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Spirituality, Counseling, And Psychology
It is difficult to marry two very different systems and try to use one to explain the other. Since religion, which some would say is synonymous with spirituality, is more a set of beliefs and faith-based practices and psychology, the study of the mind and mental processes, tries to be as scientific and reasonable as possible, it seems that one could not be effectively used to study the other. However, since psychology does examine human behavior and try make since of it from a mental standpoint, that would seem to be a reasonable basis for understanding at least the basics of religious belief. Many different attempts have been made to determine what religion (spirituality is from the point-of-view of psychology), and the two books discussed here are examples of some of the approaches that have been used. This paper compares the study of religion by psychologists…
Fukuyama, M.A., & Sevig, T.D. (1999). Integrating spirituality into multicultural counseling. Hoboken, NJ: SAGE Publications.
Paloutzian, R.F. (1996). Invitation to the psychology of religion, (2nd ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
According to the holistic model of care, a lot of nurses should contemplate their patients' spiritual necessities so that they can give them the total patient care that they deserve (Govier, 2000). There is rising consciousness of the influence that spiritual happiness can do for a patient's real and apparent health and excellence of life (Chibnall et al., 2002; Mount, 2003). Spirituality and spiritual care in the past years is gaining a lot of drive in the present nursing field. Draper and McSherry (2002) mention that it has arose out of nowhere to occupy a noticeable part of present health care. Furthermore, inside the nursing occupation, an emphasis on people as bio psychosocial-spiritual beings is expanding acknowledgement. This view is founded on the basis that there should be a balance or stability of mind, body and spirit for the preservation of health in an individual (Stoll, 1989; Stooter, 1995).…
Aldacchino, D., & Draper, P. (2001). Spiritual coping strategies: a review of the nursing research literature. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 34(6), 833-841.
Culliford, L. (2002). Spirituality and clinical care. British Medical Journal, 325(7378), 1434-1435.
McEwen, M., & Wills, E.M. (Eds.). (2007). THeoretical Basis For Nursing (2nd ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Miller-Keane. (1997). Concept. In Encyclopedia & Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, & Allied Health (6th ed., p. 362). Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company.
Given a society that is disenchanted with the "ideological and political aspects of religion" the answer would be to embrace the kind of spiritualism that works effectively for healthcare professionals, Pesut continues, because it rejects the social influence of religious dogma and sets the healthcare professional free to interact on a higher level with patients.
Tradition #4: In the twenty-first century, a spirituality that seems ideally suited for healthcare environments has emerged, Pesut explains (2807). The process of spiritual self-help has gained "legitimacy through wisdom traditions" and moreover, it acts to enhance a healthcare worker's "personal power and health" which in turn allows greater, more meaningful care of the patient. A nurse who is emotionally and spiritually healthy is in a better position to relate to the individual spirituality -- no matter what form it takes -- of the patient.
TO (a). There are definite advantages to becoming familiar with…
Ehrlich, Steven. (2011). What is spirituality? University of Maryland Medical Center. Retrieved April 22, 2012, from http://www.umm.edu/altmed/articles/spirituality-000360.htm .
Pesut, Barbara, Fowler, Marsha, Taylor, Elizabeth J., Reimer-Kirkham, Sheryl, and Sawatzky,
Richard. (2008). Conceptualizing spirituality and religion for healthcare. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 17(21), 2803-2810.
Puchalski, Christina M. (2001). The role of spirituality in health care. PubMed / Baylor
SPIITUALITY, ELIGION, & NUSING
eligion is an institutional practice of beliefs regarding a wide variety of aspects that are fundamental to identity and existence. eligion has set practices, beliefs, systems, and rituals that believers follow. eligions often have official texts that explain the history, the reasoning, and the metaphors used within that religion. eligions are distinctive in that there are set rules and often ceremonies along the followers' lives that commemorate special events or moments in life or in the religion. eligion gives structure and meaning to life and to the universe for followers. eligion is a very old form of human culture that extends back into the earliest moments of human history. For many devout followers, religion provides purpose, meaning, and context to their lives, actions, and choices. eligion can give people a direction and a lifestyle choice. It can help them get through the beauty and the…
Goddard, N.C. (1995). 'Spirituality as integrative energy': a philosophical analysis as requisite precursor to holistic nursing practice. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 22, 808 -- 815.
Goldberg, B. (1998). Connection: an exploration of spirituality in nursing care. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 27, 836 -- 842.
Narayanasamy, A. (1999). A review of spirituality as applied to nursing. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 36, 117 -- 125.
Paley, J. (2006) Spirituality and secularization: nursing and the sociology of religion. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 17, 175 -- 186.
The energy of our larger, spiritual self significantly influences the way in which brain chemistry and neuro-transmitters work, and when changes are made to the flow or current, these can selectively improve the situation so that a new balance within the brain is achieved." Thus, in her view, spirituality creates an energy which influences our body chemistry, which in turn controls feelings of depression.
Joe Bulao Jr. (Date Unknown), insists that the "the root cause is spiritual." Based on his assertion, he further claims that "only a spiritual cure can get rid of depression once and for all." Though this may work for some, it does not address the chemical imbalances which are present in persons whom are diagnosed with depression. Though this is an extreme, he is probably correct that spirituality is important based on research conducted by others.
Simon Dein (Date Unknown), stated that, "A number of recent…
Bulao, Joe Jr. (2011). The Cure for Depression. Retrieved March 12, 2012, from http://lightomega.org/Articles/SpirViewDepression1.html
Dein, Simon (2006). Religion, spirituality and depression: implications for research and treatment. Primary Care and Community Psychiatry, 11(2), 67-72. Retrieved March 12,
2012, from http://www.yuschoolpartnership.org/attachments/article/86/religionasprotectionfromdepr ession.pdf
Good, Jennifer J. (2010). Integration of Spirituality and Cognitive-behavioral Therapy for the Treatment of Depression . Psychology Dissertations. Paper 55. Retrieved March 12,
These are some of the positive functions of a religion.
In other ways, religion has a negative impact on the individual and society at large. Some people become obsessed with religion because they find it easier to block out opposing points-of-view than to accept plurality and uncertainty. Instead of seeking rational solutions to problems, some people turn to the irrationality of religion. A person can be spiritual without being religious, which is one reason why I feel that organized religion is unnecessary. I have also noticed the ways that people use religion as a means to segregate themselves or create divisions in the world. Religion has undoubtedly caused more problems than it has solved.
The ridicule surrounding initial performances by Susan Boyle are based mainly on the fact that the woman does not look like a typical popular music star. She does not have attractive facial features, and…
Spirituality Positively Affects Those With Terminal Illness
Medicine and the dimension of spirituality were before bounded apart from each other in terms of belief, specifically in the field of science. As a universal practice, the field of medicine functions as a single dimension, focusing on the medical model of seeking the causes and solutions from scientific perspectives. Until recently, however, many patients of terminal illnesses such as cancer and heart disease have claimed the correlation of their religion and faith in sustaining their hope to recover from illnesses. This assertion has caught the attention of diverse health professions and lead to conduction of research and studies in the analysis of religion or spirituality as element in medical process.
This paper aims to explore the assertions and idea of spirituality as being able to help in the healing process of terminally ill patients. The recognition of values of elements such as…
Koenig, H. (2003). Religion, Spirituality and Health: an American Physician's Response. MJA, 178, 51-52.
Culliford, L. (2002). Spirituality and Clinical Care.
BMJ 325, 1434-1435.
Post, S., Puchalski, C., Larson, D. (2000). Physicians and Patient Spirituality: Professional Boundaries, Competency, and Ethics. Annals of Internal Medicine,132 (7), 578-582.
Similarly the Ayurvedic tradition of India emphasized rest and relaxation and nutritional well-being, along with various mentally stimulating exercises. Ayurvedic resorts are still popular in the East. Buddhism is also viewed as an avenue out of depression -- a mode to enlightenment. Nonetheless, as James C.-Y. Chou (2005) states, "The concept of psychological depression in Eastern cultures is not as well accepted as it is in Western cultures. In fact, the whole idea of illness in Eastern cultures is based on physical illness…if they have a psychological illness, then they are perceived as being a persistently mentally ill patient as you would see in a state hospital…it's stigmatized."
