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humans experience several stages of development throughout the lifespan. Nearly all recognize clear differences between an infant, toddler, adolescent, and adult. Although many, throughout history and the world, allege theories of human development, this phenomenon currently falls mainly within the realm of psychology. Not surprisingly, there exist many psychological theories of development, each with defining and respectable characteristics. However, two of the most well-known are those of Erik Erikson and Lawrence Kohlberg. While a cursory discussion of their complete theories of development is necessary for contextual purposes, of particular interest are their concepts regarding early adolescence.
Erikson stated that humans develop through progressive psychosocial stages. Furthermore, he contended that each stage involves a conflict that one must resolve in order to proceed to the next level. In infancy, humans experience the trust vs. mistrust stage, during which time they form lasting impressions about the world; this naturally takes place through…… [Read More]
Jean Piaget's 4 stages of development
JEAN PIAGET THEOY OF 4 STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT
Stages of Cognitive Development
According to Piaget, assimilation and accommodation processes go on all through life. He, nevertheless, believed that cognitive development took place sequentially, one stage after another, in all children at about the same age. At the different phases of cognitive development, the outlook and interactions of children with their environment tend to vary. Piaget had four phases of cognitive development. These were: the sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational and formal operational stages (Nevid, 2009).
Sensorimotor Stage: From Birth to 2 Years
With six sub-stages, this stage is characterized by considerable growth in the infant's cognitive development. A child at this stage develops more complex skill sets and ways of behavior. An infant at this stage makes use of its senses as well as developing motor skills to survey its environment. The infant's intelligence is…… [Read More]
Of course, not every individual resolves all of these conflicts successfully. "Erikson is not explicit but presumably assumes character types comprised of combinations of the sets of traits related to the eight stages of development. henever a fixation occurs, it is likely to jeopardize sound development in subsequent stages as well [Erikson said] -- 'failure is cumulative'" ("Erik Homburg Erikson,"2008).
The era when Erikson developed his theory of development was heavily influenced by the rise of "Ego Psychology," and the belief that the human ego exists from birth -- hence the fear amongst many parents that if they parented poorly, even in terms of the child's first feedings, they could cause psychological damage to their developing offspring's sense of self ("Erik Homburg Erikson," 2008). Erikson also came to his professional maturity during a time when the influence of culture and biology became important in psychology, as biological changes are…… [Read More]
Levinson (1986) saw this phase as being marked by increasingly strong relationships with significant aspects of the external world. For many people (indeed perhaps most), these relationships are with other people. But Levinson believed that this did not need to be the case for a healthy development. Equally valid and fulfilling connections can be made at this stage of life with animal companions or with a relationship with nature or even with ideas as expressed in literature, music, or art (Levinson, 1986).
Levinson's model emphasizes both the stability and fluctuations of healthy development. Unlike previous analogous models, he stressed the importance of understanding how individuals moved from one life stage to another. While other psychologists and psychiatrists had neglected to explore the dynamics of the intertidal spaces between one stage and another, Levinson helped both scholars and individuals see how movement between stages provided a constant that extended over the…… [Read More]
I have taken part in discussion groups in the first with people who are not my close friends. The communication is usually off at the start of the group meetings, but it soon picks up as the team gets to know each other. The team went through the forming, storming, norming and the forming stages of development. During the forming stage, everyone remains independent, and the objectives of the group are not understood. The scope of the task is the main discussion points during the stage. The team members also focused on getting to know one another and appreciating the differences between them. During the storming stage, the members of the group embarked on understanding the characters of the other members. I could see this development regarding forming opinions about one another and dealing with disagreements. In particular, each member was focused on having the group take his or her…… [Read More]
The AA also provides a strong network of relationships that is important for the recovery and support process as pointed out by Khantzian & Mack, (1994, pp.348).
The steps are important since they assist the alcoholics in becoming patient. They also admit that they are reckless and out of control. They also give up the alcoholic struggle with self and the bottle in order to allow the higher power as well as assistance of other to emancipate them. In the recovery process, there are sponsors. A sponsor is an alcoholic who has fully recovered and the recovering alcoholic can reach them at any time.
Alcoholic Anonymous believes even the alcoholics are important help to others. The concept of AA is beneficial in getting rid of the incessant alienation as well as shame that the alcoholics feel. It then proceeds to instill a sense of hope, contact with other as well…… [Read More]
Young adults are on the threshold between youthful behaviors and the adult world. Humans in their late teens begin to accept responsibilities for their own lives and learn to depend upon themselves financially, socially, and psychologically. This is also the time when they make life choices which will ultimately shape their futures and the people they eventually become. Renowned theorist Daniel Levinson defines adult development in the age between 17 and 33 as the novice phase, because this is the point where the young person takes on new responsibilities in the same way as an amateur or novice in a specific occupational field. According to theorist Erik Erikson:
In this stage, the most important events are love relationships. Intimacy refers to one's ability to relate to another human being on a deep, personal level. An individual who has not developed a sense of identity usually will fear a committed relationship…… [Read More]
Old Boy at a Children's Museum Play Area
Soren is a 4-year-old boy. He has light blonde hair that is cut short on the sides and is longer on the top. He is a generally smiley child. He likes to interact with his surroundings and likes to run and hop, crouch and spring into action with a cry of delight as though he were taking great amusement in catching the world by surprise.
