Speech Disorder Essays (Examples)

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Speech and Language Impediments

Words: 3115 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54826038

educationists and teachers in the classroom today is identifying and dealing with children who have a speech, language or communication impairment, which negatively impacts on learning.. Many children find it difficult to understand how conversation works or don't make use of language at all. There are different terms used to describe specific speech and language difficulties, including "phonological difficulties, articulation difficulties, verbal dyspraxia, dysarthria, semantic pragmatic disorder, Asperger Syndrome and selective mutism." (Speech Impairments)

These specific speech and language difficulties can impact severely on the development and natural psychological and social growth of the child. Furthermore, it can also lead to further and more complicated problems - as will be discussed in this paper. "Children with a variety of speech and language impediments are increasing at risk as their language abilities fall behind those of their peers." (Children and Mental Health)

Emphasis must also be placed on recognizing the speech…… [Read More]


Bradford, J. Using multisensory teaching methods. Retrieved February 6, 2005, from Dyslexia magazine Com. Web site: http://www.dyslexia-parent.com/mag30.html

Bredenkamp, S. (1990) Protecting Children from Inappropriate Practices. ERIC Digest. Retrieved December 21, 2000 from ERIC Digest. Web site:  http://www.ericdigests.org/pre-9218/children.htm 

Children and Mental Health. Retrieved February 6, 2005, from Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General Web Site: http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/mentalhealth/chapter3/sec1.html

DeBord, K. (1997) Developmentally appropriate 4-h experiences for the 5- to 8-year-old. Retrieved December 20, 2004, from NC State University. Web site: http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/fcs/human/pubs/develop_appropriate.html
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Speech Understanding Ototoxicity Characteristics the Disease Stems

Words: 1116 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45592810


Understanding Ototoxicity


The disease stems from toxic reactions to structures of the ear, including the cochlea, vestibule, semicircular canals and otoliths. Drug-induced damage to these structures of the auditory and balance system can result in hearing loss, tinnitus, disequilibrium or dizziness (yback 2007).


The propensity of specific classes of drugs to cause ototoxicity has been well established and over 100 classes of drugs have been associated with ototoxicity. Hearing loss can be temporary but is usually irreversible with most agents. Generally, antibiotic-induced ototoxicity is bilaterally symmetrical, but it can be asymmetrical. The usual time of onset is often unpredictable, and marked hearing loss can occur even after a single dose (Ishiyama 2006). Additionally, hearing loss may not manifest until several weeks or months after completion of antibiotic or anti-neoplastic therapy (Dille 2003). Vestibular injury is also a notable adverse effect of aminoglycoside antibiotics and may appear early…… [Read More]


Campbell KC, Durrant J. (1993) Audiologic monitoring for ototoxicity. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 26(5): 903-14.

Dille M., et al. (2010). Ototoxicity risk assessment combining distoration product otoacoustic emissions with a cisplatin dose model. J. Of the Accoustical Society of America. 128(3): 1163-1174.

Fausti S., et al. (2009). Auditory and vestibular dysfunction associated with blast-related traumatic brain injury. Journal of Rehab Research and Development. 46(6): 797-810.

Grant KW, et al. (1998). Auditory-visual speech recognition by hearing-impaired subjects: consonant recognition, sentence recognition and auditory-visual integration. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 103(5): 2677-2690.
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Delayed Speech Late Talkers

Words: 1213 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4584751

Delayed Speech: Identification and Treatment

One common question parents ask is if and when they should be concerned when a child manifests delayed speech. For an infant, delayed speech is of concern when the baby "isn't using gestures, such as pointing or waving bye-bye by 12 months; prefers gestures over vocalizations to communicate by 18 months; has trouble imitating sounds by 18 months; [and] has difficulty understanding simple verbal requests" (Delayed speech or language development, 2012, Kid's Health: 1). In an older child, a lack of developmentally-appropriate speech becomes worrisome when the child does not engage in spontaneous speech; repeats words or phrases without apparent understanding; cannot follow simply instructions; and has difficulty being understood by members outside of the family (Delayed speech or language development, 2012, Kid's Health: 1).

Early intervention for children who exhibit language delays has a significantly higher success rate than later interventions. "First, there is…… [Read More]


Esch, B.E., Carr, J.E., & Grow, L.L. (2009). Evaluation of an enhanced stimulus-stimulus pairing procedure to increase early vocalizations of children with autism. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 42(2), 225-41.

Delayed speech or language development. (2012). Kid's Health. Retrieved:


Kelley, M.E., Shillingsburg, M.A., Castro, M.J., Addison, L.R., & LaRue, Robert H., Jr.
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Treating Language Disorders in Adults

Words: 395 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39206103

On the other hand, severely autistic or impaired individuals could need an extensive laptop aid that will help them in communicating. Both age, mobility, and need have to be calculated carefully.

3. Describe two types of speech disorders, how they can affect the child in the classroom, and some of the interventions used for students with speech disorders.

One simple type of speech disorder is stuttering. This is a very common disorder where the flow of speech is often disrupted by repetitions and pauses that the speaker cannot control. Another type of speech disorder is Dysprosody which occurs, when an individual cannot control how the intensity, timing and rhythm of speech occurs. Speech disorders in general affect students tremendously because they feel that they cannot fit in with the class environment. It limits their participation, social engagement and general involvement within the learning environment. There are many different intervention methods…… [Read More]

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Manifestation of Speech and Language Disorders in

Words: 985 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14321622

Manifestation of speech and language disorders in children with hearing impairment compared with children with specific language disorders" examined the relationship between language deficits among children with hearing impairment (HI) compared to those with specific language impairment (SLI). By studying the receptive language skills of 5 and 6-year-old children with HI and SLI the researchers concluded that the receptive language skills of children with HI were more impaired. They also asserted the importance of phonological short-term memory impairment in both children with HI and SLI, although the basis of which can be traced to different causes. Finally the authors concluded that deficits in language ability that are caused by hearing impairment affect receptive language skills more than expressive ones.

When a child grows up with a hearing impairment it often affects the child's ability to speak. The severity of speech and language disorders caused by hearing impairment has been found…… [Read More]


Keilmann, Annerose, Patrick Kluesener, Christina Freude, and Bianka Schramm. (2011).

"Manifestation of speech and language disorders in children with hearing impairment compared with children with specific language disorders."

Logopedics Phoniatrics Vocology 36, 12-20. Print.
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Intellectual Disability and Speech Impairment

Words: 747 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61059194

Intellectual Disability and Speech Impairment esources in Duval County, Florida

Today, the State of Florida is tasked with providing high quality educational services to a broad range of students with differing abilities and disabilities. To determine the current state of their educational programming, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature and Florida Department of Education's Web site concerning intellectual disabilities and speech impairments, including a full description of the disability, possible causes, possible treatments, and the teacher accommodations that are provided. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings concerning the provision of educational services to students with intellectual disabilities and speech impairments is provided in the conclusion.

eview and Analysis

Intellectual Disability

Full description of the disability. The definition provided by the State of Florida Department of Education (FLDOE) states that this condition "is defined as significantly below average general intellectual and adaptive functioning manifested during…… [Read More]


Intellectual disabilities. (2013). State of Florida Department of Education. Retrieved from http://www.fldoe.org/ese/ind.asp.

Morin, D., Cobigo, V., Rivard, M,. & Lepine, M. (2010, August). Intellectual disabilities and depression: How to adapt psychological assessment and intervention. Canadian Psychology, 51(3), 185-192.

Speech impairments. (2013). State of Florida Department of Education. Retrieved from http://www.fldoe.org/ese/si.asp.

Tatham, M. & Morton, K. (2011). A guide to speech production and perception. Edinburgh:
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Speech Quality Testing

Words: 716 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6696744

Technology Speech Science

Speech Quality Tests: An Analysis and eview of the Literature

The speech measurement technology to be evaluated in this research is a speech quality test. According to the research, a speech quality test is "a routine procedure for examining one or more empirically restrictive quality features of perceived speech with the aim of making a quantitative statement on those features" (). Essentially, people are constantly using undirected speech in ordinary conversations in order to exchange information through spoken sentences. Yet, when speech becomes directed by some third party or director, the speaker's speech may end up being modified by these directions. Here, the research suggests that "by using specific directives, the experimenter can, in directed communications, adjust the influence of each quality feature" (). A speech quality test can ascertain how biased perception may end up being in the case of directed speech. There are four primary…… [Read More]


Springer Science Media. (2011). Speech Quality Measurement Methods. Web. http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=3&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CDsQFjAC&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.springer.com%2Fcda%2Fcontent%2Fdocument%2Fcda_downloaddocument%2F9783642184628-c2.pdf%3FSGWID%3D0-0-45-1132963-p174099663&ei=FoN6U6PWOpOwoQSK-YCYCQ&usg=AFQjCNFpupv9bFCayRPt7dUNuB3u52LPeQ&sig2=0YtNG6fsnBc4royONWXuLg&bvm=bv.67229260,d.cGU

Stan, A., Yamagishi, J., King, S., & Aylett, M. (2011). The Romanian speech synthesis (RSS) corpus: Building a high quality HMM-based speech synthesis system using a high sampling rate. Speech Communication, 53(3), 442-450.

Valentini-Botinhao, C., Yamagishi, J., & King, S. (2011, May). Evaluation of objective measures for intelligibility prediction of HMM-based synthetic speech in noise. In Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP), 2011 IEEE International Conference on (pp. 5112-5115). IEEE.
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Speech Language Pathologist SLP Traditionally Responsible Providing

Words: 616 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49163290

Speech Language Pathologist (SLP) traditionally responsible providing services students communication disorders, time a "pull-" session classroom. With enhanced emphasis inclusion role appears changing.

