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aided the spread of Islam in Africa
Islam, like all other religions was not native to the African continent and was introduced by settlers and the spread aided by various historical events that have been recorded to have taken place within the continent, ending up in the cu current popularity of Islam religion within Africa. It is indicated that Islam is currently the largest religion being practiced in Africa. There are varied approaches to the spread of the religion with different historical scholars having slightly varying perspectives on the spread of Islam in Africa.
According to Loimeier ., (n.d: Pp11-13), Egypt (Misr) is widely viewed as the cradle of Islam as a religion and as early as 988 there was already a university established in Cairo. This attracted many students from the Sub-Saharan Africa who went to Egypt and lived there in pursuit of education. They picked the Islamic ways…
Robinson D. (2004). Muslim Societies in African History. West Nyack, NYC: USA. Cambridge University Press.
Loimeier (n.d). Muslim Societies in African History.
Islam and Christianity have a lot of history to share dating back to some years before the birth of Jesus. Although the members did not interact freely, the current 'animosity' characterizing the two religions was unheard of. In fact, they appeared to be focused much in solving their individual problems which unique but almost similar. This study shows that the two religions were affected by problems related to political succession leading to the cooperation instead of conflict.
How did the problem of political succession affect Islamic and Christian societies in the Middle Ages?
The problems of political succession affected Islamic and Christian societies in a number of ways. First, political succession affected Islamic societies by causing an expansion of Islam from the Middle East in other parts of the world. In this regard, a series of events that took place in the Middle East affected the spread of Islam. This…
Ibn Khaldun conceptualized history in terms of transformations of social and political power, leading to cultural changes. This was especially true for the expanding Muslim world, of which Ibn Khaldun was a part. During the Middle Islamic periods, scholarship and learning became entrenched throughout the Muslim world and would have a tremendous impact on the evolution of human consciousness and society. Art, architecture, science, medicine, math, and engineering all flourished during the Middle Islamic period. Although these were the primary external features of the Middle Islamic period, also referred to as a golden age, there were underlying political, socio-religious, and economic developments that caused and characterized changes taking place throughout the Mamluk, Mongol, and Timurid periods.
Abbasid rule had a major impact on political, socio-religious, and economic developments. The Abbasid caliphates stressed schools of learning and formal modes of education that were rooted in Islam but which also transcended…
Egger, V.O. (2007). A History of the Muslim World. Pearson.
Prophet Mohammad understood the importance of implementing sharia and therefore as soon as any conquest was made, he and his companions would first focus on enforcing shariah. Shariah law was a way of uniting Muslims so they would all stand united under one system of law. There wouldn't be any difference in laws that existed in Iraq or in Spain.
Between about 800 and 900 the main trends of thought on legal matters hardened into schools or rather rites -- the latter word is preferable when referring to in practice rather than in theory. Some of these rites, such as the Zahirite which had a notable exponent in Spain, died out after a time. Among the Sunnites, or main body of Muslims, four rites came to be recognized as permissible variants -- the Hanafite, the Malikite, the Shafite and the Hanbalite. So far as al-Andalus is concerned the only one…
W. Montgomery Watt, a History of Islamic Spain (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1965)
Charles Reginald Haines. Christianity and Islam in Spain (756-1031) LONDON
KEGAN PAUL, TRENCH & CO., PATERNOSTER SQUARE 1889
The coming of Islam
After the penetration of Islam, the sub-Saharan African culture was impressed by it. Islam linked the people of Africa to the Eurasian system of business and gave them some new concepts regarding commerce, political organization and religion.
Northern Africa, before the advent of Islam was based on the principles of Christianity. But, after the arrival of Islam in Northern Africa, a large part of the Berber population converted from Christianity to Islam and made Sijilimasa and Fez as their regional states. The Islamic principles of equality and brotherhood put all the Berbers, Arabs and Africans on equality (John P. McKay, Ebrey, Beck, & Crowston., 2009).
.After blending of Islam with the culture of Africa, many states of Africa was created in the grasslands south of the Sahara. The influence of Islam came in Africa through the Indian Ocean, the savanna and the Atlantic. Main African…
Insoll, T. (2003). The Archaeology of Islam in Sub-Saharan Africa. New York: Cambridge University Press.
John P. McKay, B.D., Ebrey, P.B., Beck, R.B., & Crowston., C.H. (2009). A History of World Societies, Volume A: From Antiquity to 1500, Volume 1. Boston, Mass.: [Basingstoke: Bedford; Palgrave Macmillan].
Islamic History In Russia and Central Asia
Approximately twenty million of the world's one billion Muslims live in Russia, even more in Eastern Europe. The media and academics alike are scurrying to react to this seemingly new wave of Islam in Russia, however attention is mainly focused on extremist activity. "Fundamentalism," "Wahhabism," "Islamism," and other such banner concepts are tainting our perception of Islam in Russia. The place of Islam in Russia is being assessed primarily as a factor of danger that threatens its national security and the interests of its citizens.
This current wave of Islamic activity in Eastern Europe is largely an extension of thousands of years of history. In Russia, Islam was the unfortunate foe of Communist politicians who challenged the very notion of religious freedom. Indeed, Islam has endured centuries of antagonistic regimes and related controversy. The following analysis will consider in what ways the demise…
In fact there are signs of turmoil among religious as well as ethnic groups. An internal war between the Hausa and another tribe called the Yoruba resulted in 300 deaths. More recently tribes called the Tiv and the Jukun have executed tribal raids. In fact, between the successful election of a civilian President in May of 1999 and the end of 2001, over 10,000 Nigerians died in regional conflicts based on religious/and/or tribal differences. The Islamic belief in Shari'a, including the idea that religion and state government should be one, contributes to these problems.
In fact the animosity between Christians and Muslims is quite strong in Nigeria. The province adopting Shari'a, Zamfara, uses Islamic courts to try criminals. The Christians who live in the south do not agree that Zamfara should use a religiously-based legal system. This disagreement demonstrates that the country is divided on multiple levels. It is the…
Clark, Andrew F. "Imperialism, Independence, and Islam in Senegal and Mali." Africa Today, June 1999.
Gausset, Quentin. " Islam or Christianity? The Choices of the Wawa and the Kwanja of Cameroon." Africa, Vol. 69, 1999.
Miles, William F.S. "Shari'a as de-Africanization: evidence from Hausaland." Africa Today, March 2003.
Roach, Ronald. "Translating the African past: the Islamic heritage of sub-Saharan Africa - Special report: international education." Black Issues in Higher Education. May 9, 2002.
Spread of Islam in Africa and Asia Along Trade Routes
The Islam religion spread in Asia and Africa mainly due to trade of such goods as spices, gold, as also due to slaves. The advantages of proximity with the greatly profitable and powerful traders of the Islam religion triggered the conversions of merchants and rulers' into Muslims. Islam spread slowly; it took centuries, but in most places where the conversion took place, people still hold on to the religion (Debrouse). This paper explores the reasons of spread of Islam religion along Asian and African trade routes, particularly centering on the success of Islam in Middle Asia.
Early Trade Connections
Since the era of Muhammad, it has been believed that trade is closely related to the religion as well as its development. Inmecca, the people of the Qurayshtribe were leaders in business. They extended their connections and influence to Syria and…
Christianity and Islam both facilitated the growth of sub-Saharan African kingdoms, both in the East and West. In Aksum, trade was "essential" to the kingdom's development in northwestern Ethiopia, as it was strategically located geographically on a major trade route linking India with the rest of Africa, the Mediterranean, and Arabia (p. 205). Unlike many other kingdoms in Africa, the Aksum fully embraced Christianity within the first few centuries of the religion's dissemination. Aksum was in fact one of the earliest Christian empires, operating fully independently from ome, where Christianity would take root and become the hub of European cultural, economic, and political life. In its heyday, the kingdom of Aksum depended on the Christian mythos and ethos to sustain its centralized power under King Ezana, who declares his power to be God-given in his stele: "he has given me strength and power and favoured me with a great name…
Sources of World Societies. Second Edition. Bedford/St. Martin's.
