Tips for Teaching or Working with a Child that has Childhood Apraxia of Speech
According to Gretz (2005), research into effective methods for providing treatment to children with Apraxia is inadequate but in the professional literature a variety of techniques illustrated, including POMPT method, Integral Stimulation, Adapted Cueing, Touch Cue, Melodic Intonation Therapy, ate Control Therapy, etc., even though these therapeutic methods varies to some extent, they have shared characteristics that consists of principles of motor learning such as a high degree of practice and repetition, correction and feedback, slowed rate, and a focus on targeted motor placement and productions; heightened sensory input for control of the movement sequences and sensory cueing such as visual, tactile, and kinaesthetic cueing; touch cueing; verbal cueing; use of rhythm and melody; and focus on speech movements vs. individual sounds.
In the treatment of CAS, it is generally understood that repeated practice of sounds…… [Read More]
Ease up a range of motion, and foster muscle control. They are said to be used before or together with actual speech production treatment. The evaluation found that these methods and procedures are questionable in matters concerning the implied cause of developmental speech sound disorders, the neurophysiologic differences between the limbs and oral musculature, the development of new theories of movement and movement control, and the sparseness of research on these methods and procedure (Ruscello).
A review of the theoretical foundation for these treatments revealed limited empirical support to validate its use (Clark, 2003). It also showed that clinicians did not have sufficient foundational knowledge to judge the reliability of these treatment strategies. The treatment strategies consisted of strength training to alleviate dysarthria and/or dysphagia. Their theoretical foundations included active exercises, passive exercises, and physical modalities. The techniques address neuromuscular impairments in the limb muscles. They were to…… [Read More]
educationists and teachers in the classroom today is identifying and dealing with children who have a speech, language or communication impairment, which negatively impacts on learning.. Many children find it difficult to understand how conversation works or don't make use of language at all. There are different terms used to describe specific speech and language difficulties, including "phonological difficulties, articulation difficulties, verbal dyspraxia, dysarthria, semantic pragmatic disorder, Asperger Syndrome and selective mutism." (Speech Impairments)
These specific speech and language difficulties can impact severely on the development and natural psychological and social growth of the child. Furthermore, it can also lead to further and more complicated problems - as will be discussed in this paper. "Children with a variety of speech and language impediments are increasing at risk as their language abilities fall behind those of their peers." (Children and Mental Health)
Emphasis must also be placed on recognizing the speech…… [Read More]
The disease stems from toxic reactions to structures of the ear, including the cochlea, vestibule, semicircular canals and otoliths. Drug-induced damage to these structures of the auditory and balance system can result in hearing loss, tinnitus, disequilibrium or dizziness (yback 2007).
The propensity of specific classes of drugs to cause ototoxicity has been well established and over 100 classes of drugs have been associated with ototoxicity. Hearing loss can be temporary but is usually irreversible with most agents. Generally, antibiotic-induced ototoxicity is bilaterally symmetrical, but it can be asymmetrical. The usual time of onset is often unpredictable, and marked hearing loss can occur even after a single dose (Ishiyama 2006). Additionally, hearing loss may not manifest until several weeks or months after completion of antibiotic or anti-neoplastic therapy (Dille 2003). Vestibular injury is also a notable adverse effect of aminoglycoside antibiotics and may appear early…… [Read More]
Delayed Speech: Identification and Treatment
One common question parents ask is if and when they should be concerned when a child manifests delayed speech. For an infant, delayed speech is of concern when the baby "isn't using gestures, such as pointing or waving bye-bye by 12 months; prefers gestures over vocalizations to communicate by 18 months; has trouble imitating sounds by 18 months; [and] has difficulty understanding simple verbal requests" (Delayed speech or language development, 2012, Kid's Health: 1). In an older child, a lack of developmentally-appropriate speech becomes worrisome when the child does not engage in spontaneous speech; repeats words or phrases without apparent understanding; cannot follow simply instructions; and has difficulty being understood by members outside of the family (Delayed speech or language development, 2012, Kid's Health: 1).
Early intervention for children who exhibit language delays has a significantly higher success rate than later interventions. "First, there is…… [Read More]
On the other hand, severely autistic or impaired individuals could need an extensive laptop aid that will help them in communicating. Both age, mobility, and need have to be calculated carefully.
3. Describe two types of speech disorders, how they can affect the child in the classroom, and some of the interventions used for students with speech disorders.
One simple type of speech disorder is stuttering. This is a very common disorder where the flow of speech is often disrupted by repetitions and pauses that the speaker cannot control. Another type of speech disorder is Dysprosody which occurs, when an individual cannot control how the intensity, timing and rhythm of speech occurs. Speech disorders in general affect students tremendously because they feel that they cannot fit in with the class environment. It limits their participation, social engagement and general involvement within the learning environment. There are many different intervention methods…… [Read More]
Manifestation of speech and language disorders in children with hearing impairment compared with children with specific language disorders" examined the relationship between language deficits among children with hearing impairment (HI) compared to those with specific language impairment (SLI). By studying the receptive language skills of 5 and 6-year-old children with HI and SLI the researchers concluded that the receptive language skills of children with HI were more impaired. They also asserted the importance of phonological short-term memory impairment in both children with HI and SLI, although the basis of which can be traced to different causes. Finally the authors concluded that deficits in language ability that are caused by hearing impairment affect receptive language skills more than expressive ones.
