered from the change in society from industrial to technological. Families were still locked into the normal 40-hour work week. Mothers were very often in the workforce, leaving the children with less parental influence at home. Bronfenbrenner thought that the schools were being called upon to fill the gaps left by parents. He thought that society should step in to provide support for the new family structure brought on by technology (Paquette & yan, 2001).
1. Crandell, T., Crandell, C., & Vander Zanden, J., 2009 Human Development (9th Ed.). Boston. McGraw-Hill
2. Gilbert, ., Widom, C., Browne, K., et…
1. Crandell, T., Crandell, C., & Vander Zanden, J., 2009 Human Development (9th Ed.). Boston. McGraw-Hill
2. Gilbert, R., Widom, C., Browne, K., et al. (2009). Burden and consequences of child maltreatment in high-income countries. The Lancet. 373(1). pp. 9657.
3. Maschi, T., Morgen, K., Hatcher, S., et al. (2009). Maltreated children's thoughts and emotions as behavioral predictors. Social Work. 54(2).
4. Murrell, a., Christoff, K., & Henning, K. (2007). Characteristics of domestic violence offenders: Associations with childhood exposure to violence. Journal of Family Violence. 22. pp. 523-532.
The theory involving Christine being determined to put an end to Rhoda's life can be related to her ration intervening, influencing her to take action before Rhoda continued her killings.
Rhoda pays special attention to the way that her mother sees her, and, even though she knows that her mother has the power to denounce her, she does not attempt to murder Christine. The next in Rhoda's list of killings would have been Monica Breedlove, taking into consideration the fact that the women had been closely connected to her, and that it had been possible for her to endanger Rhoda with the information that she knew.
The ending of the movie is most probably intended to present the audience with what it wants to see, someone finally punishing Rhoda, not through putting her into a mental asylum (as should have been the case), but by physically hurting her.
Defense mechanisms, the unconscious, coping mechanisms, self-actualization and archetypes are other examples. The ultimate and most useless example is the "little person," that resides in everyone and explains his behavior. These include ideas like soul, mind, ego, will, self and personality. Skinner, instead, suggests that psychologists should put their energies on what is observable, such as the environment and human behavior occurring in the environment (oeree).
This therapy states three core conditions under which growth may occur (Mulhauser,
2011). These core conditions proceed from the assumption that a person naturally possesses the inner resources for growth. He is the best authority on his own experience. He also believes in his capability to realize his own potential for growth. The therapy, however, recognizes that the realization depends on favorable conditions. Under adverse conditions, a person is often denied unconditional acceptance and positive regard. He then fails to apprehend the…
Boeree, C.G. (2006). BF Skinner. Personality Theories C.G. Boeree. Retrieved on February 8, 2011 from http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/skinner.html
Dodd, G. (2011). Counseling techniques and skills -- an introduction. Ezine Articles:
EzineArticles.com. Retrieved on February 8, 2011 from http://ezinearticles.com/?Conseling-Techniqes-and-Skills -- an-Introduction&id-2748802
Grant, S. (2011). Person-centered therapy. California State University Northridge.
She believes in a new identity and a new meaning of whiteness and blackness, which transcends the centuries-old restrictive ideas about race. Senna argues that skin-based identity is the shallowest and most hollow form of identity construction since it can be easily fabricated. Identity on the other hand should be more a matter of who you are internally than how you look. It must be based on various affiliations and a person's willingness to abandon or embrace any or all of them. This means that how a person is educated, how he or she thinks, what a person believes in, what they stand for and what they are willing to support, endorse or abandon should construct an identity for them instead of skin whiteness or blackness. Even the force of black or white gaze can be managed with fabrications as we saw in the case of Birdie. The black gaze…
Senna, Danzy. Caucasia. New York. Riverhead Trade. 1999
EFEENCES & WOKS CONSULTED
Christie-Mizell, a., E. Pryor, E. Grossman. (2008). "Child Depressive Symptoms,
Spanking, and Emotional Support: Differences Between African-American and European-American Youth." Family elations. 57 (3): 335+.