Perhaps more than any ancient civilization, the Greeks "took a great interest in the human psyche and especially in madness. Plato who lived in the 5th and 4th centuries BC speaks about two kinds of madness, one with a divine origin and…
Anselm. (1903). Proslogium. [Sidney Norton Deane trans.]. Sacred-texts.com.
Retrieved from http://www.sacred-texts.com/chr/ans/ans008.htm
Aristotle. (2006). On the Soul. [Smith, J.A., trans.]. KS: Digireads.com Publishing.
Baltimore Catechism No. 1. (1885). Project Gutenberg. Retrieved from http://www.gutenberg.org/cache/epub/14551/pg14551.html
Spirituality is often equated with religiosity and then fundamentally neglected in medical care, as a result of the perceived need to limit potential sensitive and personal discussion, especially with regard to differences of opinion regarding beliefs and practices between all individuals involved. (Tanyi, 2006) Yet, religion and religious beliefs are only a very small part of spirituality and there are a number of nursing interventions that have little if nothing to do with religion and a great deal to do with holistic health and wellness.
There is a recognized connection between spirituality and health, and nurse leaders have acknowledged the importance of the spiritual as well as the physical in providing optimal nursing care. Spirituality goes beyond religious or cultural boundaries. Spirituality is characterized by faith, a search for meaning and purpose in life, a sense of connection with others, and a transcendence of self, resulting in a sense of…
Baldacchino, D.R. (2006). Nursing competencies for spiritual care. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 15 (7), 885-896.
Buck, H.G. (2006). Spirituality: Concept analysis and model development. Holistic Nursing Practice, 20 (6), 288-292.
Delgado, C. (2006). A Discussion of the concept of spirituality. Nursing Science Quarterly, 18 (2), 157-162.
Lane, M.R. (2005). Creativity and spirituality in nursing: Implementing art in healing. Holistic Nursing Practice, 19 (3), 122-125.
Spirituality and Its Affects on ellness
During the past few years, spirituality and its affects on health have received a great deal of attention. The media often reports stories concerning prayer and meditation practices that appear to have positive results for many individuals with diseases and/or disabilities. Recent medical studies indicate that people who are spiritual tend to exhibit fewer self-destructive behaviors and stress, and seem to have a greater total life satisfaction (How pp). Although the majority of the research linking spiritual and physical health involves elderly patients, the data does indicate a possible connection between spirituality and over-all health for individuals of all ages (How pp). However, the fact that spirituality has been shown to reduce depression, improve blood pressure, and boost the immune system, it must be cautioned that religious beliefs should not interfere with necessary and prescribed medical care (How pp). Yet, spirituality together with proper…
Flannelly, Kevin J. (2004, December 01). The role of religion/spirituality for cancer patients and their caregivers.(Featured CME Topic: Spirituality). Southern Medical Journal. Retrieved June 02, 2005 from eLibrary.
Hight, Ellen. (2001, January 01). Spirituality and Medical Practice: Using the HOPE
Questions as a Practical Tool for Spiritual Assessment.
American Family Physician. Retrieved June 02, 2005 from eLibrary.
easons Against Spirituality in the Workplace
Employers face what organizational behavior authorities call an ethical dilemma (Judge & obbins, 2007); namely, whether or not spirituality should exist in the workplace. Although the knee jerk reaction of the employer would be to promote workplace spirituality as a means of improving productivity, morale and ethics, not all workers agree that spirituality in the workplace is a positive thing, for a variety of reasons.
Some people purposely keep their work and personal lives separate, and do not feel that they should have to be exposed to anyone else's personal values and beliefs while earning a living. Also, there is the very real fear that an employee could be discriminated against if their spiritual mindset differs from that of superiors or co-workers. A word should also be said about the concept of religious freedom.
While it is true that there is a difference between…
Cited, N. (1952). The Holy Bible, Containing the Old and New Testaments: Revised Standard Version (Rev. ed.). Toronto: Thomas Nelson & Sons.
Fairholm, G.W. (1997). Capturing the Heart of Leadership Spirituality and Community in the New American Workplace. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
Judge, T., & Robbins, S. (2007). Organizational Behavior (13th ed.). New York: Prentice Hall.
Spirituality in the Workplace
I would ask the person why she was interested in this specific religion and what she thought it could provide in the final days of her life.
Although my first urge might be to tell her that she should rather adopt my own belief system, I do not believe that this would be the correct course of action. As a spiritual person, I believe in the right of everyone to choose his or her own path. I have no right to interfere with these choices, since they are so highly individualized. According to Kessler's various definitions of spirituality, it seems that each person and religious group adopts the system that is most comfortable and comforting to them.
The same would be the case for my dying friend. Not being in her shoes, I do not know exactly how she feels or what she needs. Just like in every other case,…
The concept of the separation of Church and State has often been thought to be part of the original Founding Father's perception of religion and part of the Constitution. Essentially, this phrase means that there is a Constitutional mandate that there will be no State religion, and that the sociological roles often attributed to religion will, in fact, be manages by the State. This ideal, formulated by Enlightenment thinker John Locke, was part of the social contract between government and citizens which was used by the Founding Fathers to form and organize the new epublic. The intent was to protect the individual from the State requiring a certain religion, not to protect the State from religion -- an important distinction as the epublic grew. This, however, did not mean that the founders of the epublic were anti-religious -- quite the contrary. Thomas Jefferson and George Washington both were extremely…
Karlsen, M., et al. (2013). "They Never Listen": Towards a Grounded Theory of the Role Played by Trusted Adults in the Spiritual Lives of Children. Mental Health, Religion and Culture. 17 (3): 297-312.
Learner, R., et al. (2009). On Making Humans Human: Spirituality and the Promotion of Positive Youth Development, In, Roehlkepartain, E., ed. The Handbook of Spiritual Development in Childhood and Adolescence. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Maclear, J. (1995). Church and State in the Modern Age. New York: Oxford University
My concern was that, as has been the case for so many adults in this generation, our children have been desensitized to their spiritual selves by the loud cacophony of media.
Slide 5-What I Have Discovered:
Fortunately, a key discovery for me during the course of this study was the fact that children are inherently more susceptible to and in touch with their spiritual selves. For adults, it can often be difficult to find access to this part of the psyche. It often becomes crowded out by the more practical and pedestrian demands of everyday life. But children are not yet encumbered by these practical demands and, as such, tend to still approach the world with a sense of wonder and newness. These are the qualities of a spiritual being, even if the child is not inherently conscious of this fact.
Slide 6-Where it Will Take Me:
These finds will…
hether one considers it a place of communion with God and those who left before us or whether we think of it as a place of eternal beauty and sunlight is neither here nor there. I think that it is important for us to contemplate what happens to us when we die even though it creates major conundrums (at least for me). It confuses me and it brings me anxiety. In writing this paper I have been able really think about my own beliefs and I will admit that I have been skeptical. I have felt in the past that religion was created by people in order to keep others behaving rightly -- and maybe so, but what is so wrong about that? I personally like having some kind of structure to my life. I like believing that my grandfather who died ten years ago is in Heaven watching me…
Burton, Vicki Tolar. Spiritual Literacy in John Wesley's Methodism: Reading, Writing,
and Speaking to Believe (Studies in Rhetoric and Religion. Baylor University
Press; illustrated edition, 2008.
Harper, J. Stephen. The Way to Heaven: The Gospel According to John Wesley.
When all the items were picked up, she just patted me on the shoulder and told me to have a nice day. Her spontaneous kindness turned into a spiritual experience for me because I was reminded of the goodness of man and her actions left me with hope.
2. While spirituality involves thinking of oneself as part of the whole as opposed to being alone in the world, something that is very spiritual to me does not involve others at all. Going to the mountains is nearly always a spiritual experience for me. There is something about being alone in nature that is spiritual to me. Once I am on the mountains, things become very clear and I become calm. When I remove myself from the city and the business of life, I see things from a different perspective. I am less concerned about things such as work, paying rent,…
When I pesonally eflect upon God, I see him as the cosmic foce of Being. To each individual he shows some pat of himself, manifesting his inexpessible natue within the pism of human expeience and faith. The Nusing in Contempoay Society textbook (Haynes, 2004) would likely conside this to be an Easten appoach to spiituality, as it focuses on the way in which God is cosmic. Howeve, my pesonal compehension of God is nonetheless Catholic, in that I place my own faith a pesonal elationship to the Divine, made possible though the intevention of his son the Chist, and facilitated (at times) by the Saints who have come befoe. This is the face which God has shown to me, though I would not be so pideful as to suggest he might not show othe aspects to othe people.