There are many examples of God's love, but much violence as well. The Bible is full of stories of warring peoples, fighting to the death for their beliefs. Persecution of the Jews, seen on a massive scale as late as the 20th century's Holocaust, was fueled by the New Testament, as Jews were blamed for the crucifixion death of Jesus Christ. Even after World War II, Jews in the U.S. faced persecution through restricted access to certain colleges, clubs and organizations. The Ku Klux Klan, known for targeting African-Americans, has also targeted Jews.
The 20th century saw considerable violence in Northern Ireland, as Protestants and Catholics murdered each other in the name of their respective branches of Christianity. Like radical Muslims, a relatively small number of people believed that violence was the answer, and the only way to demonstrate their commitment to their God.
The Westboro Baptist Church has garnered…
Jonsson, P. (2010). Why is the Westboro Baptist Church picketing Elizabeth Edwards' funeral?
Christian Science Monitor 12/11/10.
Khan, D. (2008). The five pillars of Islam. Faces 24(6), pp. 12-13.
Rid, T. (2010). Cracks in the Jihad. Wilson Quarterly 34(1).
Islam / Arab Success
hy did Islam and the Arabs succeed in spreading throughout the Greater Middle-East / Gulf against the Byzantines and Persians?
Religion has been a major influence on the course of human history. In the Middle East, religion has been the impetus for discord since before recorded times. This area of the world has had central religious attention because of the location of the Holy Land in both Jewish and Christian theologies. At one point, the Byzantines and Persians controlled the landscape of this part of the world, but lost leadership in the face of Islam and Arab cultures. In the present moment, one of the primary religions in the Middle-East and Gulf regions is Islam. People who are a part of the Islam religion or people who are Arab have been able to spread their culture throughout the area until this has become the majority way…
Carson, Keith (2003). "Islamic History and Literature." Heritage of the Western World. Atlantic Goldschmidt, Arthur and Lawrence Davidson (2006). A Concise History of the Middle East.
Cambridge, MA: Westview Press.
Marin-Guzman, Roberto (2010). "Arab Tribes, the Umayyad Dynasty, and the Abbasid
Revolution." The American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences. 21:4.
There is an obvious contradiction between what we think of Muslim women and their actual life. In order to better understand them and their social and civil life, we need to understand their religion and the way of thinking for both men and women.
In the introductory chapter of the book "The war of Muslim Minds, Islam and the West," Gilles Kepel talks about the online article "Knights under the Prophet's anner," published on the Internet in December 2001 by Ayman al-Zawahiri, Al Qaeda's most valued ideologue and Osama bin Laden's mentor.
According to his statements, the explanation for the attack of September 11 on the World Trade Centre is a simple and rather nationalistic one. Jihad activists came to face the disappointing conclusion that wherever they would go, Afghanistan, osnia or Saudi Arabia, jihad activist were unable to motivate and gather up the masses in order to fight…
Gilles Kepel, "The War of Muslim Minds, Islam and the West," The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts and London, England, 2004
Bernard Lewis and Robin Wright, Laith Kubba, "Islam and Liberal Democracy: Recognizing Pluralism," Journal of Democracy 7.2 (1996) 86-89
Meria, Middle East Review of International Affairs, Journal, Volume 3, Number 1, March 1999, Article "Islam, Islamists and democracy," by Ali R. Abootalebi
Zuleyha Keskin, "Status of Women in Islam," 2005
In the city of Medina, Muhammad united the warring tribes. Following eight years of fighting Mecca tribes the Muslims conquered Mecca. In the year 632, after returning to Medina from a farewell pilgrimage to Mecca, Muhammad became ill and died. At the time of his death, almost all of the Arabian Peninsula had converted to the Islamic faith. He had united the Arabian tribes into a single Muslim religious polity hegemon (ibid, 34-40).
The revelations Muhammad reported receiving until his death in 632 form the body of the Qur'an, regarded by Muslims as the "ord of God" and around which the Muslim religion is built upon. In addition to the Qur'an, Muhammad's life and traditions are observed by Muslims. These stories discuss Muhammad and the other prophets with reverence, adding the phrase peace be upon him whenever his name is mentioned. His life and deeds have been debated and criticized…
Braswell, G. (2000). What you need to know about islam and muslims. New York, NY: B&H Book.
Goldschmidt, A., & Davidson, L. (2005). A concise history of the middle east. (9th
ed.). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Islam and Christianity have a lot in common because they originate from a single source. Abraham is believed to be the source from which Islam, Christianity and Judaism took roots and this is one of the reasons why these religions are also known as Abrahamic religions. Due to their common origins, the scriptures of birth Islam and Christianity have a lot in common and at the same time, they also differ in a few aspects.
Christianity and Islam have been divided into many smaller sects and sub-sects that believe and follow differing thoughts and ideas. For example, Christianity is divided into Roman Catholics, Protestants, Lutherans, Seventh Day Adventists, Orthodox and other groups and each of these groups have a different way of practicing the religion and the underlying beliefs. Similarly, Islam is also divided into Shi'ite, Sunni and to a smaller extent Sufi that have their differences as well. Moreover,…
She is warm and straightforward, considerate and humble. She is not a hypocrite or a cheat, does not speak falsely and offers good advice in a prudent way and for the general welfare. She has a word and keeps it. She is modest in appearance and in manners. She respects others as she respects herself and keeps out of matters where she is not part of. She does not sow dissension or seek out hidden faults. No matter how achieved or excellent she may feel, she does not show off. She is not oppressive, but is, instead, fair and generous. She does not delight in the misfortune of another person but endeavors to help overcome it.
The bigots who put her down have ironically benefited the ideal Muslimah. They believe that the Muslim woman or any woman should keep her mouth shut as a result of her "original sin" in…
Ahmed, Leila. Women and Gender in Islam. Yale University Press, August 19, 1993
Al-Hashimi, Muhammad Ali. The Ideal Muslimah. International Islamic Publishing House, 1998. http://www.usc.edu/dept/MSA/humanrelations/womeninislam/idealmuslimah
Al-Qaradawi, Yusuf. The Voice of a Woman in Islam. Sister's Page, Islamic World Net. http://www.islamic-world.net/sister/the_voice.htm
Godlas, a. Women in Islam: Muslim Women. Islamic Studies, 2004. http://www.arches.uga.edu/~godlas/Islamwomen.html
Islam and Human Rights
a Critique of Contemporary Muslim Approaches
The basic objective of this research is note the errors that are committed by Muslims in their argument of human rights in Islam or in other words to explore possible means of formulation of a more coherent alternative expression of values to point out the errors committed by Muslims in their attempt to argue the case of human rights in Islam in the hope that efforts and resources expended in that direction can be derived to a more agreeable end; which is the exploration of possible means of formulating a more coherent alternative expression of values to the so-called "Islamic human rights."
A considerable amount of literature has been produced on these issues by competent Muslim thinkers and scholars but because they either
purposefully or 2) inadvertently chose to follow almost the same style as explored in the Western tradition…
Hassan, Riffat, Ph.D. ( ) Are Human Rights Compatible with Islam? The Issue of the Rights of Women in Muslim Communities, University of Louisville, KY [Online available at: http://www.religiousconsultation .org/hassan2.htm
Islam 101 "Human Rights in Islam" 2005 [Online available at: http://www.islam 101. com/rights/index.Htm 'Allamah Abu Al'A'la Mawdudi at Tawid Journal 'Vol.. IV No. 3 Rajah-Ramadan 1407 ajab-Ramadahan 1407 Human Rights in Islam.]
