Sports Medicine Essays (Examples)

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Sports Psychology Athletes Can Often

Words: 1570 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27356154

The research suggests that sport psychology is useful to athletes because it provides them with the tools needed to fully exploit their physical talents by controlling their mental processes. The research found that here are several techniques associated with sports psychology. These techniques include MPSE, thought stopping, mental rehearsal (imagery) self-talk, visuo-motor behavior rehearsal (VMBR) and establishing goals. All of these techniques can be used to assist the athlete in focusing on the goal that they are attempting to accomplish.

orks Cited

Arvinen-Barrow M., Penny G.,Hemmings B., Corr S. (2010) UK chartered physiotherapists' personal experiences in using psychological interventions with injured athletes: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Psychology of Sport and Exercise 11 (2010) 58 -- 66

"Careers in Sports Psychology." Retrieved February 16, 2010 from: http://www.wcupa.edu/_Academics/sch_cas.psy/Career_Paths/Sports/Career07.htm

De Petrillo, L.A., Kaufman, K.A. Glass, C.R. And Arnkoff D.B. (2009) Mindfulness for Long-Distance Runners: An Open Trial Using Mindful Sport Performance Enhancement (MSPE).…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Arvinen-Barrow M., Penny G.,Hemmings B., Corr S. (2010) UK chartered physiotherapists' personal experiences in using psychological interventions with injured athletes: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Psychology of Sport and Exercise 11 (2010) 58 -- 66

"Careers in Sports Psychology." Retrieved February 16, 2010 from: http://www.wcupa.edu/_Academics/sch_cas.psy/Career_Paths/Sports/Career07.htm

De Petrillo, L.A., Kaufman, K.A. Glass, C.R. And Arnkoff D.B. (2009) Mindfulness for Long-Distance Runners: An Open Trial Using Mindful Sport Performance Enhancement (MSPE). Journal of Clinical Sports Psychology, 2009, 4, 357-376

Dreyer, D. (2004). ChiRunning: A revolutionary approach to effortless, injury-free running. Retrieved February 16, 2009 from: http://www.chirunning.com .
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Sports and Conditioning Coach Becoming

Words: 1400 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51867606

Although the coach may not work out with the client every session, he or she may be called upon to demonstrate many of the moves and to assist the client, depending on the nature of the session and the client's needs. For some coaches, the 'best' part of work -- the involvement with people committed to fitness -- may also be the worst part, because their schedules may make it difficult to find time to work out alone. Even then, the coach may be so exhausted from helping others he does not have the motivation to condition himself. But this is vital, so the coach can assist clients in an injury-free fashion.

A typical 'day in the life' of a sports and conditioning coach will vary depending upon the coach's practice setting. A private trainer might get up at 5:30am to go to the house of a busy executive he…… [Read More]

References

Kinesiology. (2011). University of Michigan. Retrieved November 16, 2011 at http://www.umich.edu/units_kines.php

Sports management. (2011). Syracuse University. Retrieved November 16, 2011 at http://falk.syr.edu/SportManagement/Default.aspx

Waehner, Paige. (2011). How to become a personal trainer. Retrieved November 16, 2011 at http://exercise.about.com/cs/forprofessionals/a/personaltrainer_2.htm
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Athletic Injuries

Words: 3570 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68475215

athletic coach I have garnered a wide variety of skills, as well as an extensive understanding of the standard practices and procedures an individual in the field of exercise science should possess. My past experiences have provided me with substantial knowledge of the principles involved in the prevention and care of athletic injuries. With the following, I hope to illustrate that my experiences and subsequent research have provided me with a broad awareness of typical athletic injuries and treatments as they apply to exercise science.

When a member of my dance squad sprained her ankle it became necessary for me to tape it as to provide additional support. I employed the traditional Gibney basket weave procedure. This consists of an interwoven network of stirrup strips "which cover the plantar surface of the hindfoot and extend proximally on both the medial and lateral aspects of the leg, and horseshoe strips, which…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Boyle, Daniel J.M.D. Sports Medicine for Parents and Coaches. Washington D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 1999.

Brown, Lee E. And Vance A. Ferrigno. Training for Speed, Agility, and Quickness. New York: Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data, 2000.

Garrick, James G.M.D. And Peter Radetsky, Ph.D. Anybody's Sports Medicine Book. Toronto: Ten Speed Press, 2000.

Levy, Allan M.M.D. And Mark L. Fuerst. Sports Injury Handbook. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1993.
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Athletic Trainer

Words: 819 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86305146

career of an athletic trainer, including the background necessary for the career, the necessary education, and job opportunities for athletic trainers. Athletic trainers form a necessary backbone of most professional sports organizations, and many private organizations. A professional athletic trainer can make the difference between a life-changing injury, or returning to the game. Athletic trainers are an essential and integral part of modern sports medicine, and as sports and athletics increase in importance in our society, they will continue to play an important part in our healthy lives.

Athletic trainers have been around for centuries, but today, most trainers are certified, and not only work with sports clubs or educational facilities, they can work in gyms and fitness centers, and even corporate workout centers.

Certified athletic trainers (ATCs) are medical experts in preventing, recognizing, managing and rehabilitating injuries that result from physical activity. Athletic trainers can help you avoid unnecessary…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Author not Available. "Athletic Trainer." NortheastAHEC.org. 2003. 25 Sept. 2003. http://www.neahec.org/hc/HealthCareerPgs/AthleticTrainer.html

Editors. "What Does a Certified Athletic Trainer Do?" NATA.org. 2003. 25 Sept. 2003. http://www.nata.org/downloads/documents/306CareerInfoBrochure.htm

Hibberts, Rob. "How to Start Your Career." Cerro Coso Community College. 1998. 25 Sept. 2003. http://athletics.cerrocoso.edu/sportsmedicine/how_to_start_your_career.htm

Kornspan, Alan S., et al. "Career Opportunities in Sport and Exercise Among College Students." College Student Journal 36.3 (2002): 367+.
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Sports Nutrition the Stuff of

Words: 1524 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70597020



Matt gave Ed two eggs on toast with half-a-grapefruit and orange juice for breakfast (Independent on Sunday, 2002). Ed took fish oils and multivitamins on a daily basis. These were immediately followed by a good fiber and protein meal in minutes or strength during his warm-up sessions. Matt gave Stu chicken, basmati rice, couscous and egg and Jaffa cakes for his "insulin." Matt's intention was to bring extra protein straight into Stu's tired muscles. He also served Stu with nuts for his snacks (Independent on Sunday).

Commercial high-carbohydrate electrolyte sports drinks fill the football player's need, especially within the first 15 minutes after strenuous activity. These drinks also appeal more than plain water while contributing their value (Mannie, 2001).

ILIOGRAPHY

usiness Wire (2004). 3-a-day dairy teams up with national football league to tackle kids' nutrition and fitness in schools. usiness Wire: Gale, Cengage Learning.

Retrieved on April 4, 2009 from…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Business Wire (2004). 3-a-day dairy teams up with national football league to tackle kids' nutrition and fitness in schools. Business Wire: Gale, Cengage Learning.

Retrieved on April 4, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_mOEIN/is_2004_Sept_8/ai_n6185691/?tag=content;col1

Independent on Sunday (2002). The programme. Independent Newspapers UK Limited

ProQuest Information and Learning Company. Retrieved on April 4, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4159/is_20020922/ai_n1266483/?tag=content;col1
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Intercollegiate Athletics Program Guarantee the Success of

Words: 1199 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56749717

Intercollegiate Athletics Program Guarantee the Success of a College?

Intercollegiate athletics programs are a common feature in most colleges, and many of these programs have been shown to contribute to the education and development of the young people who participate in them. Moreover, intercollegiate athletics programs, especially men's football and basketball, are major revenue generators through ticket sales for many educational institutions. In many cases, colleges that feature high-profile intercollegiate athletics programs enjoy the benefits of these programs through increased revenues and publicity. Even the best intercollegiate athletics program, though, cannot guarantee the success of a college for the reasons identified through a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature which is provided below, followed by a summary of the research and important findings in the conclusion.

Review and Discussion

Intercollegiate athletics programs in the United States are divided into various divisions (i.e., Division 1A and 1AA), with the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Enoch, Jessica and Glenn, Cheryl. Making Sense, 3rd ed. Bedford/St. Martin's.

Fizel, J. And Fort, Rodney. Economics of College Sports. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Jones, A. (2009). "Athletics, Applications & Yields." College and University 85(2): 10-12.

Losco, Joseph and Fife, Brian L. Higher Education in Transition: The Challenges of the New
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Gender Matter in Sports There

Words: 2514 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10104952

234). Culturally, trainers may simply be paying more attention to girls' injuries due to our culture's tendency to protect females more than males (Tierney, et al., 2005, p. 278) and/or boys may simply under-report concussions due to "macho" tendencies to play through pain in order to continue playing (Covassin, et al., 2012, p. 926). Hormones may contribute to the greater incidence of concussions among female high school athletes because researchers have found that estrogen protects male rats from brain trauma but actually makes female rats more vulnerable to brain trauma (Makdissi, et al., 2013, p. 319). Whether caused anatomically, culturally, hormonally or for some other reason, the fact remains that girls are reportedly highly more likely to sustain concussions in sports such as soccer and basketball. Consequently, gender matters in the sports injury of concussion.

