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Sports Science and Sports Medicine- An Overview
This is a paper about "Sports Science and Sports Medicine." 6 sources are given. (Harvard style)
Sports/exercise science and medicine are fields that have only recently begun consolidating into distinct professions. They are both interrelated, the former being more of an investigative and experimental area while the latter deals with the implementation of the knowledge and techniques developed by sports science.
They are still in the process of being conclusively defined, and include various disciplines. A 1999 survey carried out by the 'Physician and Sports medicine' journal elicited terms such as: art and science of medicine applied to physical activity, care of athletes, disease prevention and treatment, emphasis on function, enhancing fitness, human performance, medical subspecialty, musculoskeletal medicine, nutrition, orthopedic subspecialty, physiology, prevention, psychology, rehabilitation, sports injuries, sports-related medical conditions, sports science, etc. To describe sports medicine. (Matheson, 1999)
The International Federation of…… [Read More]
Originally, the main objective of sports medicine was the welfare of competitive professional athletes, but it now encompasses treatment of anyone engaged in sport and exercise.
It is becoming an increasingly important branch of the overall medicine field. More general practitioners are being trained in sports medicine than ever before. The training gives them a better understanding of the physical, physiological, and psychological demands of exercise. This helps them to diagnose sports injuries more effectively, and to prescribe the most suitable forms of prevention, exercise, and treatment to improve the health of all athletes and sports enthusiasts everywhere.
"Comprehensive Study of Sports Injuries in the U.S." June 2003. American Sports Data. 11 Apr 2009 .
Haggerty, Maureen. "Sports injury." n.d. answers.com. 11 Apr 2009 .
Medicine, the American College of Sports. "Careers in Sports Medicine and." n.d. The American College of Sports Medicine. 11 Apr 2009 .…… [Read More]
In conclusion, it is a commonly established fact that horses used in sports, and particularly in polo, require a level of special care in order to ensure their longevity and well-being. The current paradigms regarding animal care mandates that no animal should suffer cruelty at human hands. This also extends to the treatment and care of polo ponies. Owners are to do all in their power to prevent injury or death to their horses. This is why associations such as the United States Polo Association mandate a number of particular rules and regulations to ensure that polo ponies are being treated correctly.
Indeed, a recent press release by the Association indicated the approval of a law to randomly test the blood and urine of polo ponies to ensure that no irregularities or abuse occur. For the industry, it is vitally important to maintain healthy horses. This affects both the reputation…… [Read More]
Assessment is best performed during the "preswelling period on the sidelines" according to Trojan and McKeag (1998)
The avoidance of "chronic ankle pain, laxity, or arthritis can be accomplished through "appropriate treatment." The following table illustrates the differentiation in ankle injuries that exists:
Table 1. Useful Tests for Various Ankle Injuries
Lateral malleolus fracture
Peroneal tendon subluxation
Bifurcate ligament avulsion
Anterior drawer, talar tilt
X-ray as per Ottawa ankle rules
Mortise view ankle x-rays
esisted dorsiflexion and eversion
Medial ankle sprain
Medial malleolus fracture
Posterior tibialis tendon injury
Flexor hallucis longus tendinitis
X-ray as per Ottawa ankle rules
Single heel-rise test
esisted first-toe flexion
Achilles tendon rupture
Os trigonum fracture
Weight-bearing lateral x-ray, tenderness on passive plantar flexion
Anterior tibialis tendon injury
Squeeze," external rotation
esisted dorsiflexion…… [Read More]
There are various exercise science and wellness promotion sub-disciplines, such as exercise physiology, biomechanics, sport nutrition, rehabilitative biomechanics, and sport psychology. Each relates to my career options as offering a significant approach to the workplace environment via a strong degree in kinesiology. The career path of my choice is to enter into rehabilitative biomechanics and therefore to pursue a degree in kinesiology, so as to become familiar with using exercises and machines to help injured persons become mobile again. The study will focus on the mechanics of movement and how the anatomy of the body impacts range of motion and what can be done to strengthen specific target areas of the body.
As far as certification or licensing goes, it all depends on which type rehabilitation I would like to specialize in. I could obtain certification for golfers looking to maintain their bodies for the sport from the…… [Read More]
The research suggests that sport psychology is useful to athletes because it provides them with the tools needed to fully exploit their physical talents by controlling their mental processes. The research found that here are several techniques associated with sports psychology. These techniques include MPSE, thought stopping, mental rehearsal (imagery) self-talk, visuo-motor behavior rehearsal (VMBR) and establishing goals. All of these techniques can be used to assist the athlete in focusing on the goal that they are attempting to accomplish.
Arvinen-Barrow M., Penny G.,Hemmings B., Corr S. (2010) UK chartered physiotherapists' personal experiences in using psychological interventions with injured athletes: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Psychology of Sport and Exercise 11 (2010) 58 -- 66
"Careers in Sports Psychology." Retrieved February 16, 2010 from: http://www.wcupa.edu/_Academics/sch_cas.psy/Career_Paths/Sports/Career07.htm
De Petrillo, L.A., Kaufman, K.A. Glass, C.R. And Arnkoff D.B. (2009) Mindfulness for Long-Distance Runners: An Open Trial Using Mindful Sport Performance Enhancement (MSPE).…… [Read More]
Although the coach may not work out with the client every session, he or she may be called upon to demonstrate many of the moves and to assist the client, depending on the nature of the session and the client's needs. For some coaches, the 'best' part of work -- the involvement with people committed to fitness -- may also be the worst part, because their schedules may make it difficult to find time to work out alone. Even then, the coach may be so exhausted from helping others he does not have the motivation to condition himself. But this is vital, so the coach can assist clients in an injury-free fashion.
