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"One problem with achievement testing is that a few minutes of performance time can end up directing a young child's entire educational career." (Schmitz 1991) hen tests are administered to young children that take extended periods of time to complete, such as those which take six to eight hours with only short bathroom breaks, the child's naturally shorter attention span may affect performance on the tests. Many test makers compensate for this by making the tests very short, some only comprised of 20 to 30 questions total, which means that only one or two incorrect responses will seriously affect the grade. "A few unusual answers, a minute of inattention, even the need to go to the bathroom may lower a score from brilliance to mediocrity. " (Schmitz 1991) Standardized testing does not take into account factors such as varying developmental rates among children and testing environments, and the biased nature…
Neill, M. (1990) Let's Cut Back on Standardized Testing. Mothering, Winter. Retrieved November 11, 2004, at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0838/is_n54/ai_8283181
Schmitz, S. (1991) Achievement Testing - Critique of Standardized Achievement Tests. Mothering, Fall. Retrieved November 11, 2004, at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0838/is_n61/ai_11360579
Wetzel, B. (2002, November-December) No more tests! Challenging standardized education - Ways of learning. Mothering. Retrieved November 11, 2004, at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0838/is_2002_Nov-Dec/ai_100807177
OCR recognizes that colleges and universities are under a lot of legal and political pressure to stop using racial and ethnic factors in admission," Clegg commented. "[In response,] the agency wants to intimidate colleges and universities to continue using these preferences." (lack Issues in Higher Education, 1999)
The National Association of Scholars, while raising doubts about the reasoning behind the OCR document titled "Nondiscrimination in High-Stakes Testing," pointed to what it believes is hypocrisy from higher education gurus who had previously undervalued the use of the test scores.
It goes without saying that these guidelines are outrageous," commented the association's president, Dr. Stephen H. alch, in 1999. "ut it's hard not to see this as the educational establishment's being hoisted by its own petard. (lack Issues in Higher Education, 1999)
For some time now," alch continued in a statement released shortly after OCR began distributing the guidelines, "our best universities…
Black Issues in Higher Education. (1999) Exam Negation - new law prevents reliance on discriminatory standardized tests. Black Issues in Higher Education.
Black Issues in Higher Education. (2005) Holy Cross makes standardized test scores optional: college officials concerned about inherent racial and socio-economic bias in standardized tests. Black Issues in Higher Education.
Boyd, W.M. (1977). SAT's minorities: The dangers of under-prediction. Change, 9, 48-64. Chambers, G.A. (1988, March 7). All of America's children: variants in ACT test scores-What principals need to know. Paper presented at the annual convention of the NASSP, Anaheim, CA. (Available from the author, Division of Educational Administration, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242)
The College Entrance Examination Board. (1983). Ten SATs. New York: Author.
The relevance of having in place standards of fair testing practices cannot be overstated. This is more so the case when it comes to highlighting and clearly outlining the obligations of those who either construct tests or formulate testing program policies and those who us tests. It is important to note that the Code of Fair Testing Practices in Education comes in handy for tests developed professionally such as the ones that have been addressed herein. In this text, a specific test category will be selected and three tests selected from the said category for comprehensive analysis. Essentially, the said evaluation and analysis will be on the basis of standards for tests users – with special reference to the selection of appropriate tests. It is important to note that on this front, test users ought to base their test selection on not only their ability to meet their intended…
Bahns, T.M. (n.d.).
Costa, Robert, and McCrae (2019). NEO-4™. Retrieved from https://www.parinc.com/Products/Pkey/273
Frederiksen, N. (n.d.).
Meltzoff, J. & Kornreich, M. (2007). Research in Psychotherapy. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers
Millon, T., Grossman, S. & Millon, C. (2019). Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-IV (MCMI-IV). Retrieved from https://www.pearsonassessments.com/store/usassessments/en/Store/Professional-Assessments/Personality-%26-Biopsychosocial/Millon-Clinical-Multiaxial-Inventory-IV/p/100001362.html
Millon, T., Grossman, S. & Millon, C. (2015). MCMI-IV: millon® clinical multiaxial inventory–iv. Bloomington, MN: Pearson.
Rothney, J.W. (n.d.).
Weiner, I.B. & Greene, R.G. (2017). Handbook of Personality Assessment. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) is standardized exams completed by many high school students before heading to college. Therefore, it contains a suite of tools designed to assess a student's academic readiness for college. Through the students SAT scores, some colleges determine the students they wish to admit and those they will not. Some colleges use SAT "cutoff score" in setting their benchmark for admission or in determining course placement. Moreover, SAT provides students with a path to opportunities, scholarship, and financial support in a fair way to all students. However, colleges also consider other factors such as an individual's work experience, high school grades, student essays and volunteerism. In the 21st century, SAT exam is still in use because they keep pace with what today's colleges are looking for, which includes measuring the student's skills required for the modern times. SAT tests one's reading, math and writing knowledge…
Anderson, T., & Shattuck, J. (2012). Design-Based Research a Decade of Progress in Education Research? Educational Researcher, 41(1), 16-25.
Beale, A. V. (2012). The Evolution of College Admission Requirements. Journal of College Admission, 214, 20-22.
Belasco, A. S., Rosinger, K. O., & Hearn, J. C. (2014). The Test-Optional Movement at America's Selective Liberal Arts Colleges a Boon For Equity Or Something Else? Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 0162373714537350.
Ioannidis, J. P., Greenland, S., Hlatky, M. A., Khoury, M. J., Macleod, M. R., Moher, D., & Tibshirani, R. (2014). Increasing Value and Reducing Waste in Research Design, Conduct, and Analysis. The Lancet, 383(9912), 166-175.
There are, for example, many ways for a student to present an understanding of the causes of the U.S. Civil War" (1999, p. 35).
The research showed high stakes standardized testing approaches are becoming increasingly commonplace in the nation's schools, and the outcome of these testing regimens has enormous implications for the students involved, as well as for their teachers and schools. The research also showed that by formulating standards to match these standardized tests, teachers run the risk of "teaching to the test" rather than providing their students with the type of education that is needed in the 21st century. While they are more complex and difficult to administer, the research also showed that portfolios and other assessment techniques such as capstone projects provide a more comprehensive and accurate way to determine how well students are learning and where they may need help.
