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In conclusion, based on the available historical evidence concerning ancient Sparta and its culture and the viewpoints of ristotle, the Spartan women obviously played a major role in the downfall of the Spartan empire; however, like related historical events, one cannot place all of the blame on this role, for there is certainly a conglomerate of reasons why Sparta failed to survive as a major Greek polis. In basic terms, ristotle may be trying to persuade us that a society like Sparta cannot survive if it is ruled by women instead of men, for after all, women are "useless" and are second-rate when compared to men. Perhaps ristotle should have considered the possibility that if the Spartan men had not been so militarily aggressive toward their neighbors and instead stayed at home with their wives as proper fathers and guardians, Spartan society might have survived to eventually rival the city…… [Read More]
Spartan Army by Nick Sekunda attempts to give as in-depth account as possible of the ancient Spartan society's military code of conduct and way of life. Particular detail is given to military dress, weapons, and uniforms, as well as the history and geography of this ancient Greek city-state, and is methods of training its citizen-warriors. Sparta was one of the major powers of ancient Greece, but unlike its ally during the Persian ars and adversary during the Peloponnesian ars, Athens, it did not have a democratic system of government. Rather, it was a military, collective dictatorship where young men were reared from birth to be warriors and servants of a proud and cohesive military state. Spartan women were reared to be mothers of great soldiers, and were famously said to tell their sons leaving for battle to either come back with their shields (victorious) or on their shields (dead) (29).…… [Read More]
Spartan and Athenian constitutional and political systems. In the first part, an introduction of Athens and Sparta has been given. In the second part, both the forms of governments in Spartan and Athenian lands have been discussed. In the final part, a summary of the differences and similarities between the political systems of the two poleis have been included.
Ancient Greece is well-known as the starting point of western civilization. It was the Greeks who brought in the concept of democracy and ground-breaking ideas in technical and inventive fields. Ancient Greece was not a single country. Instead, independent city-states were present within its regime that possessed their particular administrations and armed forces. Athens and Sparta were the most important and leading states among them. The two ancient Greek rivals clattered for the most part and gave the majority of customs and traditions to the world. egardless of the fact that…… [Read More]
What constitutes a Spartan? Indeed, what characteristics are exemplary of a Spartan? According to Steven Pressfied in his work, "Gates of Fire," Spartans are synonymous with the term warrior. So much so in fact, that one is likely to find the word Spartan in the thesaurus when researching the term "warrior." In his book, Pressfield provides the reader with very detailed and accurate descriptions of the ideal Spartan, as portrayed through the eyes of a freedman, a former slave recruited into the service of Spartan warriors, an individual in awe of the intensity and fearlessness of the warriors he has encountered. One can most definitely conclude upon reading this work that Spartans were raised in a society or culture that praised fearlessness, cunning, strength and courage.
The text begins with the account of the leader, referred to as "Majesty" recounting the following of his most recent battle with…… [Read More]
The Spartans: The World of the Warrior Heroes of Ancient Greece
Paul Cartledge's book known as The Spartans: The World of the Warrior-Heroes of Ancient Greece is by far one of the most intriguing books about one of the most looked at civilizations of ancient Greece. It brings to light new thoughts on the civilization that was known as a pure warrior society (Cartledge, 2004). Cartledge asks the question known as "Who were the Spartans and why should we care?" This book is the answer to that. Cartledge, one of the most leading experts on Sparta, looks at the rise and fall of the Spartan society and he even looks on how the Spartans had a significant influence on their world and even our world as we see it today (Cartledge, 2004). He examines famous figures of Sparta such as the founder Lycurgus and King Leonidas (Cartledge, 2004).
According…… [Read More]
Accuracies in the Snyder's Film
Herodotus and Zac Snyder have at least one thing in common: they both portray the ancient Persians in very unflattering terms. The grim, ghastly, almost monstrously barbaric (yet weirdly effeminate) features of the Persian leader Xerxes is one of the most visually arresting elements of Snyder's film 300 (based on a graphic novel by Frank Miller). How historically accurate is the film? Considering the fact that Snyder shot almost the entirety of the film on a soundstage because the film's "landscapes are different than in real life. They don't exist in the real world, only in Frank Miller's imagination," one might be tempted to say not very. Yet, there are elements of the film that do correspond to the historical attle of Thermopylae -- in a way. This paper will compare and contrast Snyder's film 300 with the real history of the battle between Spartans…… [Read More]
Bettany Hughes, the Ancient Worlds 5 of 7 the Spartans
Points from the Film:
Unlike the Athenians, Spartans were not known for their philosophical insights or their artistic triumphs. They were known for being frugal and for being fighters. Their society was built on the idea that it could only stand so long as they were physically strong. Thus, Spartans had a strict code of discipline and self-sacrifice: everything was done to protect the State. The weak were viewed as a threat to the State's strength and weak children were killed. While this may seem like a barbaric exercise today, it was a matter of fact practice in ancient Sparta and everyone there accepted it.
Another curious point about Sparta was that male homosexuality was compulsory in Sparta. Women could also take lesbian lovers if they chose. This was because sex between a man and woman was primarily viewed as…… [Read More]
Dark Age and the Archaic Age
Having watched the lectures for the prior learning unit on video, I was prepared to enjoy the video lecture presentation for this learning unit. I previously found the presentation of lectures in the video format to be very convenient because I could observe at my own pace, rewind if I missed part of the lecture, have flexibility about when I was viewing the lecture, and not be distracted by the behavior or questions of other students. I acknowledged that there were some negatives to the video-learning environment, such as missing out on the organic and natural question and answers that develop in a live classroom setting, but had decided that missing those was an acceptable trade-off given the other benefits that I was receiving from the video lecture environment. Therefore, I was surprised to find that I did not enjoy the video lectures for…… [Read More]
great warrior civilizations of antiquity the name "Spartan" invariably arises. Stephen Pressfield in the impressive novel "Gates of Fire" stirringly resurrects these ancient warriors and their society.