In my inteview with the eldely Catholic widow G.R., I was…
references to God, scripture, or anything religious, but the care is performed as part of a ministry of service and as such the nurse is reflecting God's presence and love to the patient in need." (Verna Carson, in: Haynes, 2004, 231)
The final issue which G.R.'s interview addressed quite clearly was the idea that through the mercy of God, she was able to live a good life with her comfortable house near the church, her circle of trustworthy friends, and her simple sacred routine. I think that too often we misinterpret what is really necessary to live well, assuming that it means one would have great material wealth, fame, and entertainment. In reality, all that which is truly worthwhile in life is that which is necessary for comfort (a little sturdy house, food, medical care, clothing) and that which is transcendent: faith, the love of friends, and joy in existence. G.R. is luckier than most of the world, for she has not had to forego either of these aspects, nor trade one for the other. In this matter, her faith has blessed her.
31) This meditation reflects on how the individual must be both childlike and poetic to experience Christ incarnate in their experience of living.
III. The Mystery of Fidelity
The second collection of reflections in the work of Philip and Allen is entitled "The Mystery of Fidelity" examines the "human connection and the call to faithfulness to the other -- to our fellow human beings, our earth, our community and ultimately to God" which serves to lead the individual in their response to God and in God's call to mankind to search for and find Him as He awaits the answer to the call that He has sent out. These meditations contained in this part of Philip and Allen's work demonstrates the ways that all of God's creations are interconnected in the life of the individual, their sisters and brothers, and in the community and world.
The opening meditation…
Hester, D (20312) Book Review: Meditation on the Incarnation by Metropolitan Philip. The Word. Retrieved from: http://www.antiochian.org/sites/antiochian.org/files/DEC._2009_WORD.pdf
This is a profession of the man's faith and when heard by Christ, his sight is healed and Bartimaeus becomes a disciple of Jesus. God gives unto man strength but it is up to man to use this strength. (Kopolus, 2005, paraphrased)
IV. Management of Time
Bloom states that time must be managed if man is to establish themselves in the present and presence of God. Bloom states the need to be silent for five to ten minutes in prayer and the ability to do so results in the ability to pray in every imaginable situation that can arise.
V. How to Address God
It is important to come up with a name for God because without the right name for God there is no free access to God. For example, King David shouts in prayer "O You my Joy" however, just using the name of Jesus is probably the…
Kopolus, L (2005) a Review of Beginning to Pray, by Anthony Bloom. Orthodox Christian Laity. Retrieved from: http://archive.ocl.org/?id=16909
Bloom, a. (1970) Beginning to Pray. Paulist Press. 1970.
However, the importance of nurses in the spiritual care of patients was not compromised. However, results concerning if the needs of patients were being met differed significantly according to the care setting.
Leeuwen, Tiesinga, & Post et al. (2006) also explored the responsibility of nurses in meeting the spiritual care needs of patients at the end of their life. According to the study, addressing the spiritual needs of the patients proved difficult. For many patients, they wanted more attention from the nursing staff. However, nurses were limited in their ability to provide for the spiritual needs of the patients by their time constraints and job pressures. This study compared the needs of patients with the attitudes of nurses regarding their role in the spiritual care of the patient. The study paid close attention to the limitations of the study and in the interpretation of results in regards to the hypothesis.…
Chang, B., Boehmer, U., & Zhao, Y. et al. (2007). The Combined Effect of Relaxation Response
and Acupuncture on Quality of Life in Patients with HIV: A Pilot Study. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 13 (8): 807-815.
Cotton, S., Puchalski, C., & Sherman, S. et al. (2006). Spirituality and Religion in Patients with HIV / AIDS. . Journal of General Internal Medicine: S5-S13.
Grimsley, L. (2006). Spirituality and Quality of Life in HIV-Positive Persons. Journal of Cultural
Freud makes it clear in one of his letters that he is atheist, though he denies attacking Christianity directly, but as a default to attacking Judaism, which was his faith of birth.
It can be called an attack on religion only in so far as any scientific investigation of religious belief presupposes disbelief. Neither in my private life nor in my writings have I ever made a secret of my being an out-and-out unbeliever. Anyone considering the book from this point-of-view will have to admit that it is only Jewry and not Christianity which has reason to feel offended by its conclusions. For only a few incidental remarks, which say nothing that hasn't been said before, allude to Christianity. At most one can quote the old adage: "Caught together, hanged together!" (Freud, 1960, p. 453)
Freud, as well as many of the psychologists who followed him, propagated the idea that…
Barrett, J.L. (2004) Why Would Anyone Believe in God? New York: AltaMira Press.
Collier, a. (2003). On Christian Belief: A Defence of a Cognitive Conception of Religious Belief in a Christian Context. New York: Routledge.
Emmons, R.A., & Paloutzian, R.F. (2003). The Psychology of Religion. 377+.
Freud, E.L. (Ed.). (1960). Letters of Sigmund Freud. New York: Basic Books.
After all, these things do not necessarily bring me much spiritual pleasure when I consider their presence in my life. hat is important is my family, my friends and moments like this when I can take in the beauty of the world around me. I should do it more often.
In the program entitled Through the ormhole we are forced to contemplate the question of whether our world was created by chance or whether someone -- God or Creator -- designed it. Though I am not a scientist and thinking about creation from a scientific aspect is daunting, the program seems to imply that someone had to orchestrate this creation of this universe. I am of the belief that the universe wasn't created by chance nor that people are here as a result of chance. I believe that we are spiritual and conscious beings and that we have to have…
Into the Wild. Dir. Sean Penn. Perfs. Emile Hirsch, William Hurt, Hal Holbrook.
Paramount Home Entertainment. 2007. DVD.
"Is There a Creator?" Through the Wormhole. Narr. Morgan Freeman. Discovery Communications. 2011. DVD.
Maddux, John Arthur. "Some Initial Thoughts Concerning: Who Am I?" Classroom
Spirituality in Health and Wellness
Spirituality matters in health and wellness because it can impact the mood, attitude, psychology and overall improvement of the patients treatment and provide support for the patients healing (Craigie, 2010).
The categories of empirical evidence about spirituality-health connections include cross-sectional studies, longitudinal studies, meta-analytic reviews, and many others (Craigie, 2010). My perspectives on these categories are that each one offers a different type of evidence for how spirituality can impact a patients mental and physical health. Longitudinal studies, for example, look at the longer term affect. Meta-analytic reviews look at what all the available or relevant literature says about the topic. I believe that each type of research study is important, whether qualitative or quantitative, because each provides a perspective on the evidence and allows for the communication of understanding and learning to take place. My own related experience with these categories…
Gilbert, D. (2014). The Novena to St. Boniface of Tarsus: A Pastoral Program for Addressing Sexual Addiction in Colonial Mexico. Catholic Social Science Review, 19, 87-109.
Salsman, J. M., Pustejovsky, J. E., Jim, H. S., Munoz, A. R., Merluzzi, T. V., George, L.,... & Fitchett, G. (2015). A meta?analytic approach to examining the correlation between religion/spirituality and mental health in cancer. Cancer, 121(21), 3769-3778.
The Relationship Between Spirit and Life
Spirituality is part of lived experience, according to Craigie (2010). Life and spirit are inseperable; “people can’t not have a spiritual dimension to life,” (Craigie, 2010, p. 48). Therefore, spirit and life are entwined inextricably. Even atheists and those who deny the relevance of spirit or spirituality have this dimension as integral parts of their being; each person experiences and expressed their relationship with spirit in different ways.
How is Spirituality Defined?
Spirituality is defined different ways for different people; healthcare workers should never be afraid to discuss matters of the spirit within a humanistic framework. Craigie (2010) defines spirituality as inherently inclusive, as a universal element and dimension of the human experience.
What are the Components of the CAMPS Framework?