A typical 'day in the life' of a sports and conditioning coach will vary depending upon the coach's practice setting. A private trainer might get up at 5:30am to go to the house of a busy executive he…… [Read More]
athletic coach I have garnered a wide variety of skills, as well as an extensive understanding of the standard practices and procedures an individual in the field of exercise science should possess. My past experiences have provided me with substantial knowledge of the principles involved in the prevention and care of athletic injuries. With the following, I hope to illustrate that my experiences and subsequent research have provided me with a broad awareness of typical athletic injuries and treatments as they apply to exercise science.
When a member of my dance squad sprained her ankle it became necessary for me to tape it as to provide additional support. I employed the traditional Gibney basket weave procedure. This consists of an interwoven network of stirrup strips "which cover the plantar surface of the hindfoot and extend proximally on both the medial and lateral aspects of the leg, and horseshoe strips, which…… [Read More]
career of an athletic trainer, including the background necessary for the career, the necessary education, and job opportunities for athletic trainers. Athletic trainers form a necessary backbone of most professional sports organizations, and many private organizations. A professional athletic trainer can make the difference between a life-changing injury, or returning to the game. Athletic trainers are an essential and integral part of modern sports medicine, and as sports and athletics increase in importance in our society, they will continue to play an important part in our healthy lives.
Athletic trainers have been around for centuries, but today, most trainers are certified, and not only work with sports clubs or educational facilities, they can work in gyms and fitness centers, and even corporate workout centers.
Certified athletic trainers (ATCs) are medical experts in preventing, recognizing, managing and rehabilitating injuries that result from physical activity. Athletic trainers can help you avoid unnecessary…… [Read More]
Matt gave Ed two eggs on toast with half-a-grapefruit and orange juice for breakfast (Independent on Sunday, 2002). Ed took fish oils and multivitamins on a daily basis. These were immediately followed by a good fiber and protein meal in minutes or strength during his warm-up sessions. Matt gave Stu chicken, basmati rice, couscous and egg and Jaffa cakes for his "insulin." Matt's intention was to bring extra protein straight into Stu's tired muscles. He also served Stu with nuts for his snacks (Independent on Sunday).
Commercial high-carbohydrate electrolyte sports drinks fill the football player's need, especially within the first 15 minutes after strenuous activity. These drinks also appeal more than plain water while contributing their value (Mannie, 2001).
usiness Wire (2004). 3-a-day dairy teams up with national football league to tackle kids' nutrition and fitness in schools. usiness Wire: Gale, Cengage Learning.
Retrieved on April 4, 2009 from…… [Read More]
Intercollegiate Athletics Program Guarantee the Success of a College?
Intercollegiate athletics programs are a common feature in most colleges, and many of these programs have been shown to contribute to the education and development of the young people who participate in them. Moreover, intercollegiate athletics programs, especially men's football and basketball, are major revenue generators through ticket sales for many educational institutions. In many cases, colleges that feature high-profile intercollegiate athletics programs enjoy the benefits of these programs through increased revenues and publicity. Even the best intercollegiate athletics program, though, cannot guarantee the success of a college for the reasons identified through a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature which is provided below, followed by a summary of the research and important findings in the conclusion.
Review and Discussion
Intercollegiate athletics programs in the United States are divided into various divisions (i.e., Division 1A and 1AA), with the…… [Read More]
234). Culturally, trainers may simply be paying more attention to girls' injuries due to our culture's tendency to protect females more than males (Tierney, et al., 2005, p. 278) and/or boys may simply under-report concussions due to "macho" tendencies to play through pain in order to continue playing (Covassin, et al., 2012, p. 926). Hormones may contribute to the greater incidence of concussions among female high school athletes because researchers have found that estrogen protects male rats from brain trauma but actually makes female rats more vulnerable to brain trauma (Makdissi, et al., 2013, p. 319). Whether caused anatomically, culturally, hormonally or for some other reason, the fact remains that girls are reportedly highly more likely to sustain concussions in sports such as soccer and basketball. Consequently, gender matters in the sports injury of concussion.
Development of a masculine identity is psychologically fundamental for males and particularly for…… [Read More]
Competitive sports participation opportunities for children continue to grow. Nowadays, children begin their regular sport participation between the ages of 4 to 8 years. Most children enjoy sports and show great enthusiasm for participation. However, the situation changes when young athletes get involved in the elite-level championships organized and directed by adults. Children's play becomes transformed from informal playground games to highly organized sporting events that mirror adult professional sports.
The effects of such intensive training and participation in elite-level competition on young athletes have been investigated. However, most of the research has been devoted to athletes above 10 years of age who are involved in individual sports. Little has been done to explore the impact of the elite-level competition on children under 10 years old participating in team sports.
Indeed, the idea that organized, supervised athletic competition benefits pre-pubertal children is very controversial. However, since more and…… [Read More]
Octagon Sports Organization Structure
Octagon Sports Organizational Structure
The most fundamental aspect and/or tool for establishing a successful organization is the organizational structure. Organizational structure is a typical and hierarchical arrangement of lines of authority, rights, duties, and communications within an organization, thereby defining how powers, roles, and responsibilities are assigned, coordinated, and controlled, and how information flows between the diversified levels of management. All these aspects are thereby directed towards the attainment or achievement of an organization's aims and/or goals. An organization's structure depends on the organization's core objectives and strategies. There are two categories of organizational structure comprising (i) centralized structure, and (ii) decentralized structure. Within a centralized structure, the top management owns, if not all then, most of the decision making powers, as well as staunch control over the organization's departments and divisions. On the contrary, in a decentralized organizational structure, the power for decision making is…… [Read More]
Even the much despised soccer is popular amongst American youths. Yet Americans cheer on their favorite individual stars in all of these sports, especially if the starts engage in charity efforts to justify their bloated salaries. The tension remains about what good sports do for both the individual or society, and Americans today are clearly using sports as a means of practical self-improvement like the Greeks as well as a means of collective identification like the English: "in the 1950's or 1960's, few people exercised; baseline fitness-consciousness was just above zero. Today, 20% of the U.S. population works out on a regular basis, while an additional 60%+ can be classified as...'Consciousness III' -- those persuaded of physical fitness, but who by their own admission, don't get enough exercise. As behavior lags enlightened attitudes, 4 out of 5 adult Americans are true believers in exercise and fitness." But the protests remain…… [Read More]
The sports center at the newly opened high school has to employ at least the following:
Two coaches, preferably one male and one female, each to manage the same gender teams. This measure is to be implemented in order to reduce the chances of immoral conduct on school premises, but no discriminations would be committed during the selection and hiring processes.