What role should an SLP take in the classroom? Should SLPs also be trained in teaching methods? How can a teacher help integrate the SLP in the classroom?

Using a speech language pathologist (SLP) merely a specialist who 'pulls out' students from the regular classroom for resource room assistance does not fully utilize the skills a SLPs can provide. A good SLP does not merely instruct a student in the mechanics of speech: he or she must also deal with the physiological and psychological challenges students face when speaking in public. Having a SLP therapist as a regular presence within the mainstream classroom setting provides a resource for students when they are speaking aloud in public. Students must also learn to communicate in a manner that is…… [Read More]

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Disorder Down's Syndrome and the Certain Ways

Words: 3241 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75320661

disorder Down's syndrome and the certain ways these individuals are treated in the society. Certain characteristics like their learning ability and their ability to live in the society is emphasized in the paper. Laws and regulations for children with these disorders are also hinted upon. Lastly, the inclusion of these children in the integrated teaching program is discussed.

Down syndrome is a disorder that has been named after John Langdon Down, who was a British physician and he explained this syndrome in the year 1886. Earlier in the 19th century, this condition was clinically described by Jean Etienne Dominique Esquirol in the year 1838 and then by Edouard Seguin in 1844. Dr., Jerome Lejeune identified this syndrome as a chromosome 21 trisomy. This disorder can be diagnosed after as well as before birth through prenatal screening procedures. If such pregnancies are identified, they are often terminated.

According to the CDC…… [Read More]


Buckley, S. (1995). Teaching children with Down syndrome to read and write. Down syndrome: Living and learning in the community (pp. 158-169). New York: Wiley-Liss.

Cheung, Y.B., Law, C.K., Chan, B., Liu, K.Y., YIP, P.S. (2006): Suicidal ideation and suicidal attempts in a population-based study of Chinese people: risk attributable to hopelessness, depression, and social factors. J. Affect. Disord.

Cicchetti, D., & Beeghly, M. (Eds.). (1990). Children with Down syndrome: A developmental perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Crawford, P.A. (1995). Early literacy: Emerging perspectives. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 10(1), 71-86.
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Specialized Abstract Term in Speech and Language Pathology

Words: 561 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77952741

Speech Pathologists, like other social scientists, maintain a lexicon specific to their profession. The job of a Speech Pathologist is to treat physical and/or cognitive deficits/disorders resulting in difficulty with verbal communication. Many such professionals work with young children and must regularly explain why certain children lack the ability to convey thoughts and information through speech. Speech therapists often must treat patients that have trouble with articulation, intonation, rate, and intensity.

Based upon the nature and severity of the disorder, common treatments might include instructive or repetitive practice and drilling and the use of audio-visual aids.

Articulation, for instance, is the process by which sounds, syllables, and words are formed when one's tongue, jaw, teeth, lips, and palate alter the air stream coming from the vocal folds. This is important in the field of speech pathology because a spoken message may be lost due to improper articulation. Articulation is best…… [Read More]

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Progressive Supranuclear Palsy Disorder

Words: 1743 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65719540

This may consist of arising and seating in chairs securely. Following the progressive characteristics of this illness, all people gradually lose their capability simply to move and will need to advance and use a wheelchair.


Burbank, P.M. (2006). Vulnerable older adults: Health care needs and interventions. New York, NY: Springer Pub.

Donaldson, I.M., & Marsden, C.D. (2011). Marsden's book of movement disorders. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

Egerton, T., Williams, D. & Iansek, . (2009). Comparison of gait in progressive supranuclear palsy, Parkinson's disease and healthy older adults. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Fabio, ., Zampieri, C., Tuite, P. (2006). Gaze-shift strategies during functional activity in progressive supranuclear palsy. eceived: 20 July 2006 / Accepted: 26 September 2006 / Published online: 8 November 2006. Springer-Verlag 2006.

Fabio, ., Zampieri, C., Tuite, P. (2008). Gaze Control and Foot Kinematics During Stair Climbing: Characteristics Leading to Fall isk in Progressive Supranuclear Palsy.…… [Read More]


Burbank, P.M. (2006). Vulnerable older adults: Health care needs and interventions. New York, NY: Springer Pub.

Donaldson, I.M., & Marsden, C.D. (2011). Marsden's book of movement disorders. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

Egerton, T., Williams, D. & Iansek, R. (2009). Comparison of gait in progressive supranuclear palsy, Parkinson's disease and healthy older adults. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Fabio, R., Zampieri, C., Tuite, P. (2006). Gaze-shift strategies during functional activity in progressive supranuclear palsy. Received: 20 July 2006 / Accepted: 26 September 2006 / Published online: 8 November 2006. Springer-Verlag 2006.
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Depressive Disorder According to the DSM --

Words: 3173 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69443539

Depressive Disorder

According to the DSM -- IV -- T (2000), Major Depressive Disorder is classified by the number of Major Depressive Episodes -- although only one is needed in order to diagnose Major Depressive Disorder -- and according to the severity, ranging from mild, moderate, severe without psychotic features, or severe with psychotic features (347). This means that, in practice, the signs or symptoms of Major Depressive Disorder are those of a Major Depressive Episode: the clinician is required to diagnose the Episode before the larger diagnosis of the Disorder is indicated. In order to diagnose a Major Depressive Episode, there must be present a mood which is obviously depressed, which can also be observed as simply the loss of interest in nearly all activities, or the absence of accustomed pleasure -- sometimes known by the more clinical term "anhedonia" -- in familiar activities (349). However, the DSM-IV-T specifies…… [Read More]


American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text rev.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing.
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Neurological Disorder Epilepsy Neurological Disorder Epilepsy --

Words: 2610 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35563773

Neurological Disorder

Epilepsy Neurological Disorder

Epilepsy -- a Neurological Disorder

Epilepsy is a neurological disorder which causes frequent seizures due to abnormal electricity activity within the brain. Epilepsy is considered a brain disorder disturbing the brain function which ultimately affects behaviour and cognition. This paper highlights some common symptoms of epilepsy. It also explains different treatments deployed for reducing seizure activity in epilepsy. Each treatment portrays a different way of taking control over the seizures and points out a path towards leading a balanced life.

Epilepsy -- A Neurological Disorder

Epilepsy is a neurological disorder which is characterised by repeated spontaneous seizures of any type which cause problems with speech, vision, movement, awareness and muscle control. Epilepsy cannot be considered as an intellectual disability or mental illness. This paper explains the common symptoms associated with epilepsy. It highlights three different types of treatments for epilepsy and presents a comparative analysis…… [Read More]


Huffman, J. & Kosoff, E.,H. (2006). State of the Ketogenic Diet(s) in Epilepsy. Epilepsy. Pp.

332-340. Retrieved March 2, 2013, from http://www.matthewsfriends.org/jh/CurrentNNKossoff.pdf

Macrodimitris, S., Wershler, J., Hat-elda, M., Hamiltone, K., Backs-Dermott, B., Mothersill, K.,

Baxter, C. & Wiebe, S. (2011). Group Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy for Patients with Epilepsy and Comorbid Depression and Anxiety. Epilepsy and Behaviour. 20. Pp. 83-88. Retrieved March 4, 2013, from  http://old.epilepsyfoundation.org/epilepsyusa/yebeh/upload/Group_Therapy.pdf
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Communication Swallowing Disorders

Words: 2077 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1415676

Swallowing Difficulty and Speech Difficulty on Quality of Life in Patients with PEG Tubes vs. Those on NGT Feeding Systems

Stroke can effect neurological functioning and can have an effect on the patient's ability to talk and swallow. This condition can lead to severe malnutrition A decision is often made to feed the patient using a tube feeding method. Many studies have been performed to measure the clinical outcomes of these procedures, but few have focused on the effects of the patient's quality of life after receiving these interventions. This study will measure the effects of having a PEG tube inserted on the patient's quality of life as it relates to their ability to communicate and swallow. Two research questions will be answered: "Does a PEG procedure have an effect on the patient's ability to communicate their wishes and improve there satisfaction with the quality of their life in regards…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Finucane Thomas E. MD., Colleen Christmas, MD., and Kathy Travis. (1999) Tube feeding in patients with advanced dementia. A review of the evidence. Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA)October 13 (282) [HIDDEN]

James A, Kapur K, Hawthorne AB.(1998) Long-term outcome of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feeding in patients with dysphagic stroke. Age Ageing (27):671-676.

Taylor, Paula, MD. (2001) Annals of Long-Term CareDecision Making in Long-Term Care: Feeding Tubes. Annals of Long-Term Care: Clinical Care and Aging. 9 (11) p. 21-26
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Realm of Psychological Disorder Through the Use

Words: 2202 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14333578

realm of psychological disorder through the use of a character assessment. The character in question is fictional and the data used to evaluate the psychological profile derives from a movie. Melvin Udall, the main character in the movie "As Good as It Gets" serves as the character used in this assessment. Ultimately, I find and explore specific links to Melvin's condition in the movie to that of one suffering from Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD).

In order to discuss the relationships previously mentioned, I needed to perform several steps in order to logically conclude that Melvin represents someone suffering from OCD symptoms. In order to accomplish this task, I first watched the film and examined many of the traits that Melvin demonstrated. Next, I used a set of ten questions which provided a baseline assessment formula. These questions are each answered separately within the body of this essay. This character assessment…… [Read More]


Atkins, L. (2009). A radical treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder patients. The Guardian, 14 Dec 2009. Retrieved from http://www.guardian.co.uk/lifeandstyle/2009/dec/15/obsessive-complusive-disorder- gamma-knife

Brooks, J.L. (1998) As Good As It Gets. Jack Nicholson, Helen Hunt, Greg Kinnear. Tristar Pictures.