3. Conclusion

Development of a masculine identity is psychologically fundamental for males and particularly for…… [Read More]

References

Allan, E.J., Gordon, S.P. & Iverson, S.V., Fall 2006. Re/thinking Practices of Power: The Discursive Framing of Leadership in the Chronicle of Higher Education. Review of Higher Education, 30(1), pp. 41-68.

Bourdieu, P., 1978. 'Sport and Social Class,' Social Science Information, 17(6): 819-840. [Online]

Available at:  http://ssi.sagepub.com/content/17/6/819.ciatation  [Accessed 21 May 2013].

Chesebro, J.W. & Fuse, K., Summer 2001. The Development of a Perceived Masculinity Scale. Communication Quarterly, 49(3), pp. 203-278.
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Increasing Sport Injuries

Words: 2348 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66618732

Sports Injuries

Competitive sports participation opportunities for children continue to grow. Nowadays, children begin their regular sport participation between the ages of 4 to 8 years. Most children enjoy sports and show great enthusiasm for participation. However, the situation changes when young athletes get involved in the elite-level championships organized and directed by adults. Children's play becomes transformed from informal playground games to highly organized sporting events that mirror adult professional sports.

The effects of such intensive training and participation in elite-level competition on young athletes have been investigated. However, most of the research has been devoted to athletes above 10 years of age who are involved in individual sports. Little has been done to explore the impact of the elite-level competition on children under 10 years old participating in team sports.

Indeed, the idea that organized, supervised athletic competition benefits pre-pubertal children is very controversial. However, since more and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

AAP. "Organized Athletics for Preadolescent Children." Pediatrics 84, 1989:583-4.

Ad Hoc Committee on Sports and Children of the FIMS Education Commission. Sports and children. Position stand of the International Federation of Sports Medicine and World Health Organization on "Organized Sport for Children." Olympic Coach, Summer 1997: 6-8.

Backx, F. "Injuries in persons and high-risk sports; a longitudinal study of 1,818 school

Children." The American Journal of Sports Medicine 19, 1991:124-30.
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Strategies for Effective Functioning of a Sports Organization

Words: 2567 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28982875

Octagon Sports Organization Structure

Octagon Sports Organizational Structure

The most fundamental aspect and/or tool for establishing a successful organization is the organizational structure. Organizational structure is a typical and hierarchical arrangement of lines of authority, rights, duties, and communications within an organization, thereby defining how powers, roles, and responsibilities are assigned, coordinated, and controlled, and how information flows between the diversified levels of management. All these aspects are thereby directed towards the attainment or achievement of an organization's aims and/or goals. An organization's structure depends on the organization's core objectives and strategies. There are two categories of organizational structure comprising (i) centralized structure, and (ii) decentralized structure. Within a centralized structure, the top management owns, if not all then, most of the decision making powers, as well as staunch control over the organization's departments and divisions. On the contrary, in a decentralized organizational structure, the power for decision making is…… [Read More]

References

Hoffer, C.W., Hunt, C. & Collins, W. (2009). Strategic approach to sports globalization.

Journal of International Marketing, 12(1), 57-74.

Job, P., Woods, J. & Howard, C. (2008). Description of roles of sports agencies, operational and educational programs to prepare for a successful organizational and field performance. Journal of Sports and Entertainment, 45, 27-34.

Octagon Worldwide, (2013). Octagon executive biographies. Retrieved on 15th March, 2014
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Effects of Unrealistic Expectations on Children in Youth Sports and Early Burnout

Words: 5360 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98503358

Unrealistic Expectations on Children in Youth Sports and Early Burnout

esearch Structure

Youth Sports

Motivators for Participation in Sports

Effect of Unrealistic Expectations and Parental Pressure on the Sports Performance of the Children

eliability and Validity

EXPECTED CONCLUSION

ecommendation for Further esearch

This study aims at identifying the effect of unrealistic expectations of parents on burnout in youth sport. In order to identify these effects appropriately, this study will examine the perceptions of parents as well as their children in relation to the purpose of the involvement of their child in sports. In addition to that, it will also examine the perception of the children about the expectations of their parents in relation to their sport activities.

Apart from that, the expectations of parents will be identified and then the impact of these expectations on the performance of children in the sport activities will be evaluated. This study also will…… [Read More]

References

Boak, F.L. & Others (1999). Parent-child relationship, home learning environment, and school readiness. School Psychology Review, 28 (3).

Butcher, J., Lindner, K.J. & Johns, D.P. (2002). Withdrawal from competitive youth sport: a retrospective ten-year study. Journal of Sport Behavior, 25 (2).

Cumming, S.P. & Ewing, M.E. (2002). Parental involvement in youth sports: the good, the bad and the ugly. Spotlight on Youth Sports, 26 (1), pp. 1 -- 5.

Dubois, D.L., Eitel, S.K. & Felner, R.D. (1994). Effects of family environment and parent-child relationships on school adjustment during the transition to early adolescence. Journal of Marriage and the Family, pp. 405 -- 414.
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Philosophy of Sports but IT's

Words: 2208 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46917024

Even the much despised soccer is popular amongst American youths. Yet Americans cheer on their favorite individual stars in all of these sports, especially if the starts engage in charity efforts to justify their bloated salaries. The tension remains about what good sports do for both the individual or society, and Americans today are clearly using sports as a means of practical self-improvement like the Greeks as well as a means of collective identification like the English: "in the 1950's or 1960's, few people exercised; baseline fitness-consciousness was just above zero. Today, 20% of the U.S. population works out on a regular basis, while an additional 60%+ can be classified as...'Consciousness III' -- those persuaded of physical fitness, but who by their own admission, don't get enough exercise. As behavior lags enlightened attitudes, 4 out of 5 adult Americans are true believers in exercise and fitness." But the protests remain…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ancient Olympic Events," Peruses Digital Library Project, Edited by Gregory R.

Crane, 2007, Tufts University, 29 May 2007, http://www.perseus.tufts.edu.

Dillon, Sam. "Schools Cut Back Subjects to Push Reading and Math." The New York

Times. 25 Mar 2006. 29 May 2007. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/03/26/education/26child.html?ex=1301029200en=0c91b5bd32dabe2aei=5088partner=rssnytemc=rss
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Starting a Sports Program at

Words: 2797 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42154822



8. Staffing

The sports center at the newly opened high school has to employ at least the following:

Two coaches, preferably one male and one female, each to manage the same gender teams. This measure is to be implemented in order to reduce the chances of immoral conduct on school premises, but no discriminations would be committed during the selection and hiring processes.

One medic is required to be easily reachable and assist sports injuries or otherwise medical necessities. Hiring a new medical professional would be redundant and meaningless, coming as such to a conclusion that the already hired school medic would also assist the medical needs of the sports center.

One counselor. Similar to the school medic, it could initially be stated that the role of sports counselor would be played by the already hired school counselor. However, such a solution is not the most viable one in the…… [Read More]

References:

Conrad, M., 2006, the business of sports: a primer for journalists, Routledge

Delaney, T., Madigan, T., 2009, the sociology of sports: an introduction, McFarland

Mac, B., 2010, Code of ethics and conduct for sports coaches, BrainMac,  http://www.brianmac.co.uk/ethics.htm  last accessed on July 6, 2010

2010, Sports and exercise safety, Kids Health, http://kidshealth.org/teen/safety/safebasics/sport_safety.html# last accessed on July 6, 2010
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Gender in Sports in the

Words: 1857 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9741790

Ironically, as we have seen, we live in a capitalistic society. A sometimes unwilling engine of this equity has been revenue generating sports. hat will be absolutely necessary will be the demand of female consumers who will vote with their wallets in favor of equity. However, they will only do so if they are properly educated. The portrayal of women as equal partners of women in society appears to be a permanent feature of American society. Baring some major social change in society, this trend is likely to continue. As noted above, the place for gender integration in sports on the playing field and court will ironically probably take place on the living room couch in front of the television or in front of the computer. Non-athletes will determine for good or ill the status of gender in sports. They have before and this will certainly continue into the foreseeable…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Eastman, Susan Tyler, and Andrew C. Billings. "Biased Voices of Sports: Racial

and Gender Stereotyping in College Basketball Announcing." Howard

Journal of Communications. 12. (2001): 183-208. Print.

"HR and Employment Law News." Hr.blr.com. HR BLR, 3 October 2003. Web. 4
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Marketing Plan a Sports Enterprise E G Professional

Words: 2136 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4305230

marketing plan a sports enterprise (e.g. professional, school, community program). You select a "real" enterprise a fictitious . You position manager develop a plan implement employees / contractors.

Marketing plan

The modern day society is nowadays characterized by numerous challenges, one of the more notable of these being increasing health problems among the population. And these health problems are more severe not only as they attack more people, but especially since they come to impact younger and younger generations.

A large majority of the health problems of today are related to an inadequate nutrition, combined with a sedentary life style. The youth of the day for instance consume more and more calories from the highly processed foods and they exercise less, as the leisure activities come to be centered on video games or other sedentary activities (Smith and Biddle, 2008).