Grogan-Kaylor, a. (2004). "The Effect of Corporal Punishment on Antisocial Behavior
in Children." Social Work esearch. 28 (3): 153+.
Itzin, C. (2000). Home Truths About Child Sexual Abuse: A eader. outledge.
Jouriles, E., et.al. (2008). "Child Abuse in the Context of Domestic Violence."
Violence and Victims. 23 (2): 221+.
Lincoln, B. (NDI). BrainyQuotes.com. Cited in: BrainyQuote.com:
Miller, K. (2003). "Understanding and Treating eactive Attachment Disorder." Working
Papers from medical Educational Services Workshop. Arlington, Tx, February, 2003.
Minnis, H., et.al., 92006). "eactive Attachment Disorder." European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 15 (2): 336-42.
NAI. (2010, April). Definitions in Federal Law. etrieved April 25, 2010, from Defining Child
Abuse & Neglect: http://www.childwelfare.gov/can/defining/federal.cfm
"National Child Abuse Statistics." (2009). ChildHelp. Cited in:
REFERENCES & WORKS CONSULTED
Christie-Mizell, a., E. Pryor, E. Grossman. (2008). "Child Depressive Symptoms,
Spanking, and Emotional Support: Differences Between African-American and European-American Youth." Family Relations. 57 (3): 335+.
Grogan-Kaylor, a. (2004). "The Effect of Corporal Punishment on Antisocial Behavior
in Children." Social Work Research. 28 (3): 153+.
The use of objective criteria is important because it is through such criteria that a balanced agreement can be developed. Objective criteria lacks biased and as such the interests of both parties is likely to be taken into consideration. A subjective criterion does not have this quality and as such it has no place in the negotiation process.
Overall this section of the book reflects a clear picture of the attitudes and methods that need to be adopted during the negotiation process. In this section the authors remind the reader that negotiation is a serious skill that has to be developed and examined from many different angles. In addition this section provides the structure needed to ensure that a wise agreement can be reached between the parties.
Alternatives to Negotiation agreement
After negotiations have taken place, there are still issues that might have to be resolved. In some cases parties…
Fisher, R., Ury W., Patton B. Getting to Yes: Negotiating Agreement Without Giving in. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 1991
The behavior conditioning arises from the punishment not being liked, and therefore the behavior is avoided.
The last form of reinforcement, extinction, occurs when a reaction to a certain behavior is denied and removed, and resultantly the unwanted behavior is decreased, if not terminated. An example of extinction reinforcement includes a child who hides behind furniture in an attempt to gain attention - which is a response that has previously been positively reinforced. hen the child's attention-seeking actions are subsequently ignored, the behavior decreases, if not stops.
Research indicates positive reinforcement is the most powerful of the reinforcement paradigms (Heffner). Other methods of operant conditioning, such as punishment, can potentially summon additional negative responses such as anger and resentment. In situations of positive reinforcement, both parties involved focus on the positive aspects of the experience, which adds to the fulfillment of the desired behavior.
Examples of reinforcement principles from my…
Heffner, C. "Psychology 101." AllPsych Online the Virtual Psychology Classroom. Heffner Media Group, Inc., 01 Apr 2001. Web. 7 Apr 2011.
Since they were conducted, the American Psychological Association (APA) has established rules and strict guidelines for ethical experimentation that would not allow the kind of deception used at that time. In both experiments, the subjects experienced numerous after-effects including depression, anxiety, and tremendous guilt and they received psychological counselling afterwards.
In the case of the Zimbardo experiment, it is understandable why the prisoners would have suffered from the experience, but it is less obvious why the prison guards and the subjects in the Milgram experiment would. The Milgram subjects in particular did not actually cause any harm to anybody because the setup and the shocks were completely faked. Still, the realization of what they were capable of doing shocked them and caused them tremendous shame, guilt, and anxiety. The members of the Zimbardo experiment have held periodic reunions with Dr. Zimbardo over the years and he filmed a documentary detailing…
His father's drinking caused him concern. He felt that his father would either become ill or meet with an accident. James suggested that John go to Alcoholics Anonymous meeting. John's reaction was violent. For the first time in his life, John struck James. He yelled, "I am not an alcoholic." John felt that his drinking was under control; he could stop any time; and he could never be classified as an alcoholic.