Bouchard, C. Rheaume, J. Landouceru, R. (1998). Responsibility and perfectionism in OCD. Behavior Research Therapy 37 (1999). 239-248. Retrieved from http://homepage.psy.utexas.edu/Homepage/Class/Psy394Q/Research%20Design%20Clas s/Assigned%20Readings/Experimental%20Psychopathology/Bouchard99.pdf

Eddy, M.F., & Walbroehl, G.S. (1998, April 1). Recognition and treatment of obsessive- compulsive disorder. American Family Physician, p. 1623-1632.  http://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/0401/p1623.html
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Surgical Management of Cleft Lip and Palate

Words: 2758 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47693815

Speech Problems and Psychological Damage From Cleft Lips and Cleft Palates

Cleft lips and cleft palates are among the most common of birth defects and if left untreated can lead to serious speech problems as well as psychological damage that can result both from those speech and communication problems as well as from the ostracism that a child with a facial deformity must endure.

However, while the consequences of cleft lips and palates can be severe and long-lasting, these can be averted by medical intervention, especially if it is done as early as possible. This paper explores the various options for surgical and medical management of cleft lips and palates and the ways in which these interventions can help children with these particular birth defects.

We should begin this discussion of treatment of cleft lips and palates by establishing what exactly is meant in medical terms by these two terms.…… [Read More]


Bebout, L., & Arthur, B. (1992). Cross-cultural attitudes toward speech disorders. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 35, 45-52.

Bernthal, J.E., & Bankson, N.W. (1993). Articulation and phonological disorders (3rd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Broen, P.A., Strange, W., Doyle, S.S., & Heller, J.H. (1983). Perception and production of approximant consonants by normal and articulation- delayed preschool children. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 26, 601-608.

Catts, H.W. (1993). The relationship between speech-language impairments and reading disabilities. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 36, 948-958.
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Learning Impairment Lli Speech Perception

Words: 1688 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54052790

Thus, the deficit must be due to an "inefficient mapping of acoustic information into phonetic features at a central (postcochlear) conversion stage. Accordingly, these findings provide new routes by which researchers should examine and practitioners should diagnose and treat SLI (Ziegler, et.al., 2005).

7. Conclusion

We live in a day and age of rapid technological development. In the area of cognition, our knowledge of how brain works and how language functions and is processed has seen rapid advancement in just the past three decades. Given the information that we have uncovered here, there is hope for a more rapid diagnosis and a more effective treatment of students with SLI's. With more understanding of the role of input and noise, perhaps, our teachers whom area affected greatly by his or her students' performance, would understand how to properly handle such students and provide a classroom environmentally set up so as to…… [Read More]


Binder, J. (200). The new neuroanatomy of speech perception. Oxford Journal, 123(12), 2371-2372. Retrieved from Oxford University Press.

Kuhl, Patricia K, Ph.D. (2004) "Speech Perception." Introduction to Communication Sciences and Disorders. San Diego: Singular Publishing Group, Inc.

Lane, D. (2008, June 18). Speech Perception. Retrieved from the Connexions Web site: http://cnx.org/content/m11175/2.9/

Merzenich, M., Jenkins, W., Johnston, P., Schreiner, C., Miller, S., and Tallal, P. Temporal Processing De-cits of Language-Learning Im-paired Children Ameliorated by Training, Science vol. 271, January 5-1996, p.77-80.
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Future Issues and Trends Speech

Words: 378 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87942899

The 'pull out' model of teaching students with speech issues can be useful because it lets the SLP focus on every child's specific needs and challenges in an individualized fashion. But ultimately all learning takes place in context. Integrating the SLP into the curriculum allows the SLP to have new opportunities to reinforce different concepts for the child in a real-world situation. The SLP has greater opportunities to work with content where speech exercises are not the focus; with group settings; and with speaking aloud to a crowd in a formal setting. By using exercises where speech is not the primary focus of the child, but the SLP is still there to provide encouragement and support in the areas of the child's difficulty, great progress can be made in the child's general education and way of relating to others.

The SLP must never assume the role of a teacher, but…… [Read More]

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Sotos Syndrome Is a Disorder

Words: 2205 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6935295

For instance a patient suffering from hypotonia may receive physical therapy to assist them in gain more control over bodily movements. Likewise an individual with Sotos syndrome that has been diagnosed with ADD may be treated with behavioral counseling and medications. Behavioral therapies may also be needed to combat aggressiveness, develop social skills, combat tantrums and some personality disorders that may be present. The mental retardation that can occur as a result of Sotos may be treated with learning therapies and through special education. Also language delay may be treated with speech therapy.

Individuals that develop tumors and cancer as a result of the disorder may be treated with surgery, radiation or chemotherapy. Likewise those with heart defects or kidney problems may need surgery or dialysis. Medical treatments may also be necessary as it relates to any skeletal malformations that may persist into adulthood as some researchers have reported that…… [Read More]


Finegan, J.K.,Cole, Trevor R.P.;Kingwell, E.,Smith, M. Lou;Smith, M.,;Sitarenios, G. (November 1994) Language and behavior in children with Sotos syndrome. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

Hglund, P., Kurotaki N., Kytl S., Miyake N., Somer M., Matsumoto N. (2003)

Familial Sotos syndrome is caused by a novel 1 bp deletion of the NSD1 gene. J Med Genet 2003; 40:51-54

NINDS Cephalic Disorders Information Page. Retrieved August 11, 2007 from;
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Avoidant Personality Disorder

Words: 4280 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14227618

Avoidant Personality Disorder

As per the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), a certain case of avoidant personality disorder (APD) is featured by the existent sign of social inhibition, feeling of being short of requirement, and hypersensitivity to negative valuation. (American Psychiatric Association, 1994, p.1) Even though personality disorders are not often discovered in persons below age 18, children who come within the condition of APD are recurrently portrayed as being aloof to the core, fearful in arising circumstances, and afraid of dissention and social boycott. The proportion of the signs and the inability is way behind the practice of inhibition that is prevalent in as much as 40% of the populace. Hence it is of great relevance of examining the disorder as it relates to professional counseling.

Exploration of disorder

Bearing a semblance to other personality disorders, the state of Avoidant Personality disorder turns out…… [Read More]


American Psychiatric Association: (1994) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.

Beck, Aaron T; Freeman, M.D; Arthur, Ed.D. (1990). "Cognitive Therapy of Personality Disorders." New York: The Guilford Press.

Benjamin, Lorna Smith (1996) "An Interpersonal Theory of Personality Disorders," in Major Theories of Personality Disorder, Clarkin, John F. & Lenzenweger, Mark F (Eds.). New York: The Guilford Press

Craig, Robert J. (1995). "Interpersonal Psychotherapy and MCMI-III -- Based Assessment, Tactical Psychotherapy of the Personality Disorders An MCMI-III -- Based Approach." Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
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Assorts of Disorder Terms and Diagnose

Words: 969 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54392348

Autism is a developmental disorder, as can be seen in the fact that Peter was first diagnosed when he failed to develop speech at the rate of a normal child. Autism is also a spectrum disorder, meaning that individuals will manifest the condition in different ways and different aspects of normal speech, movement, and social interactions may be inhibited depending on the child and the condition's severity. There is no 'cure' for autism or universally-accepted treatment for the disorder although behavioral interventions such as ABA "encourages positive behaviors and discourages negative behaviors in order to improve a variety of skills" through methods such as "Discrete Trial Training (DTT) DTT is a style of teaching that uses a series of trials to teach each step of a desired behavior or response. Lessons are broken down into their simplest parts and positive reinforcement is used to reward correct answers and behaviors." (Treatment,…… [Read More]


Additional treatments for ADHD. (2013). Psych Central. Retrieved from:


Depression. (2013). NIMH. Retrieved from:

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Importance of Production Frequency in Therapy for Childhood Apraxia of Speech

Words: 1246 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19817013


Childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is a rare neurological, sensorimotor speech sound disorder that has limited empirical evidence regarding its treatment. While there are several different treatment methods used to treat this disorder only one, integral stimulation therapy and a child specific modification of this (DTTC) have research evidence regarding effective treatment for CAS (and this evidence is in the form of case studies). Edeal and Gildersleeve-Neumann (2011) were interested in how different treatment intensity effects would affect the treatment outcome using integral training for children with CAS.

At issue here is the notion of "treatment intensity" which can be defined several ways. One way treatment intensity can be defined is the amount of practice that occurs in the treatment session; it is generally thought that more practice (or even more practice sessions) leads to a faster treatment effect. However since there are some instances where large amounts of…… [Read More]


Edeal, D.M., & Gildersleeve-Neumann, C.E. (2011). The importance of production frequency in therapy for childhood apraxia of speech. American Journal of Speech-Language

Pathology, 20(2), 95-110.
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Apraxia of Speech

Words: 1082 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75632016

apraxia of speech in children, some of its characteristics, diagnosis, treatment, and the future of children affected with the disease.

Apraxia of speech is the difficulty of a child to form sounds into words. It is a neurological disorder, and can be called dyspraxia. "Children with apraxia have difficulty correctly putting together the movement patterns and sequences needed to produce sounds, syllables or words. This is especially true when they are trying their hardest to speak clearly" (Gretz).