In such a setting then, the current project proposed the…… [Read More]

References:

Armstrong, N., Van Mechelen, W., 2009, Pediatric exercise science and medicine, 2nd edition, Oxford University Press

Longenecker, J.G., Loeza, M.A.T., Small business management, Cengage Learning

Kaser, K., Oelkers, D.B., 2007, Sports and entertainment marketing, 3rd edition, Cengage Learning

Smith, A.L., Bibble, S., 2008, Youth physical activity and sedentary behavior: challenges and solutions, Human Kinetics
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Physical Privacy in Many Sports

Words: 1067 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71546174

In his preparation for a career in sports, an unethical coach or teammate may present the boy with steroids to enhance his physical performance, with the claim that Rodriguez advocates the use of such substances.

Furthermore, Rodriguez's apparent lack of remorse and his adherence to the claim that he was "young and stupid" creates a poor image for both the sport, its stars, and its followers. It furthermore indicates that being young precludes a person from making wise choices, and that only a maturity in years could bring the wisdom necessary to say no to performance-enhancing drugs.

This also has an effect upon parenting, and the ability of parents to influence children for their best benefit. tars such as Rodriguez indirectly promote drugs by means of their behavior. Jeopardizing good parenting in this way also influences the stability of the family and hence of society as a whole. It is…… [Read More]

Sources

Inman, Cam. (2009, Feb 17). Candid Cam: A*Rod, steroids and "My Cousin Vinny." http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?index=0&did=1646806551&SrchMo de=1&sid=21&Fmt=3&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1236294835 & clientId=29440

Schneider, Angela J. (2007) Doping in Sport: Global Ethical Issues. Routledge.
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Marinol Medicine Is Designed to Treat the

Words: 1168 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97178475

Marinol

Medicine is designed to treat the sick and the injured. Its function is to either treat a condition or to better severe symptoms from a medical or physical condition. Some medicines, when first introduced, are controversial because of the ingredients that are used. In the modern era, Marinol has become the subject of heated debate over whether or not it should be provided to patients. Despite the fact that it has been proven to help people when other medications have failed, there are still some places where the medication cannot be gotten simply because it contains a synthetic form of a substance which is illegal in most states. Marinol is not made from an illegal material, but a synthetic version which replicates the effects of that illegal substance. The drug Marinol is a brand name of a medication which is a synthetic form of tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC which is…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Armentano, P. (2005). Marinol vs. natural plant. NORML.

Institute of Medicine (2002). Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing the Science Base. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C.

Loughlin, K. & Generali, J. (2006). The Guide to Off-Label Prescription Drugs. The Philip Lief

Group: Princeton, NJ.
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For School of Podiatric Medicine and Surgery Foot Doctor

Words: 469 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56505337

School of Podiatric Medicine & Surgery

Admission Essay: Gelareh Noenifard

Thank you for the opportunity to submit a learning portfolio for you to consider my application to enroll for the Podiatry B.Sc. degree. I trust that the information provided will convince you of my passion for the medical profession. I believe that knowledge is power and it is my desire to explore every learning opportunity to broaden my education toward attaining this qualification. It is my goal to offer my services free of charge - while I am studying - to podiatry practices to gain work experience. I have attended a podiatry taster day and found it to be a rewarding and challenging career. My interest was sparked when I received medical attention for an injured ankle. I regularly visit the podiatric office to gather information about the profession, learn by observing the treatment procedures, and ask questions about podiatric…… [Read More]

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International Marketing in Sports Apparel

Words: 3703 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54065745

THEOY

One of the most difficult paradigms in research is defining what exactly constitutes the idea of "theory." There are many different authors with many different views on this.

Harlow (2009) articulates the problem associated with defining "theory" is that there is no fixed, universal meaning for this concept. One of the guides towards identifying the components that constitute a theory could be the specific research direction at issue. In the natural science, for example, "theory" could refer to the law or system of laws. In a social sciences discipline, "theory" might suggest a construct or set to order and understand the phenomena under study.

While it is difficult to explain or define the concept of theory, Harlow also points towards the importance of understanding the concept of "theory" in terms of research, since it forms the central concept around which the research is conducted. Hence, understanding what is meant…… [Read More]

References

Best, H. (2013). Theories of Social Changes by Raymond Boudon.

Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy (2009). On Being a Scientist: A

Guide to Responsible Conduct in Research. Washington D.C.: National

Academies Press
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A Dietary Plan for an Active but Skinny Sports Active Bad Eater

Words: 741 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76664506

Caloric and Energy Requirements

Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Rangers or AMDRs were established from evidence levels of consumption, which either increase or decrease the risk of developing disease conditions (Otten et al., n.d.; USDA, n.d.). These disease conditions include coronary heart disease, obesity, diabetes and cancer. An AMDR refers to a range of food intakes aimed at reducing the risk of these disease conditions. At the same time, AMDR provides sufficient intakes of essential nutrients, which meet the body's daily nutritional requirements for health and energy. In order to accomplish these goals, an average adult should obtain 45-65% carbohydrates, 20-35% from fat, and 10-35% from protein sources (Otten et al., USDA).

Greg, who is a 19-year-old basketball player, weighs 84.82 kilograms. He stands .96520 meters and has a body mass index or MI of 22.5. Energy balance depends on intake from energy derived from food and drinks and the amount of…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Otten, J. et al., editors (n.d). Dietary reference intakes: the essential guide to nutrient

Requirement. National Academy of Sciences: Institute of Medicine of the National

Academies. Retrieved on October 26, 2015 from http://www.nap.edu/catalog/11537.html

USDA (n.d.)., Dietary reference intakes: estimated average requirements. Food and Nutrition Board: United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved on October 26,
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Citizens in the United States

Words: 2671 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64071472

This is achieved through the increase of metabolic rates and lean body mass while eliminating excess fat and burning calories. hile the required amount of physical activity differs based on the caloric intake and body type, sports can assist an individual to maintain a healthy weight. For people who want to maintain a huge amount of weight loss, high-intensity sports can be the best option while reasonably-intensive physical activity helps in realizing weight stability.

ell-being of Muscles and Bones:

As previously mentioned, bone and muscle injuries are some of the most common health-related risks in sports participation. However, as an individual grows older, there is need for maintenance of the well-being of muscles and bones for proper body functioning. hen an individual takes into consideration the necessary precaution measures, sports and physical activity becomes increasingly for muscles, bones, and joints health. Participation in sports provides people with the required elements…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Bahr, Roald, and Lars Engebretsen. Sports Injury Prevention. Vol. 17. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, 2011. Print.

Chambers, Abigail E.L., and Grant Cooper. "The Role of Sports and Activity in Osteoarthritis." Arthritis MD - Trusted Arthritis MD - Arthritis Information from Doctors Who Care. Arthritis MD. Web. 16 Nov. 2011. .

Cohen, Bradley. "How Does Playing Sports Affect Your Health?" LIVESTRONG.COM - The Limitless Potential of You. Demand Media, Inc., 30 Mar. 2011. Web. 16 Nov. 2011. .

Gotlin, Robert S. Sports Injuries Guidebook. Illustrated ed. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 2008. Print.
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Arnold T & Shelbourne K

Words: 2152 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42250538

. he American Journal of Sports Medicine, 35(3), 384-394.

2 groups of 70 patients with patellar tendon and hamstring tendon autografts were assessed 2 years following surgery. No significant differences were noted in terms of activity, although more patients in the P group experienced pain and loss of motion for a longer span of time than did patients in the hamstring tendon group. On the whole, patients with hamstring tendon grafts performed similarly to patients with patellar tendon grafts although more beneficial results seemed to incline towards the groups that had experienced hamstring tendon graft replacements.

Monaco, E., Labianca, L., Conteduca, F., De Carli, a., & Ferretti, a. (2007). Double bundle or single bundle plus extraarticular tenodesis in acl reconstruction?: a caos study. Knee Surgery, Sports raumatology, Arthroscopy, 15(10), 1168-1174.

he goal of this study was to evaluate the effect on the internal rotation of the tibia of lateral reconstruction…… [Read More]

This technical study was intended to measure the in situ force applied to the ACL during load and injury. The medial collateral ligament (MCL), anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), posterolateral structures (PLS), and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) were measured in response to 110 N. anterior tibial loading. Changes in knee kinematics associated with ACL deficiency and combined MCL and ACL deficiency were also evaluated. Findings demonstrated that impact is equally shared between the various bone ligaments and anterior bones during tibial loading of the knee leading researchers to conclude that the MCL and osteochondral surfaces may also be at significant risk during ACL injury.

Smith, F., Rosenlund, E., Aune, a., MacLean, J., & Hillis, S. (2004). Subjective functional assessments and the return to competitive sport after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. . British Journal of Sports Medicine, 38(3), 279-284.

The objective was to examine return to competitive sport and general recuperation of ligaments within 12 months of ACL reconstruction. A postal questionnaire 43 months after surgery was mailed to 109 selected athlete patients, 77 of whom responded. The Cincinnati sports activity scale (CSAS) and Cincinnati sports function scales were used as instruments. 62 patients had returned to activity 12 months following treatment, whilst 55 patients had regained their former level of ability. 12 patients admitted to major problems, whilst 38 patients were actively involved in sports at least four times a week. Competitive and male patients had higher scores at restoration than did non-athletic and female patients respectively. Results supported the researchers' hypothesis.
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Conceptual Fit

Words: 883 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17583743

Conceptualization and operationalization of variables

Poor communication between young athletes and coaches leads to longer recovery times and increased levels of frustration amongst athletes regarding their prognosis.