One medic is required to be easily reachable and assist sports injuries or otherwise medical necessities. Hiring a new medical professional would be redundant and meaningless, coming as such to a conclusion that the already hired school medic would also assist the medical needs of the sports center.
One counselor. Similar to the school medic, it could initially be stated that the role of sports counselor would be played by the already hired school counselor. However, such a solution is not the most viable one in the…… [Read More]
Ironically, as we have seen, we live in a capitalistic society. A sometimes unwilling engine of this equity has been revenue generating sports. hat will be absolutely necessary will be the demand of female consumers who will vote with their wallets in favor of equity. However, they will only do so if they are properly educated. The portrayal of women as equal partners of women in society appears to be a permanent feature of American society. Baring some major social change in society, this trend is likely to continue. As noted above, the place for gender integration in sports on the playing field and court will ironically probably take place on the living room couch in front of the television or in front of the computer. Non-athletes will determine for good or ill the status of gender in sports. They have before and this will certainly continue into the foreseeable…… [Read More]
marketing plan a sports enterprise (e.g. professional, school, community program). You select a "real" enterprise a fictitious . You position manager develop a plan implement employees / contractors.
The modern day society is nowadays characterized by numerous challenges, one of the more notable of these being increasing health problems among the population. And these health problems are more severe not only as they attack more people, but especially since they come to impact younger and younger generations.
A large majority of the health problems of today are related to an inadequate nutrition, combined with a sedentary life style. The youth of the day for instance consume more and more calories from the highly processed foods and they exercise less, as the leisure activities come to be centered on video games or other sedentary activities (Smith and Biddle, 2008).
In such a setting then, the current project proposed the…… [Read More]
In his preparation for a career in sports, an unethical coach or teammate may present the boy with steroids to enhance his physical performance, with the claim that Rodriguez advocates the use of such substances.
Furthermore, Rodriguez's apparent lack of remorse and his adherence to the claim that he was "young and stupid" creates a poor image for both the sport, its stars, and its followers. It furthermore indicates that being young precludes a person from making wise choices, and that only a maturity in years could bring the wisdom necessary to say no to performance-enhancing drugs.
This also has an effect upon parenting, and the ability of parents to influence children for their best benefit. tars such as Rodriguez indirectly promote drugs by means of their behavior. Jeopardizing good parenting in this way also influences the stability of the family and hence of society as a whole. It is…… [Read More]
Medicine is designed to treat the sick and the injured. Its function is to either treat a condition or to better severe symptoms from a medical or physical condition. Some medicines, when first introduced, are controversial because of the ingredients that are used. In the modern era, Marinol has become the subject of heated debate over whether or not it should be provided to patients. Despite the fact that it has been proven to help people when other medications have failed, there are still some places where the medication cannot be gotten simply because it contains a synthetic form of a substance which is illegal in most states. Marinol is not made from an illegal material, but a synthetic version which replicates the effects of that illegal substance. The drug Marinol is a brand name of a medication which is a synthetic form of tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC which is…… [Read More]
School of Podiatric Medicine & Surgery
Admission Essay: Gelareh Noenifard
Thank you for the opportunity to submit a learning portfolio for you to consider my application to enroll for the Podiatry B.Sc. degree. I trust that the information provided will convince you of my passion for the medical profession. I believe that knowledge is power and it is my desire to explore every learning opportunity to broaden my education toward attaining this qualification. It is my goal to offer my services free of charge - while I am studying - to podiatry practices to gain work experience. I have attended a podiatry taster day and found it to be a rewarding and challenging career. My interest was sparked when I received medical attention for an injured ankle. I regularly visit the podiatric office to gather information about the profession, learn by observing the treatment procedures, and ask questions about podiatric…… [Read More]
One of the most difficult paradigms in research is defining what exactly constitutes the idea of "theory." There are many different authors with many different views on this.
Harlow (2009) articulates the problem associated with defining "theory" is that there is no fixed, universal meaning for this concept. One of the guides towards identifying the components that constitute a theory could be the specific research direction at issue. In the natural science, for example, "theory" could refer to the law or system of laws. In a social sciences discipline, "theory" might suggest a construct or set to order and understand the phenomena under study.
While it is difficult to explain or define the concept of theory, Harlow also points towards the importance of understanding the concept of "theory" in terms of research, since it forms the central concept around which the research is conducted. Hence, understanding what is meant…… [Read More]
Caloric and Energy Requirements
Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Rangers or AMDRs were established from evidence levels of consumption, which either increase or decrease the risk of developing disease conditions (Otten et al., n.d.; USDA, n.d.). These disease conditions include coronary heart disease, obesity, diabetes and cancer. An AMDR refers to a range of food intakes aimed at reducing the risk of these disease conditions. At the same time, AMDR provides sufficient intakes of essential nutrients, which meet the body's daily nutritional requirements for health and energy. In order to accomplish these goals, an average adult should obtain 45-65% carbohydrates, 20-35% from fat, and 10-35% from protein sources (Otten et al., USDA).