Usually children who have apraxia understand language very well, they just cannot say what they hear, and what they want to say. "The problem occurs when the brain tries to tell the muscles what to do -- somehow that message gets scrambled. It's like trying to watch cable TV stations without the right descrambler. There is nothing wrong with the TV station, and nothing wrong with your set" (Faculty).

Apraxia of speech…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Agin, Marilyn C., M.D. "Apraxia, What's That?" CHERAB Foundation, Inc. 9 Oct. 2001. http://www.shopinservice.com/apraxia.htm

Ball, Laura J., Beukelman, David R., and Bernthal, John E. "Profiling Children with Developmental Apraxia of Speech: Planning Comprehensive Intervention." University of Nebraska-Lincoln. 1998. http://aac.unl.edu/ball/DASasha98/tsld001.htm

Buesser, Jeanne. "Late Talker vs. Apraxia." CHERAB Foundation, Inc. 5 Oct. 2001. http://www.apraxia.cc/

Editors. "Apraxia-Kids Web Site. ApraxiaKids.org. 14 March 2002.  http://www.apraxia-kids.org/
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Autism & Asperger's Disorders Autism

Words: 1424 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1182568

hile Dr. Asperger called the condition "autistic psychopathy" and described it as a personality disorder primarily marked by social isolation, today Asperger's Syndrome is identified as a brain, communication, or neurological disorder like autism, not a personality disorder like, for example, antisocial personality disorder ("Asperger's Syndrome fact sheet," 2008, NINDS).

Like autism, Asperger's Syndrome is characterized by repetitive routines, rituals, and movements, poor social skills, and odd ways of communicating that do not take into consideration the other person's feelings and needs. The distinguishing feature of Asperger's, in contrast to classical autism, is that the individuals all have normal IQ but show "limited interests or an unusual preoccupation with a particular subject to the exclusion of other activities" ("Asperger's Syndrome fact sheet," 2008, NINDS). Unlike autistic individuals who show little interest in others, Asperger children may seek out companionship, but may drive other people away because of their refusal to…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Autism." (11 Apr 2008). National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke

NINDS). Retrieved 10 Apr 2008 at  http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/autism/detail_autism.htm 

Autism spectrum disorders (Pervasive developmental disorders)." (3 Apr 2008).

National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). Retrieved 10 Apr 2008 at http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/autism/complete-publication.shtml
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Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Diagnosis in Children

Words: 1668 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6767069

Attention Deficit HyperactivITY Disorder DIAGNOSIS IN CHILDEN

Historical ecords

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a diverse behavioral set of symptoms described by the hub indication of impulsivity, hyperactivity and inattention. Even as, these symptoms have a tendency to gather together, some individuals are for the most part hyperactive and impetuous, even as others are predominantly inattentive. This disease affects both toddlers and adults of all ages and should be taken seriously. When this disease is being diagnosed in children, doctors often make quick decisions to make a diagnosis and handing out prescriptions. This should not be the case as doctors are supposed to take enough time to well analyze the condition of the children before offering prescriptions.

About Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

There are two main diagnostic decisive factors that are currently in use. These are the International Classification of Mental and Behavioral Disorders uses the initials (ICD-10) and the…… [Read More]


Honos-Webb, L. (2010). The gift of ADHD: How to transform your child's problems into strengths. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications.

Kushner, T.K. (2010). Surviving health care: A manual for patients and their families.

Cambridge England: Cambridge University Press.

Nass, R.D. & Leventhal, F.,. (2011). 100 questions & answers about your child's ADHD: From
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PTSD Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

Words: 665 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17409720

Thus case studies are often used in cases of PTSD.

The first case study examined here was conducted by Mark Sichel. Here, the case study theory allows the research to explore the personal experiences of the subject, Karen, as a way to understand broader conceptions of the issue at hand, PTSD. Karen, the subject, is aloud to go into great detail of her personal experience as a way to allow the research to extrapolate particular issues that have flared her PTSD. The specifics of her experience with the police have created within her a state of anxiety and fear. The dialogue presented by the researchers allows the reader to make connections of those larger emotions associated with PTSD with her own personal experiences. Moreover, larger symptoms of the disorder are presented, heavily correlated with her own unique experiences. Overwhelming anxiety, stress, the presence of nightmares, and the constant re-living of…… [Read More]


Beall. Lisa S. (1997). Post-traumatic stress disorder: A bibliographic essay. CHOICE, 34(6), 917-930.

Sichel, Mark. (2004). Post traumatic stress disorder: A case study. Psyber Square. Web.  http://www.psybersquare.com/anxiety/post_case_study.html
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Autistic Disorder Dana Keith Beth

Words: 936 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57571597

The moral of the article's story is that teachers of autistic children with limited spoken languages may indeed need more training to get the most out of their students.

Still on the subject of therapy for autistic children, another article in the journal Autism (Vismara, et al. 2009) reports that professionally led training sessions with the parents of autistic children were helpful in getting the children to respond and communicate. The study was a 12-week research investigation, one hour per week; and what took place was the parents of eight "toddlers" (who had been diagnosed with autism) were brought together with their children and therapists. These parents were taught how to implement "naturalistic therapeutic techniques" based on the "Early Start Denver Model" (ESDM) (Vismara 93). The ESDM model focuses on "creating an affectively warm and rich environment to foster positive relationships between children and adults" (Vismara 99). The training with…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Chiang, Hus-Min. (2009). Naturalistic observations of elicited expressive communication

Of children with autism. Autism, 13(2), 165-178.

Donovan, Susan. Entrepreneur Thorkil Sonne on what you can learn from employees

With autism. Harvard Business Review, 86(9), 32-32.
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Discovery This Neurological Disorder or Disease Discovered

Words: 509 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72475267


This neurological disorder or disease discovered and first described in 1966 by an Austrian physician, Dr. Andreas Rett

A paper published on the disorder in an English medical journal in 1983 by Dr. engst Hagberg and associates. Global awareness established and thengrew. First diagnoses of unidentified cases made.

Disorder initially observed to affect only girls of different races worldwide

Detailed Cause/s

Mutations in an X chromosome gene called MeCP2.

First discovered at the laboratory by Dr. Huda Zoghbi, a neurogeneticist, in October 1999

Primarily affects girls but recently found to affect boys as well

Condition between 6 to 18 months and progresses in stages

A developmental, not a genetic or nutritional, disorder

Affects 1 in 10,000 to 23,000 females worldwide

Apparently normal pregnancy and delivery for the mother and normal development of voluntary movements to the affected person


Deceleration of head growth between 6 and 18 months

Unexplained…… [Read More]


Baker, O (1999). Faculty Control Gene Underlines Retardation (Rett Syndrome).

Science News, Science Service, Inc.

Gene Today ... Gone Tomorrow (October 1999). Nature Genetics

Lewis, Jackie and Debbie Wilson (1998). Pathways to Learning in Rett Syndrome.
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Neurological Disorders Viral Induced Neurological

Words: 588 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13330310


The "norm" in motor skills testing is that an individual should be able to follow a complex command involving at least three body parts discrimination being made between the right and left side of the body.

Cranial Nerve Examination: depending on the site of the lesion the testing of the patient in the ability to identify certain distinct odors such as coffee, cloves, ammonia and so forth are used in testing the nociceptive receptors of the trigeminal, or 5th cranial nerve. The optic second, third oculomotor and fourth trocklearn as well as the 6th crnail nerves, or abducens are tested generally as a visual type test.

Examination of the motor system is done through testing of the patients muscle tone. Decreased tone in the muscle points to atrophy. The most common abnormality of movement are called "Fasciculations" which are twitches just under the skin indicating lesions in relation to…… [Read More]


Merck Manual: "Neurological Examination" Section 14, Chapter 165 [Online] available at http://www.merck.com/mrkshared/mmanual/section14/chapter165/165c.jsp

Neurological Assessment
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Nurse Speech to Group of Residents in

Words: 540 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12719716

Nurse Speech to Group of esidents in a Large Independent Living Facility

The information addressed today in this speech are those involving the body's regulation of the correct numbers and ratios of blood cells and how blood pressure homeostasis is achieved as well as age-related changes to the heart including coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure and myocardial infarction.

Homeostatis and the Body's Balancing Act

The work of Vikrant and Tiwan (nd) report that studies on the population indicate that blood pressure is a continuous variable and there is really not a line that divides normal and abnormal values. However, there is a point of balance also called internal equilibrium and this is known as homeostasis. This state of balance describes how the human body reacts to certain changes. This can be viewed by picturing a set of scales in which coins are poured in unevenly with one side heavier…… [Read More]


Vikrant, S. And Tiwan, SC (nd) Essential Hypertension -- Pathogenesis and Path physiology. Retrieved from: http://medind.nic.in/jac/t01/i3/jact01i3p140.pdf
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Language Disorders Disabilities and Learning

Words: 2040 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98514559

Language Impairments: Evidence-Based Interventions

Language Impairment Interventions

Evidence-Based Interventions for Pediatric Language Impairments

Evidence-Based Interventions for Pediatric Language Impairments

So strong is the genetic impulse driving language acquisition that all children will learn to speak some form of language (Sousa, 2011, p. 28, 196). This fact suggests that the remaining question confronting children, parents, educators, and society is how well these skills are learned. Problems encountered along the way, however, can sometimes have a significant impact on a child's ability to communicate with others, both now and as adults. The greatest challenges are those faced by children with speech and language disorders. To better understand the language problems confronting otherwise developmentally normal children the recommended interventions, especially from an educator's point-of-view, will be examined and discussed in this research paper.