When a child grows up with a hearing impairment it often affects the child's ability to speak. The severity of speech and language disorders caused by hearing impairment has been found…… [Read More]
Technology Speech Science
Speech Quality Tests: An Analysis and eview of the Literature
The speech measurement technology to be evaluated in this research is a speech quality test. According to the research, a speech quality test is "a routine procedure for examining one or more empirically restrictive quality features of perceived speech with the aim of making a quantitative statement on those features" (). Essentially, people are constantly using undirected speech in ordinary conversations in order to exchange information through spoken sentences. Yet, when speech becomes directed by some third party or director, the speaker's speech may end up being modified by these directions. Here, the research suggests that "by using specific directives, the experimenter can, in directed communications, adjust the influence of each quality feature" (). A speech quality test can ascertain how biased perception may end up being in the case of directed speech. There are four primary…… [Read More]
Speech Language Pathologist (SLP) traditionally responsible providing services students communication disorders, time a "pull-" session classroom. With enhanced emphasis inclusion role appears changing.
What role should an SLP take in the classroom? Should SLPs also be trained in teaching methods? How can a teacher help integrate the SLP in the classroom?
Using a speech language pathologist (SLP) merely a specialist who 'pulls out' students from the regular classroom for resource room assistance does not fully utilize the skills a SLPs can provide. A good SLP does not merely instruct a student in the mechanics of speech: he or she must also deal with the physiological and psychological challenges students face when speaking in public. Having a SLP therapist as a regular presence within the mainstream classroom setting provides a resource for students when they are speaking aloud in public. Students must also learn to communicate in a manner that is…… [Read More]
disorder Down's syndrome and the certain ways these individuals are treated in the society. Certain characteristics like their learning ability and their ability to live in the society is emphasized in the paper. Laws and regulations for children with these disorders are also hinted upon. Lastly, the inclusion of these children in the integrated teaching program is discussed.
Down syndrome is a disorder that has been named after John Langdon Down, who was a British physician and he explained this syndrome in the year 1886. Earlier in the 19th century, this condition was clinically described by Jean Etienne Dominique Esquirol in the year 1838 and then by Edouard Seguin in 1844. Dr., Jerome Lejeune identified this syndrome as a chromosome 21 trisomy. This disorder can be diagnosed after as well as before birth through prenatal screening procedures. If such pregnancies are identified, they are often terminated.
According to the CDC…… [Read More]
Speech Pathologists, like other social scientists, maintain a lexicon specific to their profession. The job of a Speech Pathologist is to treat physical and/or cognitive deficits/disorders resulting in difficulty with verbal communication. Many such professionals work with young children and must regularly explain why certain children lack the ability to convey thoughts and information through speech. Speech therapists often must treat patients that have trouble with articulation, intonation, rate, and intensity.
Based upon the nature and severity of the disorder, common treatments might include instructive or repetitive practice and drilling and the use of audio-visual aids.
Articulation, for instance, is the process by which sounds, syllables, and words are formed when one's tongue, jaw, teeth, lips, and palate alter the air stream coming from the vocal folds. This is important in the field of speech pathology because a spoken message may be lost due to improper articulation. Articulation is best…… [Read More]
This may consist of arising and seating in chairs securely. Following the progressive characteristics of this illness, all people gradually lose their capability simply to move and will need to advance and use a wheelchair.
Burbank, P.M. (2006). Vulnerable older adults: Health care needs and interventions. New York, NY: Springer Pub.
Donaldson, I.M., & Marsden, C.D. (2011). Marsden's book of movement disorders. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.
Egerton, T., Williams, D. & Iansek, . (2009). Comparison of gait in progressive supranuclear palsy, Parkinson's disease and healthy older adults. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Fabio, ., Zampieri, C., Tuite, P. (2006). Gaze-shift strategies during functional activity in progressive supranuclear palsy. eceived: 20 July 2006 / Accepted: 26 September 2006 / Published online: 8 November 2006. Springer-Verlag 2006.
Fabio, ., Zampieri, C., Tuite, P. (2008). Gaze Control and Foot Kinematics During Stair Climbing: Characteristics Leading to Fall isk in Progressive Supranuclear Palsy.…… [Read More]
Epilepsy Neurological Disorder
Epilepsy -- a Neurological Disorder
Epilepsy is a neurological disorder which causes frequent seizures due to abnormal electricity activity within the brain. Epilepsy is considered a brain disorder disturbing the brain function which ultimately affects behaviour and cognition. This paper highlights some common symptoms of epilepsy. It also explains different treatments deployed for reducing seizure activity in epilepsy. Each treatment portrays a different way of taking control over the seizures and points out a path towards leading a balanced life.
Epilepsy -- A Neurological Disorder
Epilepsy is a neurological disorder which is characterised by repeated spontaneous seizures of any type which cause problems with speech, vision, movement, awareness and muscle control. Epilepsy cannot be considered as an intellectual disability or mental illness. This paper explains the common symptoms associated with epilepsy. It highlights three different types of treatments for epilepsy and presents a comparative analysis…… [Read More]
Swallowing Difficulty and Speech Difficulty on Quality of Life in Patients with PEG Tubes vs. Those on NGT Feeding Systems
Stroke can effect neurological functioning and can have an effect on the patient's ability to talk and swallow. This condition can lead to severe malnutrition A decision is often made to feed the patient using a tube feeding method. Many studies have been performed to measure the clinical outcomes of these procedures, but few have focused on the effects of the patient's quality of life after receiving these interventions. This study will measure the effects of having a PEG tube inserted on the patient's quality of life as it relates to their ability to communicate and swallow. Two research questions will be answered: "Does a PEG procedure have an effect on the patient's ability to communicate their wishes and improve there satisfaction with the quality of their life in regards…… [Read More]
realm of psychological disorder through the use of a character assessment. The character in question is fictional and the data used to evaluate the psychological profile derives from a movie. Melvin Udall, the main character in the movie "As Good as It Gets" serves as the character used in this assessment. Ultimately, I find and explore specific links to Melvin's condition in the movie to that of one suffering from Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD).