He is viewed at a play area in a children's museum. The observation begins just before noon and continues until a quarter past 1 pm.
The play area is very crowded and full of children around his own age, with parents standing nearby watching their children. Most of the children are playing on their own, looking at the environment around them, engaging with the activities (puzzles, blocks, interactive equipment, play sets, scooters, and jungle gym equipment). Soren's…… [Read More]
Early Childhood: Play Years
Early childhood is a time of rapid mental, physical and emotional growth. As children move past infancy, they begin to explore their surroundings and to build relationships with other children. Four areas of early childhood will be explored; the differences between male and female brain development, pretend play in early childhood, conflict negotiation, and the male and female approaches to relationships and problem solving.
Biology and Language
Scientists have been aware for many years that there are physical differences between the physiology of male and female brains, especially in the way that language is processed. Experts generally tend to agree that women are superior at language skills, while men are stronger in spatial skills. The reason women are better at language is because females have a larger and thicker corpus callosum, which is a bundle of neurons that connects the two hemispheres of the brain and…… [Read More]
preferences by countries can led to different forms of the challenges that they face and the strategies they choose to address these challenges. However, in an increasingly globalized world, many modern challenges are increasingly affecting the world's population as a whole; like climate change for example. Thus the next generations of challenges will require solutions that involve an unprecedented level of global collaboration. Furthermore, these challenges can be thought of in terms of social, economic, and environmental challenges. This paper will briefly outline three development challenges that are facing development in the 21st century.
Climate change, also known as global warming, is an environmental phenomenon that has attracted significant global attention in recent decades. This is arguably an issue that can be thought of as an existential issue. Climate change stands the potential not only to threaten many animal species around the world in a new global masses…… [Read More]
George's marriage to Ella is his second one; his first wife was from an arranged marriage in Pakistan that left him unhappy. Yet he was able to incorporate aspects of development theory within his own life to find a new wife who he is (mostly) pleased with in a Western environment, and even owns a successful fish and chips restaurant. In his romantic life and in his economic life, George is able to evince some of the best qualities of development theory and modernization by taking his best assets and (literally) marrying them with those from a Western society to update and contemporize his life and his source of income.
However, what George does not take account of is the fact that he must allow the same degree of leniency from his religion and tradition that he permitted himself in marrying Ella to his children. In this sense, East is…… [Read More]
Piagetian, Ericksonian, And Freudian Stages of Development
Human beings progress gradually from childhood to adulthood, going through stages that are distinct, continuous, and improving. Developmental psychologists like Freud, Piaget, and Erickson came up with different theories concerning the stages that people often undergo as they grow from childhood. This study discusses the similarities and the differences between the three theories with examples of the stages mentioned by each given. The contrast and comparison will make people appreciate the importance of the three theories of human development
Erickson's theory had the highest number of stages of development compared to the other two. His theory covered eight main stages from birth to death of an individual. According to Erickson, the successful completion of a stage marked a good beginning of the next stage. Failure to fully exhibit and live a stage exhaustively will recur in the future through habits that will…… [Read More]
younger brother's development since he was born in 1985, I would not have been able to until the beginning of this century. Until the early 1900s, no one was studying the changes that occurred in individuals from childhood to adulthood.
Now psychologists and other social scientists recognize that children go through similar behavioral, intellectual and mental, and physical steps while growing up. By using these theoretical steps as a guide, I can keep track of the development of my brother and any other child. It should always be remembered, however, that the time frames presented are averages and some children may achieve various developmental milestones earlier or later than the average but still be within the normal range. This information is presented to help interested parties understand what to expect from a child.
The idea that specific development stages exist for adults as well as children began with the initial…… [Read More]
" (Anderson, et al., 2003) The study reported by Roberts, Christenson and Gentile (2003) provided a summary of a study that is unpublished but that states findings of a "positive correlation between amount of MTV watching and physical fights among third- through fifth-grade children. In addition, children who watched a lot of MTV were rated by peers as more verbally aggressive, more relationally aggressive, and more physically aggressive than other children. Teachers rated them as more relationally aggressive, more physically aggressive, and less helpful." (Anderson, et al., 2003) Anderson et al. also reports the study of Rubin, West, and Mitchell (2001) who state findings that young people listening to heavy metal music "held more negative attitudes toward women." (Anderson et al., 2003)
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
The male child is more likely to view violence against females as well as sexual aggression against females to be acceptable if the male child…… [Read More]
This is because they are both considered as constructivists whose approach to learning and teaching is based on the link between mental construction and cognitive development. On the stages of development from birth through adolescence, the two theorists propose that boundaries of cognitive development are determined by societal influences.
Piaget explains the ability of societal factors to influence a child's cognitive development through the sensorimotor, pre-operational and concrete operational stages. In his explanations of these stages, Piaget states that intelligence is demonstrated through symbols, which are obtained from societal influences. On the other hand, Vygotsky believes that societal influences especially cultural tools have a significant effect on cognitive development since they can be passed from one person to another. Cognitive development cannot be separated from the societal influences and include imitative learning, instructed learning and collaborative learning. In possible classroom applications, the views of both Piaget and Vygotsky on cognitive…… [Read More]
Piaget's Cognitive Development
The Webster Dictionary describes the word cognition as; the psychological means of distinguishing, including features such as consciousness, perception, reasoning and decision making (Cognition). Piaget's Cognitive Developmental theory was a novel idea at the time of its birth. In depth, this theory, was the first on the issue and continued the specification of the field for a while. All through this paper, Piaget's thesis will be torn down into its four phases and all will be methodically complete. It is the intention of this research study to see how well Piaget's ideas endured the test of time and see what developments made to the current theory.