Describe the General Storyline of this book.
As the book begins, a captured Spartan squire named Xeones (the sole survivor of the last stand at Thermopylae) is recounting the compelling story of the 300 Spartans who fought to their death at Thermopylae to the Persian King. Xeones's narrative does not restrict itself to just an accounting of the battle but also reflects the trials experienced in his own life, the day-to-day life of Spartan society, and the humanity, compassion, and grief of his fallen brothers in arms.
How does Pressfield present the Spartans and their Society? hat attributes
Characteristics) does he claim that the Spartans exhibited. How did the other Greeks perceive the Spartans?
Pressfield, obvious from the outset of the accounting, justly…… [Read More]
How do we know about this war?
Thucydides may be counted among the foremost historians of the West to utilize a rigorous chronological standard. He recorded events based on their year of occurrence, and every year was divided into two seasons: a campaign-filled summer and a relatively inactive winter. The historian documented the Peloponnesian War in great detail.
In spite of hailing from Athens and having taken part in the war, Thucydides is commonly believed to have provided an overall neutral narrative of it with regard to the parties involved.
The foremost volume in Thucydides 'History of the Peloponnesian War covers a summary of Greece's early history, a programmatic historiographical note, and an explanation for why the War was waged. With the exception of some brief excursuses (particularly 6.54-58 on Tyrant Slayers), its remaining volumes (2-8) concentrate strictly on the War and nothing else.
Though Thucydides' book focuses on the…… [Read More]
In the end, the Spartan/Greek army's superior armor and weapons and clever use of topography to counterbalance the Persian's greater numbers helps to explain their victories on a military level. Unfortunately, Leonidas and his fellow Spartans were massacred after a local Greek revealed to Xerxes a secret route around the narrow pass, allowing the Persians to attack the Spartans from the front and the rear at the same time. At the conclusion of the battle, Leonidas and his 300 brave Spartans were all dead, along with most of the other Greek fighters. Amazingly, Leonidas and his men had managed to kill more than 20,000 Persians which demonstrated the superior fighting skills of the hoplites and their devotion to the ideal of political freedom more than one hundred years before the city of Athens reached its zenith as the foundation of Greek democratic ideals and individualism.
Greco-Persian Wars: attle of…… [Read More]
The Greco-Persian Wars were still in their early stages at this point, but it would be Xerxes, not Darius, that continued and stepped up efforts to invade and conquer the Attic Greeks.
If the Battle of Marathon had turned the other way, as many at the time expected it to and as many historians and tacticians believe it easily could and by all rights should have, the entire course of Western and even world history would have been drastically altered. Europe was built on the ideas and culture of the Greeks, particularly the Athenians. The eventual conquering of the Greek and the establishment of the oman Empire led to the spread of Greek philosophy, art, and science throughout the then known world; if the Persians had been successful in their attempt to conquer the Greeks, this culture would most likely not have existed by the time the omans came around.…… [Read More]
Leadership - Gates of Fire by Steven Pressfield
Gates of Fire written by Steven Pressfield is a famous historical novel published in 1998. It tells the story of 480 B.C when Persian King decided to attack Greece. Persia was the biggest power of the world in those times and it used all its supremacy to focus on this singe goal.
Persian King brought with him a huge army of around two million soldiers with a simple message of "surrender or death" for the Greeks. On the other side, Greece put forward their 300 finest Spartan warriors under the commandment of King Leonydas and ordered them to take immediate action.
Spartans knew very well that they will be killed in this battle with Persian invaders but they did not quit and moved forward towards their mission. They bravely resisted against the Persian forces for six days and created an unbalanced fight…… [Read More]
It is often said, when discussing the importance of volunteering, that if an individual can only save one person, than he or she has lived a worthwhile life. In my case, I have volunteered for the past two years at UMASS Memorial hospital, a commitment that was preceded by my work at Santa Teresa Hospital, also as a volunteer. Of course, as a high school student, I cannot brag that I have saved many lives, or found the cure for any number of infectious diseases. Someday, I can say, I hope to do such things, but as yet I can only dream. If I have 'saved' even one individual through my current medical efforts, this 'salvation' has only come through my combined efforts with the doctors and nurses whose efforts I serve. But truthfully, I know that my volunteering has saved at least one person -- it has…… [Read More]
Thucydides was an Athenian, but had very little reason for offering a distorted view of the war that was eventually won by Sparta.
Jackson states, "Thucydides was an active participant in Athens for a time, he had a network of contacts, while banished to Thrace he observed the war there first hand, and as an Athenian exile he traveled along the Peloponnese" (Jackson, p.175). Thucydides wrote of a Sparta that used an eight deep fighting stance against the Athenians who could not, or did not, adapt to a style that would lead to victory when battling against that type of tactic.
Other army tactics began to be used after the Peloponnesian ar, many of which were introduced by the Spartans in order to maintain their military might. One such tactic would play a key role in the battle of Leuctra.
Of particular relevance to Leuctra, however, was the battle of…… [Read More]
Athens and Sparta -- as ar Inevitable?