Blasi, M. (2005). Standardized…
Blasi, M. (2005). Standardized tests: A teacher's perspective. Childhood Education, 81(4), 242-
Garcia, N. & Fleming, J. (1999). Are standardized tests fair to African-Americans? Journal of Higher Education, 69(5), 471-472.
Neill, D.M. (1999). Transforming student assessment. Phi Delta Kappan, 78(1), 34-35.
Sacks, P. (2000). Standardized minds: The high price of America's testing culture and what we can do to change it. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Publishing.
Standardized Assessment Technique and Immigration
For quite a long time, immigration and crime have been closely linked with some pointing out that immigrants tend to have a particularly high rate of criminality. There are those, however, who feel that an increase in immigration rates has no impact whatsoever on crime. Based on my review of literature on this particular topic, greater immigration rates do not result in more crimes. In an attempt to get tough on immigrants -- in the mistaken belief that doing so could help reduce crime rates - states like Arizona have in the past enacted anti-immigration laws. Other states that have sought to implement anti-immigration laws include but they are not limited to South Carolina.
To begin with, although the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) as Camarota and Vaughan (2009) point out "estimates that immigrants (legal and illegal) comprise 20% of inmates in prisons and jails,"…
Camarota, S.A. & Vaughan, J. (2009). Immigration and Crime: Assessing a Conflicted Issue. Retrieved from http://www.cis.org/ImmigrantCrime
Siegel, L.J. (2011). Essentials of Criminal Justice (7th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
Wachs, T.D. & Sheehan, R. (Eds.). (1998). Assessment of Young Developmentally Disabled Children. New York: Plenum Press.
The push for new assessment models in online education comes largely from competition with its older brother, traditional education, says Mr. Ewell. Because distance education is comparatively new, he says, critics often hold it to a higher standard than traditional education when judging quality. It has more to prove, and is trying to use assessments that show its effectiveness as the proof. (Carnevale, 2001, (http://chronicle.com/free/v47/i31/31a04301.htm)
Yet, as many traditional educators fear, the concepts of outcomes-based evaluation, e.g. standardized assessments has been so widely accepted by the education world that traditional systems may be required to assess their own outcomes using the tools designed by e-education newbies.
Traditional educators are arguing against the validity of e-education in its most marketable and pure form, not as video conferencing within the context of lectures from historically accredited universities but from e-based systems that they see as handing out degrees to anyone who is…
Carnivale, D. "Assessment Takes Center Stage in Online Learning: Distance educators see the need to prove that they teach effectively" at: http://www.online-degrees- today.com/02.09.04-EducationNews/EDUnews_testobsessed.shtml>.
Marshak, D. "No Child Left Behind: Test-obsessed education won't move us ahead" at http://www.online-degrees-today.com/02.09.04-EducationNews/EDUnews_testobsessed.shtml.
Each standardized nursing language is designed for use in a number of clinical settings, including home care, ambulatory care, and inpatient treatment, with certain languages providing decided advantages within particular circumstances. Although it is true that "improved communication with other nurses, health care professionals, and administrators of the institutions in which nurses work is a key benefit of using a standardized nursing language" (utherford, 2008), the proliferation of several nursing languages throughout the years has inevitably resulted in discrepancies, wherein the personal preferences of nurses, the policy of a hospital's corporate ownership, or other factors determine when, where, and why a specific language is used.
To address the growing concern over the inability of nurse's to communicate through a single standardized language system, the International Council of Nurses (ICN) commissioned a comprehensive study which resulted in the International Classification for Nursing Practice (ICNP) being selected as the most advantageous option.…
Cho, I., & Park, H. (2006). Evaluation of the expressiveness of an ICNP-based nursing data dictionary in a computerized nursing record system. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 13(4), 456-464. Retrieved from http://22.214.171.124/content/13/4/456.full
Rutherford, M. (2008). Standardized nursing language: What does it mean for nursing practice?. OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 13(1), 57-69. Retrieved from http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ThePracticeofProfessionalNursing/H ealth-it/StandardizedNursingLanguage.html
tests (CTs) and scales vs. norm-eferenced
Criterion-referenced tests (CTs) are often the preferred method of assessing the performance of many practitioners in the healthcare and 'helping' professions such as nursing. An example of a criterion-based objective is that a student mastered 90% of the terms on a particular test (McDonald 2002). The NCLEX (National Council Licensure Examination) for nurses is an example of such a test: all nurses that pass the test can obtain licensure. The test is deemed to be both reliable and valid. "The reliability of the NCLEX examination is assessed via a decision consistency statistic. This statistic is used instead of a traditional reliability statistic such as Cronbach's alpha because it captures the reliability of dichotomous pass/fail decisions rather than the reliability of continuous scores or ability estimates" (eliability of NCLEX, 2013, NCSBN: 2).
In terms of the NCLE, the exam attempts to ensure content validity; face…
Reliability of NCLEX. (2013). NCSBN. Retrieved: https://www.ncsbn.org/Reliability.pdf
What does Cronbach's alpha mean? (n.d.). SPSS FAQ. Institute for Digital Research and Education. UCLA. Retrieved: http://www.ats.ucla.edu/stat/spss/faq/alpha.html
Curriculum Be Standardized for All?
The question of whether or not the curriculum should be standardized for all is indeed a hot button issue and one which garners a great deal of attention and controversy. When it comes to this particular issue, both sides actually raise very compelling points about what should be done and why standardizing the curriculum (and not standardizing the curriculum) is the best idea. Fundamentally, both sides approach this issue so strongly as a result of the fact that education, both private and public education as they exist in America, are deeply flawed and barely educate our children in a manner which allows them to compete with the best and brightest talent all over the world.
What challenges or problems does the issue present?
The biggest problem that the controversy presents is the fact that both sides raising valid points about how to handle this issue:…
Kohn, A. (2001, May). One-Size-Fits-All Education Doesn't Work. Retrieved from Boston Globe: http://www.alfiekohn.org/teaching/onesize.htm
Noddings, N. (2010, January 7). Differentiate, Don't Standardize. Retrieved from edweek.org: http://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2010/01/14/17noddings-comm.h29.html
Noll, J. (2009, September). A Standardized Curriculum For All? Retrieved from Standardized Curriculum: http://standardcurriculum.blogspot.com/
Pablo, P. (2010, February). Should the Curriculum be Standardized for All? Retrieved from wordpress.com: http://ewhughes.wordpress.com/2010/02/13/should-the-curriculum-be-standardized-for-all/
There is no denying I am a Visual Learner, much like the majority of the population.