Piaget makes the hypothesis that there were four main cognitive phases in practical development, agreeing to four consecutive methods of knowledge. All through each of these stages, children were theorized to ponder and reason in a way that was different. These…… [Read More]
Piaget's Stages Of Cognitive Development
Child Behavior Evaluations using Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development
I was working at the library when two 15 to 16-year-old girls sat down at my table. Remembering that I had to do this assignment, I tried to pay attention to their behavior without seeming to. One of the girls opened up her laptop and began to work on what appeared to be homework, while the other girl sat down and quietly waited for her friend to finish the assignment. The homework seemed to require searching for information online in order to complete the assignment. Her patient friend seemed politely bored while waiting. At one point, the girl doing her homework apologized to her friend and stated that she was "… really sorry for taking so long." The girl doing the homework also received several text messages, which she silenced and ignored so that she could…… [Read More]
perfect, Piaget's theories a profound impact field cognitive development. Provide analysis model challenges . a.Define main stages Piaget's theory, age ranges. b.Discuss crucial processes children move stage .
Piaget's theory of cognitive development relates to four essential stages that children go through as they grow up. The first is the sensorimotor stage and it involves the time period between birth and the age of two. Children learn more about the world in this phase by interacting with objects and through their experiences. The second is the preoperational stage, entails children between the ages of two to (approximately) seven, and it has children acquiring more information through role-playing but still encountering issues because they cannot properly implement logics and as they have difficulty seeing things from other point-of-views. The concrete operational stage occurs from about seven to about eleven years old and has children behaving and thinking more logically. Even with…… [Read More]
Mothering and Development
The presence of a sensitive mother throughout a child's developmental period is an essential determinant of healthy growth and maturation. The establishment of a solid social and emotional foundation during a child's formative years can not only aid in preparing one's youngster for life in the outside world, it can also instill a beneficial groundwork in the basic concepts of the self (Cassidy, 1990). In order to achieve such noble maternal goals a good mother needs to possess a plethora of fostering characteristics. The most important of such qualities include love, responsiveness, consistency, an eye to encourage and the ability to provide the child with a sense of security. Successful implementation of the aforementioned traits will allow the child to develop a healthy attachment to the mother. This attachment is most often constructed in the stages of infancy. Through the informative and enlightening work of John owlby…… [Read More]
Harry James Potter was born in 1980, the son of James and Lily Potter. Both of Harry's parents died when Harry was an infant. The murder of his parents literally left Harry Potter scarred for life: his lightening bolt-shaped scar is one of his most distinguishing physical features. The orphaned Harry was forced to live with distant family relatives who are Muggles, and culturally distinct from Harry. Harry Potter studies at the Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry. Harry has developed a process of adaptation, by which he adjusts himself to assimilate to the social environment at Hogwarts.
One of Harry's main cognitive schemas is that he aware that the Dark Lord Voldemort wants to kill him. The schema related to his personal identity and abstract concepts like good and evil evolve, revealing the process of child development throughout Potter's early adolescence. He demonstrates a process of accommodation, by…… [Read More]
The theory does not appear to allow for success in the workplace solely for the sake of workplace success. Instead, it appears to view procreation as the ultimate purpose of human life, with workplace success only a vehicle towards attaining success within the loving family circle.
To these ideas the authors add that the theory does not account for intimacy beyond the heterosexual and indeed beyond the sexual. As such, the theory is fundamentally inadequate to address the entire paradigm of successful adult individuation and attachment. Furthermore, the authors note that the theory is very limited in its connection between the biological and the psychological paradigms of differences between the male and female. While the theory does indeed better address the positive aspects of female development, it does so primarily in terms of the female drive to bear children, which substantiates the feminist view that the theory appears to be…… [Read More]
(the Teacher's role in developing social skills)
ole of Workplaces:
espectable work is seen as a social standard based on harmonizing and mutually collaborative policies to advance rights at work; employment; social protection and social dialogue. It tackles a basic ambition of women and men everywhere, that is, to get respectable and productive work in situations of freedom, equality, security and dignity of human labor. This ambition stresses a collective attempt by many bodies, namely, by international organizations, national governments, business and workers, and by all the social bodies in civil society. It needs all mediators of change to be involved in pioneering economic and social initiatives, customized to particular national and local needs. It specifically calls for new working relationships and dialogue between the conventional social partners in the sphere of work which includes governments, organizations of employers and trade unions and other associations of civil society, which have…… [Read More]
For instance, if a business is keenly aware of the manner in which different conditions are effecting business relationships, that businesses to work to make the appropriate changes.
Stages of Development
All relationships are governed by stages. Business relationships are no exception to this rule. There are various characteristics that businesses must be aware of as it pertains to each stage.