Independent Variable: Effective and ineffective communication between coaches and young athletes.

Conceptualization: Sports injuries are a serious concern. There has been a rise in the rate of youth sports injuries in recent decades, an increase partially attributed to a corresponding rise in youth specialization at an early age and year 'round participation in the same type of competitive sports activity, versus varying sports (Merkel & Molony 2013). In some sports, there are also grave concerns about the risk of permanent injury on every level of competition, as manifested in concerns about head trauma amongst football players, making it all the more critical to reduce the likelihood of such injuries occurring when young (Lopate 2013). Overuse injuries are common many popular youth sports: "Preteens…… [Read More]

References

Apache, R.R. (2006). The behavioral assessment of parents and coaches at youth sports:

Validity and reliability. Physical Educator, 63(3), 126-133.

Borggrefe, C., & Cachay, K. (2013). Communicative challenges of coaches in an elite-level sports system: Theoretical reflections on successful coaching strategies. EJSS: European Journal for Sport and Society, 10(1), 7-29.

Caine, D. (et al. 2006). Physical injuries in children's and youth sports:
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Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Hcm Is a

Words: 879 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15108375

However, in almost 30% of HCM cases only one segment of the left ventricle develops hypertrophy. The patterns of LV wall thickening is also diverse as is the thickness of the LV, which ranges from anywhere between 21 mm (average) to even 60 mm in some patients. It remains a sad fact that screening programs in the form of preparticipation evaluation based on familial history and electrocardiography does not reveal much. A recent study showed that a preparticipation screening for 115 high school and college athletes who later succumbed to sudden death could identify only 3% of them as at risk. This study also revealed that LVH is very mild and not obvious in adolescents and therefore electrocardiography readings are not diagnostically conclusive. [Maron]

Treatment

Since there is not complete cure for the condition, treatment is purely symptomatic. Typically beta blockers (which reduce ventricular contraction), calcium channel blockers that slow…… [Read More]

Bibliography

CMA, "Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy," Accessed on April 16th 2008, available at  http://www.cardiomyopathy.org/index.php?id=49 

Barry J. Maron, MD, "Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: Practical Steps for Preventing Sudden Death," the Physician and Sports Medicine, VOL 30 - NO.1 - JANUARY 2002, Available online at, http://www.physsportsmed.com/issues/2002/01_02/maron.htm

Cleveland Clinic, "Cleveland Clinic," Accessed on April 16th 2008, Available at, http://www.clevelandclinic.org/heartcenter/pub/guide/disease/hcm/default.htm#affected
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Youth's Decision to Withdraw From

Words: 6240 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81423393



The Fun Principle stated that as "we take the fun out of physical activities, we take the kids out of them" (Martens, 1996, p. 306). Martens said that learning should be enjoyable and that when winning is pursued in the extreme, it produces behaviors that destroy children's self-worth and rob them of fun. However, adults frequently violate this principle by over organizing, constantly instructing and evaluating, over drilling and routinizing the learning of skills, replacing unstructured play with calisthenics, and using physical activity as a form of punishment. Martens noted that the irony in youth sports is that "we turn young people off of the very thing we want to turn them on to" (p. 309). If lifelong participation in physical activity is the goal, then the emphasis should shift from the outcome to the quality of experiences, according to Martens. (Brady, 2004, p. 48)

Differences in Youth Who Withdraw…… [Read More]

References

Apache, R.R.. "The behavioral assessment of parents and coaches at youth sports: validity and reliability." Physical Educator, September 22, 2006. Retrieved October 18, 2008, at http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-154459895.html www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002319178

Barber, H., Sukhi, H., & White, S.A. (1999). The Influence of Parent-Coaches on Participant Motivation and Competitive Anxiety in Youth Sport Participants. Journal of Sport Behavior, 22(2), 162. Retrieved October 18, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002319178 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002582649

Brady, F. (2004). Children's Organized Sports a Developmental Perspective; despite Their Place as a Childhood Rite, Youth Sports Have a High Dropout Rate. Why? And What Can We Do about it?. JOPERD -- the Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 75(2), 35+. Retrieved October 18, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002582649

Brenner, Joel S. And the Council on Sports Medicine and Fitness. "Overuse Injuries, Overtraining, and Burnout in Child and Adolescent Athletes." Pediatrics, Jun 2007; 119: 1242-1245. Retrieved October 15, 2008, at http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/search?andorexactfulltext=and&resourcetype=&disp_type=&sortspec=relevance&fulltext=%22Overuse+is+one+of+the+most+%22&ubmit.x=12&submit.y=14 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002469629
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Application of Feedback in Motor Learning

Words: 2367 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42123682

Exercise

Philosophy

When io de Janeiro recently won its bid to host the 2016 Olympic Games, they had one world famous representative on their Olympic committee that may have actually been more famous than our President Barak Obama. This individual may not be a household name in America, but he is most famous for scoring 2 goals in the 1958 World Cup championships when he was only 17 years old. This made him the youngest player to ever play in these renowned championships and over the course of his distinguished career; the majority of the football world would certainly consider him to be the best soccer player ever. Brazil actually has declared this individual as a national treasure in order to thwart other teams and countries from stealing him away and out of their country. His name is Edson Arantes Do Nascimento, but you may know him simply as --…… [Read More]

References

Adams, James A. (1971). "A Closed-Loop Theory of Motor Learning." Journal of Motor Behavior 3:111-150.

Keele, Steven W. (1968). "Movement Control in Skilled Motor Performance." Psychological Bulletin 70:387-403.

Leawoods, Heather. "Gustav Radbruch: An Extraordinary Legal Philosopher." Retrieved on November 3, 2009, from http://law.wustl.edu/journal/2/p489leawoods.pdf.

Magill, R, A. (2007) "Motor Learning Control: Concepts and Applications. McGraw Hill: Louisiana State University, USA.
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Reducing Crime Through Social Initiatives

Words: 2197 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12666984

Academy Sports + Outdoors

Project Charter

The project charter for this plan, "Operation Midnight Basketball" for Academy Sports + Outdoors, is provided below.

Identification:

The official name of this project is "Operation Midnight Basketball" to be implemented by Academy Sports + Outdoors as described below.

Today, Academy Sports + Outdoors (hereinafter alternatively "Academy" or "the company") is a leading retailers in the sports, outdoor and lifestyle industry offering a wide range of high quality fishing, hunting, and other outdoor merchandise, including camping equipment and gear as well as sports and leisure products, footwear, and outdoor apparel (About Academy, 2014). Headquartered in Texas, Academy operates more than 185 stores in the United States, including stores in, alphabetical order, Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee and Texas (About Academy, 2014). The company has a stated corporate social responsibility commitment that is congruent…… [Read More]

References

About Academy. (2014). Academy Sports + Outdoors. Retrieved from http://www.academy.

com/shop/store/company-info.

Academy basketball team sports. (2014). Academy Sports + Outdoors. Retrieved from http://www.academy.com/shop/browse/team-sports-basketball/_/N-935629709.

Chudacoff, H.P. (2007). Children at play: An American history. New York: New York
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Old Living Away From Home for the

Words: 497 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38502771

old, living away from home for the first time in an apartment in San Diego when I decided to attend college and maintain myself in an apartment without taking any financial assistance from my parents. Since I was not a California resident I had the additional expense of paying out-of-state tuition. I had a football scholarship that would pay fifty-percent of my tuition but I needed a job to pay my living expenses and the remaining tuition.

Although the time required for school and football was a fulltime job in itself, my financial needs said I needed to work between thirty and thirty five hours per week to make ends meet. With that as my motivation, I took a job at Federal Express as a package handler on the graveyard shift.

The summer before starting my sophomore year of college, just two weeks before the beginning of football camp in…… [Read More]

Using my newfound knowledge I spent three months doing intensive rehab in the swimming pool and in lifting soup cans for weights. At the end of that time, I gained enough use of my arm to be able to work in a restaurant. Meanwhile I continued my rehabilitation for an additional eight months.

During that time of rehab and unemployment, I resided in the comfort of my 1966 VW Bug. I lived off my savings, ate canned goods, and showered at the pool after two workouts a day. Living in my VW Bug for eleven weeks and two days was an experience that will shape my life forever. It taught me the importance of resilience, humility, diligence, and the power of optimism. I know now that life gives us many obstacles we do not expect or want, but it is not what is dealt to us that is important. It is how we deal with what we are given.