The CAMPS framework encompasses five dimensions of spirituality, including Community, Activity, Meaning, Passion, and Spirit. Together these dimensions help individuals achieve wholeness and…
Craigie, F.C. (2010). Positive Spirituality in Health Care. Minneapolis: Mill City Press.
Gregory the Great on Action and Contemplation
The first monk to become a pope was St. Gregory (+604) and all through his reign, he longed after the monastic lifestyle. Majorly due to his power and inspiration, Benedictine monasticism was transformed into "the conquering army of the Roman Church"[footnoteRef:1] according to Cayre. When it was needed, Gregory ordained monks as priests and even apostolic duties. In terms of spirituality, his lectures on the contemplative and active lifestyle, the levels of spiritual advancement and on contemplation are very significant. Much more than other Fathers of the Church, St. Gregory focused a large part of his writing on pastoral issues and particularly guidelines for pastors, the basic obligations for candidates aiming to become priests and the basic functions of an apostle as regards preaching. This paper specifically tackles the themes of action and contemplation and the ways these two works together and…
ARMSTRONG, CHRIS. Spirituality for Busy People. Christian history, 2008. http://www.christianitytoday.com/history/2008/november/spirituality-for-busy-people.html (accessed 29 September 2017).
Aumann, Jordan. “Chapter 4: MONASTICISM IN THE WEST” in Christian spirituality in the Catholic tradition. Ignatius Press, 1985.
Cayré, Fulbert. Manual of patrology and history of theology. Vol. 2. Society of St. John the Evangelist, Desclée & Co., 1940.
Gilchrist, Roberta. Contemplation and Action: the other monasticism. Leicester: Leicester University Press, 1995.
Leclercq, Jean, François Vandenbroucke, and Louis Bouyer. The spirituality of the Middle Ages. Desclee Company, 1968.
Spiritual Leadership and the Role of Self Knowledge in Accepting God's Grace
Barton (2018) describes the soul as that “part of you that is most real—the very essence of you that God knew before he brought you forth in physical form” (p. 13). For me, this definition makes perfect sense and I cannot see any way to improve upon it. The soul is the essence of the self: one can think of oneself in so many different ways but unless one is really tuned in to one’s soul he is not going to be understanding himself perfectly—i.e., the way God understands him. Part of what keeps us from God is this lack of self-awareness. Instead of realizing and addressing our weaknesses or the issues that cause the soul to be dragged down, we cover them over and apply slipshod solutions in an attempt to keep going in the way we…
Buddhism requires intense study and meditation times, which is a very individual choice.
However, there were some aspects that parallel Christianity as a religion... The bhikkus, or very dedicated individual followers of this spiritual path, are analogous to Christianity's monks and nuns, studying spirituality on a very advanced level; the lay Buddhists are perhaps more like average religious followers, supporting and learning from the Bhikkus, living by a simple moral code (similar to the ten commandments) taught by the Bhikkus, but not taking the spirituality to the same level. In this sense, the Bhikkus are spiritualists, while the lay Buddhists are members of a Buddhist religion, if one were to try to apply Western terminology. Approaching Western concepts to Buddhism in this way may help to clarify some of the difficulty that students have in understanding the basic functionality of Buddhism and Buddhist practice.
4, l. 1ff).
The narrator is a God-like figure sending a man of his flesh to the dry world; the Father/Son construct, as with Jesus Christ. Although the exact dates for most of these poems are uncertain or unknown, we do know Ferris has stated the poet used religious mythology without thought or conviction. However, in the final verse, Thomas calls for "flower, flower, the people's fusion"(v. 6, l.1). And that "all and all the dry world's couple" -- a strong peace theme (v. 5, l. 1). This serves to reinforce the Father/Son theme earlier in the poem. It is interesting to note, as well, that the people in the dry worlds are characterized by the Father/God as mechanical, toolbox, like figures (ribs of metal, synthetic blood (v. 4, 5-6) and love associated with violence (the bridal blade, the lover's mauling (v. 3, v. 5-6)). Is it possible they have…
Mondragon, B.C. (1997) Neurotic Poets: Dylan Thomas. Retrieved from http://www.neuroticpoets.com/thomas :
Poetry: Dylan Thomas. N.D. Bedford-St. Martin's. Retrieved from http://www.
It brought continuity to the process of dying, and a way to deal with critical issues in a way everyone could understand. it's holistic because it takes the process of dying, coordinates the patient's care, and brings resolution to things often left unstated. It allows the patient to have a degree of control. And it evaporates some of the high-tech coldness that can come between caregivers and patients."
The most significant area of spirituality and palliative care still unaddressed by researchers seem to be those identified by Cohen and Koenig: "the religious and spiritual needs of people of different religions, the positive and negative effects of religion and spirituality in palliative and end-of-life care, and the contributions that religious and spiritual institutions as well as health care professionals can make to such endeavors" (Cohen and Koenig
Currently, there is a widely held belief that spirituality is a valuable part…
Bogin, Rabbi S. (2000) Spiritual issues of palliative care. Nursing Homes, December. Retrieved 13 March 2005 from www.findarticles.com.
Burnside, G. (1998) New paths in end-of-life care. Health Progress, May/Jun. Retrieved 13 March 2005 from www.findarticles.com.
Cohen, a.B. And H.G. Koenig. (2002) Spirituality in palliative care. Geriatric Times 3(6). Retrieved 13 March 2005 from www.findarticles.com.
Cole, B.V. (2001) Nursing care at the end of life. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care 37(3). Retrieved 13 March 2005 from www.questia.com.
eligion and Spirituality
According to Ferrell & Coyle (2010), religion and spirituality both fall under the rubric of "experiencing transcendence," (p. 14). The difference between religion and spirituality is in the ways transcendence is codified. eligions offer specific languages and modes of discourse, whereas spirituality remains more nebulous because of the lack of the need to share or express ideas with others. eligion has a social function, and can even be conceived of as a means of social control. As a sociological phenomenon, religion serves a totally different purpose and function in a person's life. Spirituality is more of a psychological than a sociological phenomenon, but unlike religion, has no bearing on community. As Judy Labonte states in her blog post, spirituality is much "broader" than religion, and it is important that nurses working in palliative care be sensitive to the personal beliefs of people, even when those beliefs do…
Ferrell, B.R. & Coyle, N. (2010). Oxford Textbook of Palliative Nursing. New York: Oxford University Press.
Wolpe, D. (2013). Viewpoint: The limitations of being spiritual but not religions. Time. March 21, 2013. Retrieved online: http://ideas.time.com/2013/03/21/viewpoint-the-problem-with-being-spiritual-but-not-religious/
Healing Hospital and the Importance of Spirituality
Chapman (2003) defines a Healing Hospital as being about "loving service to others" (p.4). This paper examines the concept of the Healing Hospital and the role that spiritually plays in that model.
Numerous theorists have argued that advances in technology, pressure on budgets, and drives for efficiency over the last few decades have shifted the focus of attention from general care giving to technological and pharmacological interventions, with the need to extend life and fix broken parts (Puchalski, 2001; Treloar, 2000). However, there has also been increased realisation, back by significant research, that better outcomes are achieved when the patient is treated in a holistic manner (Baboni, Puchalski, & Peteet, 2014; Puchalski & Mcskimming, 2006).
The Healing Hospital is based on the premise of treating the whole person, rather than just the illness (Chapman, 2003). This includes all physical needs, as well as…
Baboni, M. J., Puchalski, C. M., & Peteet, J. R. (2014). The Relationship between Medicine, Spirituality and Religion: Three Models for Integration. Journal of Religion and Health, 53(5), 1586 -- 1598. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Michael_Balboni/publication/263055322_The_Relationship_between_Medicine_Spirituality_and_Religion_Three_Models_for_Integration/links/57039a6408aeade57a259720.pdf
Chapman, E. (2003). Radical Loving Care: Building the Healing Hospital in America. Nashville, TN: Baptist Healing Hospital Trust.
Diaz-Gilbert, M. (2014). Spirituality, Suffering, Meaning, Resiliency, and Healing: Research Findings and a Patient's Story of Overcoming a Medical Challenge. International Journal for Human Caring, 18(4), 45 -- 51.