4. hat was your score from the readiness assessment?
I scored a 77 on the readiness assessment. According to the assessment, those scoring between 100 and 75 such as myself should be well-suited for taking courses online. Particular qualities such as my keen self-awareness should allow me to easily navigate courses taken at a distance.
5. Are you ready for online learning?
Having scored a 20 out of 20 on the test measuring one's suitability for online learning, I would qualify as an exceptional candidate for online learning.
6. List the strategy you are most likely to try to contribute to your success in this course?
In light of the counsel offered by the Illinois Online Network, I am moved toward a strategy of self-discipline. According to the Network, "ith the freedom and flexibility…
Illinois Online Network. (2011). What Makes an Online Student Successful. Online Education Resources.
"For example, selecting your next executive, who will have a great deal of responsibility over the company and its people, is a High Impact hiring decision. In other words, the risks and consequences of a bad hiring decision are severe, which necessitates a greater investment into a quality assessment program. However, hiring someone to clean your warehouse is a relatively Low Impact hiring decision, as the consequences of selecting a poor employee are relatively limited" (Haywood 2009).
Haywood's blithe assertion not only flies in the face of participatory management approaches, but is blatantly unsubstantiated by any evidence in his article. It is possible to argue, for example, that a lower-level technician capable of swiftly fixing an error in a user's Blackberry service is just as, if not more important, than an upper-level manager. After all, if an executive loses a million-dollar deal because his or her connection is not working…
Haywood, Chad. "How to choose the right assessments for your next hiring project."
Fast Company. June 24, 2009. January 18, 2009.
One solution to enhance learning might be to require that all officers take the initial course and to then develop online content for 'follow-up' briefings and re-testing of knowledge every six months. This would be more rigorous than the current method of having refresher courses every three years. The frequency of the retraining would reinforce the seriousness of the issue.
While it is true that there is an optional SFST update course to be taken within six months, the course is not mandatory. While an SFST instructor must supervise the SFST practitioner administering the SFSTs' in initial administration, the 35 test cases within six months of the initial training that the officer must complete are not supervised and thus there is no ongoing feedback during the course, limiting its effectiveness. Feedback is an essential component of learning -- in the classroom and in the field.
Level 3: Behavior
Psychological tests are an important aspect of clinical psychology. Psychological tests are normally administered by professional psychologists as a way of learning fact on how people function or in predicting their future. The paper will look at the definition of the term test, give a description of the major categories of tests while identifying the major uses and users of these tests. There will also be comparing and contrasting the concepts of validity and reliability and a discussion of how they affect the psychological testing field.
Definition of tests
A test or examination is defined as an assessment aimed at measuring the knowledge, aptitude, skill, physical fitness or classification in other different topics. Tests can be administered orally, by use of a paper, computer or in the confinement of a specific area which requires the person taking the test to physically perform a specific set of skills. Tests…
Renate, R. (2010).The Real Difference between Reliability and Validity. Retrieved September 14, 2013 from http://www.ehow.com/info_8481668_real-difference-between-reliability-validity.html
Dority, J. (2011).Five Common Types of Psychological Tests. Retrieved September 14, 2013 from http://www.livestrong.com/article/101417-five-common-types-psychological-tests/
Edu.com. (2009).psychological Testing. Retrieved September 14, 2013 from http://users.ipfw.edu/abbott/120/PsychTesting.html
1. The taster determined 11 of the 14 samples correctly. Three samples were incorrectly identified. Thus, the taster received a statistical score of 88%.
2. The results failed to support the null hypothesis. There was obviously a difference between the organic and conventional food items.
3. This output indicates that while there is a difference, the margin of 10% is too small.
4. The test indicated that for greater than 50% of the time the taster was able to identify the differences between organic and conventional foods.
5. For the next test, I would most likely use one fruit and run multiple tests with a single piece tasted each time.
Fullion, Laurence & Arzai, Stacey (2002), Does organic food taste better? A claim substantiation approach. Nutrition & Food Science, 32(4): 153-157.
Padel, Susanne & Foster, Carolyn (2005), Exploring the gap between attitudes and behaviour: Understanding why…
Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test
It is assessed that at least 20 out of a hundred of adults who visit a physician have had an alcohol issue at one time. Also, in a survey of patients self-proclaimed to an inpatient service, 15 to 30 out of a hundred screened definitely for alcoholism. However, numerous recent studies designate that physicians in numerous health care settings often do not identify and treat alcoholism (Drake, 2013). These answers underline the need for effective and correct events that will allow clinicians to screen for alcoholism. One of these test are used to do this are the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test. Established in 1971, the Michigan Alcohol Screening Test (MAST) is one of the most accurate and oldest alcohol screening tests accessible, effective in classifying dependent drinkers with up to 98% accuracy.
Purpose for the instrument
It is evident the MAST is considered to be one…
Ball, J.D. (201). Time requirements of psychological testing: A survey of practitioners. Journal of Personality Assessment, 17(6), 34.
Butcher, J.N. (203). Clinical personality assessment. Annual Review of Psychology (12), 385-401.
Clark, H.W. (2012). Residential substance abuse treatment for pregnant and postpartum women and their children:Treatmen. Child Welfare, 45(8), 80.
De-Micheli, D. & . (2012). Screen of drug use in a teenage Brazilian sample using the drug use screening inventory. Addictive Behavior, 25(5), 683-691.
norm-referenced test is an assessment that produces a score (or scores) that represent an estimate of where the individual stands with respect to a predefined peer group on a particular trait, dimension, or ability (ust & Golombok, 2014). Norm-referenced tests allow for a comparison on whether an individual performed at, above, or below expectation with respect to individuals that are similar to them. For example, traditional IQ tests yield standardized scores with a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15 (or 16; Sattler & yan, 2009). The standardized score is a score that should be interpreted and not the raw scores. In terms of simple point estimates (single IQ scores) the researcher/clinician can compare the individual performance to the norm -- reference group with respect to the score's deviation from the mean. Comparing individual scores to norm -- reference scores in this manner allows the researcher/clinician to determine…
Rust, J., & Golombok, S. (2014). Modern psychometrics: The science of psychological assessment. New York: Routledge.