The capital was moved from Syria to Iraq, where they founded Baghdad, shifting the power to the east. The Abbasids transformed the empire into a multinational Muslim empire, as Persians and Khurasanians traveled to the area for learning. The cause of this pull was the Abbasid's creation of Islamic intellectualism, brought about by the construction of observatories, libraries, educational institutions providing instruction on medicine, astronomy, logic, math, and philosophy, all in the Arabic language. A new system of math, using nine numerals and the zero revolutionized math. Further, trade along this route was safer, freer, and far more extensive than other areas, drawing even more individuals.
The result of this educational advancement in the Islam civilization, along with the increases in trade abilities, was that far more individuals were exposed to Islam than ever before, in ways that were positive in substance. As missionaries traveled with traders, and as scholars…
McKay, J., Hill, B., Buckler-Ebrey, P. History of World Societies. Boston, MA: Houghton-Mifflin Company, 2004.
Yet it is somewhat biased, due to the author being a strict fundamentalist.
Said, Edward. "The Clash of Definitions." Emran Qureshi & Michael a. Sells, eds. The New Crusades: Constructing the Muslim Enemy. New York: Columbia University Press, 2003, 70-80.
This essay presents a very divergent viewpoint as compared to that of political theorist and practitioner Samuel P. Huntington whose views on the "Clash of Civilizations" is now being questioned and examined with much scrutiny. Along with the other essays, this book provides a wide range of viewpoints from all sectors of sociology, history and the humanities.
Spencer, Robert. Religion of Peace? Why Christianity Is and Islam Isn't. New York: Regnery Publishing, 2007
The main question posed in this book is which is the real "religion of peace," Christianity or Islam. However, after reading this work, it is clear that Spencer is biased toward Christianity, due in part to his…
Corbett, Julia M., Ed. The Coming Religious Wars. Boston: G.K. Hall, 2003
Although this topic has been discussed many times over past decades, Corbett has managed to provide a number of new viewpoints based on some very substantial scholarship and an examination of past religious wars, such as the Crusades and what she calls the coming war between Christianity and Islam, due to the events of 9/11 and the further actions of Al Queda and other terrorist groups.
Lewis, Bernard W. Islam and the West. UK: Oxford University Press, 2002
Islamic scholar and historian Bernard W. Lewis has put together a very interesting and viable collection of essays in this book, many of which explore the often overlooked heritage shared between Western culture and Islamic culture and how the histories of both cultures have become intertwined over the last two hundred years. These essays also focus on the current conflicts between the West and Islam and offer a number of viable solutions.
(Prophet Noble Drew Ali)
Ali came to Chicago in 1925 and his movement took on its greatest force here. He saw Marcus Garvey as a motivation for his own work. Ali, like Garvey preached the significance of forming unity among all the people of the African Diaspora. Marcus Garvey was particularly acclaimed as a John the Baptist who set the way for the emergence of Noble Drew Ali at Moorish Science Temple meetings. (What was the relationship between Noble Drew Ali and Marcus Garvey?)
Warith al-Din Muhammad:
Many foreign countries have exercised substantial power on the lives of American Muslims by ascertaining to increase the religious knowledge. Saudi Arabia has enhanced the image of Islam in the West. It has supported the actions of the Muslim World League -- MWL in America. Saudi Arabia has also promoted good relations with the Afro-American Muslim community. In all possibility, under foreign pressure,…
Islamic History In Russia and Central Asia
The collapse of the Soviet Union is perhaps one of the most influential events in world history, with political and economic consequences that reverberated across the world.
The once-great nation's southern region, now divided into eight independent republics, have been attempting to enter democratic society, but the transition from republic to democracy has been difficult at best -- and in some cases has failed outright.
The Struggle for Dominant Nationalities
One of the largest impediments to true democracy in central Asia has been the unequal ethnic makeup of the new republics.
In Uzbekistan, for instance, many of the cities had been known since ancient times for their multiculturalism and multi-linguism -- even the capital city of Tashkent.
However, with the formation of this republic, the second-largest cultural group in these cities, the Tajiks, was betrayed; unable to form a territorial state of their…
Explain the differences between Sunni and Shia Muslims. here do the Shia geographically reside generally? Cite two examples of differences in theology and religious practices between Sunni and Shiites. Finally, are there differences in theology within Shiite Islam?
Each religion of the world has different interpretations and different religious denominations that have evolved over time. Islam is no different and the Sunni and Shia denominations of Islam represent the majority of its believers. The Sunni denomination is substantially larger in terms of population however the Shias also have widespread following. The roots of these ideologies can be traced back all the way to the death of Muhammad and the opinions that developed after his death about which way the religion should go. This analysis will introduce differences in the two denominations in terms of their population's geography and their theological differences.
Sunnism and Shia beliefs are spread throughout…
BBC. (2014, June 20). Sunnis and Shias: Islam's ancient schism. Retrieved from BBC Middle East: http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-16047709
Fisher, M. (2014, January 22). Why Sunnis and Shiites are fighting, explained in two minutes. Retrieved from The Washington Post: http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/worldviews/wp/2014/01/22/why-sunnis-and-shias-are-fighting-explained-in-two-minutes/
Religion Facts. (N.d.). Comparison of Sunni and Shia Islam. Retrieved from Religion Facts: http://www.religionfacts.com/islam/comparison_charts/islamic_sects.htm
Sick, G. (2011, May 17). Map of religion in the Middle East. Retrieved from The Gulf Blog: http://thegulfblog.com/tag/sunni-shia-middle-east-map/
Teachings and Practice of Islam
The Teachings of Islam Around the World: Outline
Islam is an incredibly complex religion, where religious practices often differ depending on the cultural context of the region in which it is practices in.
Basic Teachings of Islam
History of Islam
Five Pillars: Prayer and Practices
How it is Practiced in the United States and Great Britain
Influx in Muslims
Facing Adversity and Stereotypes
Muslims as a Minority
Spread of Islam into India
Other Asian Nations
Islam as eacting Against a Growing Western Presence
The Middle East
Islamic Law as National Law
C. Gender Issues
The Teachings of Islam Around the World
No two Muslims are alike, just as any two persons of any other religion. Here in the West, we tend to lump categories of Muslims together, without understanding…
Ahmad, Ghulam. (2003). Teachings of Islam 1896. Kessinger Publishing.
Morgan, Diane. (2010). Essential Islam: A Comprehensive Guide to Belief and Practice. ABC-CLIO.
Raatma, Lucia. (2009). World Religions: Islam. Capstone Publishing.
Shamsul, A.B. (2006). Convergence of interesting and sharing a future: Deepening the Understanding of Islam in Asia and Europe. ASIEN. 62-69. Web. http://www.asienkunde.de/content/zeitschrift_asien/archiv/pdf/A100_062_069.pdf
According to Hiro (2001), "During the Iran-Iraq ar it openly backed Baghdad, arguing that its defeat would lead to the spread of Islamic fundamentalism in the region which would hurt estern interests. It was the French corporations that were building two nuclear reactors near Baghdad which were bombed by Israel in June 1981" (75). Approximately 1,000 French companies were active in Iraq, and 6-7,000 French specialists were based there by 1983. As much as 40% of total French military exports were destined for Iraq. Military cooperation between the two states had developed to the extent that the French government decided to lease to Baghdad five Super-Etendard warplanes originally meant for use by the French air force. This raised the more immediate lucrative prospect of selling scores of expensive Exocet missiles to Iraq to be used by Super-Etendards to hit Iranian oil tankers in the Gulf. These missiles proved devastatingly effective.…
Abdulla, Abdulkhaleq. 1994. "Gulf War: The Socio-Political Background." Arab Studies
Quarterly 16(3): 1-3.
Aydin, Mustafa and Damla Aras. 2005. "Political Conditionality of Economic Relations between
Paternalist States: Turkey's Interaction with Iran, Iraq, and Syria." Arab Studies
At first like the Christians, those who practiced Islam (i.e., the Muslims) were persecuted for their beliefs which resulted in Islam failing to spread much beyond the city of Mecca, but as Muhammad gained many converts, Islam began to spread to other regions of the Middle East, mostly due to the teachings in the Holy Quran which taught that all men are equal in the eyes of Allah and are brothers in God.