According to Brooks (2008) that are four primary stages of business relationship development. These four stages of development are as follows:
Emerging - getting familiar with one another with test transactions. These test transactions are both financial and non-financial (Brooks, 2008). During this stage first impressions are made and businesses can determine the reliability, quality of products/services and whether or not the cost of the product/service is equivalent to the cost of the product. This stage is critical because it establishes the type of relationship that the businesses will…… [Read More]
Unrecognized Genius of Jean Piaget
Kegan reflects on the work of Jean Piaget, emphasizing the importance of his work. He first looks at Kegan's most famous study, in which he fills two identically shaped beakers with equal amounts of water. He then asks the child whether or not they are of equal volume, and when the child agrees, he pours the contents into a thinner beaker. The child then has to decide which has more, and usually opts for the taller and thinner beaker. Kegan is pointing out the relative adaptive balance that is being made by the child. Children have their own perceptions of the physical world, and often have difficulty discerning relative differences in shapes and forms, among other things. Kegan purports that, "For the preoperational child, it is never just one's perceptions that change; rather, the world itself, as a consequence, changes" (29).
Kegan then goes on…… [Read More]
psychology interview project. In this project a total of 4 students from different levels will be interviewed. These students will be from preschool, elementary school, middle school, and high school. A total of 5 questions will be asked from them and all 4 students will be asked the same questions. At the end there will be a summary given regarding each student based on the answers given by them for those 5 questions.
The growth stage that the humans go through from their time of conception up to their time of death is known as human development. The basic purpose of the scientific study of human development is to understand why and how people change during their lives. All areas such as emotional, physical, intellectual, perceptual, personality and social development are a part of the human growth (Cherry). It is not just psychology but the scientific study of development is…… [Read More]
There are multiple stages of development that all children go through. The depth and breadth of these developmental changes ebb and flow greatly as growing children move from one stage of development to the next. Overall, there are several major developmental stages in the life of a child. There are the toddler years, the prepubescent years and the adolescent/teenage years. The brief literature review that follows in this report shall focus on the last of those. To be complete with this analysis, adolescence is not the end of human development given that many suggest that development extends into the 20's and 30's. Even so, the adolescent years of development are hailed by many as being the most pivotal, at least in some regards. While many would debate the above, it is clear that the adolescent years are among the most important.
Regardless of the development or life stage that…… [Read More]
..] is used to create forms for data input and display. (the) links to office applications (are represented by) a spreadsheet for the analysis and manipulation of numeric information or a word processor for report template creation. (the) report generator is used to define and create reports from information in the database."
The number of studies which actually reveal implications of AD usage within online commercial operations is quite limited. However, when presented with the available materials, the reader can form several opinions relative to the feature. For instance, since the development cycles are reduced, the final product (or at least a working version of the final product) will be quickly presented to the user. This will consequently increase his satisfaction. Consider the basic example where a software company is contracted to develop and maintain a website for Wal-Mart. The contractor desires that the website presented their customers with all…… [Read More]
Erick Erikson's Theory of Socioemotional Development
Erik Erikson, American psychoanalyst, is known in the field of psychology for his contribution in studying the socioemotional aspect of development among humans. Called the theory of socioemotional development, Erikson posits in his theory that, "people grow and develop "socialized by and socialize others -- parents, siblings, peers, teachers... processes that involve changes in an individual's relationships with other people, changes in emotion, and changes in personality" (Santrock, 2001:338). Erikson identified different dichotomies that specifically delineate positive and negative aspects of socioemotional developments among individuals. These dichotomies are placed at various levels, where different socioemotional characteristics are manifested at each level of the individual's development.
Erikson's theory is an essential tool to understanding human behavior because it serves as a guideline for people to understand the different changes in socioemotional characteristics of people as they grow older. Of course, there are certain exceptions…… [Read More]
This developmental theory provides one possible explanation for why Pelzer continued to defend and protect his mother for so long, and felt such a duty to do so; as the object of his repressed desires and his attempts to exhibit protective and masculine behavior, this would have been his essential task (Heffner 2003).
The age of six is somewhat on the cusp of Piaget's stages of preoperational and concrete operational. Many of the author's observations, such as that he "could determine what kind of day [he] was going to have by the way [his mother] dressed," suggest that he was already in the concrete operational stage, where future events could be abstracted from current information in a cause-and-effect manner (Pelzer 1995; pp. 30). Becoming stuck in this developmental phase due to a lack of stimulation and motivation was almost certainly a factor in the author's perspective throughout much of his…… [Read More]
How Does Training and Development Improve Employee Job Satisfaction, Increase Moral and Increase Retention?