Greg, who is a 19-year-old basketball player, weighs 84.82 kilograms. He stands .96520 meters and has a body mass index or MI of 22.5. Energy balance depends on intake from energy derived from food and drinks and the amount of…… [Read More]
This is achieved through the increase of metabolic rates and lean body mass while eliminating excess fat and burning calories. hile the required amount of physical activity differs based on the caloric intake and body type, sports can assist an individual to maintain a healthy weight. For people who want to maintain a huge amount of weight loss, high-intensity sports can be the best option while reasonably-intensive physical activity helps in realizing weight stability.
ell-being of Muscles and Bones:
As previously mentioned, bone and muscle injuries are some of the most common health-related risks in sports participation. However, as an individual grows older, there is need for maintenance of the well-being of muscles and bones for proper body functioning. hen an individual takes into consideration the necessary precaution measures, sports and physical activity becomes increasingly for muscles, bones, and joints health. Participation in sports provides people with the required elements…… [Read More]
. he American Journal of Sports Medicine, 35(3), 384-394.
2 groups of 70 patients with patellar tendon and hamstring tendon autografts were assessed 2 years following surgery. No significant differences were noted in terms of activity, although more patients in the P group experienced pain and loss of motion for a longer span of time than did patients in the hamstring tendon group. On the whole, patients with hamstring tendon grafts performed similarly to patients with patellar tendon grafts although more beneficial results seemed to incline towards the groups that had experienced hamstring tendon graft replacements.
Monaco, E., Labianca, L., Conteduca, F., De Carli, a., & Ferretti, a. (2007). Double bundle or single bundle plus extraarticular tenodesis in acl reconstruction?: a caos study. Knee Surgery, Sports raumatology, Arthroscopy, 15(10), 1168-1174.
he goal of this study was to evaluate the effect on the internal rotation of the tibia of lateral reconstruction…… [Read More]
Conceptualization and operationalization of variables
Poor communication between young athletes and coaches leads to longer recovery times and increased levels of frustration amongst athletes regarding their prognosis.
Independent Variable: Effective and ineffective communication between coaches and young athletes.
Conceptualization: Sports injuries are a serious concern. There has been a rise in the rate of youth sports injuries in recent decades, an increase partially attributed to a corresponding rise in youth specialization at an early age and year 'round participation in the same type of competitive sports activity, versus varying sports (Merkel & Molony 2013). In some sports, there are also grave concerns about the risk of permanent injury on every level of competition, as manifested in concerns about head trauma amongst football players, making it all the more critical to reduce the likelihood of such injuries occurring when young (Lopate 2013). Overuse injuries are common many popular youth sports: "Preteens…… [Read More]
However, in almost 30% of HCM cases only one segment of the left ventricle develops hypertrophy. The patterns of LV wall thickening is also diverse as is the thickness of the LV, which ranges from anywhere between 21 mm (average) to even 60 mm in some patients. It remains a sad fact that screening programs in the form of preparticipation evaluation based on familial history and electrocardiography does not reveal much. A recent study showed that a preparticipation screening for 115 high school and college athletes who later succumbed to sudden death could identify only 3% of them as at risk. This study also revealed that LVH is very mild and not obvious in adolescents and therefore electrocardiography readings are not diagnostically conclusive. [Maron]
Since there is not complete cure for the condition, treatment is purely symptomatic. Typically beta blockers (which reduce ventricular contraction), calcium channel blockers that slow…… [Read More]
The Fun Principle stated that as "we take the fun out of physical activities, we take the kids out of them" (Martens, 1996, p. 306). Martens said that learning should be enjoyable and that when winning is pursued in the extreme, it produces behaviors that destroy children's self-worth and rob them of fun. However, adults frequently violate this principle by over organizing, constantly instructing and evaluating, over drilling and routinizing the learning of skills, replacing unstructured play with calisthenics, and using physical activity as a form of punishment. Martens noted that the irony in youth sports is that "we turn young people off of the very thing we want to turn them on to" (p. 309). If lifelong participation in physical activity is the goal, then the emphasis should shift from the outcome to the quality of experiences, according to Martens. (Brady, 2004, p. 48)
Differences in Youth Who Withdraw…… [Read More]
When io de Janeiro recently won its bid to host the 2016 Olympic Games, they had one world famous representative on their Olympic committee that may have actually been more famous than our President Barak Obama. This individual may not be a household name in America, but he is most famous for scoring 2 goals in the 1958 World Cup championships when he was only 17 years old. This made him the youngest player to ever play in these renowned championships and over the course of his distinguished career; the majority of the football world would certainly consider him to be the best soccer player ever. Brazil actually has declared this individual as a national treasure in order to thwart other teams and countries from stealing him away and out of their country. His name is Edson Arantes Do Nascimento, but you may know him simply as --…… [Read More]
Academy Sports + Outdoors
The project charter for this plan, "Operation Midnight Basketball" for Academy Sports + Outdoors, is provided below.
The official name of this project is "Operation Midnight Basketball" to be implemented by Academy Sports + Outdoors as described below.
Today, Academy Sports + Outdoors (hereinafter alternatively "Academy" or "the company") is a leading retailers in the sports, outdoor and lifestyle industry offering a wide range of high quality fishing, hunting, and other outdoor merchandise, including camping equipment and gear as well as sports and leisure products, footwear, and outdoor apparel (About Academy, 2014). Headquartered in Texas, Academy operates more than 185 stores in the United States, including stores in, alphabetical order, Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee and Texas (About Academy, 2014). The company has a stated corporate social responsibility commitment that is congruent…… [Read More]
old, living away from home for the first time in an apartment in San Diego when I decided to attend college and maintain myself in an apartment without taking any financial assistance from my parents. Since I was not a California resident I had the additional expense of paying out-of-state tuition. I had a football scholarship that would pay fifty-percent of my tuition but I needed a job to pay my living expenses and the remaining tuition.