Sattler, J.M., & Ryan, J.J. (2009). Assessment with the WAIS-IV. Le mesa, CA: Jerome M
Urbina, S. (2014). Essentials of psychological testing. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
The TAT (Thematic Apperception Test) has long been used to assist psychoanalysts elicit fantasy material from their patients (Morgan & Murray, 1935). According to Belleck and Murray (1973), the TAT was designed to bring forth interpretations by subject of social situations. Stories and pictures reveal some of the dominant drives, emotions, sentiments, conflicts, and complexes of a personality. The original cards used in the test were drawn or painted in color (Morge, 1995), but over time and much use, they became more and more achromatic. This achromatic appearances of the cards has caused many to speculate about their validity, especially, in patients suffering from depression. The question being asked by some researchers was, "would the achromatic appearance of the cards cause a depressed story whether or not the subject was depressed?
The Thematic Apperception Test is an untimed, individually administered psychological test used for personality assessment.…
Psychology is an ever evolving science. While some still feel it is a pseudoscience, many researchers have shown the benefits of applied psychology and the effects mental health can have on an individual. However, because problems of the mind are not so easy to measure as they would be in biology, there tends to be a lot of guessing and misinterpretation. Businesses, schools, and the government use personality tests to understand a person and their motives. First developed in the 1920's personality tests have grown in popularity, giving rise to debunking the validity of such tests. Are personality tests like orschach Inkblots, MMPO-2, and brief anxiety scales valid? No, they are not valid. This essay will show why these kinds of tests are not valid and reliable measures of personality and psychopathology through studies revealing accuracy rates from personality test results.
Personality tests first originated in the 1920's and are…
Gacono, C., & Evans, B. (2012). The Handbook of Forensic Rorschach Assessment (p. 32). Routledge.
Graham, J. (2003). Handbook of psychology. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Kaplan, R., & Saccuzzo, D. (2012). Psychological testing (8th ed., p. 18). Cegnage Learning.
LeBreton, J., Scherer, K., & James, L. (2014). Corrections for Criterion Reliability in Validity Generalization: A False Prophet in a Land of Suspended Judgment. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 7(4), 478-500. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/iops.12184
If Mary wants to study the impact of background noise level on sixth grader learning in a math lesson, the independent variable is the background noise condition. Mary has decided to use a t-test, which means that she will only have two conditions that differ from one another (“T Test (Student’s T-Test),” n.d.). In this case, the experimental condition would be high background noise (measured by decibel level perhaps), and the control condition would be low background noise (also measured by decibel level).
The independent variable in this experiment would be learning in a mathematics lesson. Learning can be assessed using a number of different instruments appropriate to the specific lesson, with a simple quantifiable quiz the most appropriate. A quiz that had absolute right or wrong answers, whether by solving a math problem or answering multiple choice questions, would help to standardize the results and minimize bias.…
eason for eferral
Medical and Psychiatric History
Short Family and Social History
Short History of School Behavior
Information Assessment Techniques
Mental Status Examination and Behavioral Observations
esults Form Testing
The following results were obtained with respect to the different domain of functioning of Sebastian based on information from multiple sources.
There is a chance that the subject of the report or those who are closely associated with the subject of the report could get psychologically and/or emotionally hurt as the report contains sensitive information about the subject. This report is meant only for people trained enough to read such reports and should not be given to the subject named in the report. In order to ensure that the name of the person who is also the subject of the report…
Goldfinger, K. And Pomerantz, A. (2010). Psychological assessment and report writing. Los Angeles: SAGE.
Groth-Marnat, G. (2003). Handbook of psychological assessment. Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons.
No authorship indicated, (2003). Psychological Assessment: Editors. Psychological Assessment, 15(1), pp.1-1.
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No Child Left Behind and Common Core, a set of required standards does not improve but rather limits education for ALL students in state schools (Kober, entner, 2011). The assumption inherent in the system of standardized education is that a one-size-fits-all method of education in which every student is expected to be at the same level. This type of assumption does not reflect the actuality of the situation (Haycock, 2012). Some learners are special education, some have learning disabilities that go undiagnosed, some are English language learners, and some are gifted. Standards can be implemented to improve the quality of education for all students in all levels and types of classrooms -- but they should be more accommodating and reflective of the diverse range of students represented in the classroom. In other words, standards should be available for every type of student and not just in a one-size-fits-all model.
Haycock, K. (2012). Implementation of Common Core State Standards: Roles for advocates. Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
Kober, N., & Rentner, D. (2011). States' progress and challenges in implementing
Common Core State Standards. Center on Education Policy. Retrieved from http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:GOrM4hD4s_AJ:files.e ric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED514598.pdf+&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us
Information Security contingency plans are very important for firms operating in today's world, where cyber security is a top issue a result of business's technological and digital dependence. This paper will discuss the planning steps, possible recovery options, and recommended testing requirements needed to support a successful business contingency/continuity of operations environment. Included will be recommendations for a proposed 24-month cycle business contingency testing plan, what should be tested and how the test should be conducted. Critical corporate assets will be ranked with the type of testing (i.e. plan reviews, tabletop exercises and backup recovery tests). Costs associated with the recommended testing process will also be taken into consideration, including personnel, equipment and production costs.
Step 1 is to examine the organization of the IS department. An IS department should be organized in order to guard against an attack, blackout or any other natural or man-made…
Bahan, C. (2003). The Disaster Recovery Plan. SANS.org. Retrieved from https://www.sans.org/reading-room/whitepapers/recovery/disaster-recovery-plan-1164
Gilbert, J. (2015). Contingency Planning. Retrieved from http://jamesegilbert.blogspot.com/2013/11/it-contingency-planning.html
Haes, S., Grembergen, W. (2009). Exploratory study in IT governance implementations and its impact on business/IT alignment. Information Systems Management, 26: 123-137.