Employee training and development is generally thought of in terms of employees learning or requiring new skills of some kind to serve more of a functional need. Training and devolvement can be instituted in an ongoing formalized process or can also be in response to an organizational change. Although training and development has direct implications for an employee's skillset and role in the organization, it can also affect employees in a number of other ways. For example, the literature indicates that training and development can also make beneficial contributions to factors such as job satisfaction, morale, and employee retention. The interactions between such factors are not as clear and there are undoubtedly mediating factors that are inherent in this relationship. This analysis will attempt to provide insight as to the relationship between…… [Read More]
(Psychopedia, 2014, p. 1)
Psychosocial theory is reported to combine internal psychological factors and social factors that are external with each stage building on the others and focusing on a challenge that needs to be resolved during that specific stage so that the individual can move on to the next stage of development. (http://www3.niu.edu/acad/fcns280/THEORY/sld008.htm)
VI. enefits of Counseling and Development Theories
The benefits of counseling related to theories of human development include assisting individuals in understanding how they got to where they are today and assist them in understanding how they can personally make changes or adjustments in their own life to achieve their personal life goals. It is reported that "According to develop mentalists, relationships among cognitions, emotions, and behaviors are interdependent and rooted in transactions with the environment (locher, 1980); therefore, while all humans possess inherent natures and abilities to mature, certain conditions must be present…… [Read More]
An initial psychotic episode is often the result, with immediate in-hospital treatment recommended for testing and observation. Treatment includes anti-psychotic medication and patients often respond well, particularly in milder cases of the illness. (Csernansky, 2001) However, a general inability to adapt socially will persist and prevent a "normal" existence for these individuals. In one case, a female patient described her general personality despite medication as characterized by "low self-esteem, hypersensitivity to criticism, hyperempathy, excessive generosity, susceptibility to manipulation, and social awkwardness" (eichenberg-Ullman, 2010). In addition, substance abuse, inability to hold a job, risk of suicide, and unwanted pregnancy are typical themes in these patients' lives. (Csernansky, 2001) in the case of pregnancy, females often suffer complications beyond their mental illness, such as poor prenatal care, risk of violence during pregnancy, and reduced likelihood of having a male supportive figure (staff, 2007)
In the middle phase of schizophrenia, or the first…… [Read More]
Gap: Early Childhood Intervention and the Development of the Disabled Child
Children with special needs include those who have disabilities, developmental delays, are gifted/talented, and are at risk of future developmental problems. Early intervention consists of the provision of services for such children and their families for the purpose of lessening the effects of their condition. Early intervention may focus on the child alone or on the child and the family together. Early intervention programs may be center-based, home-based, hospital-based, or a combination. Early intervention may begin at any time between birth and school age; however, there are many reasons for it to begin as early as possible. Early Intervention is the key to achieving the most positive outcome in aiding the disabled child to develop as normally as possible.
There are three primary reasons for intervening early with an exceptional child: to enhance the child's development, to provide support…… [Read More]
..attachment theory....human babies, notoriously helpless creatures that they are, need mother love or something much like it in order to thrive and develop emotionally and cognitively" (27). This statement is applied in the context of Bowlby's thesis that it is the attachment between the child and the caregiver that ultimately determines the level of emotional and cognitive development of the individual. Thus, greater and more positive attachment leads to healthy development among children; the opposite happens when, as in the case of orphaned babies, lack of attachment can lead to an abnormal development of the child, both emotionally and cognitively.
A similar thesis is subsisted to by Mary Ainsworth, whose concepts of secure and insecure attachment demonstrates that the level of security of attachment of the child with his/her caregiver "provides an important foundation for psychological development later in life." She identifies babies as either having a secure or insecure…… [Read More]
There are many similarities and differences that an individual experiences with the transition into high school and with the transition into college. Both of these experiences can be considered something of a rite of passage that many individuals go through in the course of their education and their social development. Each step could be generalized by describing an individual who is entering a new place with a new opportunity to be exposed to various source of knowledge. However, at the same time these periods in one's life are quiet unique. This analysis will highlight some of the similarities and differences that can be found in these similar but different transitory periods in one's life.
The High School Experience
The high school experience is fraught with new opportunities and exposures to many new thoughts and people for the first time. At some point in the high school experience students…… [Read More]
To citically investigate the cuent state of intenational business elationship development liteatue.
2. To exploe the chaacteistics that detemines sustainable intenational business elationships within the Libyan business context-fom the Libyan point-of-view.
3. To pesent a model based on the findings fom the two objectives above. This model will seve two main functions: (I). It will help fill in gaps in the cuent liteatue elating to the development and maintenance of business elationships with Libya. (II). It will be of pactical value to foeign businesses wishing to develop elationships with Libyan companies.
1.4.3 Reseach Questions
Fou eseach questions ae fomulated as a means of pusuing the above objectives, these being:
What ae the key vaiables that influence Libyan companies when they intenationalise, and why ae these vaiables so impotant fo Libyan oganisations?
What ae the majo steps/stages that Libyans go though when establishing business elationships?
How can foeign oganisations establish/maintain sustainable…… [Read More]
Piaget’s Stages of Development
Few theorists have had as strong an impact on developmental psychology as Jean Piaget. While the theories of Lev Vygotsky have offered compelling counterpoints to Piaget’s theories, the stages of psychosocial development Piaget proposed remain salient. In fact, it is easy to combine emerging research on childhood development from infancy to adolescence in terms of Piaget’s stages. As Lightfoot, Cole & Cole (2009) point out, evolutionary theories, information processing theories, and systems theories can all be integrated within the staged concept of development that Piaget proposed. Piaget shows how children develop physically, socially, and cognitively. Likewise, theories of childhood development can demonstrate how children develop self-awareness, empathy, and complex use of language. The four main stages of development include the sensorimotor, the preoperational, the concrete operational, and the formal operational. While far from being discreet stages with strong demarcations between them, empirical research in cognitive, behavioral,…… [Read More]
Fowlers Stages of Faith
James Fowlers Stages of Faith are an interesting perspective on the development of an individual's spirituality. Fowler's theory consists of structural stages and its gives a significant connection between psychological development and the development of faith of the individual (Kakkassery, 2003). It is fairly obvious that an individual's faith matures relative to their own development and experiences during their lives. Fowler believes that there are distinct stages that can be modeled to better understand this development. The stages begin in childhood and ends in stages that not everyone is able to reach. These stages could be applied to Christianity as well as virtually any other form of spirituality.