Johnson, B. H., Abraham, M. R., & Parrish, R. N. (2004). Designing the neonatal intensive care unit for optimal family involvement. Clinics in Perinatology, 31(2), 353 -- 382.
Thus, human consciousness applies to all the emotions we can feel.
The author's ideas on human consciousness, especially creating a curriculum around human consciousness and awareness is interesting. He ties consciousness into intuition, which seems like a stretch of logic in many ways, and he ties consciousness to creativity, as well. Many of these ideas do not seem to have caught on in the educational community, which, for the most part, has not developed curriculums on spiritualism and human consciousness. This may be because the author's ideas are a bit liberal, even for liberal educational institutions, and he uses little scientific data to back up his theories. He uses the experiences of others, but little else, and this seems to be too little information to base a curriculum on. Tying human consciousness to spirituality in interesting, but more study needs to be conducted for the idea to truly become more…
Astin, a.W. (2004). Why spirituality deserves a central place in liberal education. Liberal Education, 90(2), 34+.
The individual’s experience and the personal construction of meaning are central to humanistic psychology. Theorists like Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow initially promoted this humanistic view of psychology, which was contrary to the prevailing tenets of behaviorism and psychoanalysis. Instead of focusing on past experiences and environmental variables, Rogers and Maslow focused on the person’s perceptions and intrinsic motivations (“What is Humanistic Psychology?” n.d.). Moreover, early theorists also negated the importance of experimental studies and other applications of the scientific method to psychological inquiry because these methods have a way of dehumanizing and devaluing personal experience (McLeod, 2015). Theorists like Rogers and Maslow found was more useful to apply qualitative methods that would allow the person to open up and share their thoughts, beliefs, experiences, and perceptions. Thus, the therapist and the client work together to discover ways of finding meaning in life experiences.
Carl Rogers promoted the…
A: Integration of Mind/Body/Spirit
The integration of body, mind, and spirit can create harmony and healing. In fact, the integration of body, mind, and spirit can also take into account culture and ethnicity to provide holistic care. There is no one way to integrate body, mind, and spirit, but multiple modalities that each person can choose to use at different points to address their own needs. Some body-mind-spirit integration practices like yoga or tai chi can also be divorced from their religious and cultural contexts to provide all people with access to their benefits (Luskin, 2004). Although there is some evidence starting to emerge showing how these types of practices lead to measurable or at least observable outcomes in patients, it is important for healthcare practitioners to focus more on phenomenological approaches and qualitative methods than on the potentially futile quest for quantitative data proving the efficacy of practices like…
SPIRITUALITY IN YOUNG CHILDREN'S TEMPERAMENT AND SELF-CONTROL
The work of Roehlkeparta (2006) reports that the church congregation has an influence that is both direct and indirect upon the young person's development spiritually variously in their contact with the young person. Included int these contacts are religious education, service projects, youth groups and in contacts that also "extend to include the congregations engagement with families, intergenerational engagement and broader community involvement through the congregations public leadership, service, and action on behalf of children, adolescents and others in society." (Roehlkeparta, 2006, p.329) The congregation is also reported to play a role "in young people's spiritual nurture by building the capacity and sense of responsibility among everyone in the congregation to be attentive to nurturing the spiritual lives of children and adolescents..." ( Roehlkeparta, 2006, p. 329) This study contributes to the present study in the statement of the expectations that adults have…
Giesenberg, A. (2007) The Phenomenon of Preschool Children's Spirituality. Retrieved from: eprints.qut.edu.au/16519/?
Fowler, J. (1981). Stages of faith: The psychology of human development and the quest for meaning. Blackburn: Dove Communications.
Gottlieb, E. (2006). Development of religious thinking. Religious Education, 101(2), 242-260.
Roehlkepartain, EC (2006) The Handbook of Spiritual Development in Childhood and Adolescence. SAGE. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=PshgZRO 6 LfkC&dq=Roehlkepartain,+ E.+C.+(2006).+The+handbook+of+spiritual+developm ent+in+childhood+and+adolescence.&source=gbs_navlinks_s
The purpose of this discussion is to examine two interpretations of the functions of lay spirituality during reformation in France. For the purposes of this discussion we will examine "ine, Community and Reformation in Sixteenth-Century Burgundy" by Mack Holt, and "Strikes and Salvation in Sixteenth-century Lyon" by Natalie Davis. e will discuss the most important factor shaping lay spirituality in each article during this period. Our discussion will explore whether or not the two historians agree or disagree, and which one we believe has the greater validity and why.
In "ine, Community and Reformation in Sixteenth-century Burgundy" Holt argues that the most important factor shaping lay spirituality during this period is that the "city's magistrates and elites forged an alliance with the wine growing community to produce a militant anti-Huguenot culture." (Holt)
The ine growing community consisted of Catholics while the Huguenot was composed of Protestants. There were obvious…
Davis, Natalie. "Strikes and Salvation in Sixteenth-century Lyon"
Holt, Mack. Wine, Community and Reformation in Sixteenth-century Burgundy"
In addition to lecture-based introduction to religious differences, video and/or live presentations from religious leaders and clergy from different faiths and role play exercises, the proposed implementation of training in this area should also include presentations from more experienced nurses who have already successfully negotiated the delicate issues involved.
Spiritual support undoubtedly provides measurable benefits in the hospital environment where it is well received by patients. In American society, religious pluralism requires the exercise of extreme sensitivity when it comes to offering patients spiritual support. While it is certainly possible to provide beneficial spiritual support such as prayer even where nurse and patient do not share the same religious beliefs, doing so dramatically increases the possibility of offending patients rather than benefiting them.
Maximizing the potential benefit of spiritual support while minimizing negative consequences requires vocational training designed to increase awareness of the full variety of religious belief systems…
Campbell CL, Reed-Ash C. (2007). "Keeping Faith." Journal of Hospice and Palliative Nursing. Vol. 9, No. 1.
Cavendish R, Konecny L, Krayuyak-Luis B, Lanza M. (2004). "Nurses Enhance Performance Through Prayer." Holistic Nursing Practice. Vol. 18, No. 1.
Galek K, Flannelly KJ, Vane a, Galek RM. (2005). "Assessing a Patient's Spiritual Needs: A Comprehensive Instrument." Holistic Nursing Practice. Vol. 19, No. 2. Grant D. (2004). "Spiritual Interventions: How, When, and Why Nurses Use Them."
Holistic Nursing Practice. Vol. 18, No. 1. Johnston-Taylor E. (2003). "Prayer's Clinical Issues and Implications." Holistic Nursing Practice. Vol. 17, No. 4. Nuss-Kotecki C. (2002). "Developing a Health Promotion Program for Faith-Based Communities." Holistic Nursing Practice. Vol. 16, No. 3.
ole of Spirituality in the Treatment of Depression
Over the last thirty years, one of the most interesting paradoxes in the study and treatment of depression has been that increased knowledge about the biomedical and genetic causes of the disease has been coupled with a renewed interest in the effect of religion and spirituality on human mental health and well-being. No matter how religion and spirituality are defined -- and many scholars and laypersons see no great distinctions between the two -- there are now hundreds of studies that demonstrate the beneficial effects of religion on both mental and physical health. Indeed, the more firmly held and intrinsic a person's religious convictions are, the more salutary the effect. eligious people are more optimistic, hopeful and trusting, and have more purpose and meaning in life than those with weak or no religious views. All of these qualities are of course lacking…
Ai, A..L. et al. (2005). "Prayer Coping, Positive Attitudes, and Cardiac Surgery" in Lee, A.V. Coping with Disease. Nova Science Publishers, Inc., pp. 23-64.
Auer, B. And J.A. Ang (2007). Torment of the Soul: Suicidal Depression and Spirituality. AuthorHouse.
Beck, A.T. And B.A. Alford (2009). Depression: Causes and Treatment. University of Pennsylvania Press.
Biebel, D.B. And H.G. Koenig (2010). New Light on Depression: Help, Hope and Answers for the Depressed and Those Who Love Them. Zondervan Publishing House.