In order to discuss the relationships previously mentioned, I needed to perform several steps in order to logically conclude that Melvin represents someone suffering from OCD symptoms. In order to accomplish this task, I first watched the film and examined many of the traits that Melvin demonstrated. Next, I used a set of ten questions which provided a baseline assessment formula. These questions are each answered separately within the body of this essay. This character assessment…… [Read More]
Speech Problems and Psychological Damage From Cleft Lips and Cleft Palates
Cleft lips and cleft palates are among the most common of birth defects and if left untreated can lead to serious speech problems as well as psychological damage that can result both from those speech and communication problems as well as from the ostracism that a child with a facial deformity must endure.
However, while the consequences of cleft lips and palates can be severe and long-lasting, these can be averted by medical intervention, especially if it is done as early as possible. This paper explores the various options for surgical and medical management of cleft lips and palates and the ways in which these interventions can help children with these particular birth defects.
We should begin this discussion of treatment of cleft lips and palates by establishing what exactly is meant in medical terms by these two terms.…… [Read More]
Thus, the deficit must be due to an "inefficient mapping of acoustic information into phonetic features at a central (postcochlear) conversion stage. Accordingly, these findings provide new routes by which researchers should examine and practitioners should diagnose and treat SLI (Ziegler, et.al., 2005).
We live in a day and age of rapid technological development. In the area of cognition, our knowledge of how brain works and how language functions and is processed has seen rapid advancement in just the past three decades. Given the information that we have uncovered here, there is hope for a more rapid diagnosis and a more effective treatment of students with SLI's. With more understanding of the role of input and noise, perhaps, our teachers whom area affected greatly by his or her students' performance, would understand how to properly handle such students and provide a classroom environmentally set up so as to…… [Read More]
The 'pull out' model of teaching students with speech issues can be useful because it lets the SLP focus on every child's specific needs and challenges in an individualized fashion. But ultimately all learning takes place in context. Integrating the SLP into the curriculum allows the SLP to have new opportunities to reinforce different concepts for the child in a real-world situation. The SLP has greater opportunities to work with content where speech exercises are not the focus; with group settings; and with speaking aloud to a crowd in a formal setting. By using exercises where speech is not the primary focus of the child, but the SLP is still there to provide encouragement and support in the areas of the child's difficulty, great progress can be made in the child's general education and way of relating to others.
The SLP must never assume the role of a teacher, but…… [Read More]
For instance a patient suffering from hypotonia may receive physical therapy to assist them in gain more control over bodily movements. Likewise an individual with Sotos syndrome that has been diagnosed with ADD may be treated with behavioral counseling and medications. Behavioral therapies may also be needed to combat aggressiveness, develop social skills, combat tantrums and some personality disorders that may be present. The mental retardation that can occur as a result of Sotos may be treated with learning therapies and through special education. Also language delay may be treated with speech therapy.
Individuals that develop tumors and cancer as a result of the disorder may be treated with surgery, radiation or chemotherapy. Likewise those with heart defects or kidney problems may need surgery or dialysis. Medical treatments may also be necessary as it relates to any skeletal malformations that may persist into adulthood as some researchers have reported that…… [Read More]
Avoidant Personality Disorder
As per the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), a certain case of avoidant personality disorder (APD) is featured by the existent sign of social inhibition, feeling of being short of requirement, and hypersensitivity to negative valuation. (American Psychiatric Association, 1994, p.1) Even though personality disorders are not often discovered in persons below age 18, children who come within the condition of APD are recurrently portrayed as being aloof to the core, fearful in arising circumstances, and afraid of dissention and social boycott. The proportion of the signs and the inability is way behind the practice of inhibition that is prevalent in as much as 40% of the populace. Hence it is of great relevance of examining the disorder as it relates to professional counseling.
Exploration of disorder
Bearing a semblance to other personality disorders, the state of Avoidant Personality disorder turns out…… [Read More]
Autism is a developmental disorder, as can be seen in the fact that Peter was first diagnosed when he failed to develop speech at the rate of a normal child. Autism is also a spectrum disorder, meaning that individuals will manifest the condition in different ways and different aspects of normal speech, movement, and social interactions may be inhibited depending on the child and the condition's severity. There is no 'cure' for autism or universally-accepted treatment for the disorder although behavioral interventions such as ABA "encourages positive behaviors and discourages negative behaviors in order to improve a variety of skills" through methods such as "Discrete Trial Training (DTT) DTT is a style of teaching that uses a series of trials to teach each step of a desired behavior or response. Lessons are broken down into their simplest parts and positive reinforcement is used to reward correct answers and behaviors." (Treatment,…… [Read More]
Childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is a rare neurological, sensorimotor speech sound disorder that has limited empirical evidence regarding its treatment. While there are several different treatment methods used to treat this disorder only one, integral stimulation therapy and a child specific modification of this (DTTC) have research evidence regarding effective treatment for CAS (and this evidence is in the form of case studies). Edeal and Gildersleeve-Neumann (2011) were interested in how different treatment intensity effects would affect the treatment outcome using integral training for children with CAS.