Information Technology Contingency Planning. (2012). Apd.Army.Mil. Retrieved from http://www.apd.army.mil/jw2/xmldemo/p25_1_2/main.asp
Administering Competency Screening Tests on a Minor
Balancing between Competency Screening Test (CST) expectations and demands of a given situation is normally an uphill task for CST administrators. A CST tool administers tests on juvenile or mentally challenged individuals. The process is tedious since there are several situations of communication breakdown, and this endangers the processes. For this reason, the administering official should display a proper and a higher degree of professionalism by using tests or face-to-face communication with the juvenile. This analysis will appoint Dr. oberts defense of a 17-year-old individual who has been accused of sexual assault and battery. The juvenile is a linguistically challenged immigrant from Chile. The individual can only communicate Mapudungun and Spanish; however, he can speak and communicate rudimentary English and this is not positive to the court. This study proves that Dr. obert should apply a professional approach in determining the case's course.…
Hunter, D. (2007). Proportional ethical review and the identification of ethical issues. Journal of Medical Ethics, 33(4), 241-245.
Jackson, R.L., Rogers, R., & Sewell, K.W. (2005). Forensic Applications of the Miller Forensic Assessment of Symptoms Test (MFAST): Screening for Feigned Disorders in Competency to Stand Trial Evaluations. Law and Human Behavior, 29(2), 199-210.
Rosner, F. (2006). Medical Research in Children: Ethical Issues. Cancer Investigation, 24(2), 218-220.
Partial vaccination was not effective on children 6-23 months. This meant that full vaccination is necessary to optimally protect children of this age group from Influenza (Shueler et al.).
The results are consistent with those of other evaluative studies on children through randomized, controlled trials for efficacy and observational studies for effectiveness (Shueler et al., 2007). Vaccine effectiveness depends on the characteristics of the study population, specificity of the outcome, and the Influenza season. It was dissimilar to the findings of Ritzwoller and his team in that Shueler and team's subjects had more exposure to Influenza. The more specific outcome of laboratory-confirmed Influenza made the detection possible. And Shueler and his team's findings were similar to Ritzwoller and his team's in that the findings of both teams offered assurance that vaccination of young children would be beneficial, even in a year with sub-optimal match (Shueler et al.).
Vaccination Efficacy not…
Ambrose, C.S., et al. (2008). Current status of live attenuated influenza vaccine in the United States for seasonal and pandemic influenza. Influenza Respiratory Viruses:
Blackwell Publishing. Retrieved on April 26, 2010 from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/588302
Eisenberg K.W., et al. (2004). Vaccine effectiveness against laboratory-confirmed
Influenza on children 6 to 59 months of age during the 2003-2004 and 2004-2005
The school nurse can use interaction time with students to educate them on
wearing a seat belt, or a helmet when riding a bicycle. The nurse can also
provide education on first aid and CPR, perhaps enlisting the Red Cross or
the local fire department for assistance in the training. School nurses
are also available to help children with disabilities, everything from
providing glucose monitoring and insulin administration to the patency of
feeding tubes, depending on the special needs population of the school.
The discipline under which the school nurse works determines the scope of
practice. The nurse can either be a licensed practical nurse, a registered
nurse or even in some cases, an advanced registered nurse practitioner.
The degree of education preparation depends upon the degree of licensure
and can go anywhere from an Associate to a Master's Degree.
There are many societies which provide continuing education and
No Author Listed, Tobacco Use Among Middle and High School Students --
Florida, 1998 and 1999, MMWR Weekly, April 02, 1999 / 48(12); 248-253
No Speaker Listed, Opening Speech from the NASN Board of Directors Meeting
in Providence, RI. June, 1999. Accessed on the internet at
Wainwright P, Thomas J, Jones M. (2000) Health Promotion and the role of
standardized tests and there is math association with the results. On the other hand informal reading assessments do not have the same formal data requirements and is based more on performance. These two kinds of assessments will be critiqued in this paper.
Formal Reading Assessments
Parents should know and understand not only why their children are being accessed, but through which process the assessment is being conducted. The more parents are involved in the education of their children, the closer parents will be to opportunities to participate and contribute to those important years of education. Brenda eaver writes in Scholastic magazine that first of all, whether it is informal or formal, assessments need to match up with the purpose of assessing any particular student. Formal assessments are generally used to assess "overall achievement" and to "compare a student's performance with others at their age or grade."
Parents should be informed…
Nilsson, Nina L. (2008). A Critical Analysis of Eight Informal Reading Inventories. The Reading Teacher, 61(7), 526-536.
Ogle, Laurence T. (2007). The Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS): a description. Center for Public Education. Retrieved June 13, 2012, from http://www.centerforpubliceducation.org.
Rosado, Luis A. (2006). TExES (103) Bilingual Generalist, EC-4 (REA) -- The Best Test Prep /
Best Test Preparation and Review Course Series. Piscataway, NJ: Research & Education
Antecedents of High School Student Success or Failure on Math and English Tests
Discussion of likely results
High school students in the United States are faced with a harsh inevitable eventuality of successfully passing standardized tests when they near graduation. Failing these standardized tests has enormous implications for young learners since this failure means repeating a grade and studies have consistently shown that students that are held back drop out at higher rates. Moreover, current estimates indicate that as many as 75% of American high school students lack competency in the English and mathematics components of these tests, with lower rates generally corresponding to various socioeconomic factors. Despite the numerous criticisms that have been leveled against standardized tests such as the ACT and SAT in measuring student academic achievement and future academic potential, standardized tests are expected to remain the gold standard…
Dennis, C., & Harris, L. (2002). Marketing the e-business. London: Routledge.
Green, H. & Greene, M. (2007, December). Admissions trends to watch: How today's admissions policies, procedures, and developments are impacting students, parents, and schools. University Business, 10(12), 27-31.
Harrigan, J.R. (2012, August 28). Public high schools are not doing their jobs. U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved from http://www.usnews.com/opinion/blogs/economic-intelligence/2012/08/28/public-high-schools-are-not-doing-their-jobs.
Herman, J.L. & Golan, S. (2001). Effects of standardized testing on teachers and learning
Chi-Square, T-Test and Correlation
esearch Methods in Psychology a (HPS201/HPS771)
Crosstabs and Chi-Square
Some researchers have suggested that there are two main types of personality: Type A and Type B. Individuals with Type A personality are characterized as being conscientious and competitive. They strongly desire success and typically present with higher levels of stress. Conversely, individuals with Type B personality are typically less stressed and tend to be more laconic, relaxed and less concerned with competition.