I learned how to handle many obstacles at the same time and perform all to the best of my ability. I found I can handle and even appreciate adversity at different times, and sometimes at the same time, while maintaining the tenacity and vision to accomplish daily responsibilities and pursue future goals. Having learned those things will serve me well in a career with the FAA.
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Fundamentals of Social Sciences

Words: 5347 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84621325

Safety Decisions in High School Football

This paper focuses on one aspect of high school football safety. The study explores the issue of higher levels of injury being associated with a particular brand or brands of football helmets worn by high school athletes who play football, and the institutional decisions and actions that follow disclosure of such information. A recent study by Virginia Tech rated helmets worn by professional football players -- helmets worn by high school students have not yet been rated by the university. The study compared helmets manufactured by three companies. High ratings were given to the iddell Speed, the iddell evolution, the iddell evolution IA, the Schutt Ion 4D, the Schutt DNA, and the Xenith X1. Medium ratings were given to the Schutt Air XP and Schutt Air Advantage. Players were warned by Virginia Tech not to wear the iddell VS4 and the Adams A2000. No…… [Read More]

References

Di Scala, C., S. Scavo Gallagher, and S.E. Schneps. (1997). Causes and outcomes of pediatric injuries occurring at school, Journal of School Health, 67, 384-9.

FACTS About Certified Athletic Trainers and The National Athletic Trainers' Association Retrieved http://www.vata.us/aboutvata/FactsaboutATCS.pdf

International Federation of Sports Medicine, Excessive physical training in children and adolescents, (1991). Clinical Journal of Sports Medicine, 1, 262-4.

Gerberich, Susan Goodwin, et al., (1983). Concussion incidences and severity in secondary school varsity football players, American Journal of Public Health, 73, 1370-5.
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Conditioning Training and Participating in

Words: 2801 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50961003

(MRN, 1) This is to indicate that brain cells
are more actively produced by physical activity, convincing neurological
theorists that regular athletic orientation will improve one's academic
capacity and intellectual clarity. Still, as with other beneficial aspects
of an athlete's physical and intellectual growth, sporting activity must be
pursued in at least some degree of moderation. For both the implications
of what Metzl refers to as overuse and the consequences of an overly
centralized focus on athletic activity, there may be real and long-term
repercussions to failing to balance this emphasis with other healthy or
meaningful activities. Especially concerning bone and joint injuries,
overuse of specific parts of the body in a continuous and monotonous manner
will result in chronic pains and ultimately, lifelong localized injuries.
Therefore, especially when training for an endurance event, where sustained
energy is crucial, in training moderation can be a key to the prevention of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Beginner Triathlete (BT). (2008). The Original 13 Week Sprint Training
Plan. Beginner Triathlete.com.

Harr, E. (2003). Triathlon training in four hours a week: from beginner
to finish line in just six weeks. Rodale.

Hiller, W.D.B.; O'Toole, M.L.; Fortess, E.E.,; Laird, R.H.; Imbert, P.C. &
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Shin Splints From Ecs Conditions

Words: 4210 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40062881



Practical esearch Finding Implementation and Experimentation Stage -- Phase I

The experimenter did not set out to determine specifically which of the various contributing factors (or combinations of factors) identified by the empirical research of medial tibial stress syndrome was most responsible for the experimenter's symptoms. However, since the initial attempts to resolve the symptoms incorporated changes to all of the external variables except a change in running surface, the experimenter immediately sought a softer running surface and temporarily abandoned running on any hard surface that magnified instead of minimized the physiological trauma associated with running on harder surfaces.

Because the empirical research also implicated poor running stride mechanics and excessive vertical elevation, the experimenter devoted considerable attention to making the following specific changes to the running stride: (1) shorter strides to minimize travel of the body while neither foot is in contact with the running surface; (2) conscious attempts…… [Read More]

References

AOS. (2007). Shin Splints. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. Retrieved October 20, 2009, from:  http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00407 .

Braver, R. "How to Test and Treat Exertional Compartment Syndrome: Why the ECS

Diagnosis Is Often Missed" Podiatry Today; Vol. 15 (May 1, 2002). Retrieved

October 20, 2009, from: http://www.podiatrytoday.com/article/382
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Injuries With Jogging Running Injuries Associated

Words: 932 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71268138

You may think that you have recovered from your previous hard workout and you think you are ready to stress your muscles again (Gabe).

If you push yourself without the proper rest your joints, muscles, and tendons will start aching. If you continue to push though the soreness you may find that the aches and soreness never leave and you may start feeling tired all the time.

Runners that plan hard workouts one to two times a week and rest or jog on the other days may find the recovery time to be faster. y doing this it will help your muscle form more fibrous tissue which helps reduce injuries.

Avoiding Associated Injuries

While avoiding injuries is straightforward, many athletes, runners and joggers included, fall short in proper preparation to avoid injuries. Even if a runner uses the correct preventive techniques in training, it doesn't guarantee that an injury won't…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Cluett, Jonathan. "Running Injury." 17 Aug 2008. About.com: Orthopedics. 30 May 2009 .

Gabe, Mirkin. "Avoiding overtraining." AMAA Journal (Peer-reviewed) (2002): 1.

Matava, Matthew J. "RUNNING AND JOGGING INJURIES." 29 June 2006. American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine. 31 May 2009 .

Rodriguez, Carlos. "Traumatic injuries to runners." AMAA Journal (Peer-reviewed) (2006): 1.
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Are East African Runners Unbeatable Due to Genetic Gifts

Words: 1177 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14643620

East African Athletes

East African unners

The achievement of long distance runners from East Africa especially Kenya as well as Ethiopia promoted a tradition of East Africans as genetically talented, indomitable, overriding for the reason of their biology. esearch has been undertaken to analyze this issue but nothing conclusive has been found as genes definite to East Africans that may perhaps justify their distance talent.

According to Scott A, H Wilson, W Goodwin, V Onywera, M Boit, YP Pitsiladis, (2006) a lot of Epstein's work surrounds the manner in which particular genes as well as some genetic markers profoundly control character that decide an individual's capability of becoming an athletics star. Among the instances that were looked into by the Epstein lies a Kenyan tribe known as the Kalenjin. esearchers have more than once pointed out that elongated as well as skinny legs are supplementary resourceful when it comes to…… [Read More]

Reference

Scott RA, RH Wilson, W Goodwin, V Onywera, M Boit, YP Pitsiladis.(2006) Mitochondrial DNA Lineages and Haplotype Diversity of Elite Kenyan Athletes. American College of Sports Medicine, Annual Meeting, Denver, USA. Retreived on November 27, 2013  http://www.ku.ac.ke/schools/human_sciences/images/stories/docs/onywera_vincent_2013.pdf 

Scott, R.A., Moran, C., Wilson, R.H., Onywera, V.O., Boit, M.K., Goodwin, W.H., Montgomery, H., Pitsiladis, Y.P. (2005) ACE Genotype Is Not Associated With Elite Endurance Athlete Status in Kenyans. American College of Sports Medicine, Annual Meeting, Nashville, Tennessee, USA. Retreived on November 27, 2013
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Exercise and Gymnast Injuries to

Words: 1079 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98332302

And a way to avoid injuries to the elbow, that is fairly obvious, is to use thicker landing mats, and to get expert training in how to fall properly. For males, injuries to the wrist have been identified as being caused by training on the pommel, because "the wrist is exposed to repetitive forces of up to twice body weight during this activity."

Exercises using the plyometric strategy are very useful for gymnasts; plyometric exercises are the "rapid deceleration and acceleration of muscles" that in turn help create a stretch-shortening cycle," according to www.specialolympics.org.These kinds of exercises train the muscles, and train the nervous system to carry out in an effective way the stretch-shortening cycle, which can improve the performance of a gymnast. Drills using plyometrics also help the athlete develop "rhythm, speed, power and even muscular endurance," the Special Olympics site explains. All plyometric exercises must be carried out…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Daly, R.M., & Bass, S.L., & Finch, C.F. (2001). Balancing the risk of injury to gymnasts: how Effective are the counter measures." British Journal of Sports Medicine. Vol. 35, 8-19.

Mayo Clinic. (2006). Core exercises strengthen abs and other core muscles. Retrieved 9 March, 2007 at http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/core-strength/sm00047.

Micheli, Lyle J. (1996). Types of Sports Injuries and How They Can Be Prevented. Retrieved March 2007 from Conference Notes / Massachusetts Department of Public Health, Bureau of Family and Community Health, Division of Prevention, Injury Prevention and Control

Program
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Training Program Principles Steps and

Words: 540 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21148806



Among the criteria that should be evaluated in any progressive training program must include the duration and intensity of exercise and they types of exercise to be used (Browder and Darby, 1998). Guidelines for the program with time might include utilization of short-term or high intensity exercises interspersed with lower intensity and longer duration exercises (Browder & Darby, 1998). This suggests alternating strength-training events with cardiovascular endurance activities to maximize aerobic and anaerobic activity within the body.

Exercise testing should also be employed as part of a well-defined and systematic progressive strength-training program (Browder & Darby, 1998). Exercise testing may include but is not limited to measuring metabolic capability, current fitness levels and strength capability, training goals and body fat content among other factors. A strength-training program should also involve determination of exercise workloads which can be assessed using MET tables established by the American College of Sports Medicine (Browder…… [Read More]

References

American College of Sports Medicine. (1995). ACSM's guidelines for exercise testing and prescription (5th ed.). Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.

Browder, K.D. & Darby, L.A. (1998). "Individualizing exercise: Some biomechanical and physiological reminders." Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, 69(4): 35.

Wathen, D. (1994). "Exercise order." In T.R. Baechle (Ed.), Essentials of strength training and conditioning, (431-434). Champion: Human Kinetics Publishing.