Although the time required for school and football was a fulltime job in itself, my financial needs said I needed to work between thirty and thirty five hours per week to make ends meet. With that as my motivation, I took a job at Federal Express as a package handler on the graveyard shift.
The summer before starting my sophomore year of college, just two weeks before the beginning of football camp in…… [Read More]
Safety Decisions in High School Football
This paper focuses on one aspect of high school football safety. The study explores the issue of higher levels of injury being associated with a particular brand or brands of football helmets worn by high school athletes who play football, and the institutional decisions and actions that follow disclosure of such information. A recent study by Virginia Tech rated helmets worn by professional football players -- helmets worn by high school students have not yet been rated by the university. The study compared helmets manufactured by three companies. High ratings were given to the iddell Speed, the iddell evolution, the iddell evolution IA, the Schutt Ion 4D, the Schutt DNA, and the Xenith X1. Medium ratings were given to the Schutt Air XP and Schutt Air Advantage. Players were warned by Virginia Tech not to wear the iddell VS4 and the Adams A2000. No…… [Read More]
(MRN, 1) This is to indicate that brain cells
are more actively produced by physical activity, convincing neurological
theorists that regular athletic orientation will improve one's academic
capacity and intellectual clarity. Still, as with other beneficial aspects
of an athlete's physical and intellectual growth, sporting activity must be
pursued in at least some degree of moderation. For both the implications
of what Metzl refers to as overuse and the consequences of an overly
centralized focus on athletic activity, there may be real and long-term
repercussions to failing to balance this emphasis with other healthy or
meaningful activities. Especially concerning bone and joint injuries,
overuse of specific parts of the body in a continuous and monotonous manner
will result in chronic pains and ultimately, lifelong localized injuries.
Therefore, especially when training for an endurance event, where sustained
energy is crucial, in training moderation can be a key to the prevention of…… [Read More]
Practical esearch Finding Implementation and Experimentation Stage -- Phase I
The experimenter did not set out to determine specifically which of the various contributing factors (or combinations of factors) identified by the empirical research of medial tibial stress syndrome was most responsible for the experimenter's symptoms. However, since the initial attempts to resolve the symptoms incorporated changes to all of the external variables except a change in running surface, the experimenter immediately sought a softer running surface and temporarily abandoned running on any hard surface that magnified instead of minimized the physiological trauma associated with running on harder surfaces.
Because the empirical research also implicated poor running stride mechanics and excessive vertical elevation, the experimenter devoted considerable attention to making the following specific changes to the running stride: (1) shorter strides to minimize travel of the body while neither foot is in contact with the running surface; (2) conscious attempts…… [Read More]
East African Athletes
East African unners
The achievement of long distance runners from East Africa especially Kenya as well as Ethiopia promoted a tradition of East Africans as genetically talented, indomitable, overriding for the reason of their biology. esearch has been undertaken to analyze this issue but nothing conclusive has been found as genes definite to East Africans that may perhaps justify their distance talent.
According to Scott A, H Wilson, W Goodwin, V Onywera, M Boit, YP Pitsiladis, (2006) a lot of Epstein's work surrounds the manner in which particular genes as well as some genetic markers profoundly control character that decide an individual's capability of becoming an athletics star. Among the instances that were looked into by the Epstein lies a Kenyan tribe known as the Kalenjin. esearchers have more than once pointed out that elongated as well as skinny legs are supplementary resourceful when it comes to…… [Read More]
You may think that you have recovered from your previous hard workout and you think you are ready to stress your muscles again (Gabe).
If you push yourself without the proper rest your joints, muscles, and tendons will start aching. If you continue to push though the soreness you may find that the aches and soreness never leave and you may start feeling tired all the time.
Runners that plan hard workouts one to two times a week and rest or jog on the other days may find the recovery time to be faster. y doing this it will help your muscle form more fibrous tissue which helps reduce injuries.
Avoiding Associated Injuries
While avoiding injuries is straightforward, many athletes, runners and joggers included, fall short in proper preparation to avoid injuries. Even if a runner uses the correct preventive techniques in training, it doesn't guarantee that an injury won't…… [Read More]
And a way to avoid injuries to the elbow, that is fairly obvious, is to use thicker landing mats, and to get expert training in how to fall properly. For males, injuries to the wrist have been identified as being caused by training on the pommel, because "the wrist is exposed to repetitive forces of up to twice body weight during this activity."
Exercises using the plyometric strategy are very useful for gymnasts; plyometric exercises are the "rapid deceleration and acceleration of muscles" that in turn help create a stretch-shortening cycle," according to www.specialolympics.org.These kinds of exercises train the muscles, and train the nervous system to carry out in an effective way the stretch-shortening cycle, which can improve the performance of a gymnast. Drills using plyometrics also help the athlete develop "rhythm, speed, power and even muscular endurance," the Special Olympics site explains. All plyometric exercises must be carried out…… [Read More]
esponsibilities as an external consultant to a contract manufacturing organization (CMO)
esearch in the field of medicine has contributed to changes in administration of dosage. Initially some administration routes for drugs are considered more convenient than other methods. However this relies and depends on the benefits and shortcomings of the drug administration route. The paper discusses on the possible and the convenient drug administration routes to apply in CMO. The paper also discusses on the methods to improve the physical stability and product chemical in the dosage for CMO
outes of administration for biological medicinal products
Different routes of administration can be applied for biological medicinal products and generally for contract manufacturing organization (CMO). For instance, enteral, parenteral, and transdermal are the common broad routes of medicinal administration.