Due to the higher levels of stress experienced by those with Type A personality, health insurance risk evaluators are interested in knowing whether individuals with Type A personality are at greater risk of having a heart attack.
You are hired as a researcher to investigate this research question. You take a random sample of 40 individuals aged between 40 and 60 years and assess their personality to determine whether they possess a Type…
Emory.edu. (n.d.). One-Sample t-Test. Retrieved from emory.edu: http://psychology.emory.edu/clinical/bliwise/Tutorials/TOM/meanstests/tone.htm
MacLeod, S. (2011). Type A Personality. Retrieved from Simplypsychology.org: http://www.simplypsychology.org/personality-a.html
Teachers should feel the pressure when their students do not succeed while opponents argue that placing such pressure on teachers just adds to the problem and makes success just that more difficult and unlikely.
Even the most ardent opponents to standardized testing among the teaching profession would likely argue that the demand for accountability is a legitimate one. Every profession needs to establish its credibility among the public and teachers should not be immune from this process, however, what has been lost in the process of trying to make teachers accountable is the value of what can be learned beyond the preparation for the standardized test. There is a necessity and value in establishing accountability but the method of using the standardized test to do so must be questioned.
When the use of standardized testing first came into vogue throughout the U.S. The goal was to establish a procedure for…
Herman, J.L. (1993). The Effects of Standardized Testing in Teaching and Schools. Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 20-25.
Linn, R.L. (2001). A Century of Standardized Testing: Controversies and Pendulum Swings. Educational Assessment, 29-38.
McGuinn, P.J. (2006). The Early Federal Role in Education (to 1988) - ESEA and the Equity Regime. In P.J. McGuinn, No Child Left Behind and the Transformation of Federal Education Policy, 1965-2005 (pp. 25-50). Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas.
McNeil, L.M. (2007). Contradictions of School Reform: Educational Costs of Standardized Testing. New York: Taylor & Francis.
hat is the most appropriate way to assess student achievement? The commission of the National Middle School Assessment of student achievement suggests "authentic assessment refers to evaluation that makes use of real life tasks instead of contrived test items." (NMSA, 2000) In other words, rather than focus on testing students more, a greater interest and study of effective teaching practices are better employed in further research regarding education. The National Middle School Assessment Authentic assessment also suggests that while standardized testing may occasionally function as a rough means of evaluating all children, such as identifying children with possible special needs, assessment in a truly learner-centered classroom will vary. "Examples of types of assessment are performance tasks, portfolios, student self-assessment surveys and probes, peer assessments, journals, logs, products, and projects. Successful assessment improves learning, instruction and program effectiveness." (NMS 2000, citing Donald, 1997) In my own school district, located…
Ellis, Edwin & Lou Anne Worthington, Martha J. Larkin. (2005) "Executive Summary of the Research Synthesis on Effective Teaching Principles and the Design of Quality Tools for Educators." Area of Teacher Education, Programs in Special Education University of Alabama Report. Retrieved 23 Oct 2005
'Executive Summary." (2001) Child Left Behind Act' of 2001. Summary of research retrieved 23 Oct 2005
gifted and talented education for minority students. The writer explores the screening process for gifted and talented programs and the various problems that screening process causes when it comes to locating and educating minority students. The writer also explores the societal mindsets and the urban areas that play a part in the overlooking of minority gifted students. The bulk of the exploration is done with a literature review on previous studies, research and decisions regarding the screening and education of minority gifted students. There were ten sources used to complete this paper.
Each day across the nation millions of students sit in classrooms and are educated. The classrooms contain a large number of students and the lessons are designed and geared to reach the largest students in each setting. This means that for the most part the lessons are aimed at the average intellect and average abilities student. Within the…
MacMillan, D.L., & Reschly, D.J. (1998). Overrepresentation of minority students: The case for greater specificity or reconsideration of the variables examined. The Journal of Special Education, 32, 15-24.
Singh, N. (1996). Cultural diversity in the 21st century: Beyond e pluribus unum. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 5, 121-136
U.S. Department of Education. (1996). Application for new grants: Program for children and youth with serious emotional disturbance. CFDA No. 84.237G. Washington, DC:Author.
U.S. Department of Education. (1997). To assure a free appropriate public education to all children with disabilities: Nineteenth annual report to Congress on the implementation of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Washington, DC: Author.
Ethics in Early Childhood Development
hat is your stance on testing and social promotion?
I am in the group that is vigorously opposed to the overuse of and reliance on standardized testing in schools. The No Child Left Behind guidelines, for example, that forced teachers to "teach to the test" (or perhaps lose their jobs or have their schools punished) have been proven to be unfair and unproductive. Moreover teachers that rely on standardized tests are not challenging their students to learn how to solve problems and to think critically; rather, they are just asking students to memorize material so the scores on the tests will make the teachers and schools look good. However, relying on standardized testing is fool's gold rather than real learning. In this case (Maria's children were not passed into 1st grade because they failed a standardized test) it is outrageous for a school to hold…
Altshuler, S.J., and Schmautz, T. (2006). No Hispanic Student Left Behind: The
Consequences of "High Stakes" Testing. Children & Schools, 28(1), 5-15.
Kozol, J. High-Stakes Tests and Other Modern Miseries. Chapter Ten. Letter to a Young
According to the California Department of Education, the CASHEE "is aligned to the California academic content standards in English-language arts and mathematics adopted by the State Board of Education" ("California," 2011).
Aptitude or Achievement?
The CASHEE is an achievement test because it measures what students have learned, as opposed to what their potential for learning is. Although it is designed to help prepare high school students to do well in college in the sense that it ensures that they have the basic skills they need before they graduate high school, it does not test or attempt to predict how well they will do in college.
Is it a Standardized Test?