Religion and Spirituality in a Broad Sense
Spirituality and religion are two terms that have rather unstable, historically changing definitions, characterized by numerous implied and explicit theological considerations. Further, the general contention is that these definitions are either overly specific or overly generic. A more astonishing fact is, possibly, these researches' level of concurrence that spirituality represents a private, budding, personal and emotional sphere, whilst religion is more public, group-based and fairly stable. Interviews and questionnaire tools arising out of these definitions characteristically undertake measurements of the spirituality element by posing questions with regard to people's self-identity, psychological experiences, and psychological health. By contrast, the element of religion is measured using questions that relate to religious participation, events and undertakings, observance of community or religious code. (Bender 1).
The ideal approach to spirituality would be considering it as a means to know the divine. Individual means to do so are,…
Histoy of the Poblem
Rachel Evans (2011) lists a numbe of nutitional theapies fo the teatment of depession, anging fom St. John's Wot to "dan zhi xiao yao, a taditional Chinese medicine." Altenative medicine has often been seen as a supplement to the teatment of depession in the past. Othe teatments have included the famous lobotomy technique designed by Potuguese neuologist Antonio Egas Moniz, who was awaded the Nobel Pize fo his technique. Moniz simply dilled and snipped "neve fibes unning fom the fontal lobes to the est of the bain" (Lene, 2005). And Kyziidis identifies seveal ways in which the ancient Geeks would appoach mental illness such as depession:
"Ciceo…believed that man could help with his own cue though philosophy" (p. 43). Even today thee ae numeous studies that still show how physicians ely on phamaceuticals to estoe balance in a patient suffeing fom depession: Pevention of depends upon…
references for religion/spirituality in treatment for anxiety and depression. Aging Mental Health 15(3), p. 334-43. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21491218
Wyatt, R.J. (2001). Tantalizing Clues to Preventing Schizophrenia. The Dana
Foundation. Retrieved from http://www.dana.org/news/cerebrum/detail.aspx?id=1452
According to Zohar and Marshall (2000) for instance it is:
The intelligence with which we address and solve problems of meaning and value, the intelligence with which we can place our actions and our lives in a wider, richer, meaning giving context, the intelligence with which we can assess that one course of action or one life-path is more meaningful than another (pp. 3-4).
Internalizing spirituality in our children is never more important than today where division between state and religion is severe and where uncertainty, fear, anxiety, greed, and selfishness amongst a horde of other evils can so easily afflict and topple our children. The current tensions, too, arising from terrorist attacks in the U.S. In 2001, in Bali in 2002 and in London in 2005, and the continuing apprehensions in the Middle East have spread a blight on religion that has made 'spirituality' a corrosive name. Yet, it…
Vialle, W., Lysaght, P. & Verenikina, I. (2005). Psychology for Educators. Melbourne: Thomson/Social Science Press.
Zohar, D. & Marshall, I. (2000). SQ -- Spiritual Intelligence: The Ultimate Intelligence. London:
Spirituality is not a set of rules and it cannot be understood as an object or even an objective but instead spirituality is a state of being and the essence of the true nature of mankind when receiving positive spiritual energy and guidance and then taking those and applying them to daily live and implementing the accompanying principles, ethics and morals into the processes in forming and directing the culture and society.
erry, Thomas in Hill, ernice. Money and the Spiritual Warrior. Jung: Reflections on Psychology, Culture and Life. 10 May 2009. Online available at: http://www.cgjungpage.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=769&Itemid=40
C.G. Jung. The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious, Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1969.
Hill, ernice. Money and the Spiritual Warrior. Jung: Reflections on Psychology, Culture and Life. 10 May 2009. Online available at: http://www.cgjungpage.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=769&Itemid=40
Kevin Phillips, Wealth and Democracy: A Political History of the American Rich, roadway ooks, 2002, see also: Public…
Berry, Thomas in Hill, Bernice. Money and the Spiritual Warrior. Jung: Reflections on Psychology, Culture and Life. 10 May 2009. Online available at: http://www.cgjungpage.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=769&Itemid=40
C.G. Jung. The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious, Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1969.
Hill, Bernice. Money and the Spiritual Warrior. Jung: Reflections on Psychology, Culture and Life. 10 May 2009. Online available at:
faith, theology, belief, and spirituality?
hen considering the difference between belief, faith, theology, and spirituality, it is helpful to consider these terms in their commonly expressed linguistic forms, as they occur in our daily lives. In other words, in ordinary parlance, how does one usually use the words of belief, faith, theology, and spirituality? By examining such common usage, often one may find clues as to the subtle or not so subtle differences between the terms.
Take, for example, the notion of belief. I might say that I believe in evolution, that I believe that human beings evolved from primates. In other words, one can believe in a supposition that may or may not be correct that has nothing to do with conventional religious structures and institutions, or even, if one accepts fundamentalist interpretations of Genesis, goes against such religious suppositions. I might also say that I believe that my…
Hodge, Charles (2002) Systematic Theology. Retrieved online in full text 25 Jan 2005 at http://www.dabar.org/Theology/Hodge/HodgeV1/Int_C02.htm
Hyperdictionary. (2005) "Spirituality." Online dictionary. Retrieved online in 25 Jan 2005 at http://www.hyperdictionary.com/dictionary/spirituality
magnum opus "Marital Spirituality: The Search for the Hidden Ground of Love" by Patrick J. McDonald & Claudette M. McDonald on how it assists a pastoral agent in making expedient counseling response in pastoral care. The orks Cited appends one source in MLA format.
Spirituality, a pragmatic science uniting the married relationship of couples with the pleasures and deep comprehension of God and His special ways takes the form of marital spirituality when two individuals enter a contract to lead harmonious and peaceful lives. "For a society plagued with widespread marital unhappiness and an intimidatingly high divorce rate" (McDonald P. & McDonald C, Backcover) pastoral care by a pastoral agent spreads the "message of hope" to the disturbed souls that have long tied knots only to discover that it takes one's inside out to make marriage fulfilling and successful. The McDonalds through their magnum opus have made a noteworthy…
McDonald P. & McDonald C. Marital Spirituality: The Search for the Hidden Ground of Love Paulist Press, November 1999, ISBN: 0809138913, 192 pages.
The author certainly communicates effectively, and is not afraid to share her personal beliefs. However, her beliefs seem to be a major part of her argument. I have no argument that spirituality can be extremely important to the mental health of many people, but I also think for some it can be an impediment. In fact, it can be so overwhelming and all encompassing that it actually adds to mental instability and lack of awareness of the real world. This may come under the form of religious zealousness, but she does not address this in her article, except in the form of cults, and they are not the only religions that can create zealots that essentially give up reality for their notion of religious values and their importance. In fact, while this is a scholarly essay with many sources, for the most part, it seems to champion the author's own…
De Veau, Laura "The Role of Spirituality and Religion in Mental Health." From Critical Thinking to Argument: A Portable Guide. Barnet, Sylvia and Hugo Bedau, ed. New York: Bedford/St. Martins, 2005. 213-220.
i. Prize warmth, explanation and encouragement over the pursuit of obedience. Differentiate between discipline and suppression of exploratory impulses.
c. Showing Compassion
i. By showing compassion to a child, a parent teaches morality rather than insisting upon rule-following. This produces a child in whom "morality is not imposed…from outside but emerges from within and is learned by cooperating with their parents." (Gray)
IV. Personal Identity
a. Self and society
i. A child is only beginning to understand the connection between herself, her community and her larger world. A positive personal identity allows the child to be defined as part of a greater spiritual wholeness. Hart refers to 'interconnectedness."
b. Finding Inner Guidance
i. Personal growth is marked by a distinctly youthful wisdom. Hart indicates that "in spite of their inexperience in the world (or perhaps because of it), children have remarkable access to deep inner guidance and insight."…
Gray, J. (2009). Children Are From Heaven. Harper Collins.
Hart, T. (2003). The Secret Spiritual World of Children: The Breakthrough Discovery that Profoundly Alters Our Conventional View of Children's Mystical Experiences. New World Library.