Hypodermoclysis administration route
Hypodermoclysis administration route is whereby the dosage is in fluid form and can be referred to as subcutaneous infusion…… [Read More]
* The effects on normal aging and metabolism is that after the age of forty, metabolism usually decreases by about 5% every ten years. That does not mean that metabolism cannot be controlled to some extent; it can. Metabolism is loosely defined as the chemical workings within our bodies that help us to maintain a certain level of energy use, calorie burning and general energy (even at rest). As we age, our metabolism rate slows down, meaning that we burn less calories and the ones we do burn are burned at a slower rate. It also means that we may have less energy and our overall health slows as well.
* As individuals grow older their muscle mass is less likely to maintain its composition. Bill Sonnemaker, the 2007 IDEA Health and Fitness Personal Trainer of the year states that building muscle mass at any age provides a number of…… [Read More]
Partly because anatomical variation contributes to the development of metatarsal fractures, footwear is particularly important to mitigating any existing predisposing factors to the condition. While conflicting data as to the effect of hard surfaces call into question the assumption that surface density is directly related to metatarsal problems (Laker, Saint-Phard, Tyburski, et al., 2007), the insufficient cushioning properties of athletic footwear likely increases the overall risk nevertheless.
Proper fitting, particularly in the lateral dimension (i.e. width) is directly related to increased susceptibility to metatarsal problems because it further (artificially) contracts the overall surface areas available to dissipate and absorb dynamic forces by squeezing the metatarsals closer to each other as well (Cullen & Hadded, 2004). Finally, excessive roominess in athletic footwear can also contribute to stress fractures and other debilitating foot problems by allowing the foot to develop momentum within the shoe and resulting in momentarily high loads when…… [Read More]
Validity of the ACSM prediction equation to estimate submaximal
O2 during cycle ergometry in cyclists and aerobically-trained non-cyclists
Several methods have been developed to estimate oxygen consumption (
O2) during exercise. The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) developed equations to predict the energy cost of various activities, including walking, running, and arm and cycle ergometry. The ACSM cycle ergometery equation uses pedal frequency (rpm), distance of flywheel travel (meters), applied resistance to the flywheel (kp), and an estimation of the resting metabolism to predict oxygen cost during submaximal cycle exercise between 50 and 200 watts (W). This equation appears as:
O2 = (kg•m•min-1 x 2 ml•kg•m-1) + (3.5 kg•m•min-1 x M)
O2 is in ml•min-1 and M. is the subject's body mass in kg (Franklin, 2000).
The variability in direct
O2 measures has been shown to have a standard error of the estimate of up to 7%; the…… [Read More]
There are many positive effects of exercise during pregnancy. It can decrease the time it takes to get back into shape after giving birth. It may also decrease the amount of time spent in the hospital. In addition, it can increase Apgar scores and birth weight, as well as decrease discomfort during pregnancy. Women who exercise during pregnancy also find that they have less difficulty and length of labor. Research shows that exercise has many benefits for pregnant women.
However, as both exercise and pregnancy exert stresses on the body, the cumulative effects must be taken into consideration when analyzing the relationship between exercise and pregnancy. In general, research about this topic is sparse, and animal studies have presented conflicting findings. Chronic disorders such as diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease are the most obvious reasons to discourage persons at risk from intense rehabilitative exercising while pregnant. In addition, small…… [Read More]
Mitchell, Ted, Tim Church & Martin Zucker. (2008). Move yourself: The Cooper Clinic medical director's guide to all the healing benefits of exercise (Even a little!). New York: Wiley.
Much has been written about the importance of reforming the American diet. However, there is an equally important aspect of fitness and the maintenance of a healthy weight: exercise. Move yourself: The Cooper Clinic medical director's guide to all the healing benefits of exercise (Even a little!) is a positive, upbeat book that proclaims the value of even small amounts of exercise, as a way of encouraging overweight Americans to change their negative lifestyle behavioral patterns. Given the multiplicity of prescriptions to Americans about the right way to 'move more' as well as to 'eat less' as the way of addressing their weight problems, it is worth considering the question as to if it is enough to do even small amounts…… [Read More]
Candace, a 15-year-old softball player, presents due to ankle pain that developed after she twisted her ankle during a game. Ankle sprains and pain are common occurrences in athletes to an extent that they continue to be the subject of interest in sports medicine (McGovern & Martin, 2016). As evident in Candace’s situation, ankle sprains and injuries are common among individuals who are physically active. Therefore, early diagnosis and management of these conditions is crucial toward enhancing the patient’s health and wellbeing. The diagnosis process requires obtaining information to support possible differentials of strain, sprain, tear, or fracture. Information for proper diagnosis and identification of these factors is obtained through history and objective assessment. Some of the information needed include history of ankle injury, severity of injury, history of fracture, anatomical features, and clinical history.
Once diagnosis is made, a suitable intervention plan for treatment or management of…… [Read More]
The Critique: Begin with a Brief Summary
In this article, Burkett (2010) tries to identify the role that technology can help Paralympic athletes to compete in different sporting activities. The study focuses more on how technology can be made relevant to individual needs of Paralympic athletes. Moreover, it highlights the weaknesses and strengths in technologies used in the summer Paralympic games held in Athens and Beijing. The objective of the study was to ensure that relevant technology could be provided the 2012 London Games. The study is important and necessary because different technologies have been used before to help Paralympic athletes compete in different games, but some of them have failed the athletes. Moreover, Burkett (2010) seeks to provide solutions to an existing problem and make Paralympic athletes able to compete well during the Paralympic games. The researcher does an in-depth analysis of the peer-reviewed literature on technologies available for…… [Read More]
predict anabolic steroids on the controversial forefront of drugs that enhance performance. Halfway through the period, no attempt has been met from the governing bodies of sports towards the control of its use. It is only recent that North America's major governing bodies of sport came to an agreement of punishing and banning anabolic-steroids involved athletes from participating in any competition. The strict punitive measures have a primary development concern of promoting fair play and doing away with nagging health risks that are associates to androgenic-anabolic steroids. However, controversy is still in play as to whether the use of anabolic steroids is deterred by these programs in question (Hoffman & Ratamess, 2006).