Neurological Correlates of Language Development

Comprehending how a speech or language disorder in a child could develop and impact their…… [Read More]


Deniz Can, D., Richards, T., & Kuhl, P.K. (2013). Early gray-matter and white-matter concentration in infancy predict later language skills: A whole brain voxel-based morphometry study. Brain and Language, 124(1), 34-44.

Ratner, N.B. (2013). Why talk with children matters: Clinical implications of infant- and child-directed speech research. Seminars in Speech and Language, 34(4), 203-214.

Schuele, C.M., Spencer, E.J., Barako-Arndt, K., & Guillot, K.M. (2007). Literacy and children with specific language impairment. Seminars in Speech and Language, 28(1), 35-47.

Snowling, M.J. & Hulme, C. (2012). Interventions for children's language and literacy difficulties. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders, 47(1), 27-34.
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Analyzing Mental Health Disorder

Words: 2533 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66967288

Mental Health Disorder

The following is a close examination of the psychosocial status of mental health disorder. There is going to be an examination of the symptoms along with a comprehensive diagnosis of the case.

Mental Health Disorder- Background

Childhood mental health disorder refers to all mental health conditions that affect a person in childhood. The disorder in children is described as critical changes that affect the way a child behaves, learns or even handles emotional situations. Some of the known childhood mental health disorders include (CDC - Child Development, Children's Mental Health -- NCBDDD, n.d):

Hyperactivity disorder/attention deficit disorder (ADHD) (http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/index.html)

Disorders related to behavior

Anxiety and mood disorders

Tourette syndrome

Substance use disorders

Mental health is essential in life. Mental health disorders can persist throughout a person's life (CDC - Child Development, Children's Mental Health -- NCBDDD, n.d). The problem needs to be diagnosed early. Otherwise, children continue…… [Read More]


(n.d.). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC - Child Development, Children's Mental Health - NCBDDD. Retrieved February 6, 2016, from http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/childdevelopment/mentalhealth.html

Klauck, S. (2006). Genetics of autism spectrum disorder. European Journal of Human Genetics, 14, 714-720. Retrieved February 6, 2016 from http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v14/n6/full/5201610a.html

(n.d.). Medicine Net. Mental Health: Get the Facts on Common Disorders. Retrieved February 6, 2016, from http://www.medicinenet.com/mental_health_psychology/article.htm

(n.d.). MU School of Health Professions. Autism Spectrum Disorders: Case Study. Retrieved February 6, 2016, from http://shp.missouri.edu/vhct/case4108/case_study.htm
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Autism Disorder The Writer Explores What it

Words: 4038 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91627778

autism disorder. The writer explores what it is and how it manifests itself. The writer also discusses the teaching methods that have been used to allow the autistic student to take part in a public education. There were ten sources used to complete this paper.

Each year millions of American couples add to their family with the birth of a baby. The pregnancy is spent getting ready for the newcomer. Names are chosen, baby items are purchased and stored and other people's children are discussed as examples of what might be produced by this child. The family becomes ready as they read up on the milestones that they can expect the baby to make at various times of the first few years of development.

By the time the baby is born the parents have studied the progress that can be expected and are ready to start their life as a…… [Read More]


Address: Richard L. Simpson, University of Kansas Medical Center, Department of Special Education, 3901 Rainbow Blvd., Kansas City, KS 66160-7335.

Simpson, Richard L.-Myles, Brenda Smith, Effectiveness of facilitated communication with children and youth with autism.. Vol. 28, Journal of Special Education, 01-01-1995, pp 424.

Murray, John B., Psychophysiological aspects of autistic disorders: overview.. Vol. 130, The Journal of Psychology, 03-01-1996, pp 145(14).

Simpson, Richard L.-Myles, Brenda Smith, Effectiveness of facilitated communication with children and youth with autism.. Vol. 28, Journal of Special Education, 01-01-1995, pp 424.
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Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Words: 578 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28352747

audience on wha ADHD is, its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment.

ADHD is a serious condition, but it doesn't mean that it has to ruin person's life.

Bouncing off walls! (Strong declarative statement to draw attention)

ADHD is a severe case of not being able to concentrate

Everyone has off days, but ADHD patients cannot focus on a daily basis

Symptoms include chronic inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity

Children with ADHD are easy to identify, they are always hyperactive

ADHD is something we have all heard about but we don't really understand. I want to make you understand the seriousness of ADHD and how it affects people who suffer from it.

A.I have carefully researched this topic and now I will share the most topical information I have found (establish credibility)

B. The reason that I am interested in ADHD research is because I also have ADHD, and this has helped me…… [Read More]

Works Cited

ADHD -- Treatment through Behavioral Therapy." American Institute of Pediatrics.

Mederm: Medical Library: ADHD. 2007. [3 Mar 2007] http://www.medem.com/MedLB/article_detaillb.cfm?article_ID=ZZZWWPFTXSC&sub_cat=21#Table3

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder." National Institute of Mental Health. 2006.

Mar 2007] http://www.nimh.nih.gov/publicat/adhd.cfm#intro
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Schizoaffective Disorder Is a Mental

Words: 1002 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56285561

The exact regimen depends on the type and severity of symptoms, and whether the disorder is of depressive or bipolar type. Medications are usually prescribed to alleviate psychotic symptoms, stabilize mood and treat depression, while psychotherapy can help curb distorted thoughts, teach social skills and diminish social isolation. ("Schizoaffective Disorder," 2006)

Medication: Medications generally include antipsychotic drugs prescribed to alleviate psychotic symptoms, such as delusions, paranoia and hallucinations. Mood-stabilizing medications are prescribed in bipolar disorder, which help to level out the highs and lows of manic depression. Anti-depressants such as citalopram (Celexa), fluoxetine (Prozac) and escitalopram (Lexapro) are normally prescribed for depressive subtype schizoaffective disorder, as they are likely to alleviate feelings of sadness, hopelessness, or sleeplessness and lack of concentration. (Ibid.)

Psychotherapy and Counseling: Although there has been far less research on psychotherapeutic treatments for schizoaffective disorder than in schizophrenia or depression, the available evidence suggests that cognitive behavior…… [Read More]


Brannon, G.E. (2005). "Schizoaffective Disorder." E-Medicine. Retrieved on April 18, 2007 at http://www.emedicine.com/med/topic3514.htm

Facts About Schizoaffective Disorder." (2001). Family Social Support Project at UCLA. Retrieved on April 18, 2007 at http://www.npi.ucla.edu/ssg/schizoaffective.htm

Grayson, C.E. (2004). "Schizoaffective Disorder." Mental Health America. Retrieved on April 18, 2007 at http://www.nmha.org/go/information/get-info/schizophrenia/schizoaffective-disorder

Schizoaffective Disorder." (2006). Mayo Foundation for Medical Educational and Research. Retrieved on April 18, 2007 at http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/schizoaffective-disorder/DS00866
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Bipolar II Disorder

Words: 2688 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79340844

Bipolar II

In the United States alone, a staggering number of people suffer from some sort of mental illness and many more are at high risk of developing a mental condition. Worldwide, the number is even greater, especially in countries without the resources to provide the care needed by such people. Some mental conditions are more prevalent and easier to develop than others. Whereas a serious disease that manifests various forms of psychosis like schizophrenia is mostly prevalent in those who inherit it from family members, those who have abused drugs long-term and consistently, or those with brain injuries, milder conditions like bipolar disorder can be developed by virtually anyone. In the United States, about 2.5% of the population has some form of bipolar disorder (WedMD, 2014). This translate to about 6 million people.

Because of this high number of sufferers, increasing research attention in the psychiatric and medical fields…… [Read More]


Cusin, C., Hilton, G.Q., Nierenberg, A.A., and Fava M. (2012). Long-Term Maintenance With Intramuscular Ketamine for Treatment-Resistant Bipolar II Depression. American Journal of Psychiatry. Retrieved from: http://journals.psychiatryonline.org/article.aspx?articleid=1268250

Mayo Clinic. (2014). Bipolar Disorder. Retrieved from: http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/bipolar-disorder/basics/symptoms/con-20027544

PsychCentral (2014). The Two Types of Bipolar Disorder. Retrieved from: http://psychcentral.com/lib/the-two-types-of-bipolar-disorder/000612?all=1

Sole, B., Martinez-Aran, A., Torrent, C., Bonnin, C.M., Reinares, M., Popovic, D., Sanchez-Moreno, J., and Vieta, E. (2011). Are bipolar II patients cognitively impaired? A systematic review. Psychological Medicine. Retrieved from:  http://diposit.ub.edu/dspace/bitstream/2445/52283/1/587142.pdf
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Histrionic Personality Disorder Hpd Is

Words: 1891 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90364721

The research on HPD causes is clearly linked to personality theory, and can help to understand each theory. By first examining causation research, and then by locating personality theory which supports the research, it was easy to see the validity of personality theories, and how they can be used in real world research. The research also tied in to course material by again forcing real world situations to be applied to theoretical perspectives.

As research surrounding the causes of HPD is undertaken, more is learned about factors that affect those with HPD. If a definite cause, or a list of possible causes, can be discovered through such research, treatment options specifically designed to address those causes can be developed, resulting in a higher possibility of success. This type of research is vital if those with histrionic personality disorder are to ever be fully cured. Therapy without certain cause can reduce…… [Read More]


American Psychological Association. (2000). Desk reference to the diagnostic criteria from DSM-IV-TR.

Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc., pg. 293.

Aston-Jones, G.D. (2002). Chapter 4. In K.L. Davis (Ed.), Neuropsychopharmacology: The fifth generation of progress (pp. 133-167). Nashville, TN: American College of Neuropsychopharmacology.