Between 500 and 350 BC the area now known as Greece was but a collection of separate and unallied city-states. Today, we often view cultures and political conflict in terms of nations, and take the view that since city-states were geographically close, culture was the same. This, however, was untrue, particularly in the case of the two most powerful and well-known city states of Athens and Sparta.
That is not to say that these two entities were completely divergent. Both had some cultural similarities in context with their history, and they cooperated -- if distantly, in the years leading up to the Battle of Thermopylae and subsequent defeat of the Persian invaders at Salamis and Plataea, ending Persian aggression for a time.
However, understanding Ancient Cultures is often difficult. e have limited resources from which to build a portrait of the culture, and…… [Read More]
institute such strict military controls?
Sparta's militarism and commitment to maintaining a standing army was no accident. "Sparta seems to have developed gradually as a practical response to unusual circumstances," ("History of Sparta," n.d.). "The evolution of the Spartan army began during the heroic Mycenaean age (1600 BCE to 1100 BCE), a time in Greek history when tactics were simple and warriors sought individual glory (and fought out of formation)," ("The Spartan Military," 2010). Moreover, the Dorians staged frequent invasions into the area. Sparta needed to protect its borders. By the 8th century B.C.E., Spartan leaders realized the value of a standing army and implemented one in the interests of what can be called national security. Later, Spartan militarism would threaten Athenian dominance. Sparta found itself in the situation of needing to institute strict military controls as a matter of self-preservation.
One reason why Sparta instituted strict military controls was…… [Read More]
Athens and Sparta were the two opponents of ancient Greece that clattered most and bestowed us with the majority of customs and traditions. Despite the fact that the two poleis were close together geographically, both differed greatly in their values and ways of living1.
Athens and Sparta: History
The enriching, intellectual and artistic heritage of ancient Athens to the world is immense and immeasurable. The indications to the Greek legacy that flourish in the civilization of Western Europe are attributed to Athenian civilization. Athens was made the strongest Greek city-state after the Persian Wars. Though it was a good deal smaller and less dominant than Sparta at the beginning of the wars, Athens was more energetic, efficient and effectual in the warfare against Persian Empire. Miltiades, Themistocles, and Cimon were the Athenian heroes who were mainly responsible for making the city strong. Athens reached the pinnacle of its cultural and…… [Read More]
Athens and Sparta were two most powerful states in Ancient Greece. Athens was known for its undying focus on infrastructural development while Sparta had an unmatched military prowess. As such, Sparta was the most powerful Greek state. Although the two states are very close geographically, they do have contrasting lifestyles, governance structures, military strength and economic systems (Internet Ancient History Sourcebook: Greece. 1998).
Unlike Athens, which was a democracy government, Sparta was an Oligarchy system of government. This means the state was ruled by a few individuals. Two kings acted as leaders who were accompanied by five Ephors. The Kings passed on their crowns to their sons. The Ephors and Kings would attend the general assembly to develop and pass motions, decrees legislations and make civil decisions (Blackwell, 2003).
In Sparta, the goal of education is to yield a well-disciplined and well-drilled marching army. These people believe in…… [Read More]
Both Spartan men and women exercised together in the nude, and both were "encouraged to improve their intellectual skills" ("omen in Ancient Greece"). Being a woman in Sparta certainly ensured a greater sense of gender equality -- but that does not necessarily mean Sparta was the preferred residence of women in Greece. After all, Sparta did without a lot of the creature comforts that other city-states like Athens took for granted as essential to civilization. There is a reason the phrase "Spartan living" has come to be synonymous with the bare necessities.
As for variance in the social structure of the various states, democracy prevailed in Athens for a time (but so did tyranny and corruption as well). Thebes also had its monarchy and later on its heroic warrior citizens. Sparta had two kings who ruled simultaneously. But its social structure was also more slave-based than anywhere else. In fact,…… [Read More]
Moreover, the empire was politically as well as geographically fragmented. Macedonian rule was tolerated only as long as Alexander remained alive.
3. The reasons civilizations developed with particular robustness in the Near East can be narrowed down to geography and the migratory patterns of early humans. Known as the Fertile Crescent, the Eastern Mediterranean offered arable land complete with a plethora of indigenous flora and fauna for domestication and cultivation. Moreover, animal domestication flourished in the Near East. Agriculture and animal husbandry necessitated the rise of early cities, whereas in less fertile regions hunting and gathering remained more productive means to procure food. Early humans, traveling from the African subcontinent, naturally found the Fertile Crescent a suitable place for developing permanent settlements. As disparate groups settled throughout the Eastern Mediterranean, geography also permitted the ready trade of goods, people, and ideas. The sea and a location close to East Asia…… [Read More]
Ironically, as we have seen, we live in a capitalistic society. A sometimes unwilling engine of this equity has been revenue generating sports. hat will be absolutely necessary will be the demand of female consumers who will vote with their wallets in favor of equity. However, they will only do so if they are properly educated. The portrayal of women as equal partners of women in society appears to be a permanent feature of American society. Baring some major social change in society, this trend is likely to continue. As noted above, the place for gender integration in sports on the playing field and court will ironically probably take place on the living room couch in front of the television or in front of the computer. Non-athletes will determine for good or ill the status of gender in sports. They have before and this will certainly continue into the foreseeable…… [Read More]
As the formation collides with one another, spheres are aimed at the groin of each opponent. The sword swings an aim towards an enemies head and vital parts of the body. Extreme agility and presence of mind are required to every hoplite in the exhausting close combat.