It is a standardized test because it is designed to meet state content standards, and also because it is graded electronically and objectively. In other words, there is no subjective assessment involved such as how well the student writes an…
"California High School Exit Exam (CAHSEE) Apportionment," (2011) California Department of Education, Retrieved from http://www.cde.ca.gov/fg/fo/profile.asp?id=939
Cooper, B.S., Fusarelli, L.D., & Randall, E.V. (2004). Better policies, better schools: theories and application. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Heneg, J.R. (2001) the color of school reform: race, politics, and the challenge of urban education, Princeton University Press
Activity Description and Summary
Last spring I assisted Kathryn Gold, the testing administrator for my school, SEEALL Academy in Brooklyn, NY. I approached her about helping her with the New York Schools' State English & Language Arts and Math Exams that are taken every year. She was glad for me to help and explained my duties and role. During this testing period, I served as a proctor and helped monitor the test takers. My role also included handing out and picking up the tests.
Program Outcome ationale
The activity's relation to the program outcome of establishing leadership was summarily reached during this exercise. The conducting of such important testing requires stern discipline and formalized approaches that require a visionary approach. This theme is important and relates directly to establishing a solid teamwork between faculty as well. By working together with Kathryn, a new standard was set school wide that others…
NYC Department of Education Test Administration Handbook: Elementary and Middle Schools: 2014-2015.
Teachers must test. It is one method of evaluating progress and determining individual student needs. More than two hundred and fifty million standardized tests are administered each year to forty four million students who attend American elementary and secondary schools (Ysseldyke et al. 1992). Testing is only part of the broader conception of assessment. Testing is the sampling of behavior in students to obtain scores (quantitative indexes) or relative standing. In addition teachers and other school personnel assess or collect data through classroom observations, interviews with students' family members or care-givers. Psychological and psycho-educational tests are used in schools to help to identify types and bases and the extent of a student's learning difficulty or school adjustment problem. The assessment is used to make decisions about students.
At a curricular level, tests help to determine the effectiveness of a particular instructional intervention. Teachers give tests before and after…
Shepard, Lorrie A. (1994). The challenges of assessing young children appropriately. Phi Delta Kappan. Vol 76 No.3 206-212.
Taylor, K. And Walton, S. (2001). Testing pitfalls. Guiding students through taking standardized tests. Instructor Magazine October 2001.
Ysseldyke, James E. et al. (1992) Critical issues in special education. Houghton Mifflin Company. Boston, MA.
At which point, it becomes ineffective at: understanding the overall challenges and how to identify someone who is most suited for a particular career field. A good example of this occurred with the Air Traffic and Test Selection batteries. What happened was this standardized test was given to air traffic controllers on a regular basis, to determine their overall levels of competence in the industry and for requalification. However, some of the most experienced air traffic controllers were scoring poorly on the exam. Given the fact that these individuals had worked the career field so long, meant that it was difficult to claim that these people were not qualified (especially when you consider how this group was consistently performing poorly). As a result, researchers conducted a study and they found that the way the different questions are weighted, will play a major role in determining the score of the individual.…
Arendasy, M. (2007). Statistical Judgment Formation. Military Psychology 19 (2), 119 -- 136.
Campbell, J. (2010). Meta Analysis. International Journal of Aviation Psychology 20 (1), 92 -- 109.
Carretta, T. (2010). Predictive Validity. Military Psychology 22 (4), 450 -- 464.
Cascio, W. (1998). Applied Psychology. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Simon and Schuster.
Shapiro (2004) stated that progress monitoring has now become a crucial element in the enhancement of pupil academic outcomes. It has been concluded that literature has evidently shown the concept of progress monitoring that can across different domains such as spelling, mathematics, composition, reading and writing (Hosp & Hosp, 2003)
Activity description and Summary
The progress monitoring program that is being designed focused more on the performance on the pupils according to the curriculum that is designed for them. This performance is basically measured and monitored across a period of time. Technically, this measurement is carried out through every three or every six terms.
The best way to ensure measurement of school wide data is through online software's that can be accessed by not only teachers but by parents as well. By making this data available on the net, it can also be accessed easily by other schools in the…
Brooks, V. (2002). Assessment in secondary schools (1st ed.). Buckingham [England]: Open University Press.
Hosp, M., & Hosp, J. (2003). Curriculum-Based Measurement for Reading, Spelling, and Math: How to Do It and Why. Preventing School Failure, 48(1), 10 -- 17.
Shapiro, E. (2004). Academic skills problems workbook (1st ed.). New York: Guilford Press.
The graduate selection committee wants to select the top 10% of applicants. On a standardized test with a mean of 500 and a standard deviation of 100, what would be the cutoff score for selecting the top 10% of applicants, assuming that the standardized test is normally distributed?
The cut off score is determined by identifying the z-score associated with that percentile and computing the raw for that z-score (Aron, Coups, & Aron, 2011).
Transposing for X
The cut off score is 629
The average commute time via train from the Chicago O'Hare Airport to downtown is 60 minutes with a standard deviation of 15 minutes. Assume that the commute times are normally distributed. What proportion of commutes would be:
Longer than 80 minutes?
Less than 50 minutes?
Between 45 and 75 minutes?
The proportion of commutes would be determined by computing the z-score for…
Aron A., Coups E.J., & Aron, E.N. (2011). Statistics for the behavioral and social sciences: A brief course. New York NY: Prentice Hall.
Levin, J. Fox, J.A., &, Forde, D.R. (2010). Elementary Statistics in Social Research. Boston MA: Allyn & Bacon.
Performance Outcomes at Dunn Middle School in Trenton
Inner-city schools today are struggling with a litany of challenges that threaten the quality of education and the opportunities available to students. Issues such as high poverty rates, crime-afflicted neighborhoods, racial disparity and limited parental involvement all threaten to stand in the way of bright futures for such students. This is true for the attendees of the Grace A. Dunn Middle School in Trenton, which is working to overcome the obstacles typical of such resource-strapped urban schools. The discussion here outlines some of the areas of Dunn Middle School that require improvement and offers some suggestions on how to achieve this improvement.
Reviewing the Dunn Middle School performance outcomes, all evidence suggests that the school is in need of sweeping improvements. Under the thumb of mandatory state-proficiency tests, Dunn Middle School has struggled to yield any positive outcomes. The…
Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO). (2008). ISLLC Standards. Coe.fgcu.edu.
Jennings, D.A. (2012). Schools in Need of Improvement in New Jersey. Statewide Parents Action Network.
NJ School Performance Report. (2013). Grace A. Dunn Middle School. State of New Jersey.
functional literacy activities? What are some examples?