John never remembered hitting James, even spanking him. John belonged to the school that never subscribed to the adage: "Spare the rod, spoil the brat." James received this stoically. Though he spent the night weeping, he realized that his father did not strike him, it was the alcohol. James did miss his mother, very much. The next day, after John had sobered, but still needed that "pick me up," he felt remorse and tearfully apologized to his son.…
I saw them digging up potatoes...while the farmer...watched them in despair and the local policeman looked on gloomily from the distance...What did it remind me of? Of the war, of the worst period of starvation in 1917 and 1918, but even then people paid for the potatoes.|...|
Hauser does not agree with Ostwald that times are finally returning to normal and in fact has his own moral message about the events of the day, as gangs of many men overtake well intentioned farmers by stealing their crops, without recourse and whole families, rather than just unemployed men roam the streets seeking food and refuge. The two, living in the same time see things froma very different perspective, and yet both harbor undertones of morality as a breaking point in the culture of the nation.
It is also important to mention that Germany was seeking and finding solutions in more than…
Hauser, Heinrich. "The Unemployed" (April 1933) in the Weimar Republic Sourcebook, ed. Anton Kaes, Martin Jay, and Edward Dimendberg, Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1994. 84-85.
Kroner, Friedrich. "Overwrought Nerves." In the Weimar Republic Sourcebook, ed.
Anton Kaes, Martin Jay, and Edward Dimendberg, (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1994. 63- 64.
Luxemburg, Rosa. "Founding Manifesto of the Communist Party of Germany (KPD)"
Even some police still view the partner in domestic violence as "asking" for it in some way. In addition, even though laws in the United States and many other countries have become stiffer, there are still many countries around the world that subscribe to archaic and violent practices against women, often with the approval of their religion or beliefs.
The questions that remain unanswered about domestic violence and its long history are many. How has it been allowed to continue so long unchecked? How do men rationalize violence against family members they supposedly "love?" Why did it take until the 1960s and 70s in America to acknowledge there was a problem, and that men ruled the criminal justice system and the prevailing attitudes about domestic violence? Unfortunately, some of these attitudes still exist. Another writer notes, "The law and order movement has attained stringent warrantless arrest rules in the domestic…
Colker, R. (2006). Marriage mimicry: The law of domestic violence. William and Mary Law Review, 47(6), 1841+.
Goelman, D.M. (2004). Shelter from the storm: Using jurisdictional statutes to protect victims of domestic violence after the violence against women act of 2000. Columbia Journal of Gender and Law, 13(1), 101+.
Shipway, L. (2004). Domestic violence: A handbook for health professionals. New York: Routledge.
According to Mctiernan (1997), "James Fenimore Cooper's the Spy is interesting precisely because no genre had yet hardened around spying when he wrote it. Cooper relies instead on the conventions of other genres -- primarily, the domestic romance and the historical adventure, which, unlike spy fiction, did not evolve in part to justify the dishonesty and covert manipulation central to espionage" (3).
As noted above, Cooper was also able to draw on the inspiration of an unspoiled American wilderness that few people today can imagine without his help. It is this aspect of Cooper's early works, perhaps, that continue to make them popular today just as they did in his own time. As Ringe (1962) advises, though, this is unfortunate because Cooper matured as a writer over the years and some of his best work was during the last part of his career. "Ironically, Cooper is best known for what…
Becker, May Lamberton. "Introduction" to the Last of the Mohicans: A Narrative of 1757. Cleveland, OH: World Publishing, 1957.
Davis, Randall C. (1994). "Fire-Water in the Frontier Romance: James Fenimore Cooper and 'Indian Nature.'" Studies in American Fiction 22(2): 215.
Dekker, George and John P. Williams (Eds.). James Fenimore Cooper: The Critical Heritage. London: Routledge, 1997.
Mctiernan, Dave. (1997). "The Novel as 'Neutral Ground': Genre and Ideology in Cooper's 'The Spy." Studies in American Fiction 25(1): 3.