The defeated phalanx has only two choices to survive: The first option would be is to drop their weapons and flee hastily without being pursued by the victorious opponent which is normal in Greek Warfare. The second option is to retreat in the same formation in an orderly manner. However, this situation based on historical events often happens. After which, 5. victory was enforced by ransoming the fallen back to the defeated, called the "custom of the Greeks"(Wikipedia Encyclopedia, 2005).
History: Development and Downfall
As the economy of Ancient Greece developed, city states have focused their attention in developing a much reliable armies…… [Read More]
Democracy: Ancient Athens and Today
The democratic process of ancient Athens as compared to today was much different. The most obvious difference is simply the scale of the process. Ancient Athens was a relatively small city-state compared to the enormous country that is the United States. There are many millions more people in today's U.S. than there were in ancient Athens. Today's elections are also much less direct than they were in Athens. The U.S. uses an electoral and representative system of democracy -- but Athens practiced direct democracy: every participating citizen was able to vote directly for or against a law or policy. In today's world, citizens are very far removed from the process for the most part and must rely on their elected representatives to represent them fairly. Given the sheer number of people in the U.S. and the many differences of our people, fair representation…… [Read More]
hile not as sexy and "politically correct" as a direct confrontation of homophobia in the military, the author thinks that a pragmatic, gradual expansion of the "don't ask, don't tell" policy is in order. It is probably the best way to preserve the lives of gay servicemen and to protect and expand their rights.
Bateman, Geoffrey. Don't Ask Don't Tell. London: Lynne Riener Publishers, 2003. 2, 12.
Grener, Richard. "Colonel Redl: The Man Behind the Screen Myth." New York Times 12
October 1985: n. pag. eb. 7 Apr 2010. .
"Hephaestion." Heritage Key. N.p., 2010. eb. 7 Apr 2010. .
Pacion, Stanley. " Sparta: An Experiment in State-Fostered Homosexuality." Sex and History. N.p., June 27, 2008. eb. 7 Apr 2010. .
Plutarch. "The Sacred Theban Band." Plutarch's Lives. Ed. J.S. hite. New York:
Biblio and Tannen. 1966. 416.
.… [Read More]
Compare Greek religion in the two different periods in history in the eighth century, the time of Homer, and in the fifth century BCE, according to the following:
The different ways they believed their gods intervened.
During the Epic Age, that of Homer, they believed that the God directly intervened in the lives of human beings. Over time, as the rulers of Greece became more powerful, the population began to feel that although the Gods could control lives, they were mostly observers rather than direct participants.
Whether they believed their gods favored or punished specific individuals for moral reasons.
In the 8th century BC, the people believed that the Gods punished behavior, but that the punishments were more targeted at individuals who disrespected the gods rather than those who committed crimes or sins. As exemplified in Antigone, the people feared that if they defied the gods then they…… [Read More]
As an historian and a citizen of that democratic city, Thucydides was faced with a task no less daunting -- how to make the saga of a losing war seem like a triumph, or at least seem interesting and relevant, rather than something Athens wished to forget.
hen reading Thucydides, one does not read about an ancient war, rather one is witness to the process of historical story, of a history of narrative being created, even the first citing of 'spin' if you like. Unlike the Spartans, for the Athenians in Pericles' oration, "advancement in public life falls to reputation for capacity," and the freedom enjoyed "in our government extends also to our ordinary life. There, far from exercising a jealous surveillance over each other, we do not feel called upon to be angry with our neighbor for doing what he likes, or even to indulge in those injurious looks…… [Read More]
Athens and Sparta
Athens and Sparta existed during the same time in history, and did share some core social and cultural values, but for the most part, they were quite different. Perhaps the biggest difference between the two cultures was Sparta's almost exclusive reliance on a military culture. Afraid of slave uprisings (because one had already occurred), they began military training for their young boys at the tender age of seven, and instilled the belief that the ultimate act of bravery for a warrior was to fight and die in defense of their city.
Sparta dominated the land by warfare and with agriculture, while Athens was a better-blended society. They had a large sea force, and were a commercial and trade center for the area. They had more interests and influence in the ancient world, and because their society was more advanced, they began to develop a more…… [Read More]
The white stripes on their backs, and the red of their moonstruck eyes, are like flags paraded in front of the "chalk-dry and spar" spire of the Trinitarian Church. Moonstruck individuals may be insane, as might those who travel the darkened ways of Main Street seeking religious guidance. The church steeple is likened to a dry old spar on a ship. The ship sails no more. The Trinitarian idea out of which three are one is not possible in a place where the reconciliation of disparate parts seems beyond hoping. The old church also speaks to the departure of old ways and traditions. The America of yesterday is gone with nothing to replace it.
So, the narrator stands alone on top of his back steps. He is like a monument in front of a neoclassic public building. But the building is turned around. Its grand entrance faces backward, or is…… [Read More]
Except for Miletus, which was sacked as an initiator of the revolt, the other cities were treated rather reasonably, going as far as recommendations for the settled Persians to respect local religious traditions (Herodotus VI 42-45).
This does not necessarily need to be seen only as a reasonable conquering policy, but also as a diplomatic and political approach: once Darius asked for the submissions of mainland Greek cities, many of them accepted, based on the previous behavior of the conquerors in Ionic cities. Athens and Sparta obviously remained aside, but this was also because they were also assuming a regional power status and would not find it calculable to surrender without a fight.
Reasonably enough, though, the Persian invasion could also be seen as a direct consequence in the involvement of the Athenians in the revolt of the Ionic cities and in their attempt to preserve a democracy here and…… [Read More]
They also counted with cavalry and carts.