At issue here is the notion of "treatment intensity" which can be defined several ways. One way treatment intensity can be defined is the amount of practice that occurs in the treatment session; it is generally thought that more practice (or even more practice sessions) leads to a faster treatment effect. However since there are some instances where large amounts of…… [Read More]
Anomic Aphasia is also known as nominal aphasia, dysnomia, and amnesic aphasia and refers to a disorder that generates difficulties in recalling names or words. This brain disorder is considered as a dearth of expressive language that makes it difficult for an individual to recall names or words. In addition, patients suffering from anomic aphasia experience difficulties in recalling numbers. While an individual has clear understanding of what he/she is attempting to name or write, he/she requires a relatively long period of time to recall it or may experience tremendous challenges in articulating the word, name or numbers. In some cases, patients suffering from anomic aphasia produce jargon words or other words when attempting to recall or express certain words, names or numbers. The other symptom of this condition is the inability for a patient to identify the appropriate word for an object or individual through he/she has the capability…… [Read More]
apraxia of speech in children, some of its characteristics, diagnosis, treatment, and the future of children affected with the disease.
Apraxia of speech is the difficulty of a child to form sounds into words. It is a neurological disorder, and can be called dyspraxia. "Children with apraxia have difficulty correctly putting together the movement patterns and sequences needed to produce sounds, syllables or words. This is especially true when they are trying their hardest to speak clearly" (Gretz).
Usually children who have apraxia understand language very well, they just cannot say what they hear, and what they want to say. "The problem occurs when the brain tries to tell the muscles what to do -- somehow that message gets scrambled. It's like trying to watch cable TV stations without the right descrambler. There is nothing wrong with the TV station, and nothing wrong with your set" (Faculty).
Apraxia of speech…… [Read More]
hile Dr. Asperger called the condition "autistic psychopathy" and described it as a personality disorder primarily marked by social isolation, today Asperger's Syndrome is identified as a brain, communication, or neurological disorder like autism, not a personality disorder like, for example, antisocial personality disorder ("Asperger's Syndrome fact sheet," 2008, NINDS).
Like autism, Asperger's Syndrome is characterized by repetitive routines, rituals, and movements, poor social skills, and odd ways of communicating that do not take into consideration the other person's feelings and needs. The distinguishing feature of Asperger's, in contrast to classical autism, is that the individuals all have normal IQ but show "limited interests or an unusual preoccupation with a particular subject to the exclusion of other activities" ("Asperger's Syndrome fact sheet," 2008, NINDS). Unlike autistic individuals who show little interest in others, Asperger children may seek out companionship, but may drive other people away because of their refusal to…… [Read More]
Attention Deficit HyperactivITY Disorder DIAGNOSIS IN CHILDEN
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a diverse behavioral set of symptoms described by the hub indication of impulsivity, hyperactivity and inattention. Even as, these symptoms have a tendency to gather together, some individuals are for the most part hyperactive and impetuous, even as others are predominantly inattentive. This disease affects both toddlers and adults of all ages and should be taken seriously. When this disease is being diagnosed in children, doctors often make quick decisions to make a diagnosis and handing out prescriptions. This should not be the case as doctors are supposed to take enough time to well analyze the condition of the children before offering prescriptions.
About Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
There are two main diagnostic decisive factors that are currently in use. These are the International Classification of Mental and Behavioral Disorders uses the initials (ICD-10) and the…… [Read More]
The moral of the article's story is that teachers of autistic children with limited spoken languages may indeed need more training to get the most out of their students.
Still on the subject of therapy for autistic children, another article in the journal Autism (Vismara, et al. 2009) reports that professionally led training sessions with the parents of autistic children were helpful in getting the children to respond and communicate. The study was a 12-week research investigation, one hour per week; and what took place was the parents of eight "toddlers" (who had been diagnosed with autism) were brought together with their children and therapists. These parents were taught how to implement "naturalistic therapeutic techniques" based on the "Early Start Denver Model" (ESDM) (Vismara 93). The ESDM model focuses on "creating an affectively warm and rich environment to foster positive relationships between children and adults" (Vismara 99). The training with…… [Read More]
Thus case studies are often used in cases of PTSD.
The first case study examined here was conducted by Mark Sichel. Here, the case study theory allows the research to explore the personal experiences of the subject, Karen, as a way to understand broader conceptions of the issue at hand, PTSD. Karen, the subject, is aloud to go into great detail of her personal experience as a way to allow the research to extrapolate particular issues that have flared her PTSD. The specifics of her experience with the police have created within her a state of anxiety and fear. The dialogue presented by the researchers allows the reader to make connections of those larger emotions associated with PTSD with her own personal experiences. Moreover, larger symptoms of the disorder are presented, heavily correlated with her own unique experiences. Overwhelming anxiety, stress, the presence of nightmares, and the constant re-living of…… [Read More]
This neurological disorder or disease discovered and first described in 1966 by an Austrian physician, Dr. Andreas Rett
A paper published on the disorder in an English medical journal in 1983 by Dr. engst Hagberg and associates. Global awareness established and thengrew. First diagnoses of unidentified cases made.
Disorder initially observed to affect only girls of different races worldwide
Mutations in an X chromosome gene called MeCP2.
First discovered at the laboratory by Dr. Huda Zoghbi, a neurogeneticist, in October 1999
Primarily affects girls but recently found to affect boys as well
Condition between 6 to 18 months and progresses in stages
A developmental, not a genetic or nutritional, disorder
Affects 1 in 10,000 to 23,000 females worldwide
Apparently normal pregnancy and delivery for the mother and normal development of voluntary movements to the affected person
Deceleration of head growth between 6 and 18 months
Unexplained…… [Read More]
Nurse Speech to Group of esidents in a Large Independent Living Facility
The information addressed today in this speech are those involving the body's regulation of the correct numbers and ratios of blood cells and how blood pressure homeostasis is achieved as well as age-related changes to the heart including coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure and myocardial infarction.