Assignment 4: Erikson's Stages of Development.
According to Erik Erikson, every child passes through eight stages of 'man' or development. Erikson attempted to introduce a theory of development that incorporated other human needs and elements of culture into a human being's socialization process, unlike Freud who focused only on the family romance, of family…
Dement, William. (Sept 1997). "What All Undergraduates Should Know About How Their Sleeping Lives Affect Their Waking Lives." Stanford University Center of Excellence for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Sleep Disorders. Retrieved 24 May 2007 http://www.stanford.edu/~dement/sleepless.html
Classically, the dog's fear was a conditioned reflex to the sound -- in operant terms, the dog's climbing behavior was a conditioned by the "reward" of avoiding the shock.
Some critics of theories regarding conditioning suggest that it is distasteful to talk about conditioning humans, because this removes the idea that we have free will. It is possible to condition humans, of course. The purpose of spanking children, for example, is to try to condition them not to behave in certain way because it will result in pain. However, it is a misnomer to suggest that conditioning removes free will. It would be more accurate to suggest that conditioning is the outcome of free will combined with intelligence. Free will enables the animal or human to choose responses that are most rewarding, and conditioning teaches them what responses are likely to be most rewarding. It is always theoretically possible for…
it's been earned" (emphasis added) (Klawans, 2003, p. 32). In their synopsis of the movie, the producers report that, "Having been gunned down by her former boss (David Carradine) and his deadly squad of international assassins, it's a kill-or-be-killed fight she didn't start but is determined to finish! Loaded with explosive action and outrageous humor, it's a must-see motion picture event that had critics everywhere raving!" (Kill Bill Volume 1 Synopsis, 2005, p. 1). As noted above, critics in fact from just about everywhere have been raving about "Kill Bill, Volume 1" (and 2), but not necessarily in a positive fashion; the possible reasons for these negative assertions about Tarantino's work are discussed further below.
Gender-Based Differences in the Perception of Violence
According to Adler and Denmark (1995), there have been a number of theories advanced over the years concerning violent behavior based on various psychodynamic, social learning, cognitive, and…
Adler, L.L. & Denmark, F.L. (Eds.). (1995). Violence and the prevention of violence. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
Alleva, R. (2004, May 7). East Meets West: 'Goodbye, Lenin!' & 'Kill Bill-Volume 2.'
Commonweal, 131(9), 23.
Arsham, Hossein. (2002). Questionnaire Design and Surveys Sampling, SySurvey: The Online Survey Tool. Retrieved March 2, 2005 at http://ubmail.ubalt.edu/~harsham/stat-data/opre330Surveys.htm#rsi.
While I do not believe that Narnia exists, I do believe it exists and can be reached through a wardrobe while reading that book. In contrast, while most modern romance novels are set in modern-day, realistic settings, the events within them are so obviously contrived that it detracts from, rather than enhances, the storyline. Therefore, I think that fiction writing teachers need to concentrate on teaching students how to write about the fantastic in a plausible manner.