However on thin passages or gorges, the Persian cavalry could not display its full power and their number superiority was blocked, since their spears were shorter than the Greek weapons. The narrow battlefield of the gorge forced them to fight almost in equal number with the Greek army, forcing them to retreat after two days of battle.
The Persian army achieved important victories: the Greek fleet was rejected on the Artemisium cape and, after the victory over Leonidas of Sparta and his 300 men on the gorge of Thermopylae, the news of the first Persian victories spread over the country and discouraged the Greek army that retreated from battle, bringing new victories for Xerxes's army. The Persians devastated Boeotia and the Attica, reaching Athens.
After the Thermopylae defeat, on August of 480 B.C., in Athens there was consternation. However, instead of surrendering, the…… [Read More]
The Athenians have no dislike of the Melians, and are happy to let the islanders live and let live within the Athenian sphere of influence, but they will retaliate without mercy if they oppose Athenian self-interest in the region. The Melians offer Athens neutrality, which Athens says would be just as detrimental to Athenian interests in the region as an open Melian alliance with Sparta, as it would set a bad example to other Athenian colonies: "is rather islanders like yourselves, outside our empire, and subjects smarting under the yoke, who would be the most likely to take a rash step and lead themselves and us into obvious danger" (Chapter XVII). The Melians say it would be cowardice to not resist, even if it seems foolish.
Does this dialogue prove the rational actor theory of statehood that holds that states always act in their own self-interest? On one hand, the…… [Read More]
The importance of ritual objects to the Shaolin is shown in how they react to the supernatural appearance of an incense burner. hen the survivors of the massacre woke up the next day, they saw on the surface of the water a white incense burner made of greenstone, which had two ears and three feet and weighed 52 "catties, thirteen ounces"; on the bottom of the incense burner, the four words Fan-Qing fu-Ming had been inscribed. The brothers immediately secured the incense burner and placed it in the third field in front of the temple gate (Baoqi & Murray 206). In this regard, the Shaolin monks of the day embraced the popular belief that Heaven could manifest its support of claimants to the Chinese throne or of founders of religious cults through the bestowal of precious objects, such as these incense burners, swords, or books. "The incense burner, as it…… [Read More]
omen in Ancient Tragedy and Comedy
Both the drama of Euripides' "Medea" and the comedy of Aristophanes' "Lysistrata" seem unique upon a level of even surface characterization, to even the most casual students of Classical Greek drama and culture. Both in are female-dominated plays that were produced by male-dominated societies and written by men. Both the drama and the comedy features strong women as their central protagonists, whom are depicted under extreme circumstances, in relatively positive lights. And both plays, despite their very different tones, also have an additional, unique feature in that they show 'the enemy' -- or the non-Greek or non-Athenian, in a fairly positive and humane fashion.
The sympathies of the viewer for female's plights are immediately arisen by Aristophanes from the first scene of "Lysistrata," as Cleonice, the friend of Lysistrata, and a common Athenian housewife states, regarding the lateness of the other women that frustrates…… [Read More]
Heroic Ideal Greece, ome
An Analysis of the Heroic Ideal from Ancient Greece to oman Empire
The mythopoetic tradition in Greece begins with Homer's Iliad, which balances the heroic figures of Achilles and Hector, two opposing warriors and men of honor, amidst a war on which not even the gods are in agreement. Hector and Achilles mirror one another in nobility and strength and both represent an ideal heroic archetype of citizenry -- men who do battle to honor both their countries and their names. To illustrate, however, the way the ideal of heroic citizenship changes from the Greek mythopoetic tradition through to the late Stoicism of oman imperialism, it is necessary to leap ahead several centuries and survey the several different bodies of work.
The mythopoetic tradition in Greece somewhat continually dwells on the same themes with regard to heroic citizenship, whether in Homer or in the Golden Age…… [Read More]
Trojan Wars and Culture
The three epic stories namely, The Iliad, the Trojan Women, Pericle's Funeral Oration are powerfully written master pieces of work, that illustrate the element of horridness of war beautifully.
The story of Homer's Iliad focuses on the "rage of Achilles." eading this epic poem makes one believe that it is based entirely on the totality and gruesomeness of war. However, it tells us about the details of war with full description and information. Though war is an important aspect of the tale, but the real story is based on the remarkable fighter and hero-that man is none other than Achilles.
Achilles possesses the greatest military expertise of any of the Achaean ranks and also the greatest fighting ability out of all of the warriors, Trojan or Achaean. At the beginning of the epic, Achilles becomes liberated from his fellow warriors and retreats back to…… [Read More]
Book of Judges defines the historical and period of events between the conclusion of Joshua and the commencement of the Prophet Samuel. The term "Judges" is in reference to the leaders raised by God to lead Israel in the early determinative years in Palestine. In times of crisis, these leaders arose and conserved the inexperienced nation. Although the leadership of Joshua led the people of Israel into the Land, there were not able to conquer all of the people at the time. Some of the people marked for destruction by God were conquered while making enemies of the ones who weren't.
The people of the Hebrew Tribes inhabited parts of the Land and began dwelling as a proto-nation that would later in time of the Monarchy, become Israel. The Book of Judges provides a somewhat vague synopsis a couple of key events during that period. The primary issue facing the…… [Read More]
Type A Project:
Team of 3-4 students will study a manufacturing or service company operation; the objective is to improve the equality of their final product. This could be done through improving any task in product realization process (Design, raw material, manufacturing, packaging, after sale …). The subject of the improvement has to be directly related to quality. The team will use quality analysis and improvement methods / techniques we learn in this course (six sigma methodologies in recommended).