Homeostatis and the Body's Balancing Act
The work of Vikrant and Tiwan (nd) report that studies on the population indicate that blood pressure is a continuous variable and there is really not a line that divides normal and abnormal values. However, there is a point of balance also called internal equilibrium and this is known as homeostasis. This state of balance describes how the human body reacts to certain changes. This can be viewed by picturing a set of scales in which coins are poured in unevenly with one side heavier…… [Read More]
Language Impairments: Evidence-Based Interventions
Language Impairment Interventions
Evidence-Based Interventions for Pediatric Language Impairments
Evidence-Based Interventions for Pediatric Language Impairments
So strong is the genetic impulse driving language acquisition that all children will learn to speak some form of language (Sousa, 2011, p. 28, 196). This fact suggests that the remaining question confronting children, parents, educators, and society is how well these skills are learned. Problems encountered along the way, however, can sometimes have a significant impact on a child's ability to communicate with others, both now and as adults. The greatest challenges are those faced by children with speech and language disorders. To better understand the language problems confronting otherwise developmentally normal children the recommended interventions, especially from an educator's point-of-view, will be examined and discussed in this research paper.
Neurological Correlates of Language Development
Comprehending how a speech or language disorder in a child could develop and impact their…… [Read More]
Mental Health Disorder
The following is a close examination of the psychosocial status of mental health disorder. There is going to be an examination of the symptoms along with a comprehensive diagnosis of the case.
Mental Health Disorder- Background
Childhood mental health disorder refers to all mental health conditions that affect a person in childhood. The disorder in children is described as critical changes that affect the way a child behaves, learns or even handles emotional situations. Some of the known childhood mental health disorders include (CDC - Child Development, Children's Mental Health -- NCBDDD, n.d):
Hyperactivity disorder/attention deficit disorder (ADHD) (http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/index.html)
Disorders related to behavior
Anxiety and mood disorders
Substance use disorders
Mental health is essential in life. Mental health disorders can persist throughout a person's life (CDC - Child Development, Children's Mental Health -- NCBDDD, n.d). The problem needs to be diagnosed early. Otherwise, children continue…… [Read More]
This paper will provide an overview of bipolar disorder, as currently described in the most recent edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V). It will explain how the symptoms of the disorder may manifest themselves, different treatment options, and evolving research in the field. Bipolar disorder remains a complex mental disease that can often mispresent in its features to clinicians, depending on the type and stage of the mood cycle the patient is in, so a clearer understanding by psychiatric clinicians, sufferers, and family members is needed.
Bipolar Disorder: An Overview
Bipolar disorder was once more commonly known as manic depression. It is classified as a mood disorder, under the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V). A variety of types exist of the disorder, but its predominant feature is rapid shifts of mood. The most common forms of the disorder, bipolar I…… [Read More]
audience on wha ADHD is, its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment.
ADHD is a serious condition, but it doesn't mean that it has to ruin person's life.
Bouncing off walls! (Strong declarative statement to draw attention)
ADHD is a severe case of not being able to concentrate
Everyone has off days, but ADHD patients cannot focus on a daily basis
Symptoms include chronic inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity
Children with ADHD are easy to identify, they are always hyperactive
ADHD is something we have all heard about but we don't really understand. I want to make you understand the seriousness of ADHD and how it affects people who suffer from it.
A.I have carefully researched this topic and now I will share the most topical information I have found (establish credibility)
B. The reason that I am interested in ADHD research is because I also have ADHD, and this has helped me…… [Read More]
autism disorder. The writer explores what it is and how it manifests itself. The writer also discusses the teaching methods that have been used to allow the autistic student to take part in a public education. There were ten sources used to complete this paper.
Each year millions of American couples add to their family with the birth of a baby. The pregnancy is spent getting ready for the newcomer. Names are chosen, baby items are purchased and stored and other people's children are discussed as examples of what might be produced by this child. The family becomes ready as they read up on the milestones that they can expect the baby to make at various times of the first few years of development.
By the time the baby is born the parents have studied the progress that can be expected and are ready to start their life as a…… [Read More]
The exact regimen depends on the type and severity of symptoms, and whether the disorder is of depressive or bipolar type. Medications are usually prescribed to alleviate psychotic symptoms, stabilize mood and treat depression, while psychotherapy can help curb distorted thoughts, teach social skills and diminish social isolation. ("Schizoaffective Disorder," 2006)
Medication: Medications generally include antipsychotic drugs prescribed to alleviate psychotic symptoms, such as delusions, paranoia and hallucinations. Mood-stabilizing medications are prescribed in bipolar disorder, which help to level out the highs and lows of manic depression. Anti-depressants such as citalopram (Celexa), fluoxetine (Prozac) and escitalopram (Lexapro) are normally prescribed for depressive subtype schizoaffective disorder, as they are likely to alleviate feelings of sadness, hopelessness, or sleeplessness and lack of concentration. (Ibid.)
Psychotherapy and Counseling: Although there has been far less research on psychotherapeutic treatments for schizoaffective disorder than in schizophrenia or depression, the available evidence suggests that cognitive behavior…… [Read More]
In the United States alone, a staggering number of people suffer from some sort of mental illness and many more are at high risk of developing a mental condition. Worldwide, the number is even greater, especially in countries without the resources to provide the care needed by such people. Some mental conditions are more prevalent and easier to develop than others. Whereas a serious disease that manifests various forms of psychosis like schizophrenia is mostly prevalent in those who inherit it from family members, those who have abused drugs long-term and consistently, or those with brain injuries, milder conditions like bipolar disorder can be developed by virtually anyone. In the United States, about 2.5% of the population has some form of bipolar disorder (WedMD, 2014). This translate to about 6 million people.