Tapping into Young Children's Spirituality, Temperament, and Self-Control
Years ago, when school systems actually permitted religious instruction, children were able to tap into their own spiritual sides, and were able to process their feelings about their emotions and their concerns about the world against a more nuanced and detailed spiritual backdrop. This allowed them to have a clearer sense about moral values, feeling obedient vs. disobedient, engaging in respect, honesty, truth and communicating their feelings with compassion. By allowing students to have some sort of spiritual education, educators were ensuring that they would be able to more confidently shape these children into good people who were well-rounded and who had a clearer understanding of how to behave in the world, along with stronger values of what matters most to them. Parents have to offer their children the following aspects of care and education: building confidence, self-esteem and self-worth, nurturing their…
Flanagan, K.S., & Loveall, R. (2012). The spiritual craft of forgiveness: Its need and potential in children. Journal of Psychology & Christianity, 3(1), 3-15.
Karlsen, M.L., Coyle, A., & Williams, E. (2013). "they never listen": towards a grounded theory of the role played by trusted adults in the spiritual lives of children. Mental Health,
Religion & Culture, 17(3), 297-312.
Roehlkepartain, E.C. (2006). The handbook of spiritual development in childhood and adolescence. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
icio.us, which enable users to publish, categorize, and share their bookmarks
Enables users to create and edit the content of a Web site, leveraging the expertise of online users
Consumer Wikis enable users to comment on content, in addition to editing content
Wikipedia, a community Wiki encyclopedia, includes approximately 1.3 million English-language articles
Sources: (Bernoff, Li. 2008, et.al.)
Web 2.0 Explained
Inherent in the user dynamics of the map completed by O'eilly and Battelle are the catalyst of why social networking is such a fertile platform for spreading word of God's love and peace to the world. Ironically the foundations of social networking as defined by O'eilly and Battelle are identical to the needs that churches fulfill. The "architecture of participation" that is mentioned by O'eilly in his definition of Web 2.0 (Weinberger, 2007, 19) exactly parallels the needs that any church fulfill as well. In addition,…
Celeste Biever "When pastors swap the pulpit for the webcam." New Scientist, February 17, 2007, 24-25 (Accessed October 1, 2008).
Josh Bernoff, Charlene Li. "Harnessing the Power of the Oh-So-Social Web." MIT Sloan Management Review 49, no. 3 (April 1, 2008): 36-42. (Accessed October 2, 2008).
Kimberly Chopin "Finding communities: alternative viewpoints through weblogs and tagging." Journal of Documentation 64, no. 4 (July 1, 2008): 552-575. (Accessed October 1, 2008).
Aaron M. Cohen "Young, Single, and Spiritual." The Futurist 42, no. 4 (July 1, 2008): 16-17. (Accessed October 1, 2008).
role that spirituality can have on the development of young children the classroom in terms of character, moral fiber, decision making, sense of self-worth, sense of respect for others, sense of giving to the community, and expectations for growing in maturity. It aims to address the problem of children not developing to their fullest capacity in these terms. It examines the question of whether spirituality if taught within the classroom can have a positive impact on childhood development and act as means of closing gaps that are left by modern curricula which does not focus explicitly or directly on spirituality or its role in customs, cultures and societies throughout history other than in an indirect or merely academic capacity. This study aims to explore the role of spirituality in a pragmatic or practical sense and whether it can be effectively utilized in the classrooms in America without creating situations that…
Mysticism and Spirituality Comparison of Two omen: Catherine of Sienna and Julian of Norwich
Spirituality and Mysticism
The relationship between mysticism and spiritualism is one question that often arises in the modern study on the concept of spirituality. In large terms, most modern estern techniques often treat mysticism and spirituality like synonyms. Spirituality means the exploration of the depth of human existence, the main purpose of life and the search for a more in-depth wisdom. Summarily, it is easier to understand spirituality when it is treated as the larger concept. Mysticism is only an aspect of Christian spirituality- a way of intensifying the spiritual path of Christianity. It is quite necessary to note that the significant role of mysticism and spirituality is quite ambiguous. Most Christian traditions like the estern Catholic and the Eastern Orthodox value most of these aspects greatly (Sheldrake 8-9).
Catherine of Sienna
Allen, Prudence. "A History of Women Philosophers, Volume II." The Review of Metaphysics 44.3 (1991): 660-662.
Bernard, McGinn Julian of Norwich, "Revelations of Divine Love," in The Essential Writings of Christian Mysticism, ed. (New York: The Random House Publishing Group, 2006), 242.
Dickens, Andrea Janelle. Female Mystic: Great Women Thinkers of the Middle Ages. Vol. 60. IB Tauris, 2009
Fanning, Steven. Mystics of the Christian Tradition. New York: Routledge, 2006.
Transpersonal Development Map
The Book of Genesis highlights a dream of Jacob -- one among Judaism's patriarchs -- wherein he witnessed angels descending and ascending upon a ladder going from the earth to the heavens. Spiritual progress may be perceived as taking multiple directions, rendering ranking and comparison of different states of progress pointless (Ferrer, 2009).
Theory of Creation Spirituality
Mathew Fox, who was previously a Dominican priest, presented a theory. The assumption in his theory, known as the "creation spirituality" theory is that the notion of spirituality in Judeo-Christianity, framed when our Earth was thought to be the universe's center, failed to keep pace with science, when it proved the fact that far from being the entire universe's focal point, the Earth was merely one small fragment of a vast universe. The theory he propounded indicates that divinity may be achieved from any deed of creation, right…
Ferrer, J. N. (2009). The plurality of religions and the spirit of pluralism: A participatory vision of the future of religion. International Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 28, 139-151.
Grace Communication International. (2015). Four-point plan for spiritual growth. Retrieved from https://www.gci.org/spiritual/4point
Seaward, B. L. (2013). Health of the human spirit: Spiritual dimensions for personal health (2nd ed). USA: Jones & Barlett Learning.
Trungpa, C. (1973). Cutting through spiritual materialism. Boston, MA: Shambhala.
Greek sculptures, 'Veiled and Masked Dancer' and 'Hermes and the Infant Dionysos' dating back to the art periods, and their connection to the realm of spirituality.
Is art linked to spirituality in any special way? One might find a number of reasons to answer in the affirmative; there, indeed, appears to be some sort of profuse series of links among the two. Art has always occupied a central position in religion. In religious rituals and houses of worship, one can witness sacred dances, sacred symbols, hymns, sacred pictures, tunes, and chants; these art forms have also been utilized as meditation and prayer aids by all religions. The above examples of art in religion alone make the former discipline appear to be intrinsic to connecting with or expressing the divine (Art and Spirituality 1). eligious art represents a superior art form in both Western medieval Christianity and Eastern Orthodox Christianity. Buddhists…
Ancient Greece - History, mythology, art, war, culture, society, and architecture. (n.d.). Praxiteles - Ancient Greek Sculptor. Retrieved October 16, 2015, from http://www.ancientgreece.com/s/People/Praxiteles/
Ancient Greece. History of Greece: Classical Greece. (n.d.). Retrieved October 16, 2015, from http://ancient-greece.org/history/classical.html
Garcia, A. (n.d.). Endnotes. Endnotes -- Statuette of a veiled and masked dancer this. Retrieved October 17, 2015, from http://mcuhistory.tumblr.com/post/60566947687/statuette-of-a-veiled-and-masked-dancer-this
History Canada -- Videos, TV Schedule & Watch Full Episodes Online. (n.d.). Hellenistic Greece - Ancient History - HISTORY.com. Retrieved October 17, 2015, from http://www.history.com/topics/ancient-history/hellenistic-greece
This is furthered by the fact that the daughter closest to the infant, who perches on her mother's lap, holds that baby's hand, implying an ascent to motherhood. Behind the family, the picture window showing grand gardens and mansion details implies wealth. Indeed, the smooth texture and use of dark colors further suggests royalty. hile both Drurer's and van Ceulen's portraits use light and dark and positioning as symbols, then, Druer's work is focused on the Bibles -- spirituality -- while van Ceulen's painting is quite clearly focused on the earth -- economics, royalty, inheritance, and family.
The symbolism contained in these paintings is extremely relevant to another symbolic work out of the late Renaissance, Lanyer's "Eve's Apology in Defense of omen." In this work, Lanyer argues that women should not be held wholly responsible for Adam's actions in the Garden of Eden -- where women were rumored to have…
Lanyer, Amelia. "Evel's Apology in Defense of Women." CharleyYoung's.com 1611. 17
n our reflection of Jesus and the scriptures, we are given a doctrine by which to live and a narrative explaining why we should abide this doctrine.