The spread of Christianity and Islam was also due to a number of factors related to socio-economic and political conditions within the Middle East. For example, when Christian churches were established in some of the major cities within and outside of what is now Israel circa the 4th century a.D., many of the believers were very poor and poverty-stricken and were searching for ways to relieve their suffering, and once these believers decided to move into the…
Corbett, Julia Mitchell. Religion in America. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall
Nosotro, Rit. "The Spread of Christianity and Islam." 2009. Hyperhistory. Internet. Retrieved April15, 2009 from http://www.hyperhistory.net/apwh/essays/comp / cw11christislamexpand.htm.
Islam: A Short History by Karen Armstrong. Specifically, it will contain a book report on the book. The history of Islam is little understood by many Christians in the world, and this succinct book helps make the religion more understandable and sympathetic, while illustrating the long history of the world's religions, and the long history of strife between them.
The author of this book, Karen Armstrong is an ex-Catholic nun who writes on various religious issues. She spent seven years as a nun, and wrote a book about her experiences called Through the Narrow Gate (1982). She is an expert on religion, and has written numerous books on Christianity, Islam, and Judaism, along with her views of what the three religions have in common. She has won awards for her writing, and is viewed as an expert in attempting to show the commonality of the roots of religion. Some of…
Armstrong, Karen. Islam A Short History. New York: Modern Library, 2002.
The potter has complete control over the shape the pot takes by the pressure, how fast he spins the potting wheel, and the moisture and pressure he applies from inside and outside the pot. He can keep the pot short and stout by slowing the wheel decreasing the outside pressure, or by spinning it faster and pulling upward he can grow the pot taller.
The bearing has to be maintained and kept lubricated, and the potter used animal fat to lubricate it.
The bearing was made of stone, and could be replaced to keep the wheel in the best working condition.
Other ways to create pots, even after the potter's wheel, was to coil the pot and shape it entirely by hand, smoothing out the coils and shaping it with just the artist's skills of hand control. Obviously, the wheel was an invention that much improved the process. Although there…
Grave, Peter, (Andrew S. Fairbairn, Sue O'Connor and Ben Marwick, Eds.) Melting Moments: Modelling archeological high temperature ceramic data, New Directions in Archeological Science (2009), Archeology and Palaeonthropology (University of New England, Armidale, Australia), Chapter 15, 215-232.
Memmi, Isabella Turbani, Pottery production and distribution: the contribution of mineralogical and petrographical methodologies in Italy, Periodico di Mineralogia, 73 (2004), 239-257.
Staubach, Suzanne, Clay: The History and Evolution of Humankind's Relationship with Earth's Most Primal Element (2005). Berkley: Berkley Hardcover Press.
Zaimeche, PhD Salah, Malagwa, Foundation for Science Technology and Civilisation (2005), June, 8.
D., various rulers expanded the religion in what was known as the Golden Age of Islam. Muslims made huge advances in military might, the sciences, and the arts. However, the different factions of Islam haunted the religion, even in the Golden Age of its existence. Gregorian then goes to explore the territorial dispute which led to the centuries of fighting with Christian nations in what was known in the West as the Crusades. However, it was not the Christian Westerners who did the most damage to the Muslim strongholds but barbaric Mongols who eventually ended the Golden Age of Islam. The rise of the Ottoman Empire in the 15th century revived the greatness of the Muslim tradition. The modern era, with the culmination of the Industrial Revolution, later diminished the grandeur and power of the various Muslim empires in the Middle East and Asia. With this decline many empires which,…
The display of the various religious artwork effectively served to reinforce the fact that such faith was the governing power in the land, which the church itself reflected merely in its principle usage as a house of worship. The Hagia Sophia served a similar purpose, as it was built during one of the periods of devastation inflicted upon the Hagia Irene and was also viewed as a symbol of not only Christianity's reign, but also that of Emperor Justinian who commissioned the work.
One of the most important professions which could be learned at the trade guilds which was that of master builder, which included several lengthy stages of work which could eventually take youths into the chief senior architects of the day. There is a substantial amount of evidence that can be seen regarding the Byzantine influence in the position of the master builder, who was called a mechanikos.…
popular religions in the world, Christianity and Islam, both developed from the same area -- the deserts of the Middle East -- but one existed for several centuries prior the beginning of the other. Christianity, the older of the two religions, was started by the followers of Jesus Christ, himself a Jew who lived and died in present day Israel (Latourette, 1975). Most of the early growth of Christianity was among the Jews but as the Jewish leaders began to persecute the early Christians the Christians began to scatter throughout the oman Empire in order to avoid these persecutions. For the next several hundred years Christianity enjoyed steady growth until Emperor Constantine legally approved the right to practice the religion. Following such recognition, Christianity grew geometrically and, eventually, it became to dominate both the secular and religious affairs on the continent of Europe. When the European powers began to expand…
Cesari, J. (2006). European Muslims and the Secular State. Surrey, UK: Ashgate Publishing Company.
Latourette, K.S. (1975). A History of Christianity, Volume 1: Beginnings to 1500. New York: HarperOne.
Liu, X. (2011). A Silk Road Legacy: The Spread of Buddhism and Islam. Journal of World History, 55-81.
Mayr-Harting, H. (1996). Charlemagne, the Saxons, and the Imperial Coronation of 800. The English Historical Review, 1113-1133.
The great Avicenna or Abu Ali al-Husayn Ibn Abdullah Ibn Sina, born in 980 was often known in the est by this Latin name. Among all the Islamic philosopher-scientists this Persian physician became not only the most famous but also an influential figure (Edward G, 1921). He was awarded royal favor for treating the Kings of Bukhara and Hamadan for illness which other physicians were unable to neither diagnose nor cure. He died in 1037 in Hamadan, where his grave is maintained (Edward G, 1921).
Out of his 450 works, only 240 have survived and among those surviving works, 150 are on philosophy, while the remaining majority 40 works are dedicated to medicine. Thus, his major contribution was in these two fields. However, he has also written on psychology, logic, mathematics, geology and astronomy (atan Afghanistan).
Although, he was educated and trained in the field of physics, he…
Edward G. Browne (1921) Arabian Medicine, London, Cambridge University Press.
Philip K. Hitti (1970) History of the Arabs, 10th ed, London, Macmillan, pp 367-368
M.A. Martin (1983) in The Genius of Arab Civilization, 2nd ed, Edited by J.R. Hayes, London,
Eurabia Puplishing, pp 196-7
Arabia efore the Prophet
Prior to the birth of Muhammad, Arabia had been an economically underdeveloped and culturally segregated area. Majority of the land is desert and arid; there is limited rainfall and vegetation, and only a small portion of the land is appropriate for agriculture (Stearns, 1992).
The skin of sacrificial animals was used to cover the Kaaba, and it apparently held the shrines and images of 360 gods, and goddesses (Stearns, 1992). Al'Uzza was particularly worshipped at the Ka'bah, where seven priests waited on her (Camphausen, 1989)
Muhammad's Early Life
Muhammad (c.570-632) came from a family belonging to the Koraysh. His early years were challenging, as a result of the loss of both his parents, and his grandfather too, who took care of him after the death of his parents. Abu Talib, a well-known merchant of Mecca, was his uncle, who raised him. Even at a…
Camphausen, R. C. (1989). The Ka'bah at Mecca. Bres, 139, Holland.
Stearns, P. N. (1992). Islam From The Beginning To 1300. Retrieved from http://history-world.org :
Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam are a few of the "universal" or "universalizing" religions. Strayer frames the universalizing religions in terms of the spread of different cultures and ideas throughout the world. Religions are integral to social and political power and control, and thus have a transformative effect on society as well as on the individuals within that society. The nature of universalizing religion is such that they can be all-pervasive, permeating almost every dimension of life including political, economic, and social institutions. However, universalizing religions are distinct in that they actively seek new followers; they believe their message is indeed universal and contains universal truths embedded within it.