Examining my own conclusions about the tradition of writing, I have come to the conclusion that the separation of genres hinders good writing. Whatever the genre, my favorite writing tends to feature conversational and engaging writing. The plot scenarios, even when wildly fantastic, are presented in a believable manner. Furthermore, the author uses elements of writing that make the reader feel as if they are a part of the story being told. While…
Topic: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Order ID: A2018177
User Name: sabina1325
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurological problem that affects children. As children grow some of them grow out of this behavioral problem, however in some cases it does continue into adulthood. ADHD is a behavioral problem that creates difficulty for the individual to remain focused, or inactive. This is a severe problem because there is currently no known cure for this problem and it affects the individuals being affected in many ways. The main way the ADHD affects children is that it impacts their educational progress because of their inability to focus or sit still. ADHD is a serious problem and the children who have this problem struggle each day to achieve simple goals, like reading a book. There is no cure for this problem; the medications that are used to treat ADHD have serious side…
From ADHD meds to testing and NCLB. (2009). American School Board Journal. 196 (7) 45-47
Gustafsson et. al. (1997). ADHD symptoms and maturity ? a study in primary school children. Acta Paediatricia. 97 (2) 233-238
Knowles, T. (2010). The kids behind the label: Understanding ADHD. Education Digest. 76 (3)
Mayes, R., Bagwell, C. & Erkulwater, J. (2008). ADHD and the rise in stimulant use among children. Harvard Review of Psychiatry. 16 (3) 151-166
National Institute of Mental Health (2008). Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Retrieved on November 30, 2010 from http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder/complete-index.shtml#pub1
Rodriguez, P.D. & Baylis, G. C. (2007) Activation of brain attention systems in individuals with symptoms of ADHD. Behavioral Neurology. 18 (2) 115-130
Starting from 19th century psychology, school of thought of behaviorist shared commonalities and as well ran concurrently with the 20th century psychology of psychoanalytic and Gestalt movements, however it was different from Gestalt psychologists' mental philosophy in significant ways. Psychologists who had major influences in it were Edward Lee Thorndike, John B. atson, they opposed method of introspective and advocated to use of experimental methods: Ivan Pavlov, investigated classical conditioning, but he was not to the idea of behaviorists or behaviorism: B.F. Skinner, he did his research on operant conditioning.
During second half of the 20th century, it was widely eclipsed that behaviorism was due to cognitive revolution. Even though behaviorism as well as cognitive schools of psychological thought tends to disagree in terms of theory, they have gone a head to compliment one another within applications of practical therapeutic, for example, cognitive-behavioral therapy has shown utility in treating some…
Arntzen, E., Lokke, J., Kokke, G. & Eilertsen, D-E. (2010). On misconceptions about behavior analysis among university students and teachers. The Psychological Record, 60(2), 325- 327.
Chiesa, M. (2004).Radical Behaviorism: The Philosophy and the Science ISBN
Claus, C.K. (2007) B.F. Skinner and T.N. Whitehead: A brief encounter, research similarities, Hawthorne revisited, what next? The Behavior Analyst, 30(1), 79-86. Retrieved http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2223160/?tool=pmcentrez
Diller, J.W. And Lattal, K.A. (2008). Radical behaviorism and Buddhism: complementarities and conflicts. The Behavior Analyst, 31(2), 163-177. Retrieved http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2591756/?tool=pmcentrez
Child abuse and all of its aspects, affect not only the child and his immediate family, but society as a whole pays the price by this maltreatment of our youngest and most important resources. The purpose of this essay is to present two differing hypotheses on this interesting and important topic. In examining these two proposals, I'm attempting to reach new understanding and preventive measures to reducing and hopefully eliminating child abuse in the near future.
H1: Child sexual abuse incidence and future substance abuse incidence is positively correlated.
Determining risk factors for substance-abuse is often difficult with the amount of information available to the authorities today. Psychological and physiological variables certainly affect one's tendency to drift towards substance abuse and dependence. When looking at those who do abuse drugs or alcohol the upbringing and treatment of that person as a child may hold certain keys to understanding this dreaded…
Appel, A. & Holden, G (1998). The co-occurrence of spouse and physical child abuse: a review and appraisal. Journal of Family Psychology, 12, 578-579.
Putnam, F. (2003). Ten-year research update review: child sexual abuse. ACAD Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 42-3,268-278.
here are the articles if you want to read them:
Styles attachment often represent reciprocal interactions between the parent and child. For example, the child with a resistant attachment who becomes highly upset when the parent leaves but shows little interest in the parent when they return is often associated with a lack of parental affection. The children recognizes the parent as a source of security; however, since they receive little affection from the parent when the parent is present they learn not to approach the parent.
The child with an avoidant attachment style often treats the parent and strangers similarly. Often these children receive very little interaction with the parent when the parent is present and they have learned not to rely on them for stimulation. Likewise this lack of interaction does not allow the child to differentiate well between a stranger and their own parent other than having some form of mild familiarity with the parent.
WOMEN'S MODEN HISTOY
Critical Moments in Women's Modern History
Critical Moments in Women's Modern History
In the United States of America, for the first time in its short history, there is a convention held in Seneca Falls, NY for women's rights.