The steroids, Anabolic-androgenic, are a derivation of the male sex hormone; testosterone, that is man-made. Physiologically speaking, an increase in the concentration of testosterone will stimulate the synthesis of protein with effective results in strength, body mass, and…… [Read More]
Water, Gatorades and Powerades
I am a registered dietician, presenting my piece of work on the different types of beverages. I am giving this presentation because water is an overlooked nutrient in the hydration process while it can be an excellent sports beverage. Water is the most essential nutrient in the body because death can occur rapidly in the absence of water than any other nutrient. Knowing this, does not take much imagination when dehydration occurs during sports performance or training. Around 60% of the human body is inside water called intracellular cells, and the muscle tissues have 70% of water which is critical during exercise.
Gatorade and PowerAde contain added proteins, sodium and carbohydrates, which help in increasing blood glucose levels and high cycling performance. PowerAde has low calories while Gatorade is lightly flavored with enhanced vitamins also with low calories. These power drinks are moderately isotonic because, they…… [Read More]
patterns of physical activity and exercise indicates that there has been an overall trend of decreasing physical activity levels and increasing levels of inactivity among adolescents and adults (Gordon-Larsen, McMurray, & Popkin, 1999; Van Der Horst, Paw, Twisk, & Van Mechelen, 2007). Inactivity and poor diet are responsible a large number of deaths annually and could soon become one of the leading causes of death in developed countries. esearch continues to reaffirm that there is a dose response relationship between physical activity and all causes of mortality. There is typically a risk reduction of around 30% for those attaining the recommended levels of at least moderately intense physical activity on most days of the week compared with those who are relatively inactive (Lee & Skerrett, 2001). egular physical exercise has long been associated with decreased risk of fatal cardiovascular disease (Powell, Thompson, Caspersen, & Kenderick, 1987), obesity and diabetes (Knowler,…… [Read More]
Bass, P., ilso, J. And Griffith, C. (2003). A Shortened Instrument for Literacy Screening. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 8(12), 1036-8.
Berger, J. (2000). Corporate Health Plan Strategies and Health Literacy. National Health Communications Conference. ashington, DC: ACP Fouindation.
Chew, L., Bradley, K., and Boyko, E.. (2004). Brief Questions to Identify Patients with Inadequate Health Literacy. Family Medicine, 36(8), 588-94.
Chew, L., Griffin, J., Partin, M., et al. (2008). Validation of Screening Questions for Limited Health Literacy. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 23(5), 561-6.
Davis, T. And olf, M.. (2004). Health Literacy Implications for Family Medicine. Family Medicine, 36(8), 595-8.
Davis, T., Long, S., and Jackson, R. (1993). Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine. Family Medicine, 25(1), 391-95.
Dowse, R., Lecoko, L. And Ehlers, M. (2005). Applicability of the REALM Health Literacy Test. Pharmacy orld, 32(4), 464-71.
Ibrahim, S., Reid, F., Shaw, A., et al. (2008). Validation of a…… [Read More]
Diathermy: Uses, Benefits, And isks
As one of the oldest treatment modalites, the therapeutic effects of heat have been experienced for several hundred years. In order to use heat in the treatment of deep muscle injury, diathermy treatment is the therapy of choice. Diathermy uses high-frequency electrical currents to heat deep muscular tissues. This heating results in pain relief, increased blood flow, and increased flexibility. esearch has demonstrated evidence both for and against the effectiveness of diathermy treatment. Attention must be given, however, to risk factors predisposing some patients to serious adverse effects due to diathermy treatment.
Diathermy: Uses, benefits, and risks
Diathermy refers to the use of high-frequency electrical currents to heat deep muscular tissues. This heat increases the flow of blood to the area, which in turn, speeds up recovery. The term diathermy is a derivative of the Greek words therma, meaning heat, and dia, meaning through. Therefore,…… [Read More]
The procedure itself and the hospital stay associated with it is only one small chapter in the patient's life. They will eventually go home and will have many years after the procedure. It is important for the nursing staff to make a positive impact on how they feel about the procedure. The procedure will represent a lasting memory to the patient. If the patient perceives this to be a time of strength and care from nurturing individuals then it will help them to be able to develop the coping mechanisms necessary to learn to live with the after-effects of the procedure.
If the patient sees this as a negative experience, then it could produce unwanted effects such as depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, or other emotional problems that could have an effect on their ability to cope with the life changes. Those that develop appropriate coping mechanisms will be more likely…… [Read More]
Soccer is a true total sport. It requires of its players the ability to show intense bursts of speed and power while simultaneously commanding the ability to conserve energy and endure for the complete span of the game. It requires athleticism, strength, and agility. Players must be conditioned at a top level to be competitive. That is why training for 3-5 days a week is essential in every season for players. To avoid injury, pre-season and off-season training is also vital (Heidt, Sweeterman, Carlonas et al., 2000). The sheer physicality of the sport requires its athletes to stay in shape throughout the year.