Although universalizing religions use different methods of spreading their faiths, they share in common the desire to influence human thought and even public discourse. Of the universalizing religions, Christianity and Islam have historically revealed the most aggressive evangelical tendencies but Hinduism and…
Kong, Lily. Christian evangelizing across national boundaries. Religion and Place, 2012, pp. 21-38.
Premawardhana, S. Religious Conversion. John Wiley, 2015.
"Religions of the World." Retrieved online: http://lindblomeagles.org/ourpages/auto/2015/2/18/44701116/L6_ReligionsReading.pdf
Strayer, R.W. Ways of the World. [Kindle Edition]. 2012.
Cultural and Construction History of the Islamic Golden Age
The Islamic Golden Age is also known as the Caliphate of Islam or the Islamic Renaissance. The term refers to a system of political, cultural, and religious authority derived from the teachings of the Prophet Mohammed in the early sixth century AD. At its high point under the Abbassid Dynasty (eighth to thirteenth centuries AD), Islamic civilisation experienced a flourish of art and culture that blended Arab, Persian, Egyptian, and European elements (Kraemer). The result was an era of incredible intellectual and cultural advancements (Wiet). At the height of its power, the Caliphate controlled all of the present-day Middle East, all of northern Africa and into Spain, and as far east as the Indus Valley, making it among the largest empires of all time and one of the few states ever to extend direct rule over three…
Virtual eligious Service
Islam is a religion of great misconceptions and of immense misunderstanding. It was because of this same notion that this religion in particular was of great interest. With all the negative publicity that Islam receives in the media, people only get exposed to the violent extremists that represent a minute minority of this religion. A picture of violence and death is flashed on the television daily, forcing many to create negative misconceptions about Muslims. Their portrayal of how their females are treated is an aspect that has also come under speculation. The media portrays oppressed hopeless females, which induces viewers to think that this is actually true. These are both misconceptions that I had prior to my viewing of the online religious service and research.
Violence and terrorism are shown constantly across the television screen whenever extremist Muslims are depicted. This creates a sense of misconception as…
Adams, M., Bell, L.A., & Griffin, P. (2007). Teaching for diversity and social justice. CRC Press.
Common misunderstandings of muslims [Web log message]. (2008, February 26). Retrieved from http://abcnews.go.com /Primetime/WhatWouldYouDo/story?id=4339516&page=1
Lawrence, B.B. (1998). Shattering the myth: Islam beyond violencec. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
pottery making art islamic civilization. Please illustrative timeline. Please include outline beginning.
Islamic pottery is an essential part of the Islamic culture
Early beginnings of Islamic pottery
Historical and geographical challenges
Pottery as a necessity, not an art
Islamic pottery transformed from an activity to an art
The periods of the Islamic pottery
Influences of Chinese pottery
Improvements of techniques and materials
ole of calligraphy and technical discoveries
Increase of the value of pottery for the Islamic culture
The Islamic art is one of the most significant parts of the Islamic culture and of the world heritage. Islamic pottery has in this sense an important place in the structure of the Middle Eastern art.
The history and development of Islamic pottery is representative for the development of Islamic art and reflects the influences of external cultures on the evolution of art in the region.
Atwood, R. (2005) "Basra's Inventive Potters" in Archaeology, Vol. 58, No 2, March / April, available at http://www.archaeology.org/0503/reviews/basra.html
Grube. E (n.d.) "The Art of Islamic Pottery." The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin. Available at http://www.metmuseum.org/pubs/bulletins/1/pdf/3258167.pdf.bannered.pdf
Jenkins, O. (2000). "Emergence and Evolvement of the Islamic Tin-glazed Pottery," The 8th Research Seminar on the History of Middle Eastern Ceramics. Available at http://www.l.u-tokyo.ac.jp/IAS/HP-e2/eventreports/44ceramics8IM.html
Luter, J. (1974) "The Potters of Islam." Saudi Aramco World. Available at http://www.saudiaramcoworld.com/issue/197404/the.potters.of.islam.htm
From its tribal stages in Jerusalem to the conversion of Augustus,
from the Crusades and Inquisition to the splintering Americanization of the
U.S. antebellum era, Christianity would be the province of both the
conquered and the conqueror over history, with either of these conditions
serving the cause to stimulate Christian faith. This would help us to
attach Christian history, importantly, to the moments at which human
movements, political systems or social parameters would invoke the
magnification of its influence. This is meaningful to us as a
demonstration of the crucial role played by the historical context in
framing the relationship between man and faith.
Barrett, David B. (2001). orld Christian Encyclopedia. Oxford University
Hooker, Richard. (1996). Buddhism. orld Civilizations. Online at
Rahula, Ven. Dr. . (2002). A View on Buddhism. Buddhism. Online at
Sotkin, Joan. (1978) Vedanta Vedanta Society of Southern California: hat
is Vedanta? Online at…
Barrett, David B. (2001). World Christian Encyclopedia. Oxford University
Hooker, Richard. (1996). Buddhism. World Civilizations. Online at
Rahula, Ven. Dr. W. (2002). A View on Buddhism. Buddhism. Online at
The armed activities of resistance or assault committed in these contexts tends to drive a view of Islam as a radical force counterintuitive to the philosophical aims of western capitalism. As Malik (2004) contends on this point, "it is not surprising that islamophobic authors frequently resort to the concept of secularism which they say needs to be defended against an increasing influence of political Islam in Europe." (Malik, 148) It is under this very set of terms that we are given over to a proclivity where the Islamic identity of Bosnia is concerned. Specifically, the secular society in which this Islamic faith has achieved cultural dominance is belied by a brewing discontent in Bosnia.
A history of ethnic tension, a war still fresh in the memories of all inhabitants, and the new infusion of religious exploration produced by the withdrawal of communist authority are having the effect of diversifying and…
Bougeral, X. (?). Bosnian Islam as 'European Islam.' Islam in Europe.
Cesari, J. (2006). When Islam and Democracy Meet: Muslims in Europe and in the United States. Palgrave.
Malik, J. (2004). Muslims in Europe from the Margin to the Centre. Transaction Publishers.
Yavuz, M.H. (2004). Is There a Turkish Islam? There Emergence of Convergence and
When examining the Prophet Muhammad in a religious-historical context, it is helpful to compare him to another central religious figure in the history of the West in order to highlight how he is unique. For example, while Christ plays the role of God-Man in the Christian religion, Muhammad simply plays the role of man—though a very special one, of course.[footnoteRef:1] As the Qur’an notes: “Muhammad is no more than an apostle: many were the apostle that passed away before him.”[footnoteRef:2] However, Muhammad’s nature is unlike that of other men, for he is recognized in Islam as having the “most perfect nature” and as being “like a jewel among stones.”[footnoteRef:3] Similarly to the way in which Christ is beloved of the Father in Christianity, Muhammad is “the beloved of God (habib Allah), whom the Quran calls an excellent model (uswah hasanah) to emulate.”[footnoteRef:4] Another distinction that can be made is…
"In Islam...precedent is all. The principles of the Prophet- as divined from the Koran and the approved traditions- are for all time. They can be extended to cover all disciplines." (Naipaul). The Prophet was Arabic, so it follows that those approved traditions are going to be Arabic and that Islam, whether practiced in an Arabic nation or elsewhere, is going to be Arabic at its core. Furthermore, the Prophet indicated his belief that, as generations passed, Muslims would become less devote because of a dilution of faith. (Naipaul). Therefore, it makes sense that anything that could lead to further dilution of faith would be prohibited. In fact, there are several ideas in Islam which have been distorted by culture, which the devout might not be able to recognize as distortions if they were reading an interpreter's translation of the Koran. For example, the Koran's instructions about the burqua condemn male…
Naipaul, V.S. Among the Believers: An Islamic Journey. New York: Vintage Books, 1981.