The first stage begins in early development and when youth first form a concept of God or spirituality. It is often the case that individuals adopt the worldview of their parents although they do not fully understand it…… [Read More]
Cognitive Development of Infants
Piaget's sensorimotor model provides the stage of cognitive human development showing that human experience consists of four stages of mental or cognitive starting from the first day a child is born to the adulthood. The first stage of human development is referred as the sensorimotor stage that starts at birth and end when a child is 24 months old. After the age of 24 months, a child moves to the operational stage starts when a child is 2 years old through the age of 7. A child moves into the final stage of behavioral and cognitive development at the age of adolescence that spans through adulthood. The objective of this study is to discuss the "six stages of Piaget's sensorimotor development." (Shaffer, & Kipp, 2010 p 253).
Piaget's sensorimotor Development
Piaget identifies the first two years of a child as the "sensorimotor stage of development." (Shaffer,…… [Read More]
53). He points out that four countries (in 1917) -- England, France, Germany, and the United States -- own 80 per cent of the world's finance capital; thus, in his view, the whole rest of the world is subjugated, that is, indebted to and tributary to those four "international banker countries."
Where once monopolists exported goods to other countries to make a profit, now they export finance capital. This is another symptom of the imperialistic stage of capitalism -- what to do with excess wealth? Lenin states that it would not be capitalism if the excess wealth were used to improve the quality of life for the millions of people who are still underfed and leading lives of misery. Instead, the capital is exported to "backward" countries and used to make more profits. In backward countries (now called developing nations) where there is a shortage of capital, labor is cheap,…… [Read More]
Integrating the Field of Developmental Psychology: A Review of the Literature
Developmental Stage/Age Group: Infancy and toddlerhood (0 - 3 years)
In the development stage of infancy to toddlerhood, the child is changing and responding to its environment and social setting. As Levinson (1986) notes, the home is the child’s immediate social and physical environment. The mother tends to be the child’s source of security and the child grows in confidence through connection to the mother. Between the ages of one and two the child is like a “young scientist,” according to Piaget in the sense that the child explores and demonstrates cognitive development (Thomas, Warner & Foster, 2000). According to Freud, the child is developing a sense of pleasure, first through oral stimulation which is connected to feeding initially but also through relief by way of bowel movements and urination. According to Erickson, the child is developing trust during…… [Read More]
Despite their supposed differences, all of the foregoing organizational management techniques and approaches share some common themes involving getting a better handle of what is actually being done in companies and how better to manage these things. Unfortunately, another common theme these management approaches share is the inappropriate or misapplication of these approaches by managers who either do not understand how they work or by rabid managers who insist on absolute conformity with these processes and procedures without any room for flexibility according to the unique needs of the organization. In fact, according to Mills (2003), "Analysis of the data suggests that the implementation of organizational change, particularly selected change programs such as Culture Change, TQM and BP, does not follow the rational, orderly decision-making processes indicated by advocates" (p. 2). Nevertheless, some of the more recent management approaches do provide a more comprehensive analysis of what can reasonably be…… [Read More]
Adolescence is an especially critical development stage for any individual. At this stage, individuals not only experience biological changes, but also become more aware of gender roles and expectations and experience cognitive development. Family and school become social incubators that trigger changes and psychosocial responses in adolescents. The film The Breakfast Club shows how a group of five adolescents go through critical changes in this stage of their life. This paper will highlight the developmental markers observed in one character depicted the film, Claire. Clare will be used as a case study to explore developmental issues related to gender, biology, and cognition. The paper also highlights various socialization agents (specifically school and family) and how they impact the individual’s self-concept, identity, and social role.
The Breakfast Club features five teenagers detained all day at Shermer High School. Several developmental markers are evident in the film. One of the markers is…… [Read More]
Human Development and Disabilities
Developmental stages are categorized into six phases, which include pregnancy and infancy, toddlerhood and early childhood, school age, adolescence, adulthood and midlife and the young elderly and the elderly. There are various ways in which these stages of development are impacted by disability. The stage of development of a person at the time of inception or identification of a disability has a significant impact on the person's response to the disability. When a person acquires a disability, it can have a dominant impact on the person's negotiation of developmental phases. It can give rise to a person missing out on significant developmental learning and completion of tasks (Smart, 2011). There are three distinguishing elements that will bring people with disabilities into the American culture. First, there is the populace explosion of people with disabilities. Secondly, there is the element of people with disabilities shifting away from…… [Read More]
Human Development in ehabilitation Counseling
ehabilitation counseling is a profession that focuses on using a counseling process to assist disabled individuals to achieve their individual, career, and autonomous life goals. As a result, professional in this field work in various settings including healthcare facilities, rehabilitation centers, governmental agencies, learning institutions, and insurance companies. Given their role in helping people living with disabilities, rehabilitation counselors need to acquire necessary competencies and skills for effective practice. One of the most crucial elements to the development of a rehabilitation counselor is understanding human development, a suitable age range or group to counsel, and applying relevant theories during practice. These three factors help in enhancing the effectiveness of a rehabilitation counselor in his/her setting.