In Brooklyn, NY, Margaret Sanger opens the first clinic to offer birth control in the United States. The clinic was shut down and she was arrested ten days later.
Title VII of the Civil ights Act formally makes illegal discrimination with respect to employment on the basis of race and sex. Title VII simultaneously establishes the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.
Women have held the position of Secretary of State to the President of the United States.
The convention for women's rights is included on the timeline because this is the first time in the prominent country of the U.S.A. that women have formally gathered under the transparent…
Information Please Database. (2007). Women's Rights Movement in the U.S. Pearson Education, Web, Available from: http://www.infoplease.com/spot/womenstimeline3.html . 2013 January 19.
Wolf, N. (1999). Timeline Special: Women in the United States. The New York Times, Web, Available from: http://www.nytimes.com/library/magazine/millennium/m2/wolf-timeline.html . 2013 January 19.
validity of the argument and the counterargument for corporal punishment on children and adolescents. The paper furthermore attempts to view this issue from the perspective of the adults administering and questioning this issues as well as from the perspective of the young people on the receiving end of punishment. In this way, the paper aims to provide holistic context by arguing for both sides of the issues from more than one perspective.
Corporal punishment is an issue that is debated often with respect to local and global issues. Corporal punishment is most often applied to children in the home and as part of their formal education. Corporal may be experienced in other institutions, including in situations where adults experience corporal punishment such as in the military, prison, fraternities, and in the home as part of domestic abuse. There is often a spectrum of perspective with regard to the issue of…
Durrant, Joan E. "Evaluating the Success of Sweden's Corporal Punishment Ban." Child Abuse & Neglect, Vol. 23, No. 5, 435 -- 448, 1999.
Straus, Murray A., & Stewart, Julie H. "Corporal Punishment by American Parents: National Data on Prevalence, Chronicity, Severity, and Duration, in Relation to Child and Family Characteristics. Clinical Child and Family Psychology, Vol. 2, No. 2, 1999.
Turner, Heather A., & Finkelhor, David. "Corporal Punishment as a Stressor Among Youth." Journal of Marriage and the Family, 58, 155 -- 166, 1996.
respondent behavior and operant behavior, and give a real-Life example of each.
Operant behaviour encompasses the actions of an individual that are purposefully driven to produce a desired effect. Examples of operant behavior would include a driver pushing the gas pedal in a car to produce a faster speed and giving a child a much-desired gift with the expectation of seeing the child's glee in response. Respondent behavior encompasses the actions of an individual that are not purposefully driven but are nonetheless actions that result from external stimulation. These types of behaviours are frequently referred to as reflexes as they are involuntary responses to an environmental stimuli. Examples of respondent behavior include an individual's yelp of pain when he or she hits his or her finger with a hammer or when an individual involuntarily closes his or her eyes when he or she sneezes.
Distinguish between positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement,…
Child abuse is one of the most dangerous and serious problems confronting society, perhaps because of the helplessness and innocence of the victims. What is particularly bothersome about child abuse is that it occurs in all income, racial, religious, and ethnic groups and in urban and rural communities. Likewise, there is no uniform definition of what constitutes child abuse, making it difficult to ascertain what prevention and treatment methods are most effective. For example, in Sweden, the law prohibits any physical punishment of children, including spanking. By contrast, in some countries of Asia, Africa, and the Caribbean, parents are expected to punish their children by hitting them.
This paper analyzes and examines the multitude of issues related to child abuse. Part II defines child abuse. In Part III, a history of child abuse is offered. Part IV evaluates why child abuse exists according to control theory and anomy theory. In…
ambara, 1981) the author Toni Cade ambara presents, at the superficial level, from a child's perspective, a visit to the F.A. O Schwarz Toy Emporium in Manhattan, of the protagonist and her friends led by the resident gadfly, busboy and self-appointed educator Miss Moore. The protagonist Sylvia, and her comrades -- Sugar, Junior, Rosie Giraffe, Mercedes, Flyboy, ig utt, Q.T. And Junebug are African-American children growing up in the poorer neighborhoods of New York.