Wikipedia. "Bible." Wikipedia. 2005. Wiki Media. 1 Nov. 2005 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bible#Biblical_versions_and_translations .
cultural advances made Islamic world tenth fifteenth centuries? eference Book: A History World Societies, Eighth Edition, Vol1 by: McKay, Hill, Buckler, Ebrey, Beck, Crowston, & Wiesner-Hanks
The apogee of the Islamic world when considering cultural and scientific innovations took place between the tenth and fifteenth centuries A.D. Islamic art flourished during this period, as Muslims started to experience significant progress in creating artwork using ceramics, glass, and metals. Similarly, the intellectual segment experienced great developments as individuals started to write more and more manuscripts and as calligraphy progressed. In spite of the fact that philosophy was a field that Muslims were generally reluctant to address because it was believed to be accountable for inducing unorthodox thinking in individuals, many Muslims did not hesitate to express philosophical thought and were actually very successful in doing so.
A great deal of Muslims focused on philosophical thought expressed during Antiquity and adapted it…
Marcinkowski, C., 2009, The Islamic World and the West: Managing Religious and Cultural Identities in the Age of Globalisation, LIT Verlag Munster
McKay, J.P., 2009, A history of world societies, 8th edition, Bedford / St. Martin's
178). For example, Sakkal reports that, "The measuring system of Ibn Muqlah is based on a circle with a diameter that equals the height of the letter Alef. It controls the correct proportions of the letters by comparing them to the circle, and by diagonal dots written with the calligraphy pen" (1993:9). In his analysis of Ibn Muqla's role in the standardization of the geometrical basis of Arabic writing, Ernst, citing an early treatise, illustrates the religious significance of the circle as being an integral part of these revisions to calligraphic script: "God (glory be to the Most High) created the world in a circular form. The master Abu Ali Muhammad ibn Ali ibn al- Husayn ibn Muqla the scribe (may God have mercy on him) realized that writing could be made circular. He transmitted that method of [round] Kufic in this fashion that is now current, so that it…
Brown, Keith, Anne H. Anderson, Laurie Bauer, Margie Berns, Graeme Hirst and Jim Miller.
Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics. Boston: Elsevier, 2006.
Blair, Sheila S. And Jonathan M. Bloom. 2003. "The Mirage of Islamic Art: Reflections on the Study of an Unwieldy Field." The Art Bulletin 85(1): 152-154.
Eaton, Gai. Islam and the Destiny of Man. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press,
The Hajj: Islamic Pilgrimage
Islam is a religion organized around one man, Mohammed, who lived from 570 to 632 CE, and centered in the ancient city of Mecca in present day Saudi Arabia. Mohammed's teachings were unveiled to him through God, and his recommendations to humanity include five essential pillars. Every Muslim, or follower of Islam, is told to follow these five pillars to best achieve success in the afterlife. One of the crucial elements of these five pillars is the Hajj, or the pilgrimage to Mecca, to be undertaken by every Muslim once in his or her life.[footnoteRef:1] The Hajj has been integral to the sharing of knowledge and custom between the various Muslims around the world, and has indeed been a key factor to the development of the Arab people themselves. This paper will discuss the Hajj, or the Pilgrimage to Mecca, and will describe its evolution,…
They attempted several times to conquer Egypt and Sicily, among other places. In Yemen, rett describes a situation of internecine warfare between various sectors of Yemeni society. He writes, "Mahdism thus proved unable to transform the society of the Yemen into an enduring new state, as it did the society of ahrayn" (p. 78). Al-Fadl could not make headway with the southern tribesmen and nobility. In the end, Yemen proved too introverted a place to become a unifying imperial power as the community was fragmenting. To make matters worse, the twelfth imam has just disappeared (Mohammad Al-Mahdi in 941). What were they to do? No one knew, they believed, when he would come out of hiding. So there must be waiting and vigilance, and a strict adherence to the imam's religious and judicial authority in the community.
Another Shiite group expecting the Messiah's return was the Fatimids, who traced their…
Armstrong, Karen. (2000). Islam: a short history. New York: Modern Library.
Brett, Michael. (2001). The rise of the Fatimids: the world of the Mediterranean and the Middle East in the tenth century. CE. Leiden: Brill.
Endress, G. (2002). Islam: an historical introduction. C. Hillenbrand (Trans.). New York: Columbia University.
Goldschmidt, Arthur, & Lawrence Davidson. (2005). A concise history of the middle east (8th Ed.). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Thus, the adoption of Christianity by these and other European nations created new forms of government and new ways of living a just and moral life.
In contrast, those that practice Judaism, as compared to Christians, tend to be socially and economically liberal and strongly support individual liberties with regard to many societal issues. However, Judaism also reflects "Enlightenment beliefs about the value and sanctity of each individual conscience," meaning that semi-Christian beliefs and practices were adopted by many Jews in Europe as a result of the spread of Enlightenment ideals during the middle years of the 18th century (Parratt, 212).
As compared to Christianity, Islam has played practically no role in the development of Western civilization (except perhaps for the many religious wars between Christianized nations and Islamic nations in the past one thousand years or so), yet in today's modern world, Islam has taken a foothold in many…
Baker, Liva. World Faiths: A Story of Religion. Israel: Abelard & Schuman, 1965.
Eliade, Mircea. The HarperCollins Concise Guide to World Religions. San Francisco:
Gilsenan, Michael. Recognizing Islam: Religion and Society in the Modern Arab World.
" (Iyengar, 2001) Lastly, the manner of presentation of a news story "significantly affects its ability to set the public agenda." (Behr and Iyengark 1985; Dearing and Rogers, 1996) Concluded is that: "In the current regime, American politics is almost exclusively a mediated experience. The role of the citizen ahs evolved from occasional foot soldier and activist to spectators. Those who seek public office invest heavily in efforts to shape news coverage of their candidacy. The returns from this investment provide them with leverage over public opinion, by setting the public agenda or by projecting a general impression of competent leadership..." (Iyengar, 2001)
The report published by the "ediaatters for America' website entitled: "According to aher, CBS's "Free Speech" is a isnomer" states that Bill aher, HBO's Real Time with Bill aher show host states that "CBS rejected his request to comment on religion for his planned "Free Speech" segment…
Miles, M.B., & Huberman, a.M. (1984). Qualitative data analysis, a sourcebook of new methods. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Miller, W.L., & Crabtree, B.F. (1992). Primary care research: A multimethod typology and qualitative road map. In B.F. Crabtree & W.L. Miller (Eds.), Doing qualitative research. Research methods for primary care (Vol. 3). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
The American Media Representation of Islam & Terrorism Post 9-11
Lewis' the Crisis of Islam
On page 160 of The Crisis of Islam, Bernard Lewis states, "There is no doubt that the foundation of Al-Qa'ida and the consecutive declarations of war by Usama bin Ladin marked the beginning of a new and ominous phase in the history of both Islam and terrorism." Indeed, based on the historical outline of Islam that Lewis provides, the new and ominous phase applies equally to non-Muslim cultures. The Crisis of Islam examines the origins of Islamic fundamentalism and its deadly application as terrorism. The September 11 attacks made Americans more conscious than ever about the threat of anti-American sentiment, a threat that existed far before Al-Qa'ida. In his book, Lewis offers several insights into Islam's current social and political crisis. First, the author describes the flourishing of Islamic culture, noting in particular its theocratic foundations. The theocratic foundation of Islamic culture and religion allow…
Lewis, Bernard. The Crisis of Islam: Holy War and Unholy Terror. New York: The Modern Library, 2003.
role of Islam as a unifying force
Perhaps more than any other religion in the world, Islam has put to work its less obvious sense in order to unify the peoples sharing the same belief. Through its art, its common language and its judicial system that has the Koran teachings at its base, Islam was a unifying force among the Arabic peoples of the Arabic Peninsula, Northern Africa and the Middle East.