Principles Steps Guidelines
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Responsibilities as an External Consultant to a

Words: 2819 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72448173

esponsibilities as an external consultant to a contract manufacturing organization (CMO)

esearch in the field of medicine has contributed to changes in administration of dosage. Initially some administration routes for drugs are considered more convenient than other methods. However this relies and depends on the benefits and shortcomings of the drug administration route. The paper discusses on the possible and the convenient drug administration routes to apply in CMO. The paper also discusses on the methods to improve the physical stability and product chemical in the dosage for CMO

outes of administration for biological medicinal products

Different routes of administration can be applied for biological medicinal products and generally for contract manufacturing organization (CMO). For instance, enteral, parenteral, and transdermal are the common broad routes of medicinal administration.

Hypodermoclysis administration route

Hypodermoclysis administration route is whereby the dosage is in fluid form and can be referred to as subcutaneous infusion…… [Read More]

References

Adikwu, M.U., & Esimone, C.O. 2009. Biopolymers in drug delivery recent advances and challenges. [Saif Zone, Sharjah, U.A.E.], Bentham eBooks.

Arcangelo, V.P., & Peterson, A.M. 2005. Pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice: A

practical approach. Philadelphia, PA [u.a.: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Gillespie, J.R., & Flanders, F.B. 2010. Modern livestock and poultry production. Australia,
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Diagnosis of Injures and Development

Words: 1994 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55529556

Next, arch your back in the opposite direction, contracting your abs and pushing your lower back toward the ceiling while lowering the top of your head toward the floor. Make sure that all movement is initiated and controlled by your lower back. Repeat three times in each direction.

Tail wag- Get down on all fours and look down at the floor. Keeping your shoulders still, slowly push your right hip as far as you can toward your right shoulder. Then, slowly return to the starting position and repeat the exercise on the other side, pushing your left hip toward your right shoulder. Repeat three times on each side.

Upper back stretch- Sit on a stool with your head and back flat against a wall. Lift your arms over your head and hold for five seconds. Try to make your shoulders touch the wall while keeping your back flat, and hold…… [Read More]

401. Available from  http://www.racgp.org.au/afp/200406/20040601jensen.pdf 

Rogers, Sabrina. (2010). Top 10: exercises for back pain. Available from  http://www.askmen.com/top_10/fitness/26c_fitness_list.html 

Maisie, M. (2010). Exercises to Release Sciatic Nerve Pain. Available from  http://www.buzzle.com/articles/exercises-to-release-sciatic-nerve-pain.html
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Senior Fitness

Words: 2521 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66413783

* The effects on normal aging and metabolism is that after the age of forty, metabolism usually decreases by about 5% every ten years. That does not mean that metabolism cannot be controlled to some extent; it can. Metabolism is loosely defined as the chemical workings within our bodies that help us to maintain a certain level of energy use, calorie burning and general energy (even at rest). As we age, our metabolism rate slows down, meaning that we burn less calories and the ones we do burn are burned at a slower rate. It also means that we may have less energy and our overall health slows as well.
* As individuals grow older their muscle mass is less likely to maintain its composition. Bill Sonnemaker, the 2007 IDEA Health and Fitness Personal Trainer of the year states that building muscle mass at any age provides a number of…… [Read More]

References
American College of Sports Medicine (1995) Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription, 5th Ed. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, pp. 1-373
American Diabetes Association (2011) Hyperglycemia, accessed on May 5, 2011 at http://www.diabetes.org/living-with-diabetes/treatment-and-care/blood-glucose-control/hyperglycemia.html
Van Dusen, A. (2011) Tips to build your muscle mass at any age, accessed on May 1, 2011 at: http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/20515088/ns/health-forbescom/

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Metatarsal Stress Fracture and Complications

Words: 2769 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92504585



Footwear

Partly because anatomical variation contributes to the development of metatarsal fractures, footwear is particularly important to mitigating any existing predisposing factors to the condition. While conflicting data as to the effect of hard surfaces call into question the assumption that surface density is directly related to metatarsal problems (Laker, Saint-Phard, Tyburski, et al., 2007), the insufficient cushioning properties of athletic footwear likely increases the overall risk nevertheless.

Proper fitting, particularly in the lateral dimension (i.e. width) is directly related to increased susceptibility to metatarsal problems because it further (artificially) contracts the overall surface areas available to dissipate and absorb dynamic forces by squeezing the metatarsals closer to each other as well (Cullen & Hadded, 2004). Finally, excessive roominess in athletic footwear can also contribute to stress fractures and other debilitating foot problems by allowing the foot to develop momentum within the shoe and resulting in momentarily high loads when…… [Read More]

References

Barsom, R. (2005) Fracture and Fatigue Control in Structures: Applications of Fracture

Mechanics. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Cullen, N. & Hadded, F. (2004). How would you manage the painful midfoot? Pulse,

64(24), p.50 -- 52. Retrieved March 16, 2009, from EBSCO online database.
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Validity of the Acsm Prediction Equation to

Words: 1733 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2080064

Validity of the ACSM prediction equation to estimate submaximal

O2 during cycle ergometry in cyclists and aerobically-trained non-cyclists

Several methods have been developed to estimate oxygen consumption (

O2) during exercise. The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) developed equations to predict the energy cost of various activities, including walking, running, and arm and cycle ergometry. The ACSM cycle ergometery equation uses pedal frequency (rpm), distance of flywheel travel (meters), applied resistance to the flywheel (kp), and an estimation of the resting metabolism to predict oxygen cost during submaximal cycle exercise between 50 and 200 watts (W). This equation appears as:

O2 = (kg•m•min-1 x 2 ml•kg•m-1) + (3.5 kg•m•min-1 x M)

where

O2 is in ml•min-1 and M. is the subject's body mass in kg (Franklin, 2000).

The variability in direct

O2 measures has been shown to have a standard error of the estimate of up to 7%; the…… [Read More]

References

Anton-Kuchly, B., Roger, P., & Varene, P. (1984). Determinants of increased energy cost of submaximal exercise in obese subjects. J Appl Physiol, 56(1), 18-23.

Berry, M.J., Storsteen, J.A., & Woodard, C.M. (1993). Effects of body mass on exercise efficiency and VO2 during steady-state cycling. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 25(9), 1031-1037.

Chavarren, J., & Calbet, J.A. (1999). Cycling efficiency and pedalling frequency in road cyclists. Eur J. Appl Physiol Occup Physiol, 80(6), 555-563.

Coast, J.R., Cox, R.H., & Welch, H.G. (1986). Optimal pedalling rate in prolonged bouts of cycle ergometry. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 18(2), 225-230.
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Effects of Exercise on Pregnancy

Words: 3153 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13794457

Pregnancy

There are many positive effects of exercise during pregnancy. It can decrease the time it takes to get back into shape after giving birth. It may also decrease the amount of time spent in the hospital. In addition, it can increase Apgar scores and birth weight, as well as decrease discomfort during pregnancy. Women who exercise during pregnancy also find that they have less difficulty and length of labor. Research shows that exercise has many benefits for pregnant women.

However, as both exercise and pregnancy exert stresses on the body, the cumulative effects must be taken into consideration when analyzing the relationship between exercise and pregnancy. In general, research about this topic is sparse, and animal studies have presented conflicting findings. Chronic disorders such as diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease are the most obvious reasons to discourage persons at risk from intense rehabilitative exercising while pregnant. In addition, small…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Araujo, David. (April, 1997). Expecting Questions About Exercise and Pregnancy? The Physician and Sports Medicine, Vol. 25, No. 4, pp. 67-69.

Kramer MS. (February 12, 2002). Aerobic exercise for women during pregnancy (Cochrane Review). In: The Cochrane Library, Issue 1. Oxford: Update Software.

Smith, James. (1998). Exercise During Pregnancy. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.

South-Paul, J. Rajagopo, K. Tenholder, M. (1988). Exercise and Pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol: 71:175-179.
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Mitchell Ted Tim Church & Martin Zucker

Words: 1128 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26800478

Mitchell, Ted, Tim Church & Martin Zucker. (2008). Move yourself: The Cooper Clinic medical director's guide to all the healing benefits of exercise (Even a little!). New York: Wiley.

Much has been written about the importance of reforming the American diet. However, there is an equally important aspect of fitness and the maintenance of a healthy weight: exercise. Move yourself: The Cooper Clinic medical director's guide to all the healing benefits of exercise (Even a little!) is a positive, upbeat book that proclaims the value of even small amounts of exercise, as a way of encouraging overweight Americans to change their negative lifestyle behavioral patterns. Given the multiplicity of prescriptions to Americans about the right way to 'move more' as well as to 'eat less' as the way of addressing their weight problems, it is worth considering the question as to if it is enough to do even small amounts…… [Read More]

References

Cloud, John. (2009). Why exercise won't make you thin. Time Magazine.

Retrieved December 7, 2011 at http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1914974-3,00.html

Mitchell, Ted, Tim Church & Martin Zucker. (2008). Move yourself: The Cooper Clinic medical director's guide to all the healing benefits of exercise (Even a little!). New York: Wiley.