Ideal project will focus on problems doable during time span of the course (i.e. not to much complex, also not trivial) and demonstrate the use of quality improvement tools on solving the problem at hand.
• Full description of your company,
• It’s quality management system.
• Quality improvement opportunities
• Implementation of quality improvement tool
• Final outcomes
• Conclusion "
Each of these aspects of the instructions…… [Read More]
Those with issues to overcome are always more heroic. Hector also becomes a hero when, after at first running from Achilles, he eventually stands up to him and dies a heroic death.
The Iliad is primarily a war epic. In your opinion, is the Iliad condemnation of the it could easily be argued that the Illiad glorifies war, as much of the poem is spent portraying the warriors as brave and courageous, even as they go on killing rampages. Warriors are describes as "masters of the battle cry" and "warlike" in glowing epithets. When Achilles originally refused to fight, he is roundly condemned for it by all of the other Greek characters. Even the weapons of war, such as Achilles impenetrable shield, are glorified. But homer is more complicated than simple -- war also brings death, which he describes in great detail. Hector's death is perhaps the most graphic of…… [Read More]
In both ancient Greece and ancient Rome, women were idealized or demonized in storytelling. Tales of "glamorous mistresses" and "adultresses" characterize some of the ancient Roman literature (Dixon). Like ancient Greek literature, ancient Roman literature also portrayed domesticated women as being highly virtuous to convey social norms and ideals for female behavior.
omen's work was defined and restricted by their gender. omen in both ancient Greece and ancient Rome did household work. In both societies but especially ancient Rome, "women were expected to be involved in cloth production: spinning, weaving and sewing," (Dixon). In ancient Greece, the only public role for women was reserved for a select few: the priestess (Rymer). Only one "authentic voice" of a female poet has survived: that of Sappho (Blundell 66). In ancient Rome, "a few examples of women in higher-status positions such as that of a doctor, and one woman painter is known," (Dixon).…… [Read More]
It made no "long speech no one would believe, of fine moral arguments" (oodruff 103). However, Pericles' claim that Athens did not need support to uphold its borders falls completely flat in the face of Athenian desperation to hold onto its empire.
Thucydides, writing with the benefit of hindsight and the knowledge of the outcome of the war shows the Athenians in a far more ambiguous light than Pericles the politician, who was speaking to memorialize the dead. Thucydides shows the cowardice of the Athenians during the plague, as Athenians even turned against one another, in fear -- another example of might making right. Thucydides somewhat disenchanted view of Athens is partially due to his status as an exile -- he was deprived of his command due to no real fault of his own (he was unable to reach a critical strategic location in time to prevent it falling to…… [Read More]
Jainism and the Jain concept of God. Jainism is a religion of India that is not based on the Vedas of Hinduism, and only a few Indians practice this religion (according to some about 1% of the population) ("What is Jainism?"). A Web site notes, "The name derives from a Sanskrit word meaning 'follower of the Jina, or conqueror')" ("What is Jainism?"). Their concept of God is very different from most other religions. They do not look to a savior or Creator as the leader or God of the religion, instead, the leader is a teacher. They believe a person is reborn repeatedly, and that the Jiva, or higher consciousness, can discover perfection and rise above the troubles of life on Earth. They also have no priests in their religion, although they do have monks. The religion has been in existence since the sixth century BC, so it has lasted…… [Read More]
However, she is no bloodless female, absent of sexuality, despite her resistance of Apollo. In this respect, Wolf does update her story -- rather than a virgin or a sexless prophetess, Cassandra does have a relationship with Aeneas. She loves this hero with the ardor of a young woman, calling him the soul of Troy. But because he is a man, unlike Cassandra, Aeneas can master history and triumph. The admiration of Aeneas indicates the verisimilitude Wolf brings to her tale -- Cassandra has emotions and feelings, rather than simply spouts words, as in Agamemnon.
Wolf also interjects anecdotes into the story to make it more clearly told with Trojan eyes such as the Trojan's allegation that Helen was abducted because Priam's sister Hesione's eloped with a Spartan. Again, this underlines Wolf's theme of women as pawns and spoils of war -- it does not matter what Helen or Hesione…… [Read More]
Naturally, the ruins of Cuzco and Machu Pichu of which some monuments and constructions are intact tells us that the Ican were master masons and builders. Large slabs of stone were put together to design these complex and beautiful structures. (Kleiner and Mamiya, 2006) What is also interesting is that there was no cement or mortar put between the stones to hold them in place. The massive stones fit together so well, that they could not be dislodged. It has also stood the test of time. There has been a significant scientific effort to find out (using computers and simulations) how the Incas built these monuments without the benefit of advances of science. Various theories have been advanced, but modern science cannot explain Incan architecture. (Hemmings and anney, 1982)
The End of the Incan Civilization
It is said that the end of the civilization happens from within. The weight…… [Read More]
The crew area at airports, for example, is relatively spartan.
5A. EasyJet has been innovative in both its operations and its service offering. The company has found unique ways to drive revenue from passengers beyond the basic seat offerings. They have utilized the Internet and other information technology such as text messaging as a service and marketing tool to a greater extent than many of their competitors (Caswell, 2007). They have also been innovative in their choice of strategic alliances, such as their deal with Business Travel International (BTN, 2005). Furthermore, many of their techniques and structures for cost management show their innovative approach on the operations side. The design of their route architecture, their methods for increasing aircraft turnaround time and other efficiency strategies are innovative (Messinger, 2006).