There is a short discussion I would like to address here and that is to identify the differences between culture and civilization. This will help us see how religion LO is included in this set of concepts. From my point-of-view, religion LO can be considered an element of civilization through its cultural component. If we exclude Marxist ideology that argue that civilization is but a certain level that culture has attained and make no distinction between the two,…
Islam was therefore the one true religion for anyone of African decent, according to Farad Muhammad. The founder of the Nation of Islam as well as Elijah Muhammad therefore believed that African-American people should embrace as a matter of cultural pride and ethnic identity.
The Nation of Islam has since been as much about culture, ethnicity, and politics as about religion. In some ways, Islam is not as important to the Nation of Islam as Nation is. The concept of nation is "an imagined community of people founded on selected criteria," (Gardell 8). Religion and race are the two criteria that the Nation of Islam uses to define its community. According to Curtis, Elijah Muhammad turned the Nation of Islam into a "black nationalist organization committed to racial separatism and ethnic pride," (2). Another reason why the Nation of Islam appears to be more about black nationalism and ethnic pride…
Much like Catholicism, the religious system known as Islam whose believers are called Muslim dates back to around 610 A.D. when the prophet Muhammad allegedly was visited by the angel Gabriel who spoke to him and conveyed the actual words of Allah Himself (i.e., Allah as God). Muhammad was also told that he had been chosen by Allah as a prophet and that he must write down everything he had been told. Shortly before his death in 632 A.D., these writings became the Holy Quran, the sacred scriptures of Islam.
One of the most important similarities between Islam and Catholicism is that both are founded on monotheism or the belief in one God, a God who is believed to be "personal, righteous and holy" (Corbett, 2001, p. 233). Of course, one of the most contrasting differences between Islam and Catholicism is that Islam was founded in the Middle East as…
Corbett, Julia Mitchell. (2001). Religion in America. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall,
"Roman Catholicism." (1997). Biblical Discernment Ministries. Internet. Retrieved June 7,
2009 from http://www.rapidnet.com/~jbeard/bdm/Cults/Catholicism/catholic.htm .
The artworks prevalent during the early Middle Ages in many ways stand between these two extremes. The art of this period was one that was both religiously inclined but also celebrated the human form and human nature that was to become so prominent in the enaissance. In many ways much of early Medieval art was similar to the abstract and decorative art that we find in Islamic examples. An example that has been chosen to represent this early period of European art is the Gerona Bible Master from Bologna, Italy,
This decorative example displays intricate artwork that emphasizes and enhances the Biblical context. The text or lyrics on the page refers to hymnal and religious phrases of praise, such as "Let us rejoice" (Art: Middle Ages). Note the way that the decorative images add depth to the aesthetics of the script and the manuscript as a…
Art and architecture of the Early Middle Ages. Retrieved from http://www.artandpopularculture.com/Middle_Ages
Art: Middle Ages. Retrieved from http://www.artlex.com/ArtLex/m/middleages.html
Middle Ages. Retrieved from http://www.answers.com/topic/middle-ages
Roman art. Retrieved from http://www.artchive.com/artchive/R/roman.html Siddiqui E.
Shi'ism in the World & the Shiite Islamic Sect in Nigeria
Shi'ism in the World
History, Objectives & General Outlook
Shiite Muslims make up the second biggest denomination of Islam, with the biggest numbers being represented by the Sunnis. The Shiite Muslims form about fifteen percent of Muslims. However, they are dominant in the nations of Iran, Azerbaijan, Iraq and Bahrain. In addition, Muslims have a plurality in Yemen and Lebanon too (Cave, 2006). These two distinct groups within the Islam community first differed and deviated from each other following the death of Prophet Muhammad in 632. The divide arose from the fact that the followers were not able to come to an agreement as to whether it was right to select bloodline successors or able leaders most capable of following and propagating the tenets of the Muslim faith (Fuller and Francke, 2000).
The Shiite community commenced during the 650s,…
Akhavi, S. (1983). The ideology and praxis of Shi'ism in the Iranian revolution. Comparative Studies in Society and History, 25(02), 195-221.
Campbell, J. (2015). "Massacre" of Shia in Northern Nigeria an Opening for Iran. Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved 5 January 2016 from: http://blogs.cfr.org/campbell/2015/12/16/massacre-of-shia-in-northern-nigeria-an-opening-for-iran/
Cave, D. (2006). Telling Sunni from Shiite. The New York Times. Retrieved 5 January 2016 from:shttp://topics.nytimes.com/top/reference/timestopics/subjects/s/shiite_muslims/index.html
Center for Security Policy. (2014). Will Sunni-Shia tensions spread to Nigeria? Retrieved 5 January 2016 from: https://www.centerforsecuritypolicy.org/2014/11/03/will-sunni-shia-tensions-spread-to-nigeria/
Future of Nursing Education in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
The primary objective of this book is to provide the reader with evidence-based nursing education and practice principles. The goal of this work is to help nursing educators and nurse practitioners develop evidence-based nursing education standards and curriculum while providing nurses with effective examples of patient-centered care that is both high quality and cost effective. Patients and family members in Saudi Arabia have needs and expectations that nurses should seek to meet and fulfill. To that end, this book aims to support nurses and nurse educators.
The cultural values of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia are also an important component of this work, as it is the culture of this country that supports and advances the aims of the nursing profession. This is seen in every aspect of the nursing profession -- from the earliest days of the first nursing…
Aldossary, A., While, A., Barriball, L. (2008). Health care and nursing in Saudi Arabia.
International Nursing Review, 55(1): 125-128.
Al-Hashem, A. (2016). Health education in Saudi Arabia. Sultan Qaboos University
Medical Journal, 16(3): e286-e292.
The ole of eligion in the Middle East Conflict
The Middle East is the cradle of the main religions of the world (Molloy, 1942). Despite this fact, the region has experience hatred and violence for many years. The two main religions involved in the conflict are Jewish and Islam. Many Arab nations portray the ongoing conflict between them and Israel as a war against their religion. In this regard, they wage war as a basis of incitement of other Arab and non-Arab nations against Israel. According to Hama (1994), the endless conflict between Arabs and Israel may not be exactly a land issue or a war between nations but a mindless pursuit to defend Arab nationalism from the israeli threat. The founder of Islam, Mohhamad cultivated the idea of jihad as a way of influencing the spread of Islam by using forceful strategies. Arab Muslim countries have perfected this…
Hama, K. (1994, July 26). A Window-opening view of the dark, mindet so prevalent in the Arab world. Syrian Daily .
Israel Science and Technology Directory. (2012). Is improving economic conditions for Palestinian Arabs conducive to peace? Retrieved March 1, 2012, from www.science.co.il: http://www.science.co.il/
Molloy, M. (1942). Experiencing the world's religions: tradition, challenge, and change. New York: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.
Prager, D., & Telushkin, J. (2003). Why the Jews?: The Reason for Antisemitism. New York:
Power was juggled in different areas based on victories and loses of the two competing empires.
After the initial wave of crusaders, Europe had regained the area formerly known as the Christian Byzantine Empire, including Jerusalem and other parts of Israel. After fighting off the Islamic nations who held the area, Christianity ruled over Jerusalem until the late eleventh century. This formed a new Christian state within an Islamic context, but only heightened tensions between the two regions. Then in 1187, the Turkish Kingdom ruled by Saladin who ruled over Egypt and Syria, (Lewis, 134). For the next century, several other unsuccessful crusades were launched to once again recapture the Holy Land.
It was not only war which distanced the two regions. It was also a lack of social understanding which occurred through normal and commercial contact between the modern day enemies. Many Islamic traders and the Northern European markets…
Attar, Samar. "Conflicting Accounts on the Fear of Strangers: Muslim and Arab
Perceptions of Europeans in Medieval Geographical Literature. Arab Studies Quarterly. 27. 2005. pp. 17-35.
Lewis, Bernard. From Babel to Dragomans: Interpreting the Middle East. Oxford University Press. 2004.