Taubes, Gary. (2007). The scientists and the Stairmaster. New York Magazine.
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Drug Abuse in the Society

Words: 1185 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93981014

predict anabolic steroids on the controversial forefront of drugs that enhance performance. Halfway through the period, no attempt has been met from the governing bodies of sports towards the control of its use. It is only recent that North America's major governing bodies of sport came to an agreement of punishing and banning anabolic-steroids involved athletes from participating in any competition. The strict punitive measures have a primary development concern of promoting fair play and doing away with nagging health risks that are associates to androgenic-anabolic steroids. However, controversy is still in play as to whether the use of anabolic steroids is deterred by these programs in question (Hoffman & Ratamess, 2006).

The steroids, Anabolic-androgenic, are a derivation of the male sex hormone; testosterone, that is man-made. Physiologically speaking, an increase in the concentration of testosterone will stimulate the synthesis of protein with effective results in strength, body mass, and…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bhasin, S., Storer, T.W., Berman, N., Callegari, C., Clevenger, B., Phillips, J., Bunnell, T.J., Tricker, R., hirazi, A. And Casaburi, R. (1996). The effects of supraphysiologic doses of testosterone on muscle size and strength in men. New England Journal of Medicine 335, 1-7.

Bhasin, S., Woodhouse, L. And Storer T.W. (2001) Proof of the effect of testosterone on skeletal muscle. Journal of Endocrinology 170, 27-38.

Hoffman, J., & Ratamess, N. (2006 ). Medical Issues Associated with Anabolic Steroid Use: Are They Exaggerated? NCBI, 182 -- 193. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3827559/

Karila T. Adverse effects of anabolic androgenic steroids on the cardiovascular, metabolic and reproductive systems of anabolic substance abusers. http://ethesis.helsinki.fi/julkaisut/laa/biola/vk/karila/adversee.pdf.
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Water Gatorades and Powerades I Am a

Words: 792 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59429528

Water, Gatorades and Powerades

I am a registered dietician, presenting my piece of work on the different types of beverages. I am giving this presentation because water is an overlooked nutrient in the hydration process while it can be an excellent sports beverage. Water is the most essential nutrient in the body because death can occur rapidly in the absence of water than any other nutrient. Knowing this, does not take much imagination when dehydration occurs during sports performance or training. Around 60% of the human body is inside water called intracellular cells, and the muscle tissues have 70% of water which is critical during exercise.

Gatorade and PowerAde contain added proteins, sodium and carbohydrates, which help in increasing blood glucose levels and high cycling performance. PowerAde has low calories while Gatorade is lightly flavored with enhanced vitamins also with low calories. These power drinks are moderately isotonic because, they…… [Read More]

References

Heather, F.A. (2011). Practical Applications In Sports Nutrients. Atlanta: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

Jones, R.S. (2010). Nutrition for Sport and Exercise. Atlanta: Jonnes and Bartlett Publishers.
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Exercise as a Child and the Effects it Has on Adult Life

Words: 3056 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21597759

patterns of physical activity and exercise indicates that there has been an overall trend of decreasing physical activity levels and increasing levels of inactivity among adolescents and adults (Gordon-Larsen, McMurray, & Popkin, 1999; Van Der Horst, Paw, Twisk, & Van Mechelen, 2007). Inactivity and poor diet are responsible a large number of deaths annually and could soon become one of the leading causes of death in developed countries. esearch continues to reaffirm that there is a dose response relationship between physical activity and all causes of mortality. There is typically a risk reduction of around 30% for those attaining the recommended levels of at least moderately intense physical activity on most days of the week compared with those who are relatively inactive (Lee & Skerrett, 2001). egular physical exercise has long been associated with decreased risk of fatal cardiovascular disease (Powell, Thompson, Caspersen, & Kenderick, 1987), obesity and diabetes (Knowler,…… [Read More]

References

American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Public Education. (2001). Media violence. Pediatrics, 108, 1222 -- 1226.

Dennison, B.A., Straus, J.H., Mellits, E.D., & Charney, M.D. (1988). Childhood physical fitness tests: Predictor of adult physical activity levels? Pediatrics, 82 (3), 324-330.

Gordon-Larsen, P., Adair, L.S., Nelson, M.C., & Popkin, B.M. (2004). Five-year obesity incidence in the transition period between adolescence and adulthood: The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 80, 569 -- 575.

Gordon-Larsen, P., McMurray, R.G., & Popkin, B.M. (1999). Adolescent physical activity and inactivity vary by ethnicity: the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Journal of Pediatrics, 135, 301 -- 306.
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Newest Vital Sign and Realm

Words: 1845 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91623369



Bass, P., ilso, J. And Griffith, C. (2003). A Shortened Instrument for Literacy Screening. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 8(12), 1036-8.

Berger, J. (2000). Corporate Health Plan Strategies and Health Literacy. National Health Communications Conference. ashington, DC: ACP Fouindation.

Chew, L., Bradley, K., and Boyko, E.. (2004). Brief Questions to Identify Patients with Inadequate Health Literacy. Family Medicine, 36(8), 588-94.

Chew, L., Griffin, J., Partin, M., et al. (2008). Validation of Screening Questions for Limited Health Literacy. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 23(5), 561-6.

Davis, T. And olf, M.. (2004). Health Literacy Implications for Family Medicine. Family Medicine, 36(8), 595-8.

Davis, T., Long, S., and Jackson, R. (1993). Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine. Family Medicine, 25(1), 391-95.

Dowse, R., Lecoko, L. And Ehlers, M. (2005). Applicability of the REALM Health Literacy Test. Pharmacy orld, 32(4), 464-71.

Ibrahim, S., Reid, F., Shaw, A., et al. (2008). Validation of a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Health Litarcy: Report of the Council on Scientific Affairs. (1999). Journal of the American Medical Association, 28(1), 552-7.0

Arozulla, Y., Benett, S., Soltysilk, T., et al. (2007). Development and Validation of a Short-Form, Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine. Medical Care, 5(11), 1026-33.

Bass, P., Wilso, J. And Griffith, C. (2003). A Shortened Instrument for Literacy Screening. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 8(12), 1036-8.

Berger, J. (2000). Corporate Health Plan Strategies and Health Literacy. National Health Communications Conference. Washington, DC: ACP Fouindation.
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Diathermy Uses Benefits and Risks as One

Words: 2031 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38505994

Diathermy: Uses, Benefits, And isks

As one of the oldest treatment modalites, the therapeutic effects of heat have been experienced for several hundred years. In order to use heat in the treatment of deep muscle injury, diathermy treatment is the therapy of choice. Diathermy uses high-frequency electrical currents to heat deep muscular tissues. This heating results in pain relief, increased blood flow, and increased flexibility. esearch has demonstrated evidence both for and against the effectiveness of diathermy treatment. Attention must be given, however, to risk factors predisposing some patients to serious adverse effects due to diathermy treatment.

Diathermy: Uses, benefits, and risks

Diathermy refers to the use of high-frequency electrical currents to heat deep muscular tissues. This heat increases the flow of blood to the area, which in turn, speeds up recovery. The term diathermy is a derivative of the Greek words therma, meaning heat, and dia, meaning through. Therefore,…… [Read More]

References

Frick, L. (2001). Diathermy. Gale Encyclopedia of Alternative Medicine. http://www.findarticles.com/g2603/0003/2603000326/p1/article.jhtml.

Peres, S., Draper, D., Knight, K., Ricard, M. (2002). Pulsed shortwave diathermy and prolonged long-duration stretching increase dorsiflexion range of motion more than identical stretching without diathermy. Journal of Athletic Training, 37(1), 43-50.

Draper, D., Miner, L., Knight, K., Ricard, M. (2002). The carry-over effects of diathermy and stretching in developing hamstring flexibility. Journal of Athletic Training, 37(1), 37-42.

Diathermy. http://www.orthoteers.co.uk/Nrujp~ij331m/Orthdiathermy.htm
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Energy Sources for Physical Exercises

Words: 2525 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40092468

Health Fitness Human Performance

One of the most important parts of an athlete's training regime is nutrition because of its role in human performance. Athletes need to focus on nutrition because the failure to ingest adequate calories can contribute to a lack of vital macro and micro nutrients. Moreover, nutrition is a crucial element in any athlete's training regime given the influences of food on a person's physical mankind. Throughout history, certain foods have been regarded as essential in preparation for strenuous physical activity or exercise. As part of focus on nutrition, athletes need to consider various factors that contribute to nutrition in relation to physical activity and exercise. Some of these important considerations include certain types of food and food sources that help in preparation for physical activity, heath, fitness, and human performance.

hat is glycogen? hy is it important for exercise? 5. hat are some activities that are…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Heinonen, Olli J. "Carnitine and Physical Exercise." Sports Medicine 22.2 (1996): 109-32. Print.

Millan, Inigo S. "The Importance of Carbohydrates and Glycogen for Athletes." TrainingPeaks. Peaksware Inc., 17 Jan. 2013. Web. 02 June 2015. .

"The Role of Carbohydrates in Exercise and Physical Performance." FAO Corporate Document Repository. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United States, n.d. Web. 02 June 2015. .