Significance of Human Development to a ehabilitation Counselor
As previously indicated, one of the important elements to the development of a rehabilitation counselor is understanding human development. Generally, understanding lifespan…… [Read More]
Developmental Processes Across the Life Span With Diverse Sociocultural Contexts
The objective of this study is to identify development processes across the life span with diverse sociocultural contexts and to demonstrate theoretical comprehension and application in psychotherapy in order to identify theoretical strengths and weaknesses based on the setting and/or client population specific to child behavior. Finally, this work will demonstrate basic knowledge of the range of normal an abnormal behaviors and child developmental processes. The work of Havighurst (1971) entitled 'Characteristics of Development Task' reports that living is a process beginning with birth and ending with death, which is, comprised of people "working their way through from stage of development to another, by solving their problems in each stage.") When the individual does not complete a task, which results in unhappiness as well as "disapproval by society and problems in later tasks." (1971, p.1) Six primary stages of the…… [Read More]
life are in many ways the most exciting, as the newborn develops rapidly into a toddler. Changes in sensorimotor skills, in sheer physical growth, in behavior and brain development, language acquisition, and spiritual formation all comprise some of the key components of life during the first two years. Some of these changes are more noticeable than others. The ones to be most aware of include the following:
Body Changes (Biosocial Development)
Motor Skills Changes (Biosocial Development)
Sensorimotor Changes (Cognitive Development)
Language and Communications Changes (Cognitive Development)
Emotional Changes (Psychosocial Development)
These five are the most crucial areas in the baby's first two years of life because of how these changes will impact biological, psychological, and social development later in life. Many of these changes are plainly visible to the parents. For example, the physical size and body of the child will rapidly change over the two years. Likewise, the baby's…… [Read More]
Student Social Identity Development
How and hy Students Develop a Social Identity
hat is meant by Student Development?
Author Nancy J. Evans notes that the phrase "Student Development" too often becomes simply a vague catchphrase that has little application to college students' lives and learning. Student Development embraces the psychosocial, cognitive-structural, and social identity of students in postsecondary settings (Evans, et al., 2009).
In the quest for self-direction, students universally seek a social identity as well as an education that can propel them into meaningful, successful careers.
Evans, N.J., Forney, D.S., Guido, F.M., Patton, L.D., and Renn, K.A. (2009). Student Development in College: Theory, Research, and Practice.
Introduction to Training Session
Clearly college and university students already have an identity when they enroll in classes, although their more mature individual identity in the social milieu will evolve with time. This training session embraces the question of how and why a…… [Read More]
Force Development Process and Organizational Model
The article on "General Odierno AUSA Winter Symposium" presents pertinent issues that affect the actual force development process. The force development process takes place in five phases. These five phases include development capabilities, design organization, organization model development, determining organization authorizations and organization authorization documentation. Among the last three stages of the force development process, the article greatly addresses issues that affect determining organizational authorization (General Odierno 2012). The issues of the Army force discussed in the reading greatly affects the various aspects of determining organizational authorizations compared to the other phases of force development process.
Determining organizational authorization is the resourcing phase of the development process. The force development and operations require resources to operate effectively. The various areas of the organizational model within the force compete for a substantial share of resources from the planning stage through to the programming and budgeting…… [Read More]
Family system is the basic and smallest social unit of the society that has played a crucial role in the development of countries and cultures. This unit has continued to develop in line with changes in the needs and demands of people as well as the society. Throughout the history of mankind, the family systems have played an important role in the development of children and individuals. However, there are various issues associated with the role of family systems in the development of an individual.
elationship between Family Systems and Healthy Development
As the basic unit of society, family systems have a strong link or relationship with healthy development. The role of family systems in healthy development is directly linked to the method of parenting within the family. This is primarily because a healthy family system can be identified through the method of parenting that is evident within the household.…… [Read More]
Psychology and Teaching- The Importance of Art
How Childhood Events develop a lifetime in Art
One of the crucial times in an individual's life is early childhood. Early childhood acts as the basis for all later undertakings in one's life. It is not only the kids who suffer in case we, as a community, fall short in meeting their needs. We, the community, also suffer as a result. It is essential to note that their achievements are also our achievements. According to a recent report, the cost of every high school dropout is approximately at $292,000 (Sum, Khatiwada, McLaughlin, & Palma, 2009). Dropping out from high school is not a singular incident, but also a conclusion of several factors, commencing in early childhood. Encouraging parents and kids in the childhood years would possess some influence into elementary school, high school, early years of adulthood, and far beyond. The executives of…… [Read More]
Baker, D.E., Walsh, M.B., & Marjerison, L. (2000). Developing high performance leadership at the process level. In E.F. Holton & S.S. Naquin (Eds.), Developing high-performance leadership competency (Vol. 6, pp. 47-72). San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler.
Bass, B.M. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Bass, B.M. (1990). Bass & Stodgill's handbook of leadership: Theory, research, and managerial application. New York: Free Press.
Brungardt, C. (1996). The making of leaders: A review of the research in leadership development and education. The Journal of Leadership Studies, 3 (3), 81-95.
Burke, M.J., & Day, .. (1986). A cumulative study of the effectiveness of managerial training. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 242-245.
Collins, D.B., Lowe, J.S., & Arnett, C.. (2000). In E.F. Holton & S.S. Naquin (Eds.), Developing high-performance leadership competency (Vol. 6, pp. 18-46). San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler.