Britton R. (2004, Sept). Narcissistic disorders in clinical practice. Journal of Analytical Psychology, 49(4), 477-490.
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Questions About Pts Disorder

Words: 1559 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28425807

DSM-5 Diagnostic Case Studies

Case Studies

Tom is a 30-year-old male who was near the orld Trade Center during the 9/11 attack. He witnessed horrific scenes, including people jumping from the orld Trade Center. Since that day, he has had nightmares. henever a plane flies overhead, he has the feeling that he needs to run to a secure place. He has thought of moving out of New York City because he finds himself reliving the event every time he is down in the area of the 9/11 attack.

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) although a very complex disorder, is a well-known psychiatric consequence of trauma, which is likely what Tom is experiencing (Iribarren, Prolo, Neagos, & Chiappelli, 2005). The event that is responsible for the PTSD must be directly experienced as a threat to one's own integrity and associated with intense fear, helplessness, or horror; the patient also persistently re-experiences the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5). Arlington: American Psychiatric Association.

Gillespie, B. (2016). Substance or Medication Induced Psychotic Disorder DSM-5 (Alcohol-292.1, Drugs-292.9). Retrieved from Theravive: http://www.theravive.com/therapedia/Substance-or-Medication-Induced-Psychotic-Disorder-DSM--5-(Alcohol--292.1,-Drugs -- 292.9)

Hruska, B., Sledjeski, E., Fallon, W., Spponster, E., & Delahanty, D. (2011). Alcohol Use Disorder History Moderates the Relationship Between Avoidance Coping and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 405-411. doi:10.1037/a0022439

Iribarren, I., Prolo, P., Neagos, N., & Chiappelli, F. (2005). Post-traumatic stress disorder: Evidence-based research for the third millennium. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine.
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Muller's Speech Military Secrets of

Words: 601 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88213515

Sanders is apparently concerned about having his readers understand the importance of thinking as life similar to how the Miller family thought about their farm. In spite of the fact that one is likely to come across difficult situations across his or her life, it is essential to continue rebuilding the damage that these respective situations generate.

In spite of the fact that Richard Ford supports Sanders' perspective in regard to the concept of a home, his essay "I Must Be Going" promotes the belief that it is typical for Americans in particular to move from one place to another at short intervals of time. Ford actually emphasizes the importance of abandoning anxieties in moving, given that everyone has to accept that it is very improbable for them to live in the same home for all of their lives.

David Guterson's short story "No Place Like Home" discusses the importance…… [Read More]

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Language Impairment Disorder Specific Language

Words: 604 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15198049

The clearest evidence for genetic effects has come from studies that diagnosed SLI using theoretically motivated measures of underlying cognitive deficits rather than conventional clinical criteria (ishop).

Characteristics of SLI

Delay in starting to talk is evidenced by the first words not appearing until two years of age or later. Immature or deviant production of speech sounds is apparent, especially in preschool children. Use of simplified grammatical structures, such as omission of past tense endings or the auxiliary "is," exist well beyond the age when this is usually mastered. Restricted vocabulary, in both production and comprehension with weak verbal short-term memory, is evidenced in tasks requiring repetition of words or sentences. Difficulties in understanding complex language are apparent, especially when the speaker talks rapidly (ishop).


Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) help children with the strategies and exercises that will help them navigate language. They are also the ambassadors of language who…… [Read More]


Bishop, Dorothy. "What Causes Specific Language Impairment in Children." 2006. Institute for Applied Psychometrics. 17 March 2009  http://www.iapsych.com/articles/bishop2006.pdf .

Davidson, Tish, Jill De Villers and Thomson Gale. "Specific Language Impairment." 2006. Healthline.com. 17 March 2009 http://www.healthline.com/galecontent/specific-language-impairment.

Ervin, Margaret. "SLI - What we Know and Why it Matters." n.d. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. 17 March 2009 http://www.asha.org/about/publications/leader-online/archives/2001/sli.htm.
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Education Reading Disorders Reading Disabilities

Words: 3924 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77672184

In order to build an age-appropriate vocabulary in the English language, ESL students must learn words at a faster rate than normal (Lipka, Siegel, & Vukovic, 2005; Drucker 2003). This results in a widening gap between the reading and comprehension levels of ESL and non-ESL students if the needs of ESL students are not addressed (Lipka, Siegel, & Vukovic, 2005).

Some ESL students come from a native language that poses more difficulties than others. For example, ussian and Arabic have alphabets that look very different from the English alphabet. Children must learn an entirely new coding system in order to proceed (Lipka, Siegel, & Vukovic, 2005). Even when the alphabet is similar, the English language is difficult to learn due to the many inconsistencies in tense and individual word use. Because they may not be conversationally fluent, subtleties of the English language may take some time to master (Palmer, El_Ashry,…… [Read More]


Abu-Rabia, a., and Maroun, L. (2005). The effect of consanguineous marriage on reading disability in the Arab community. Dyslexia, 11, 1-21.

Davis, G.N., Lindo, E.J., and Compton, D.L. (2007). Children at risk for reading failureL Constructing an early screening measure. Teaching Exceptional Children, 39(5), 32-37.

Drucker, M.J. (2003). What reading teachers should know about ESL learners. The Reading Teacher, 57, 22-29.

Hudson, R.F., High, L., and Al Otaiba, S. (2007). Dyslexia and the brain: What does current research tell us? The Reading Teacher, 60, 506-515.
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Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ADHD

Words: 2502 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59104397

He must have a reasonable amount of stick-to-itiveness and patience to tolerate difficult tasks; if he gives up immediately, learning will obviously be impaired. And... The ADHD child is both inattentive and readily frustrated. The learning problems are further complicated because they tend to move in vicious circles; they often snowball. (Wender, 2000, p. 22)

Another related aspect is that unless the problems that the student is experiencing are related to his or her ADHD condition, the student may become demotivated as a result of poor performance and criticism. This can lead to other learning issues and even to serious related problems such as the loss of self -worth and self-esteem. This will in turn impact again on the learning ability of the student.

There are numerous studies which attest to the relationship between ADHD and learning problems. In a study by Maynard et al. (1999) it was found that…… [Read More]


ADHD. Retrieved May 29, 2006, at http://www.psychiatry24x7.com/bgdisplay.jhtml?itemname=adhd_guest_consumers&s=2 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=101227181

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. (2004). In The Columbia Encyclopedia (6th ed.). New York: Columbia University Press. Retrieved May 30, 2006, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=101230476

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder 1. Retrieved May 29, 2006, at http://www.parentingteens.com/adhd.html

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Retrieved may 31, 2006, at http://www.childrenshospital.org/az/Site610/mainpageS610P0.html
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Evaluating Children's Speech Development

Words: 554 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71850920

Phonological Processes in Preschool Children's Single-word Productions

The topic and overall purpose of the study by Cohen & Anderson (2011) "Identification of phonological processes in preschool children's single-word productions" was to determine the degree of differentiation in which children acquire single words. In general, in the field of linguistics, there is an accepted rate and pattern by which such words are acquired. The researchers hypothesized that there might be differentiation based upon population subsets, however. To achieve this objective, the study authors compared various phonological processes of speech production that were present in the single-word acquisitions of 94 West of Scotland preschool children with normative data of general language acquisition based upon age (Cohen & Anderson 2011: 481).

The research was critical given that such normative data is used when making interventions to improve children's speech production. Thus, based upon the results this could mean changes in the way children…… [Read More]


Cohen, W. & Anderson, C. (2011). Identification of phonological processes in preschool

children's single-word productions. International Journal of Language Communications

Disorders, 46 (4): 481-488.
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Communications Our Voice Is How

Words: 329 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67947427

Therefore, the reason for my interest in the graduate program is to participate in this exciting and growing field. In particular I hope to work with children and their families who encounter different speech, language, and communication difficulties. In addition to providing core support in terms of speech and language therapy, I also intend to become active as a community leader who can address issues like social stigma and alternative forms of communication. In a highly verbal society such as ours, I believe it is imperative to find new ways of reaching out and interacting with those who do not or cannot conform to the majority standard of communications efficiency. A graduate degree will help me be use all the resources available to enhance understanding and treatment of speech, language and communications problems. Thank you for your consideration.… [Read More]

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Augmentive Communication Many Times a Person Is

Words: 630 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14768640

Augmentive Communication

Many times a person is born with a condition that requires, or acquires the need for, augmentive communication. Due some form of deficit the individual is not able to communicate in a manner normally used to communicate. Due to this inability the individual may need some form of assistance to interact normally with others and express their ideas. This paper defines augmentive communication, and provides examples of how devices are used to enhance the communication abilities of students in special education classrooms.

Actually, every person uses this type of communication because verbal expressions are just a small part of actual communication. The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASLHA, 2011) defines augmentive communication as "all forms of communication (other than oral speech) that are used to express thoughts, needs, wants, and ideas." The website says that this is includes all of the nonverbals people use to communicate every day. The ASLHA…… [Read More]


American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASLHA). (2011). Augmentive and alternative communication. Retrieved from  http://www.asha.org/public/speech/disorders/AAC.htm 

Burkhart, L.J. (2011). Simplified technology. Retrieved from  http://www.lburkhart.com/
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Personal Statement Daddy's Home Says My Nine-Year-Old

Words: 584 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54824327

Personal Statement

"Daddy's home," says my nine-year-old cousin Justin at the sight of a truck in the driveway.

His father's truck? No. Alas, his father -- my uncle -- passed away more than a year ago.