Tarnopolsky, Mark A. "Effect of Caffeine on the Neuromuscular System -- Potential as an Ergogenic Aid." Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism 33.6 (2008): 1284-289. Print.
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Water An Overlooked Essential Nutrient You Are

Words: 1366 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70846723

Water: An Overlooked Essential Nutrient

You are a egistered Dietitian, and you have been invited to a Lunch and Learn program at a very large law firm. The firm must make a decision about which company they will select for a year long beverage contract. The lawyers must choose water, Gatorade, or PowerAde. Of the 55 attorneys attending your presentation, 32 of them workout regularly for 1 hour five days out of the week.

The firm has requested that you address all of the questions mentioned in the introductory paragraph while creating a handout that compares water, Gatorade, and PowerAde on the following categories:

Daily recommendations

Daily recommendations for water are an average of 3.7 liters (125 oz) for men about 2.7 liters (95 oz) for women. Some individuals who have higher than average fluid and electrolyte needs may need more (GSSI).

The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) and…… [Read More]

References

Associated Content. (Oct 14, 2007). Gatorade vs. PowerAde: Which is the Better Sports Drink? Accessed online March 30, 2011:

http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/413298/gatorade_versus_powerade_which_is_the_pg2.html?cat=5

Gatorade FAQ. Accessed online March 30, 2011: http://www.gatorade.com/frequently_asked_questions/Default.aspx

Gatorade Ingredients and Nutrition Content. Pepsi Product Facts. Accessed online March 30, 2011: http://pepsiproductfacts.com/infobyproduct.php?prod_size=20&brand_fam_id=1043&brand_id=1002&product=Gatorade+Lemon+Lime.
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Nurse Training in Cardiac Procedures

Words: 9322 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74651339

The procedure itself and the hospital stay associated with it is only one small chapter in the patient's life. They will eventually go home and will have many years after the procedure. It is important for the nursing staff to make a positive impact on how they feel about the procedure. The procedure will represent a lasting memory to the patient. If the patient perceives this to be a time of strength and care from nurturing individuals then it will help them to be able to develop the coping mechanisms necessary to learn to live with the after-effects of the procedure.

If the patient sees this as a negative experience, then it could produce unwanted effects such as depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, or other emotional problems that could have an effect on their ability to cope with the life changes. Those that develop appropriate coping mechanisms will be more likely…… [Read More]

References

Knoll, N., Rieckmann, N., & Schwarzer, R. (2005). Coping as a mediator between personality and stress outcomes: A longitudinal study with cataract surgery patients. European Journal of Personality, 19, 229-247.

Lippke, S., Ziegelmann, J.P., & Schwarzer, R. (2004). Initiation and maintenance of physical exercise: Stage-specific effects of a planning intervention. Research in Sports Medicine, 12, 221-240.

Lippke, S., Ziegelmann, J.P., & Schwarzer, R. (2004). Behavioral intentions and action plans promote physical exercise: A longitudinal study with orthopedic rehabilitation patients. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 26, 470-483.

Lippke, S., Ziegelmann, J.P., & Schwarzer, R. (2005). Stage-specific adoption and maintenance of physical activity: Testing a three-stage model. Psychology of Sport & Exercise, 6, 585-603.
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Psychological and Physiological Effects of Exercise on the Mind and the Body

Words: 1900 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97000787

Exercise has been described as the best medicine for depression. It can help a person get through rough times. Physical exercise is very important for a person's mental and physical health. Exercise helps in pumping more blood through the veins. This results in the increase in size of the arteries and it prevents fats from clogging the arteries. It also prevents blood clots. A person who exercises regularly is protected from a variety of diseases and it helps in curbing cholesterol. Exercise benefits a human body as it lowers blood pressure and conditions the lungs. Exercise has its various advantages. It successfully counters stress, depression and anxiety. It has been named as the best fighting force for all these problems. Exercise is also instrumental in improving a person's nervous, cardiovascular and immune system. It also increases our metabolism, digestion and stimulation. (University of Michigan Health System) (http://www.med.umich.edu/1libr/primry/fit02.htm)

Sometimes people feel…… [Read More]

Bibliography

http://www.med.umich.edu/1libr/primry/fit02.htm

Marissa Beck, Relieving Stress Through Exercise, The Tufts Daily, 2003

Richard Harvey, The Physician and Sports Medicine - September 1995

Harvard Health Publications Special Health Report, Depression Report, 2002
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Policy and Recommendation on a Child's Unstructured Play

Words: 1909 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69189844

UNSTUCTUED PLAY AND CHILDEN'S DEVELOPMENT

Unstructured play in childhood

POLICY BIEF

The effect of lack of unstructured play on children's development

Unstructured play as a form of therapy for children was readily accepted when it was first introduced in both homes and schools. In fact, sand-play in its early form was used to allow children interact, enhance their creativity and develop their social skills (Frost & Norquist, 2007). esearch shows that a fundamental aspect of human development is attained in the early childhood stages. As such, any measures to facilitate future development of an individual needs to be cultivated in the early stages of their lives (Miller & Almon, 2009). Over time, unstructured play -- once a highly regarded child development measure -- has lost its meaning and place (Miller & Almon, 2009). Increasing cases of poor child development evidenced by volumes of mental illness antisocial behaviors and physical challenges…… [Read More]

References

Barros, R.M., Silver, E.J., & Stein, R.E. (2009). School recess and group classroom behavior. Pediatrics, 123(2), 431-436.

Campbell, K.J., & Hesketh, K.D. (2007). Strategies which aim to positively impact on weight, physical activity, diet and sedentary behaviours in children from zero to five years. A systematic review of the literature. . Obes Rev., 8(4), 327-338.

Cleland, V., & Venn, A. (2010). Encouraging physical activity and discouraging sedentary behavior in children and adolescents. J Adolescent Health, 47(3), 221-222.

Council on Sports Medicine and Fitness, & Council on School Health. (2006). Active healthy living: prevention of childhood obesity through increased physical activity. Pediatrics, 117(5), 1834-1842.
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Bone Density

Words: 646 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99005259

Bone Loss

Dancers depend on their bones and skeletal system. Bones in turn depend on key nutrients and micronutrients to maintain their density and their ability to carry out the dancers' often extreme demands. Because bone is living tissue, a thorough understanding of how bone density is created and maintained is essential for all dancers. Female dancers need to be especially aware of the impact of diet, lifestyle, and hormones on their bones. A clinically defined syndrome known as Female Athlete Triad refers to the three main variables that impact female bone mineral densities including disordered eating, irregular menstrual cycles, and osteoporosis. The triad itself also refers to energy availability, menstrual function, and bone health (Mountjoy et al., 2014). Bone health can be easily conceptualized as the balance between dietary energy intakes and energy expenditures. Maintaining balance and biological equilibrium can promote maximum health in professional dancers. Because the triad…… [Read More]

References

Friesen, et al. (2011). Bone mineral density and body composition of collegiate modern dancers. Journal of Dance Medicine and Science 15(1).

Hoch, et al. (2011). Association between the female athlete triad and endothelial dysfunction in dancers. Clin J. Sport Med 21(2), 119-125.

Mountjoy, et al. (2014). The IOC consensus statement: beyond the female athlete triad. British Journal of Sports Medicine 48, 491-497.
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Creatine or Glutamine as a Dietary Supplement

Words: 1407 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97202612

Dietary Supplement for Athletes or Bodybuilding

Creatine is a dietary supplement that has been popular for more than thirty years amongst athletes and bodybuilders (Feldman 1999: 45). Its alleged benefits include enhancing muscle-building and recovery. The use of dietary supplements, particularly amongst adolescents and young adult athletes has increased in popularity and may even be endorsed by coaches and parents. Creatine is not recommended for young athletes because of questions about the long-term safety of its use, but pressures to 'be the best' have increased as the margin between first-class and second-class athletes grows ever more razor-thin (Dunn et al. 2001).One study found that "62% of adolescent athletes believed supplements improve performance, with 50% consuming dietary supplements" (Dunn et al. 2001). In another study of attitudes of young athletes Dunn (et al. 2001) found widespread acceptance of the use of creatine and belief in its benefits, even amongst athletes who…… [Read More]

References

Beck TW, Housh TJ, Johnson GO, Coburn DW, Malek MH, Cramer JT. (2007). Effects of a drink containing creatine, amino acids, and protein, combined with ten weeks of resistance training on body composition, strength, and anaerobic performance.

J Strength Cond Res, 21:100-104.

Buford, Thomas W. (et al. 2007). International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand:

creatine supplementation and exercise. Retrieved:
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Health Care Analysis Marketing at Mayo Clinic

Words: 1017 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23685165

Health Care Analysis: Marketing at Mayo Clinic

Marketing activities and processes play an instrumental role in the success of an organization (Kotler, Shalowitz & Stevens, 2011). This observation is particularly true for Mayo Clinic, one of the largest nonprofit healthcare organizations in the U.S. and whose history dates back more than 150 years ago (Mayo Clinic, n.d.). This paper explores the importance of marketing to the success of the organization. this paper pays specific attention to the 4Ps of marketing, the relationship between the organization's marketing and its partnerships, the value of those partnerships, as well as its target market.

4 Ps of Marketing

The 4Ps of marketing essentially explain the four major elements that constitute the focus of marketing. The first element is Product, which considers the nature of the product or service and the customer need it fulfills (Kotler, Shalowitz & Stevens, 2011). Mayo Clinic provides a wide…… [Read More]