Every soccer training program should be tailored to the meet the needs of the individual (Manzi, Castagna, Padua et al., 2009). This program is designed for a 185 lb, 15 year old male high school soccer midfielder. It is developed for off-season, pre-season and in-season programs…… [Read More]
Exercise has been described as the best medicine for depression. It can help a person get through rough times. Physical exercise is very important for a person's mental and physical health. Exercise helps in pumping more blood through the veins. This results in the increase in size of the arteries and it prevents fats from clogging the arteries. It also prevents blood clots. A person who exercises regularly is protected from a variety of diseases and it helps in curbing cholesterol. Exercise benefits a human body as it lowers blood pressure and conditions the lungs. Exercise has its various advantages. It successfully counters stress, depression and anxiety. It has been named as the best fighting force for all these problems. Exercise is also instrumental in improving a person's nervous, cardiovascular and immune system. It also increases our metabolism, digestion and stimulation. (University of Michigan Health System) (http://www.med.umich.edu/1libr/primry/fit02.htm)
Sometimes people feel…… [Read More]
UNSTUCTUED PLAY AND CHILDEN'S DEVELOPMENT
Unstructured play in childhood
The effect of lack of unstructured play on children's development
Unstructured play as a form of therapy for children was readily accepted when it was first introduced in both homes and schools. In fact, sand-play in its early form was used to allow children interact, enhance their creativity and develop their social skills (Frost & Norquist, 2007). esearch shows that a fundamental aspect of human development is attained in the early childhood stages. As such, any measures to facilitate future development of an individual needs to be cultivated in the early stages of their lives (Miller & Almon, 2009). Over time, unstructured play -- once a highly regarded child development measure -- has lost its meaning and place (Miller & Almon, 2009). Increasing cases of poor child development evidenced by volumes of mental illness antisocial behaviors and physical challenges…… [Read More]
Dancers depend on their bones and skeletal system. Bones in turn depend on key nutrients and micronutrients to maintain their density and their ability to carry out the dancers' often extreme demands. Because bone is living tissue, a thorough understanding of how bone density is created and maintained is essential for all dancers. Female dancers need to be especially aware of the impact of diet, lifestyle, and hormones on their bones. A clinically defined syndrome known as Female Athlete Triad refers to the three main variables that impact female bone mineral densities including disordered eating, irregular menstrual cycles, and osteoporosis. The triad itself also refers to energy availability, menstrual function, and bone health (Mountjoy et al., 2014). Bone health can be easily conceptualized as the balance between dietary energy intakes and energy expenditures. Maintaining balance and biological equilibrium can promote maximum health in professional dancers. Because the triad…… [Read More]
Dietary Supplement for Athletes or Bodybuilding
Creatine is a dietary supplement that has been popular for more than thirty years amongst athletes and bodybuilders (Feldman 1999: 45). Its alleged benefits include enhancing muscle-building and recovery. The use of dietary supplements, particularly amongst adolescents and young adult athletes has increased in popularity and may even be endorsed by coaches and parents. Creatine is not recommended for young athletes because of questions about the long-term safety of its use, but pressures to 'be the best' have increased as the margin between first-class and second-class athletes grows ever more razor-thin (Dunn et al. 2001).One study found that "62% of adolescent athletes believed supplements improve performance, with 50% consuming dietary supplements" (Dunn et al. 2001). In another study of attitudes of young athletes Dunn (et al. 2001) found widespread acceptance of the use of creatine and belief in its benefits, even amongst athletes who…… [Read More]
omen's Health -- Focused on prevention and care for breast health, mammography, etc.
Transplant Programs - Swedish is one of seven kidney transplant centers and one of just four liver transplant centers serving the entire Pacific Northwest. The Organ Transplant Program at Swedish is at the forefront of new advances in transplantation surgery, including pancreas transplants and transplants between unrelated living organ donors and recipients (Swedish Medical Center, 2011).
Service design, operational activities, strategic decisions- Swedish is nothing but on the move -- strategically and tactically. In October, 2011, Swedish opened a new full-care facility with a 550,000 square foot campus in the city of Issaquah, southeast of Seattle city proper. This new facility was designed to be an entirely new hospital experience. Some of the operational innovations include a new Childbirth Center with eight new Labor/Delivery/Recovery rooms that include sleeping areas for partners, iPod access and a hotel room…… [Read More]
Weightloss Counseling and Physical Exercise
PHASE II Search Paper
Dana Delatush RN BSN ONC
"I pledge my honor that I have neither given nor received inappropriate aid on this assignment."
Abstract Comment by Patricia: Place the abstract on a separate page for your final search paper
This paper is focused on the literature search related to the PICOT question: Does weight loss counseling and physical exercise improve pain and mobility in obese patients with a BMI >25 suffering from osteoarthritis? To answer this clinical question, six databases were searched including the Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied health Literature (CINAHL), The Cochrane Library, PubMed/Medline, Google Scholar, PsycInfo®, and ProQuest Nursing and Allied Health Source™. The paper describes the search methodology. Keywords: osteoarthritis, obesity, weight loss counseling, pain, mobility
Introduction to Search Strategy
I will be creating a search strategy to help me clarify what information I need, and…… [Read More]
¶ … Mobile Gym
How many people do you think actually want to go to the gym, but feel too lazy due to their hectic schedules? Studies have shown that the assistance of an effective personal trainer can contribute a great deal to overcoming a sense of apathy toward exercise and this strategy has worked for millions of people (McClaran, 2003). However, the personal trainer still does not provide enough motivation for many people to make time in their busy lives to actually make it to the gym. However, how many people do you think would be able to focus more on their personal health if the gym and the trainer could come to them instead? Imagine, a trainer comes to your door and parked close by they have brought all the needed equipment needed for that day's work out -- you barely have to leave the house, let alone…… [Read More]