Death is hard for any child to understand. How does one find the words to explain to an autistic boy that his father is not away on a business trip, but on a voyage from which the man will never return?

Even I had trouble grappling with my uncle's death, and to communicate my grief. I found comfort and solace in at least making the world more comprehensible and less frightening to my cousin Justin through the use of simple communication exercises the child could understand. Despite his autism, Justin, because of an early intervention program with a speech pathologist, has gained a fluency that is gratifying to see -- I may not be…… [Read More]

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Cognitive Deficits in Amyotrophic Sclerosis

Words: 2919 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59314852

, 2010).

In addition, small frequent feeds, and a large amount of fluid is provided to maintain the nutritional needs of the patient and prevent dehydration. The r suctioning of secretions proves necessary in preventing aspiration of secretions. The loss of voluntary muscle's activity increases the risks of accumulation of secretions hence, the need for regular suctioning. Bulbar involvement often results in communication complications such as dysarthria and muscle paralysis of the muscles of the face, throat, and tongue. As such, it requires the provision of management strategies such as augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) techniques and other forms of speech therapy that improves the communication abilities of patients with ALS. Pseudobulbar effects that often accompany those brought by the frontotemporal lobe degeneration often require the administration of antidepressants. The antidepressants manage mood disorder that presents through disproportionate crying, and inappropriate response to the external stimuli. Maximizing patients' comfort and…… [Read More]


Brettschneider, J., Libon, D.J., Toledo, J.B., Xie, S.X., McCluskey, L., Elman, L., & #8230;

Trojanowski, J.Q. (2012). Microglial activation and TDP-43 pathology correlate with executive dysfunction in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Acta Neuropathologica, 123(3),

395 -- 407. doi:10.1007/s00401-011-0932-x

Crespi, C., Cerami, C., Dodich, a., Canessa, N., Arpone, M., Iannaccone, S., & #8230; Cappa, S.F. (2014). Microstructural white matter correlates of emotion recognition impairment in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. Cortex, 53, 1 -- 8
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Object Relation Attachment Theories and

Words: 26278 Length: 55 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34405449

During the next chapter of this clinical case study dissertation, the Literature eview section, this researcher relates accessed information that contributes a sampling of previous research to begin to enhance the understanding needed to help a patient "grow" not only in therapy, but also in life.



The theories and techniques used in psychoanalysis are very diverse; Freudian analysis is only one approach."

Thomas and McGinnis, 1991, ¶ 1)

Diverse Contentions

One recent University of New Hampshire study indicated that 63% of more than 3,000 surveyed American parents surveyed reported experiences of one or more instances of verbal aggression toward children in their homes. A Child Protective Services study, albeit reported that only 6% of child abuse cases involved "emotional maltreatment," form of abuse in which verbal abuse constitutes the most common form of maltreatment. The apparent low number of "official" verbal abuse cases likely relates to…… [Read More]


American Psychiatric Association, (2004). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Test Revised. Washington DC.

Blatt, S. (1974). Levels of object representation in anaclytic and introjective depression. New York: International University Press.

Bowlby, J. (1969) Attachment. Volume One of Attachment and Loss, New York: Basic

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E-Learning the Focus of This

Words: 1408 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33226720

Specifically stated by Hasselbring and Glaser is that

"...two general types of communication disorders qualify a student for special education services: speech disorders and language disorders. A speech disorder occurs when the speaker's articulation, voice quality, or fluency patterns impair the listener's ability to understand the intent of the speaker. A language disorder occurs when either the sender or the receiver of the message is unable to use the sounds, signs, or rules of the communication language. The U.S. Department of Education data indicate that more than 20% of all students with disabilities have speech or language disorders. Consequently, technology addressing the needs of students with communication disorders could assist a significant proportion of students with disabilities to interact more normally within the classroom." (2000)

Communication technology advances have resulted in specialized devices being created and specifically "augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) devices" that enable individuals with no or poor…… [Read More]


Cilesiz, S.. (2009). Educational Computer Use in Leisure Contexts: A Phenomenological Study of Adolescents' Experiences at Internet Cafes. American Educational Research Journal, 46(1), 232-274. Retrieved November 6, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global. (Document ID: 1655851831).

Margie K. Shields, & Richard E. Behrman. (2000). Children and computer technology: Analysis and Recommendations. The Future of Children, 10(2), 4-30. Retrieved November 6, 2009, from ProQuest Psychology Journals. (Document ID: 71981209).

Margolis, L., Grediagin, A., Koenig, C., & Sanders, L.. (2009). Effectiveness and Acceptance of Web-Based Learning Compared to Traditional Face-to-Face Learning for Performance Nutrition Education. Military Medicine, 174(10), 1095-1099. Retrieved November 6, 2009, from ProQuest Psychology Journals. (Document ID: 1884841471).

Ted S. Hasselbring, & Candyce H. Williams Glaser. (2000). Use of computer technology to help students with special needs. The Future of Children, 10(2), 102-122. Retrieved November 6, 2009, from ProQuest Psychology Journals. (Document ID: 71981284).
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Assistive Technology Is a Generic

Words: 2522 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7397812

(Brodwin; Cardoso; Star, 2004)

Since it is a fact that those people with special needs do face many more challenges in their lives than other people, the possibility of technological assistance for them must be given extreme importance, and when this is done, the device can be acquired. Sometimes, when the assistive device has been provided for the person, like for example a child who attends school, by the school itself, then the issue would be whether or not the child can be allowed to use the device at home. This is especially true in cases where the assisted device is something that would enable the child to finish his homework on time, without which he would not be able to do it. (Providing Assistive Technology: A Legal Perspective)

The concerned AD committee must use its discretion for such cases, because, mot of the time, the parent may insist that…… [Read More]


Ability Hub: Frequently Asked Questions" Retrieved at  http://www.abilityhub.com/ . Accessed on 8 July, 2005

Brodwin, Martin. G; Cardoso, Elizabeth; Star, Tristen. (July-September, 2004) "Computer

Assistive Technology for people who have disabilities: computer adaptations and modifications" Journal of Rehabilitation. Vol: 25; No: 2; pp: 64-68

Definitions of Assistive technology" Retrieved at http://www.google.co.in/search?hl=en&lr=&oi=defmore&q=define:Assistive+technologyAccessed on 8 July, 2005
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Best Practices for Students Diagnosed

Words: 4937 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57499707

(Thompson, Morse, Sharpe and Hall, 2005, p.40)

The work of Vaughn, Levy, Coleman and os (2002) entitled: "Reading Instruction for Students with LD and ED" published in the Journal of Special Education repots a synthesis of "previous observation studies conducted during reading with students with learning disabilities (LD) and emotional/behavioral disorders (ED)." (p.1) a systematic process of review of research conducted between 1975 and 2000 is stated to have "yielded a total of 16 studies 11 independent samples) that met all preestablished criteria." (Vaughn, Levy, Coleman and os, 2002, p. 1) Finding from the study include: (1) There was substantial time allocated for reading instruction, though the time varied based on whether students were in special education or general education or both; (2) students were provided more individual and group instruction in special education; (3) the quality of reading instruction was low, overall, with excessive time allocated to waiting and…… [Read More]


Fletcher, Jack M. (2002) Researchers support early intervention for all children

Drummond, Kathryn (2005) About Reading Disabilities, Learning Disabilities, and Reading Difficulties. Reading Rockets. 2005. Online available at http://www.readingrockets.org/article/639

Mastropieri, Margo and Graetz, Janet (2003) Implementing Research-Based Reading Interventions to Improve Access to the General Education Curriculum

Lazarus, Belinda Davis and Callahan, Thomas (2000) Attitudes Toward Reading Expressed by Elementary School Students Diagnosed with Learning Disabilities. Reading Psychology 21: 281-282. Copyright 2002 Taylor & Francis. Online available at http://www.usm.maine.edu/~amoroso/edu621/4050957.pdf
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Vagus Nerve

Words: 424 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51062088

Vagus nerve (commonly known as the pneumogastric nerve) is a cranial nerve that is connected to the heart and the digestive tract. The nerve is the tenth nerve in the cranium is one of the most important nerves associated with speech. The term "vagus" is taken from Latin and it means "wandering." The nerve got its name as a consequence of the fact that it appears to wander from its initial location in the brain stem to the splenic fixture in the colon.

It's emerging from the brainstem at the medulla, below the glossopharyngeal and accessory nerves. The nerve is similar to several rootlets which come together in two roots exiting the cranium by going through the jugular foramen. "Its two sensory ganglia, the superior (jugular) and inferior (nodosum), are located on the nerve within the jugular fossa of the petrous temporal bone, which, together with the occipital bone, forms…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Freed, D.B. "Motor Speech Disorders: Diagnosis and Treatment, Volume 1," (Cengage Learning, 2000)

Langmore, S.E. "Endoscopic Evaluation and Treatment of Swallowing Disorders," (Thieme, 2001)
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Policy Brief Parental Influences in Children's Health Outcomes

Words: 1859 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52625025

Policy Brief: Parental Influences on Child Obesity and Dental Caries


Parental Influences on Child Obesity and Dental Caries

Obesity represents a major health and economic threat to Australia by degrading the lives of countless citizens and costing the nation about $58.2 billion in 2010 alone (Crowle & Turner, 2010, p. 32-33). This reality has motivated Australian policymakers to increase the amount of dollars allocated to researching this preventable condition by 5.4-fold between 2003 and 2011 (NHMC, 2012). A related preventable disease, dental caries, causes untold suffering and represented 10% of all health care spending in 2004/2005 (ACP Paediatric and Child Health Policy Committee, 2013, p. 8). Both of these health issues have had a major impact on child health, which is the primary focus of this policy brief. Most of the research considered here is concerned with children and early adolescents. This issue is examined through the lens…… [Read More]


AIHW. (2011). Dental decay among Australian children. Research report series no. 53. Cat. No. DEN210. Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Retrieved from https://www.aihw.gov.au/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=10737419600.