In his book, "Western Ways of eing Religious," (Kessler, 1999) the author Gary E. Kessler identifies the theological, philosophical and societal ramifications of the evolution of religion in the West. Christianity, Judaism and Islam can be traced to a single origin but their divergence has been very marked. Kessler sets his thesis very early in the book. He avers that there are two approaches to religion. One is to be immersed in it -- as a practitioner; the other is to study it as an objective observer, looking in from the outside. This work is unique. The author challenges the traditional notions with his own opinions then follows it with the views of an expert on that notion (in the form of a speech or an essay). He avers that a student of religion has to approach the topic with honesty and openness. This often involves imagining the…
Kessler, Gary E. Western Ways of Being Religious. Mountain View, Calif.: Mayfield Pub., 1999.pp.
Edwards, Rem Blanchard. Reason and Religion; an Introduction to the Philosophy of Religion. New York,: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1972.pp. 386
Paden, William E. Religious Worlds: The Comparative Study of Religion. Boston: Beacon Press, 1988.pp. 192
Proudfoot, Wayne. Religious Experience. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985.pp. 263
S. interests. What is different is that we have names and faces to go with that warning."3 This emphasis on recognizing the adaptability
3 Dennis C. Blair, Annual Threat Assessment of the U.S. Intelligence Community for the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, (U.S. Senate Armed Services Committee, 2010).
of the terrorist is central to the government's overall response, in terms of both planning and execution, as evidenced by findings presented in the wealth of threat assessment material released to the public each year.
With the oft mentioned terrorist training camps and secret underground bases littered throughout the Middle East long since located and reduced to rubble, jihadists the world over have increasingly turned to the internet to lure potential borrowers and launder funds on a global scale.4 the last Homeland Security Threat Assessment, delivered to the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence in 2008 and covering the period from that date…
Bennetch, Paul. 2012. "Terrorism expert: al-Qaida's 9/11 tactics an 'abject failure'." Cornell Chronicle [Ithaca, NY] 13 Mar 2012. Retrieved from http://www.news.cornell.edu/stories/March12/BergenCover.html
Blair, Dennis C. 2010. United States Senate Select Committee on Intelligence. Annual Threat Assessment of the U.S. Intelligence Community for the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, Retrieved from http://intelligence.senate.gov/100202/blair.pdf
Esposito, Richard, Matthew Cole, and Brian Ross. 2009. Officials: U.S. Army Told of Hasan. ABC World News. Retrieved from http://abcnews.go.com /Blotter/fort-hood-shooter- contact-al-qaeda-terrorists-officials/story?id=9030873
Holt, B. 2010. Islamic wealth management. Unpublished raw data, Thomas Jefferson School of Law, San Diego, CA.
Hence, Islam was able to penetrate other areas and build an empire by using two methods: by force or war against other believers and by the appeal of a new religion (http://www.history.navy.mil/library/online/islam.htm,2006).
The invasion of Muslims in estern Europe has brought tremendous impact to the people in the said area. Science and learning, in particular, were greatly influenced when Arabs of the Muslims came over. This is also the very reason why Islam, as a religion, is considered to have had a profound impact on the creation of the world civilization where cultural diversity was viewed positively. Moreover, with the invasion of Muslims, was the one responsible in the creation of a diverse and upgraded scientific, intellectual and cultural life (http://www.barkati.net/english/#25,2006).
Muslims' Allah," (2006) [online] http://religion-cults.com/allah.htm
Tenets of Islam," (2006) [online] http://www.history.navy.mil/library/online/islam.htm
The Spread of Islam," (2006) [online] (http://www.barkati.net/english/#25,2006).
Muslims' Allah," (2006) [online] http://religion-cults.com/allah.htm
Tenets of Islam," (2006) [online] http://www.history.navy.mil/library/online/islam.htm
The Spread of Islam," (2006) [online] ( http://www.barkati.net/english/#25,2006 ).
eligion and Politics
Uses and Abuses of the Concept of Orientalism
There have been many uses and abuses in regard to the cultural and social concept called Orientalism. "Unlike the Americans, the French and British -- less so the Germans, ussians, Spanish, Portuguese, Italians, and Swiss -- have had a long tradition of what I shall be calling Orientalism, a way of coming to terms with the Orient that is based on the Orient's special place in European Western Experience. The Orient is not only adjacent to Europe; it is also the place of Europe's greatest and richest and oldest colonies, the source of its civilizations and languages, its cultural contestant, and one of its deepest and most recurring images of the other. In addition, the Orient has helped to define Europe (or the West) as its contrasting image, idea, personality, and experience. Yet none of this Orient is merely…
Afzal-Khan, Fawzia (1993). Cultural Imperialism and the Indo-English Novel: Genre and Ideology in R.K. Narayan, Anita Desai, Kamala Markandaya, and Salman Rushdie. University Park, Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University Press.
Arac, Jonathan, & Harriet, Ritvo (1995). Macropolitics of Nineteenth-Century Literature: Nationalism, Exoticism, Imperialism. Durham and London: Duke University Press.
Barlow, Tani E. (1997). Formations of Colonial Modernity in East Asia. Durham & London: Duke University Press.
Bruun, Ole (2000). Human Rights and Asian Values: Contesting National Identities and Cultural Representations in Asia. Curzon: Richmond, England.
Even with the fact that the tribesman was not acquainted with the religion, it is very possible that Africans in general felt that Christianity contained a series of concepts that were also present in their cultures." Though the peoples of this vast area spoke many languages and had different customs, through Christianity they were linked together in the confession of the creed of Nicaea" (ilken).
Islam had nonetheless experienced a rapid spread over the Arab Peninsula, but this can be attributed to the fact that most people in the territory had been Arab and because they saw the opportunity of adopting a religion that also had the function of uniting all the Arab people. Moreover, one can understand how Christianity had more success in converting individuals because it had mainly been directed at getting the people it came across to think spiritually and to appreciate God as a spiritual concept.…
Goddard, Peter a. "Converting the Sauvage: Jesuit and Montagnais in Seventh-century New France," the Catholic Historical Review 84.2 (1998)
Jenkins, Philip. "The Forgotten Christian World: In the First Millennium, Christianity Spread East from Palestine to Iraq, and on to India and China, Becoming a Global Religion Accepting of, and Accepted by, Other Faiths. But with the Mongol Invasions of the 13th Century, Christianity's Eastern Journey Came to an End, and the Religion Became Ever More Closely Identified with European Culture. Philip Jenkins Recovers This Lost History," History Today Apr. 2009
Osman, Ghada. "Pre-islamic Arab Converts to Christianity in Mecca and Medina: an Investigation into the Arabic Sources," the Muslim World 95.1 (2005)
Wilken, Robert Louis. "Christianity face-to-face with Islam," First Things: A Monthly Journal of Religion and Public Life Jan. 2009
The second case of cultural reaffirmation that Huntington discusses is that of Muslim societies which have followed a different path towards the reassertion of their cultural identity. In these societies, religion has been the main factor of cultural distinctiveness and influence. Huntington argues that religion is the main factor which distinguishes Muslim societies from the others, and that the resurgence of Islam "embodies the acceptance of modernity, rejection of Western culture, and the recommitment to Islam as the guide to life in the modern world" (Huntington 1998: 110). As far as the causes behind this resurgence, Huntington talks about the failure of state economies, the large and oftentimes rather young population of these countries, as well as the authoritarian political regimes of these nation states.
In light of these arguments, Huntington predicts great clashes will occur among civilizations. However he also identifies a possible cooperation between Islamic and inic cultures…
Simon & Schuster, 1998.
Huntington, Samuel. "The Clash of Civilizations?" Foreign Affairs 72.3 (1993): 22-49.
Kamrava, Mehran. "Political Culture." In Democracy in the Balance: Culture and Society in the Middle East. New York: Chatham House Publishers, 1998: 201-223.