5B. These services are moderately innovative. EasyJet's business model is similar to other low-cost airlines, but they have implemented their own…… [Read More]
" Pericles said that Athenians did not have to be forced to chose the lot of the soldier, they loved the land that gave them the freedom to chose to live the way they wanted, rather than to fulfill a predetermined ideal and thus, when necessary: "They resigned to hope their unknown chance of happiness; but in the face of death they resolved to rely upon themselves alone." In a democracy, the citizen's sense of self-reliance is its life-blood. Values are created and chosen by consensus and the consent of the governed, not by a single, 'philosophical' intelligence and thus the values are more enthusiastically believed, and because they exercise choice from birth, people more able to undertake creative intellectual change, as they did in ancient Athens. The limits of Yahoo society, although it seems to be more socially stable than most democracies, is that people will not believe in…… [Read More]
Although Root was already a well-established Chicago architect, the north side of the Monadnock "emerges as a definite departure from the mainstream of Root's practice and the rest of the contemporary Chicago school at the time, with only its "carefully conceived proportions" and sculptural form harkening back to earlier Root works ("Monadnock Building," Commission on Chicago Historical and Architectural Landmarks, 2008, p.5). Root created the illusion that the structure 'grew' organically from massive granite blocks of the ground floor, while the "inward curve of the wall at the second story" suggests a pylon without making explicit pastiche or parodic references to the Egyptian era ("Monadnock Building," Commission on Chicago Historical and Architectural Landmarks, 2008, p.2). Likewise, "the outward flare of the parapet, the gentle chamfering of the building's corners, and the rhythm of uniform oriel windows...seem to grow from the wall surface" as do the contours of brick beside them…… [Read More]
There was one thing or the other to delay the launch of the Challenger, until the D-Day, when the shuttle was launched at 11:38 AM as against the scheduled take off time of 9:38 AM on January 28. About seventy three seconds into the mission, the Challenger exploded in mid air, and all the seven crew members were killed instantaneously. For the hundreds of people, the family and friends and others who had gathered at the site to watch the launching of the Challenger, it was a sight that they would never be able to forget. They were forced to watch helplessly and fearfully, as the fiery flames consumed their loved ones. The entire nation, which was watching events as they unfolded on their television sets, was rendered speechless. (Challenger Disaster, a National Tragedy)
onald eagan, the President of the United States of America at the time, stated, "Today is…… [Read More]
"I can hear you...I'm alright," he says, but at the end of the story he resumes his drinking again (Carver, 1989, p.274).
The significance of physicality in both stories is noteworthy, as it seems to reflect a distrust of language, rather than an embrace of language, as the characters communicate primarily though touching. Carver's prose has often been called minimalistic, a charge that he resisted. Yet Inez and Lloyd do not connect when they go for marital counseling, they do connect, if only briefly, when Inez must clean Lloyd's ears. The only time Lloyd can really hear is when his wife tries to reach him through physical rather than verbal gestures. The husband of "Cathedral" rages against blindness, but enters the blind man's world through the medium of touch, even after he has tried to exclude the blind man by turning on the TV.
hat is particularly important for an…… [Read More]
Thei deams ae moe depessing than they ae inspiing. When, fo example, Ms. Gibbs expesses he desie to see Pais, the audience knows she will not eve get to achieve he deam because of he husband's stubbon closed-mindedness. Emily's fustation with the lack of awaeness on the pat of the living in the thid act also daws attention to the stubbon clinging to outmoded ways of thinking that can chaacteize small town existence. Wilde exploes small town insulaity with aplomb in Ou Town, and this in-depth exploation is the play's geatest stength.
Globalization dawned aound the tun of the centuy, intoducing East to West and West to East and in Ou Town, Wilde delves into Buddhist and othe Easten philosophies. The playwight does so subtly and possibly unintentionally, examining the baies between eality and fiction, life and death. The Stage Manage begs the audience to ethink thei ole as viewes.…… [Read More]
Not only do his designs blend well with their settings, they are extremely functional and usable. In addition, his designs strictly adhere to the tenets of marketability and production that are the backbone of industrial design. The Elephant Stool is molded out of one sheet of fiberglass, and stacks for storage, display, and shipping. The Butterfly Stool pieces nest together when they are not assembled, making them easy to store and ship, and there is only one part that must be attached to make the stool functional, the brass rod or stretcher that holds the two pieces together. Many of his other designs use these same elements to combine simplicity with ease of production and marketing.
His other designs include many functional pieces that can be mass-produced, just like his stools. They include teakettles made out of metal and stoneware, dinnerware, flatware, and even office products like Scotch tape dispensers.…… [Read More]
(ebehn M.) Another example from the 1700's of the use of bacterial agent in war was in the conflict between ussia and Sweden in 1710. There are reports that the ussians used the bodies of plague victim to create an epidemic among the enemy. (HISTOY of BIOLOGICAL WAFAE)
There is also the infamous incident in American history of the intentional infection of the native Indians with smallpox. "An English general, Sir Jeffery Amherst, surreptitiously provided the Indians loyal to the French with blankets infected with smallpox virus. The resulting epidemic decimated the Indians." (HISTOY of BIOLOGICAL WAFAE)
2.3. The modern technological era and weapons of mass destruction.
With the advent of the modern industrial age there was a rapid development of technology. This was also to lead to the equally rapid growth in the development of even more and more destructive and indiscriminate weapons of destruction. The most well-known and…… [Read More]
82). While much of his theories are conjecture, it is quite clear from his Appendix, ibliography, and Notes that he has conducted extensive research into Alexander and his life, and bases his theories on this exhaustive research. His theories may be conjecture, but it is clear he bases them on much historical fact, and so, they are easier to believe.