Greeley, a.M. (2001). Sacred Place, Sacred Time, exc. From the Catholic magination. University of California Press.
n 2001, Andrew Greely published the Catholic magination and with it, the excerpt that we consider here. Entitled "Sacred Place, Sacred Time," this carries a similar theme to the work by Cunningham & Egan, making particular reference to the visible presence of God in the surrounding works and creations of the men who worship him. n a compelling description of the city of Koln, the Greely selection lays out the assessment that even in a secular context where survival has been a dominant theme through generations of warfare, spirituality is in stark evidence to the beholder.
Again, we see the them of God's presence in the accomplishments…
In 2001, Andrew Greely published the Catholic Imagination and with it, the excerpt that we consider here. Entitled "Sacred Place, Sacred Time," this carries a similar theme to the work by Cunningham & Egan, making particular reference to the visible presence of God in the surrounding works and creations of the men who worship him. In a compelling description of the city of Koln, the Greely selection lays out the assessment that even in a secular context where survival has been a dominant theme through generations of warfare, spirituality is in stark evidence to the beholder.
Again, we see the them of God's presence in the accomplishments of man. Greely asserts that cities throughout history and across the globe have manifested this visible spirituality as a symbol of their survival. Accordingly, the selection asserts that such cities "illustrate the key component of Catholic imagination -- sacrimentality, the presence of God in all creation. One cannot isolate the Dom from the history of its city. Koln is called 'the holy city' not because its people are particularly virtuous but because it witnesses the presence of God lurking everywhere in creation." (Greely, p. 24)
This assertion points to a critical theme in Greely's work, indeed in the Catholic faith at large. That is, even in contexts where adherents lead largely secular lives, the neighborhoods, communities and cities around them will provide self-perpetuating evidence of Catholicism's spiritual permeation.
Being human has three distinctive components -- body, mind, and spirit -- which play specific roles, purposes and functions. The role of every individual component drives all decisions made and actions taken. These components are connected with mysterious abilities or moments existing within the universe. Based on one's reactions to them, the abilities may negatively or positively impact the body, mind, and spirit.
It has been stated by the Centre for Spirituality and Healing (2014) that intuition is taken to be instant sensing. Some individuals would, for instance, say that it was their "gut feeling" that something big was about to happen. In such instances, intuition experiences are body-based. One's intuition usually comes to know of the truth regarding any situation almost instantaneously, after being exposed to it. Understanding that just like every other human experience, intuition isn't external to the body, is important. This element is…
Center for Spirituality and Healing. (2014, August 21). How Can I Use Intuition To Improve My Health & Wellbeing? Retrieved February 4, 2016, from Center for Spirituality and Healing: www.takingcharge.csh.uhmn.edu
Levy, P. (2010). Catching the Bug of Synchronicyty. Retrieved February 4, 2016, from Awakenin the Dream: www.awakeninthedream.com
The International Association for the Study of Dreams. (n.d.). Dreams and Healing. Retrieved February 4, 2016, from The International Association for the Study of Dreams: www.asdreams.org
Gleanings: Readings at the Intersection of Culture and Faith
Women, Midlife, and Leadership.
In Gleanings: Readings at the Intersection of Culture and Faith, Catherine Wallace suggests that several factors in contemporary society combine to make midlife a pivotal period in the lives of women today, much more so than in previous generations. First, Wallace points out that increases in human health and life expectancy in the last century have added so much time to the average life span that it amounts to the equivalent of an entire second adulthood. For example, she recalls her thoughts at her son's college graduation that she is thirty years older than her son but that much younger than her mother, who is herself, active and vibrant in her eighties.
Second, Wallace argues that simultaneous social changes in the way that women are perceived and in the rights and norms that typically shape their adult…
Healing Hospital: The Importance of Spirituality and Caregiving in Healthcare
THE HEALING HOSPITAL
Describe the components of a healing hospital and their relationship to spirituality
Many healing experts believe that the foundation of a healing hospital is basically love and not about the vain reason of money that appears to be the force behind modern western hospitals and even clinics. To make a bigger point, even corporations that are nonprofit need some kind of financial in order flow to maintain the basics such as supplies and phones that are around. On the other hand, the concept of a focus for profit conflicts with healing and wellness. The idea of wellness and love as the support of the said hospital fluctuates in that the patient turn out to be the emphasis for healing instead of the substance for some kind of a money flow. Spirituality appears to be major characteristic of…
Akchurin, W.K. (2015, June 27). The Ethics of Gender Selection. Retrieved from http://www.ethicpublishing.com/ethical/3CH2.pdf
Becker, F.B. (2012). Ambulatory Facility Design and Patients' Perceptions of Healthcare Quality. Healthcare Environments Research & Design Journal, 1(4), 35-54.
Douglas, C.H. (2011). "Patient-friendly Hospital Environments: Exploring the Patient's Perspective. Health Expectations, 23-45.
Dark Spirituality as a Symbol of Female Frustration:
Voodoo Gothic and the Mill on the Floss
George Eliot's The Mill On the Floss is arguably one of the most widely read novels of the Victorian period. Although many differ as to just why this is the case, one thing is clear -- what was once a rather straightforward tragic tale, tinged with the time's popular romantic/gothic influence, has become a bastion of feminist criticism. Although many readers, especially those contemporary to the work's publication, expressed strong disappointment with the fate of Maggie -- especially at the end of the novel, the advent of feminist criticism brought many readers to begin to strongly identify with the fate, and the message, George Eliot was trying to convey. (Jacobus 62) Maggie Tulliver's representation of the tragedy of intellectual womanhood mired in the doom of repressive Victorian society -- is particularly satisfying. For these…
Ashton, Rosemary. "The Mill on the Floss: A Natural History." Twayne's Masterwork Studies. Boston: G.K. Hall & Co. 1990
Byatt, A.S. "The Placing of Steven Guest." Appendix, the Mill on the Floss, Middlesex, Blays Ltd., St. Printing; Penguin Classics. 1979
Carlisle, Janice. "The Mirror in the Mill on the Floss; Toward Reading of Autobiography Discourse." Studies in the Literary Imagination. Vol 23:Issue 2. [EBSCO] Masterfile
Eliot, George, Christ, Carol T. (ed.) The Mill on the Floss: the Norton Critical Edition. Berkley: University of California Press, 1994.
Can one be funny, and still be sincere? Hendra, although convinced of the wrongness now of adultery, took refuge instead in insincerity. His crime was no longer of passion, although he committed many extramarital sexual transgressions. His main crime was more of a lack of passion or love for God's world, and the good and believable things of God's world. As noted by Abraham Herschel in the book Moral Grandeur and Spiritual Audacity on the subject of prayer, the "beginning of prayer is praise," while in Hendra's humor, the beginning of his wit was subversion and a lack of praise and prayerful attitude towards all things of the world, not simply the bad things. hen Abraham Herschel notes, "the power of worship is song. To worship is to join the cosmos in praising God," Hendra only raised his voice in song to parody, not to express anything positive, only to…
Hendra, Tony. Father Joe. New York: Random House, 2004.
Hershel, Abraham & Susanna. Moral Grandeur and Spiritual Audacity.
The discoveries I made about my friend were enlightening. I already knew she did not attend religious services and that she was agnostic, as this had been information that was the basis for many friendly debates in our social circle. I understood her sense of hope and her ability to find joy in her children's joy and learning. I was however not aware that all of her family was distant in either place or spirit and that she therefore had to rely heavily on her husband's family for support, and this she finds troubling as she does not wish to be a burden and she feels like a bit of an outsider. Her illness also seems to have added stress to the situation because she has had to rely heavily on her husband and his family to care for their young children. I also thought the information about…
Edlin, G. Golanty, E. McCormack Brown, K. (2000) Essentials for health and wellness. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Joint Commission (2008) Standards FAQ details: spiritual assessment. Retrieved from http://www.jointcommission.org/standards_information/jcfaqdetails.aspx?StandardsFaqId=290&ProgramId=1
Phillip, R. (2006) Reflections on spirituality and health. By Stephen G. Wright. (book review) Occupational Medicine 56 (8): 585. doi: 10.1093/occmed/kql093