In order that their children might imbibe some culture and learning, the parents willingly "give their" children over to Miss Moore. On this particular day, they are bundled into two taxis into downtown Manhattan. After some window shopping, they are led into the store. The children realize immediately that any of the store's inventories is way beyond their economic means. Sylvia actually considers various necessities that her mother might prioritize rather than purchase a 35 dollar…
Bambara, Toni Cade. "The Lesson." Gorilla, My Love. 1st Vintage Books New York: Vintage Books, 1981. 177.
history there has been a major hypocrisy when it comes to children and the way they have been treated. On the one hand children are the most precious commodity on earth. They are the future politicians, doctors, and evangelists that will grow up to lead the world. They are the people who will eventually cure disease, invent marvelous contraptions and change the world. By all intents and purposes children are the world's most precious commodity and those in the United Kingdom are included in the lot. However throughout the history of the United Kingdom children for the most part have not had a lot of rights or protections afforded them. In more recent history this pattern began to change and as those changes took place the true nature of the wrongs of the past came to light. As the United Kingdom continued to work toward change the issue of children's…
Graham Hiscott,(2002). UK law on hitting children outdated., Birmingham Post, pp 6.
Author not available (1999). UK GOVERNMENT: UK moves to safeguard children's rights., M2 PressWIRE.
Children's rights in the UK (Accessed 5-5-2003)
MFT: Psychology of Violence
Types of Abuse Inflicted on Spouses
There are various forms of spousal abuse, but the legal definition of the term is, reckless or deliberate infliction of emotional or physical injury on one's spouse. Spousal abuse penalties and charges are dependent upon whether serious physical damage was inflicted on the spouse, whether the abuse events have been occurring continually, and abuse history of the offender. While domestic violence and spousal abuse are similar, the former incorporates other kinds of relationships as well, including same-sex unions or civil partnership. Spousal abuse can lead to devastating emotional damage as it typically entails spousal domination by means of violence, verbal abuse, intimidation, or threats of bodily maltreatment, causing intense terror, hopelessness, and powerlessness in the other spouse (Attorney, 2015).
An individual is said to be physically abused if he/she suffers deliberate bodily hurt at the hands of another; physical…
Albrecht, S. (2012, July 27). Do Domestic Violence Restraining Orders Ever Really Work? Retrieved from psychologytoday: https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/the-act-violence/201207/do-domestic-violence-restraining-orders-ever-really-work
Attorney. (2015). Spousal Abuse Charges and Penalties. Retrieved from Attorney: http://www.attorneys.com/domestic-violence/spousal-abuse-charges-and-penalties/
Bancroft, L. (2002). Why does he do that? New York: Berkley.
Benitez, C. T., McNiel, D. E., & Binder, R. L. (2010). Do Protection Orders Protect? J Am Acad Psychiatry Law, 38(3), 376-385. Retrieved Novemeber 8, 2015, from http://www.jaapl.org/content/38/3/376.full
Such relationships in childhood begin with the parents, and for Asher, these early relationships are also significant later, as might be expected.
However, as Potok shows in this novel, for someone like Asher, the importance of childhood bonds and of later intimate bonds are themselves stressed by cultural conflicts between the Hasidic community in its isolation and the larger American society surrounding it. For Asher, the conflict is between the more controlled religious environment of the community and the more liberal environment of the art world he joins. What Potok shows about this particular conflict might seem very different from what others experience, others who are not part of such a strict religious background and who are not artists. However, children always find a conflict between the circumscribed world of their immediate family and the world they join as they strike out on their own. This conflict is often portrayed…
Belkin, L. (2004). The Lessons of Classroom 506. New York Times Magazine, 40-53.
Bowlby, J. (1988). Developmental psychiatry comes of age. American Journal of Psychiatry, 145, 1-10.
Erikson, E.H. (1963) Childhood and Society. New York: Free Press.