Conger, J. (1999). Leader's change handbook. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Friedman, T.L. (2000). The lexus…… [Read More]
Cultural Differences Related to Emotion Socialization among Children
Emotional socialization among children is determined to a large extent by the cultural environment in which the child is raised (Raval & Walker, 2019). The most common agents of socialization to which individuals are exposed from a young age include family (mother, father, brothers, sisters, grandparents, cousins, uncles, aunts) and peers (neighbors, teachers, friends at school or church or daycare) and media representations (kids’ shows, cartoons, movies). As Chen, Zhou, Main and Lee (2015 show, socialization agents include people in one’s environment, people in media and people in one’s family. The media can be especially important because even if they are just make-believe cartoon characters, they still represent a socialization agent for the child. Over time these socialization agents will change, of course. The individual child will stop relying so much on family and start focusing more on technology or mass media…… [Read More]
Intelligence in Infancy
The child shows many signs of normal cognitive behavior. He seems to understand that when he bangs the blocks together that they will make sound and also seems proud of this activity. He also understood that when the blocks fell that something was wrong and said "uh oh." This is a sign of cognitive understanding of what the blocks are supposed to do.
The social and emotional skills are primarily illustrated by the connection and interactions with the child's mother. The child looks completely comfortable around the mother and interacts naturally. The child is able to understand the mothers questions like "where is the banana" and responds appropriately.
The child shows advanced ability to sit and stand as he wishes with minimal balance issues. The child also shows advanced visual and spatial skills that can be illustrated by his ability to work…… [Read More]
Why is the company holding on to so many of its assets as oppose to using them to generate more earnings. These assets could range from inventory, to cash, to account receivable. Cash in particular is of interest in the discussion as it will only depreciate in value over time. As such cash should be appropriate used to generate more earnings in the future through various projects management deems necessary. From my personal opinion, if a company has a high current ratio and low inventory turnover indicates the inability of the company to sell its products. As such, it is forced to hold the products in inventory further increasing its holding cost. Again, from these ratios, this is a company that may need to extend favorable credit turns to sell products, which could further lead to customer defaults. However, the higher the current ratio is, the better the company's ability…… [Read More]
For me personally, however, the empathy that I develop is directed by my spirituality and inclination to see beyond what is obvious. This combination has been most beneficial for me as a social worker (obbins, Chatterjee and Canda, 2006; Lesser and Pope, 2007).
Furthermore, the level of loyalty and dedication that I bring to my work is something I am very proud of. As I mentioned earlier, loyalty and dedication are some of the important traits that I look for in my friends and the main reason for this is the fact that these are the traits that I personally vibe-out as well. I feel that as a social worker, perhaps the most important aspect that an individual can bring to work is dedication; as part of this world, u have to truly have a passion for it to be able to withstand the constant setbacks, financial instability and lack…… [Read More]
Participatory Approaches to Development Communication
It was confirmed by Everett ogers in 1976 that the dominating paradigm towards development of communication had passed. He negated all those theories, which have been prevalent in field of communication ever since the 10950s. These theories have been diffusion-ism, and it was replaced by the new participatory approach. It was a very important and significant declaration, especially when it came from ogers, who was a seminal personality in the field of diffusion study. Not only did this new theory point out the shortcomings of the existing belief, it has highlighted and brought forth the advantages of theories related to participation of community, and that of socio-economic structures towards analysis of communication process.
It is very important to study and highlight the findings of ogers almost thirty years after their being discovered, due to their validity till date and the substantial academic application. It is…… [Read More]
il and Gas
Development of Two Important Materials in Earth's Early History
According to scientists, Earth began its life 4.6 billion years ago, when cosmic dust collided to form increasingly large particles. These particles, after millions of years of colliding and increasing in mass, eventually formed the Earth, with a mass similar to what it is today (5.9736 x 1024 kg or 5,973,600,000,000,000,000,000,000 kg) . Soon, the Earth's atmosphere began to form, as well as various minerals within its core. Studying the Earth is a fascinating endeavor, yet one that comprises extensive research and writing. For the purposes of this paper, I will examine two elements that are of vital importance to human life today: oil and gas. In this study, I will thus speak both about the development of the two materials in the Earth's early history-how they developed, what factors contributed to this development, and when this development…… [Read More]
Stages of business growth
The Churchill model: Pinterest
One of the most recent successful internet companies of note is Pinterest. The company began two years ago. However, it spent a relatively brief time period in the 'existence' stage in which it was struggling to stay alive. The new website "recently laid claim to being the fastest Web site in history to break the 10-million-visitors-a-month threshold" and has attained a kind of relevance that other content-sharing models such as eddit lack (Pogue 2012). Additionally, Pinterest's business model is relatively low-risk, in terms of operational costs. It is a purely virtual business, which might make some shy away from it, given the notoriously poor showing of so many Internet companies during the dot.com bubble. Yet unlike these organizations, Pinterest has a comprehensible function: "Pinterest is a pinboard for online photos. Multiple pinboards, actually, each an individual page in your Pinterest…… [Read More]
When most people think of the helicopter, they will often talk about commercial and military aircraft. As there is an emphasis on how the latest technology is changing the industry. A good example of this occurred, in May 2011 when the U.S. Navy Seals used a special rotor that could not be heard in surrounding area or seen on radar. This is illustrating the advancements in the helicopter technology over the last few years. To fully understand what is happening requires carefully examining its development. Once this takes place, is when the recent innovations will highlight a trend that has been occurring since the aircraft was first placed into active use during the Second World War. (Emspak, 2011) (Patillo, 2001, pp. 142 -- 148)
Early History of the Helicopter
The early history of the helicopter dates back to around 400 BC. This is when the Chinese theorized that some…… [Read More]