I feel that the author has included enough new information in the book to make it a worthwhile read, even for those who have read other books about Alexander. In addition, it includes so much other history of the time that it would be useful for anyone doing research into this particular historical epoch. Alexander's life is still legendary today, and I think people will get a bigger picture of Alexander the man and what motivated him by reading this book. It was dry and scholarly at times, but it…… [Read More]
Apart from physical aptitude, societal roles also play a large role. Says Susan Birrell in omen, Sport, and Culture, "it is also clear that sport is strongly associated with the male identity, with being popular and having friends. Rugby and football are archetypical here" (Birrell 35). The bonding stereotypes of the female gender are generally non-physical, and thus sports do not have as positive an association for women. As a result, of that percentage of women that are able to compete at the same level as men in contact sports never enter the arena in the first place.
Regardless of the reason, very few women get involved with contact sports, and practicality makes it difficult for those who are interested to be accommodated. Separate locker room facilities are necessary, and the team dynamics are altered fundamentally as the issue of sexual tension enters the scene. There are some who would…… [Read More]
In fact, many of them are more likely to make sure that as much space is provided when it comes to taking over the Internet. For example, these individuals want to make sure that they are likely to get what it is they want by having a Web presence. This means that they are going to do everything possible to have as many contacts as possible from off the Internet in order to get as much revenue as possible that it could lead to a monopoly. In essence, if a monopoly does occur, then they are going to face breaking the law in the process. Furthermore, privacy issues are concern because of how much of a giant they have become since the inception of the organization as of 2004 (Facebook, 2011d).
By studying Porter's Five Forces, one learns that Facebook is an MNE that is as big as Google. They…… [Read More]
Given that Christianity tended to view history as progressive, and Christ's sacrifice and the event of Christendom being the ultimate apex of earlier civilization, the past was often seen as an inferior precursor to the present in a particularly judgmental light -- hence the persecution of certain groups as infidels and outsiders. It is the historian and the anthropologist's duty to unpack such cultural assumptions and to view the world through a less morally-clouded and self-justifying lens.
Episode 2: Conquest. (2005). Guns, Germs & Steel. PBS. Retrieved May 31, 2011 at http://www.pbs.org/gunsgermssteel/show/episode2.html
Anthropological research project: Celebrating women anthropologists
his website catalogues the research of famous women anthropologists throughout the ages. It has a specifically feminist slant, and details the research these women engaged in, along with their personal struggles for recognition in the field. While most people are familiar with the work of Margaret Mead in Samoa,…… [Read More]
Globalization and Environment
The driving force behind the phenomena that has become known as globalization is technology (Bhagwati, 2004). Improvements in computer hardware, software, and telecommunications have caused a geometric increase in access to information that has caused a corresponding increase in economic potential. Because of improvements in technology businesses throughout the world have been able to more easily expand their access to new products, ideas, and resources.
The advances in technology have produced many changes in our society. These changes have produced many positive benefits. They have created new jobs, promoted the growth of new markets and products, and increased international trade and investment. However, there have been corresponding costs. Workers in certain segments of the economy have lost their jobs as they failed to adjust to the demand for increased technological skills. The effect on the environment is another possible cost of globalization.
The environment has been a…… [Read More]
Smartphone marketing, ACME
Smartphone Marketing Plan
Marketing Proposal: Smartphone
Palm Computing, Inc., released the Palm Pilot 1000 and 5000 in March 1996, in a technological climate that had weathered much disillusionment with handheld computing, owing largely to the unfortunate blunders in marketing the overhyped Newton Message Pad. The Palm Pilot, soon to have the word "Pilot" dropped from its name due to legal infringement on the Pilot Pen company's trademark, had a different approach to handwriting recognition than the Message Pad. It required that the user learn a glyphic alphabet that would allow the handwriting recognition software to use constraints as an aid to letter recognition. Thus, less processing power and software code would need to be dedicated to this task. This power came standard with the Palm's onboard operating system, the Palm operating system (OS).
The Early Days
The philosophy behind the Palm OS was also different than those…… [Read More]
Socrates as Not an Enemy to the State
as Socrates an enemy of the state? There are two appropriate answers -- "yes" and "no." But first a definition of "enemy" is needed. In Mark Twain's short story "The Mysterious Stranger," Satan explains why there will always be war. It is because "a loud little handful" at first instigates it then, "…the great, big, dull bulk of the nation will rub its sleepy eyes and try to make out why there should be a war… [and later] statesmen… [will] blame…the nation that is attacked" -- in other words, as long as the "enemy" is identified, there will always be war. Therefore, an "enemy" is not just someone to distrust or despise, or someone who threatens the peace and safety of a community, but someone to blame. In the case of Socrates and his trial, the court apparently found Socrates to be…… [Read More]
Peace Possible in the Modern World?
Is peace possible in the world as we know it today? One side of the human brain, if idealistic, might reply: "Certainly peace is possible, even perpetual peace, but it is possible only if visionary, bold and intelligent leadership emerges in key international places." The other side of the brain could well answer like this: "Are you kidding? There are too many terrorists, and too many greedy, power-crazed nationalist leaders pushing and shoving and developing weapons to ever expect a peaceful world." And meanwhile, what did some of the great thinkers and philosophers have to say about the prospects of peace?
THUCYDIDES: Thucydides, in writing about the Peloponnesian War, makes it clear that human nature tends to dictate how history plays itself out, and he does not blame the Gods or other forces for this war. Thucydides, who is a young man, and an…… [Read More]