Crowle, J. & Turner, E. (2010). Childhood Obesity: An Economic Perspective. Melbourne: Media and Publications, Productivity Commission. Retrieved from http://www.pc.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0015/103308/childhood-obesity.pdf.

Hooley, M., Skouteris, H., Boganin, C., Satur, J., & Kilpatrick, N. (2012a). Obesity and dental caries in children and adolescents: a systematic review of the literature published 2004-2011. Systematic Reviews, 1:57, doi:10.1186/2046-4053-1-57.

Hooley, M., Skouteris, H., Boganin, C., Satur, J., & Kilpatrick, N. (2012b). Parental influence and the development of dental caries in children aged 0-6 years: A systematic review of the literature. Journal of Dentistry, 40, 873-885.
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Public Policy Issue Public Administration

Words: 3264 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31821101

CHIP: To Abolish or Not to Abolish

The State Children Health Insurance Plan (SCHIP), commonly referred to as CHIP (Children's Health Insurance Plan), is an insurance plan run by the Department of Health and Human Services, and which administers funds to states to enable them provide quality insurance coverage to eligible children within their jurisdictions. To be eligible for CHIP, a child needs to be from a family whose level of income is too low to qualify for private insurance coverage, but too high to be considered for Medicaid (Holtz-Eakin, 2014). With the introduction of the Obama Care Policy, however, which expanded the list of persons eligible for both Medicaid and CHIP, there came so many overlaps between CHIP and other secondary insurance options that budgetary allocations and funding to the former were threatened. Owing to this, there is a lot of controversy over whether funding to the CHIP ought…… [Read More]


CBO. (2014). An Update to the Budget and Economic Outlook 2014 to 2024. The Congressional Budget Office (CBO). Retrieved May 6, 2015 from http://www.cbo.gov/sites/default/files/cbofiles/attachments/45653-OutlookUpdate_2014_Aug.pdf

Ewing, M.T. (Ed.). (2008). State Children's Health Insurance Program. New York, NY: Nova Publishers

GAO. (2012). What GAO Found. The Government Acounting Office (GAO). Retrieved May 7, 2015 from http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-12-648

Holtz-Eakin, D. (2014). The Children's Health Insurance Program: Status and Outlook. The United States Senate Committee on Finance: Subcommittee on Health. Retrieved May 6, 2015 from http://www.finance.senate.gov/imo/media/doc/Testimony%20of%20Douglas%20Holtz-Eakin%20-%20Senate%20Finance%202014-09-16.pdf
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Distinguishing the Truth From Lies Autism

Words: 1803 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46670728

Controversies in Neuroscience: Autism

Clinical Neuroscience

Controversies in Clinical Neuroscience: Autism Spectrum Disorders

Controversies in Clinical Neuroscience: Autism Spectrum Disorders

Although the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2014a) and numerous medical organizations universally debunk the notion that vaccines contribute to the prevalence of autism, some sectors of the public refuse to let go of this belief and have even employed tactics designed to shut down opposing views ("Silencing debate," 2007). The emotionally-laced rhetoric infesting the debate over autism etiology, however, is a sign of the level of concern parents are increasingly expressing. This anxiety seems to be justified in part by recent data showing that 1 in 68 children, 8-years of age, suffer from autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (CDC, 2014b, p. 6). This means that close to 60,000 of the nearly 4 million children born each year within the United States (CDC, 2014c) will be diagnosed with…… [Read More]


Benvenuto, A., Battan, B., Profirio, M.C., & Curatolo, P. (2013). Pharmacotherapy of autism spectrum disorders. Brain Development, 35(2), 119-27.

Campos-Outcalt, D. (2011). Should all children be screened for autism spectrum disorders? No: Screening is not ready for prime time. American Family Physician, 84(4), 377-8.

CDC. (2014a). Vaccine safety. Retrieved 24 Apr. 2014 from  http://www.cdc.gov/vaccinesafety/Concerns/Autism/Index.html .

CDC. (2014b). Prevalence of autism spectrum disorder among children aged 8 years: Autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network, 11 sites, United States, 2010. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 63(2), 1-21.
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Christian Counseling

Words: 901 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62497196

Mr. H


Mr. H case study

What is the client's most prominent presenting issues (that is, what seems to take priority as being wrong)?

Mr. H has shown a sharp decline in cognitive functioning. He has quit his job without warning and without consulting with his spouse (who is economically as well as emotionally affected by this decision), has shown difficulty remembering basic tasks and words that a man of his education and background should be able to retrieve easily, and is exhibiting signs of disorientation. Despite being an accomplished outdoorsman he has gotten lost while hiking; has difficulty reading; and although he was a science teacher has difficulty doing basic math. He also has trouble performing basic acts of self-care and memory exercises.

Q2. What else do you feel you need to know (or, what might be some areas you may ask about in order to determine what…… [Read More]


Alzheimer's disease: Treatment and drugs. (2013). Mayo Clinic. Retrieved from:


Diagnostic criteria for dementia of the Alzheimer's type. (2013). BehaveNet. Retrieved from:

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Language in Clients With Schizophrenia

Words: 1736 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70660220


Done, D.J. Crow, T.J. Johnstone, E.C. Sacker, a. (September 1994) Childhood Antecedents of Schizophrenia and Affective Illness: Social Adjustment at ages 7 to 11.BMJ, 309:699-703.

Teacher appraisal using the national child development study was utilized to examine differences between normal individuals and those who exhibit adult psychological disorders. "At the age of 7 children who developed schizophrenia were rated by their teachers as manifesting more social maladjustment than controls (overall score 4.3 (SD 2.4) v 3.1 (2.0); P… [Read More]

Harrison contends that there is a growing body of data, though as yet inconclusive, with regard to control and repeatability that shows some differences in brain MRI between patients with and without mood disorders. Interestingly the areas of the brain that are shown to be affected in those with mood disorders, such as bipolar disorder are areas of the brain which control language function, not in its source but in its ability to be transmitted by the patient. This could indicate some correlation, in behavioral indices where patients with bipolar disorder report a sense that they cannot think straight or communicate their thoughts effectively. "The neuropathology is postulated to contribute to the pathophysiology and dysfunction of the neural circuits which regulate mood and its associated cognitions, behaviours and somatic symptoms."

Done, D.J. Crow, T.J. Johnstone, E.C. Sacker, a. (September 1994) Childhood Antecedents of Schizophrenia and Affective Illness: Social Adjustment at ages 7 to 11.BMJ, 309:699-703.

Teacher appraisal using the national child development study was utilized to examine differences between normal individuals and those who exhibit adult psychological disorders. "At the age of 7 children who developed schizophrenia were rated by their teachers as manifesting more social maladjustment than controls (overall score 4.3 (SD 2.4) v 3.1 (2.0); P <.01). This was more apparent in the boys (5 (2.6)) than the girls underreactive behaviour. At both ages prepsychotic (affective) children differed little from normal controls. By the age of 11 preneurotic children, particularly the girls, had an increased rating of maladjustment (including overreactions and underreactions)... Abnormalities of social adjustment are detectable in childhood in some people who develop psychotic illness. Sex and the rate of development of different components of the capacity for social interaction are important determinants of the risk of psychosis and other psychiatric disorders in adulthood." The implication of this in terms of language and speech pathology is that there is again a greater connection between childhood social communication disorders and later diagnosis with adult psychotic disorders and this can be seen in language and communication patterns. No differences were distinguished or investigated between types of later psychotic disorders, though schizophrenia and bipolar disorder were included in the study.
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Role of Genetics in Ataxia

Words: 2716 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22182658

The most frequent symptom is difficulty in walking or gait ataxia (Unicorn Self-Help Committee 2000), which spreads slowly to the arms and the trunk. Foot deformities, such as clubfoot, flexion of the toes or foot inversion are other early signs. In time, muscles weaken and waste, especially the muscles in the feet, lower legs and hands and, at this time, deformities s begin to show. Other symptoms are the loss of tendon reflexes especially in the knees and ankles, the gradual disappearance of sensation in the extremities, dysarthria or slowness of speech or slurring, easy fatigue, rapid and involuntary movements of the eyes, scoliosis, chest pain, shortness of breath, palpitations, heart enlargement, myocardial fibrosis, tachycardia, heart block and heart failure. Studies showed that about 20% of FA patients also develop carbohydrate intolerance and 10%, of diabetes mellitus, while others lose their hearing or eyesight.

In most cases, the patient gets…… [Read More]


Adler, Tina. Single Gene Causes Ataxia, Cancer Risk - Ataxia-Telangiectasia Mutated Gene Causes Fetal Disorder or Increased Risk of Cancer. Science News: Science Service, Inc., 1995. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1200/is_n25_v147/ai_7142442

Barrett, Julia. Ataxia-Telangiectasia. Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine, Gale Research, 1999. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_g2601/ai_2601000157

Bird, Thomas D. Hereditary Ataxia Overview. Gene Reviews: National Human Genome Research Institute, 2005. http://www.geneclinics.org/profiles/ataxia/details.html

Robinson, Richard. Friedreich's Ataxia. Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine: Gale Research, 1999. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_g2601/is_0005/ai_2601000562