Kim, W.J., Kim, L. & Rue, D.S. (1997). Korean-American Children. In G. Johnson-Powell & J. Yamamoto (Ed.) Transcultural Child Development: Psychological Assessment and Treatment (pp. 183-207). New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
At first the day goes well. Art and David enjoy working together. It is, however, the father's inability to see his own son as a child that begins the course of events. Art leaves David to wait for him near the skeleton of a dead horse. Like most seven-year-olds, this frightens David and his father is gone for what probably seemed like a long time to a child.
Consequently, David goes home on his own which angers his father. Instead of punishing David, Art treats him coldly. In reality, David wanted attention even if that was in the form of a beating or scolding. This need drives David to force his father into acting like a father. David jumps off a roof which upsets his father, but that's not enough. David wants to know that his father cares enough to be angry so he dumps a pound of staples. This…
Buckler, Ernest. "The Harness."
Larkin, Philip. "This be the verse." 23 February 2007. http://www.xs4all.nl/~ace/Literaria/Poem-Larkin.html
"(Twain,39). Later on, he witnesses with his friends their own funeral service, because they had been considered dead after their disappearance. Also, Tom pretends to be visionary and recounts his so-called dream to aunt Polly, which was in fact only an account of what he himself had seen: "Tom! The sperrit was upon you! You was a-prophesying -- that's what you was doing!" (Twain, 157)
Finally, Tom emerges as a "real hero," when his concern the others outweighs his concern for himself. Thus, one of his real acts of heroism is taking the punishment in Becky's place, for tearing the teacher's book, and getting the latter's sincere appraisal: "Tom, how could you be so noble!"(Twain, 176). Also, he rescues Becky from the cave, and the fact that he persuades Huck to be civilized, putting it as a condition to him, so as to let him be part of the gang:…
Twain, Mark. The Adventures of Tom Sawyer. New Yor
Psychology and Culture
Lynn's parenting of her son takes an authoritarian approach to child-rearing. In her culture, parental authority is rarely questioned. Not only would she find support in her family, but she would also find support for her parenting decisions in the community and in the Cambodian interpretation of the Buddhist religion. One of the parenting practices that is acceptable in her culture is the use of physical punishment for children. Children are expected to be obedient in her culture and to listen, without argument, when a parent gives instructions. This obedience is part of the authoritarian approach to parenting. In addition, it is clear that she expects the child to conform to her standards. Despite the fact that the child was having a difficult day, she decided to go to the mall, which is reflective of the attitude that children should be obedient.
I think that this question…
Honestly, the readings on praise and punishment would not greatly affect the way I raised my child. I grew being disciplined by corporal punishment by parents who were also disciplined by corporal punishment when they were raised. I actually believe that there are a number of virtues associated with corporal punishment including humility, self-esteem, and an understated form of perseverance that is fundamental to a well-rounded individual. More than likely, if I ever were to have children I would incorporate corporal punishment into the ways that I disciplined them. I would utilize this form of discipline especially for younger children, and would more than likely subside this approach as the children became teenagers and morphed into adults. I actually believe that the virtues extracted from corporal punishment exceed the negatives associated with it, especially when it is administered with love and temperance.
The readings on praise might certainly affect the…
AED Technical Instructions
Automated External Defibrillator (AED)
TECHNICAL INSTUCTIONS PAPE
New Employee Instructions on Use of ZOLL AED PLUS:
The Zoll model Automatic Electrical Defibrillator is a machine used by this office that is designed to shock and provide electricity to the heart to stop the heart from beating in two bad rhythms called ventricular fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia. Ventricular fibrillation and tachycardia are two most common arrhythmias or irregular heartbeat patterns in the heart.
The heart is made out of muscle cells, but they are different from regular muscle cells. They are capable of generating their own electrical impulses that are conducted throughout the rest of the heart muscle that are capable of making the heart beat in a certain rhythm. Because each of those cells can generate and conduct an electrical impulse, the bad side is one type of cell can take…
911 AED. "AEDs and Defibrillators." Available: http://www.911aed.com/faq.htm
"Guidelines 2000 for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiac Care" International Consensus on Science" Circulation: 2000; 102, 8
Zoll. (2000). "Zoll AED U.S. Distributors." Retrieved January 26, 2004, from http://zoll.us