Because of this high number of sufferers, increasing research attention in the psychiatric and medical fields…… [Read More]
The research on HPD causes is clearly linked to personality theory, and can help to understand each theory. By first examining causation research, and then by locating personality theory which supports the research, it was easy to see the validity of personality theories, and how they can be used in real world research. The research also tied in to course material by again forcing real world situations to be applied to theoretical perspectives.
As research surrounding the causes of HPD is undertaken, more is learned about factors that affect those with HPD. If a definite cause, or a list of possible causes, can be discovered through such research, treatment options specifically designed to address those causes can be developed, resulting in a higher possibility of success. This type of research is vital if those with histrionic personality disorder are to ever be fully cured. Therapy without certain cause can reduce…… [Read More]
DSM-5 Diagnostic Case Studies
Tom is a 30-year-old male who was near the orld Trade Center during the 9/11 attack. He witnessed horrific scenes, including people jumping from the orld Trade Center. Since that day, he has had nightmares. henever a plane flies overhead, he has the feeling that he needs to run to a secure place. He has thought of moving out of New York City because he finds himself reliving the event every time he is down in the area of the 9/11 attack.
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) although a very complex disorder, is a well-known psychiatric consequence of trauma, which is likely what Tom is experiencing (Iribarren, Prolo, Neagos, & Chiappelli, 2005). The event that is responsible for the PTSD must be directly experienced as a threat to one's own integrity and associated with intense fear, helplessness, or horror; the patient also persistently re-experiences the…… [Read More]
Sanders is apparently concerned about having his readers understand the importance of thinking as life similar to how the Miller family thought about their farm. In spite of the fact that one is likely to come across difficult situations across his or her life, it is essential to continue rebuilding the damage that these respective situations generate.
In spite of the fact that Richard Ford supports Sanders' perspective in regard to the concept of a home, his essay "I Must Be Going" promotes the belief that it is typical for Americans in particular to move from one place to another at short intervals of time. Ford actually emphasizes the importance of abandoning anxieties in moving, given that everyone has to accept that it is very improbable for them to live in the same home for all of their lives.
David Guterson's short story "No Place Like Home" discusses the importance…… [Read More]
The clearest evidence for genetic effects has come from studies that diagnosed SLI using theoretically motivated measures of underlying cognitive deficits rather than conventional clinical criteria (ishop).
Characteristics of SLI
Delay in starting to talk is evidenced by the first words not appearing until two years of age or later. Immature or deviant production of speech sounds is apparent, especially in preschool children. Use of simplified grammatical structures, such as omission of past tense endings or the auxiliary "is," exist well beyond the age when this is usually mastered. Restricted vocabulary, in both production and comprehension with weak verbal short-term memory, is evidenced in tasks requiring repetition of words or sentences. Difficulties in understanding complex language are apparent, especially when the speaker talks rapidly (ishop).
Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) help children with the strategies and exercises that will help them navigate language. They are also the ambassadors of language who…… [Read More]
In order to build an age-appropriate vocabulary in the English language, ESL students must learn words at a faster rate than normal (Lipka, Siegel, & Vukovic, 2005; Drucker 2003). This results in a widening gap between the reading and comprehension levels of ESL and non-ESL students if the needs of ESL students are not addressed (Lipka, Siegel, & Vukovic, 2005).
Some ESL students come from a native language that poses more difficulties than others. For example, ussian and Arabic have alphabets that look very different from the English alphabet. Children must learn an entirely new coding system in order to proceed (Lipka, Siegel, & Vukovic, 2005). Even when the alphabet is similar, the English language is difficult to learn due to the many inconsistencies in tense and individual word use. Because they may not be conversationally fluent, subtleties of the English language may take some time to master (Palmer, El_Ashry,…… [Read More]
He must have a reasonable amount of stick-to-itiveness and patience to tolerate difficult tasks; if he gives up immediately, learning will obviously be impaired. And... The ADHD child is both inattentive and readily frustrated. The learning problems are further complicated because they tend to move in vicious circles; they often snowball. (Wender, 2000, p. 22)
Another related aspect is that unless the problems that the student is experiencing are related to his or her ADHD condition, the student may become demotivated as a result of poor performance and criticism. This can lead to other learning issues and even to serious related problems such as the loss of self -worth and self-esteem. This will in turn impact again on the learning ability of the student.
There are numerous studies which attest to the relationship between ADHD and learning problems. In a study by Maynard et al. (1999) it was found that…… [Read More]
Phonological Processes in Preschool Children's Single-word Productions
The topic and overall purpose of the study by Cohen & Anderson (2011) "Identification of phonological processes in preschool children's single-word productions" was to determine the degree of differentiation in which children acquire single words. In general, in the field of linguistics, there is an accepted rate and pattern by which such words are acquired. The researchers hypothesized that there might be differentiation based upon population subsets, however. To achieve this objective, the study authors compared various phonological processes of speech production that were present in the single-word acquisitions of 94 West of Scotland preschool children with normative data of general language acquisition based upon age (Cohen & Anderson 2011: 481).
The research was critical given that such normative data is used when making interventions to improve children's speech production. Thus, based upon the results this could mean changes in the way children…… [Read More]
Therefore, the reason for my interest in the graduate program is to participate in this exciting and growing field. In particular I hope to work with children and their families who encounter different speech, language, and communication difficulties. In addition to providing core support in terms of speech and language therapy, I also intend to become active as a community leader who can address issues like social stigma and alternative forms of communication. In a highly verbal society such as ours, I believe it is imperative to find new ways of reaching out and interacting with those who do not or cannot conform to the majority standard of communications efficiency. A graduate degree will help me be use all the resources available to enhance understanding and treatment of speech, language and communications problems. Thank you for your consideration.… [Read More]
Many times a person is born with a condition that requires, or acquires the need for, augmentive communication. Due some form of deficit the individual is not able to communicate in a manner normally used to communicate. Due to this inability the individual may need some form of assistance to interact normally with others and express their ideas. This paper defines augmentive communication, and provides examples of how devices are used to enhance the communication abilities of students in special education classrooms.
Actually, every person uses this type of communication because verbal expressions are just a small part of actual communication. The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASLHA, 2011) defines augmentive communication as "all forms of communication (other than oral speech) that are used to express thoughts, needs, wants, and ideas." The website says that this is includes all of the nonverbals people use to communicate every day. The ASLHA…… [Read More]
"Daddy's home," says my nine-year-old cousin Justin at the sight of a truck in the driveway.
His father's truck? No. Alas, his father -- my uncle -- passed away more than a year ago.
Death is hard for any child to understand. How does one find the words to explain to an autistic boy that his father is not away on a business trip, but on a voyage from which the man will never return?
Even I had trouble grappling with my uncle's death, and to communicate my grief. I found comfort and solace in at least making the world more comprehensible and less frightening to my cousin Justin through the use of simple communication exercises the child could understand. Despite his autism, Justin, because of an early intervention program with a speech pathologist, has gained a fluency that is gratifying to see -- I may not be…… [Read More]
In addition, small frequent feeds, and a large amount of fluid is provided to maintain the nutritional needs of the patient and prevent dehydration. The r suctioning of secretions proves necessary in preventing aspiration of secretions. The loss of voluntary muscle's activity increases the risks of accumulation of secretions hence, the need for regular suctioning. Bulbar involvement often results in communication complications such as dysarthria and muscle paralysis of the muscles of the face, throat, and tongue. As such, it requires the provision of management strategies such as augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) techniques and other forms of speech therapy that improves the communication abilities of patients with ALS. Pseudobulbar effects that often accompany those brought by the frontotemporal lobe degeneration often require the administration of antidepressants. The antidepressants manage mood disorder that presents through disproportionate crying, and inappropriate response to the external stimuli. Maximizing patients' comfort and…… [Read More]
S., experts estimate the genuine number of incidents of abuse and neglect ranges three times higher than reported. (National Child Abuse Statistics, 2006) in light of these critical contemporary concerns for youth, this researcher chose to document the application of Object elation, Attachment Theories, and Self-Psychology to clinical practice, specifically focusing on a patient who experienced abuse when a child. Consequently, this researcher contends this clinical case study dissertation proves to be vital venture, which will contribute to enhancing research in the field of psychology.
For this clinical case study dissertation exploring Object elation, Attachment Theories, and Self-Psychology, along with researching information for the application of these theories to clinical practice, this researcher answered the following research questions.
What is Winnicott's elational Model Theory?
What is Bowlby's Attachment Theory?
What is Kohut's Self-Psychology?
How may components of these three theories be applied to the clinical case chosen for…… [Read More]
Specifically stated by Hasselbring and Glaser is that
"...two general types of communication disorders qualify a student for special education services: speech disorders and language disorders. A speech disorder occurs when the speaker's articulation, voice quality, or fluency patterns impair the listener's ability to understand the intent of the speaker. A language disorder occurs when either the sender or the receiver of the message is unable to use the sounds, signs, or rules of the communication language. The U.S. Department of Education data indicate that more than 20% of all students with disabilities have speech or language disorders. Consequently, technology addressing the needs of students with communication disorders could assist a significant proportion of students with disabilities to interact more normally within the classroom." (2000)
Communication technology advances have resulted in specialized devices being created and specifically "augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) devices" that enable individuals with no or poor…… [Read More]
(Brodwin; Cardoso; Star, 2004)
Since it is a fact that those people with special needs do face many more challenges in their lives than other people, the possibility of technological assistance for them must be given extreme importance, and when this is done, the device can be acquired. Sometimes, when the assistive device has been provided for the person, like for example a child who attends school, by the school itself, then the issue would be whether or not the child can be allowed to use the device at home. This is especially true in cases where the assisted device is something that would enable the child to finish his homework on time, without which he would not be able to do it. (Providing Assistive Technology: A Legal Perspective)
The concerned AD committee must use its discretion for such cases, because, mot of the time, the parent may insist that…… [Read More]
(Thompson, Morse, Sharpe and Hall, 2005, p.40)
The work of Vaughn, Levy, Coleman and os (2002) entitled: "Reading Instruction for Students with LD and ED" published in the Journal of Special Education repots a synthesis of "previous observation studies conducted during reading with students with learning disabilities (LD) and emotional/behavioral disorders (ED)." (p.1) a systematic process of review of research conducted between 1975 and 2000 is stated to have "yielded a total of 16 studies 11 independent samples) that met all preestablished criteria." (Vaughn, Levy, Coleman and os, 2002, p. 1) Finding from the study include: (1) There was substantial time allocated for reading instruction, though the time varied based on whether students were in special education or general education or both; (2) students were provided more individual and group instruction in special education; (3) the quality of reading instruction was low, overall, with excessive time allocated to waiting and…… [Read More]
Vagus nerve (commonly known as the pneumogastric nerve) is a cranial nerve that is connected to the heart and the digestive tract. The nerve is the tenth nerve in the cranium is one of the most important nerves associated with speech. The term "vagus" is taken from Latin and it means "wandering." The nerve got its name as a consequence of the fact that it appears to wander from its initial location in the brain stem to the splenic fixture in the colon.
It's emerging from the brainstem at the medulla, below the glossopharyngeal and accessory nerves. The nerve is similar to several rootlets which come together in two roots exiting the cranium by going through the jugular foramen. "Its two sensory ganglia, the superior (jugular) and inferior (nodosum), are located on the nerve within the jugular fossa of the petrous temporal bone, which, together with the occipital bone, forms…… [Read More]
CHIP: To Abolish or Not to Abolish
The State Children Health Insurance Plan (SCHIP), commonly referred to as CHIP (Children's Health Insurance Plan), is an insurance plan run by the Department of Health and Human Services, and which administers funds to states to enable them provide quality insurance coverage to eligible children within their jurisdictions. To be eligible for CHIP, a child needs to be from a family whose level of income is too low to qualify for private insurance coverage, but too high to be considered for Medicaid (Holtz-Eakin, 2014). With the introduction of the Obama Care Policy, however, which expanded the list of persons eligible for both Medicaid and CHIP, there came so many overlaps between CHIP and other secondary insurance options that budgetary allocations and funding to the former were threatened. Owing to this, there is a lot of controversy over whether funding to the CHIP ought…… [Read More]
Controversies in Neuroscience: Autism
Controversies in Clinical Neuroscience: Autism Spectrum Disorders
Controversies in Clinical Neuroscience: Autism Spectrum Disorders
Although the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2014a) and numerous medical organizations universally debunk the notion that vaccines contribute to the prevalence of autism, some sectors of the public refuse to let go of this belief and have even employed tactics designed to shut down opposing views ("Silencing debate," 2007). The emotionally-laced rhetoric infesting the debate over autism etiology, however, is a sign of the level of concern parents are increasingly expressing. This anxiety seems to be justified in part by recent data showing that 1 in 68 children, 8-years of age, suffer from autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (CDC, 2014b, p. 6). This means that close to 60,000 of the nearly 4 million children born each year within the United States (CDC, 2014c) will be diagnosed with…… [Read More]
Mr. H case study
What is the client's most prominent presenting issues (that is, what seems to take priority as being wrong)?
Mr. H has shown a sharp decline in cognitive functioning. He has quit his job without warning and without consulting with his spouse (who is economically as well as emotionally affected by this decision), has shown difficulty remembering basic tasks and words that a man of his education and background should be able to retrieve easily, and is exhibiting signs of disorientation. Despite being an accomplished outdoorsman he has gotten lost while hiking; has difficulty reading; and although he was a science teacher has difficulty doing basic math. He also has trouble performing basic acts of self-care and memory exercises.
Q2. What else do you feel you need to know (or, what might be some areas you may ask about in order to determine what…… [Read More]
Done, D.J. Crow, T.J. Johnstone, E.C. Sacker, a. (September 1994) Childhood Antecedents of Schizophrenia and Affective Illness: Social Adjustment at ages 7 to 11.BMJ, 309:699-703.
Teacher appraisal using the national child development study was utilized to examine differences between normal individuals and those who exhibit adult psychological disorders. "At the age of 7 children who developed schizophrenia were rated by their teachers as manifesting more social maladjustment than controls (overall score 4.3 (SD 2.4) v 3.1 (2.0); P… [Read More]
One instance of this strategy is the self-therapy suggested by the Speech Foundation of America which is focused on the assumption that stuttering is not a symptom, rather a behavior which can be corrected. (Sadock; Kaplan; Sadock, 2007)
Stutterers have been advised that they can learn to control their problems in part by correcting their feelings regarding stuttering and mindset towards it and in part by correcting the abnormal behaviors linked with the blocks that come to the forefront during stuttering. The strategy covers desensitizing i.e. lowering the emotional reaction to and uncertainties revolving stuttering and substituting positive action to control the moment of stuttering. The latest mature strategies concentrate on the aspect of restructuring fluency. The complete speech production pattern is remolded with emphasis on a series of target behaviors, covering reduction of rate, simple or gentle starting of voicing, and even shift between sounds, syllables as also words.…… [Read More]
The most frequent symptom is difficulty in walking or gait ataxia (Unicorn Self-Help Committee 2000), which spreads slowly to the arms and the trunk. Foot deformities, such as clubfoot, flexion of the toes or foot inversion are other early signs. In time, muscles weaken and waste, especially the muscles in the feet, lower legs and hands and, at this time, deformities s begin to show. Other symptoms are the loss of tendon reflexes especially in the knees and ankles, the gradual disappearance of sensation in the extremities, dysarthria or slowness of speech or slurring, easy fatigue, rapid and involuntary movements of the eyes, scoliosis, chest pain, shortness of breath, palpitations, heart enlargement, myocardial fibrosis, tachycardia, heart block and heart failure. Studies showed that about 20% of FA patients also develop carbohydrate intolerance and 10%, of diabetes mellitus, while others lose their hearing or eyesight.
In most cases, the patient gets…… [Read More]
Activities to Reduce Inappopiate Behavios Displayed by Childen With Autism and Othe Developmental Disabilities
The pupose of this dissetation study is to test the effectiveness of an eveyday activities-based potocol (Holm, Santangelo, Fomuth, Bown & Walte, 2000) fo managing challenging and disuptive behavios of 13- to 23-yea-old esidential students (male and female) with Autism who live at Melmak Homes, Inc., of southeasten Pennsylvania, and attend school o adult day pogams. Applied behavio analysis and a focus on eveyday occupations (activities) will be combined duing the intevention phase. Reinfocement will be fo subtask completion and duation of paticipation, NOT fo absence of taget maladaptive o disuptive behavios. Behavio analysts, howeve, will document the fequency/duation of the taget behavios duing each condition. Inteventions will occu daily, Monday though Fiday. A single-subject, multiple-baseline, acoss-subjects design with nine subjects will be used to evaluate change in behavios unde altenating conditions. Data will be analyzed…… [Read More]