Functional literacy activities refer to activities that focus on reading or writing in direct connection to actual tasks that can be easily applied or used in the real world. For example, functional literary activities might involve reading street signs, reading maps or drafting a grocery list.
What are ways to share literature with young children? What are important factors to consider when selecting literature to share and stocking classroom libraries? What are some effective story-reading strategies (read-alouds and shared reading)?
One way to share literature with young children would be to present it in the most dynamic and hands on approach possible. For example, using puppets or dolls or figurines when presenting a new book to students can be a way to help engage students' minds and imagination. Or dynamic follow-up activities which relate to the text can also be used with success:…
Golembeski, K. (2013). Preparing for Kindergarten Begins the Year Before. Retrieved from Getreadytoread.org: http://www.getreadytoread.org/early-learning-childhood-basics/early-childhood/preparing-for-kindergarten-begins-the-year-before
Teachervision.com. (2013, January). Shared Writing. Retrieved from Teachervision.com: https://www.teachervision.com/reading-and-language-arts/skill-builder/48883.html
Virginia.edu. (2003). What's the difference among phonological awareness, phonemic. Retrieved from Virginia.edu: http://www.readingfirst.virginia.edu/pdfs/Phon_Spel_Handout.pdf
Education Literature eview
Whenever the disturbing news of yet another school shooting shatters the adolescence of innocent teenagers, the national media, concerned parents and strained educators alike once again focus their collective attention on the epidemic of bullying which is crippling American schools. In the wake of the Columbine High School massacre which claimed 13 lives and the 2007 Virginia Tech shootings that killed 32 students and faculty, recent tragedies like that which occurred at Sandy Hook elementary bring the consequences of rampant bullying in schools back to the forefront of the national consciousness. Although the loss of life associated with these terrible incidents, and the erosion of self-confidence that results from unchecked bullying, are tragedies that cause society to collectively mourn, it is possible that the diminished safety of our nation's schools has also reduced the ability of modern students to achieve academic excellence. While a causal link between…
Cuero, K.K., & Crim, C.L. (2008). You Wish It Could Speak for Itself. Issues in Teacher
Education, 17, 117-140. Retrieved from www.eric.edu.gov.
Eipstein, M., Atkins, M., Cullinan, D., Kutash, K., & Weaver, R. (2008). Reducing Behavior
Problems in the Elementary School Classroom. IES Practice Guide. What Works
Catholic High School
Choosing the education which will best serve our children is one of the most difficult decisions a parent can make. There is a very real possibility that choosing the wrong institution will destroy or at the very least seriously hinder the future success of your child. Choosing a good school will allow your child to receive a better education, to develop better socially and avoid some of the serious pitfalls which are more often encountered in lesser schools, and will open the doors for future academic successes and subsequent career success as your children progress into adulthood. Private schools have proven statistically to provide a higher quality of education in addition to a pantheon of other benefits. A private Catholic school education provides students with academic, social, and religious benefits which no other school can promise.
Academically, a private education is vastly superior to the education proffered…
Possible Explanations in Structural Issues within the Educational Experience
The similarity in aptitude early on and the increasing academic achievement gap between black and white students thereafter would seem to suggest that the causes are most likely to be social and institutional. Among the possible factors, black children are less likely to have the benefit of a two-parent home; they are more likely to live in poorer communities with lower quality educational institutions; and they are 30% less likely to change school by their parents' choice. Unfortunately, the types of educational initiatives designed to reduce the education gap have not proven successful and to the extent their data suggest otherwise, it may be by virtue of over-reliance on the issue of "passing" instead of high achievement.
For example, the NCLB approach emphasized reducing the educational achievement gap among races by focusing on achieving proficiency in academic skills considered to be…
It has been difficult but rewarding exploring the educational opportunities of America, trying to obtain financial support, and essentially embarking upon uncharted grounds. I am grateful for the support of my family, and hope to draw upon their support and inspiration in law school.
Standardized Test Performance worked extremely hard in college, and obtained a high GPA every year I was a student. I believe that my grades are reflective of my interest in the subjects that I will cover in law school and the hard work that will be demanded as I pursue higher education. For a long time I have had to balance school, family, and work demands. Multitasking is a way of life for me, and I know that the need to balance different obligations is necessary to succeed in law school. Law school places a strong emphasis on team learning and study, the need to make…
Children with autism can be hard to assess. Many children who fall under the criteria needed to determine autism, may be in fact be socially awkward, shy, among other things. As the CDC websites explains: "Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disability caused by differences in the brain" (CDC, 2014). Some have even identified a gene that could play a role in the development of autism. This however does not speak for the majority of children diagnoses with autism so therefore other assessment tools as well identification methods must be used to determine whether a child has autism.
"A diagnosis of ASD now includes several conditions that used to be diagnosed separately: autistic disorder, pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), and Asperger syndrome. These conditions are now all called autism spectrum disorder" (CDC, 2014). Along with the new guidelines for proper diagnosis comes a set of identification methods…
CDC. (2014, March 20). Signs and Symptoms. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved April 28, 2014, from http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/autism/signs.html (tags: none | edit tags)
Meisels, S. (n.d.). Performance Assessment. Performance Assessment. Retrieved April 30, 2014, from http://teacher.scholastic.com/professional/assessment/perfassess.htm
Total numbers of students in Utica Junior High for seventh and eight grades, the number of students actually tested for proficiency levels, the state student population at each grade level and numbers tested, and for truly accurate analysis a host of other demographic information would need to be taken into account (Giddens, 2006). Given the information actually provided, it would not only be practically impossible but statistically meaningless to perform real manipulation and analysis of the data. Even so, some very useful information can be gleaned form a simple side-by-side comparison of the school's proficiency percentages with overall state percentages, and in a simple assessment of the absolute value of the data points.
Interestingly, a proportionally higher number of students in seventh grade at Utica Junior High showed grade-level proficiency in both reading and mathematics, while eighth graders at the school were proportionally slightly less likely to have tested as…
Giddens, a. (2006). Sociology. Malden, MA: Polity Press.
Ohio Dept. Of Education. (2012). Proficiency Test Results (Building) for Utica Junior High School. Accessed 6 May 2012. http://ilrc.ode.state.oh.us/schools/Report.asp?Dssid=37ED891F45555A88FD7A239100A93149&desc=B.1.2%20-%20Proficiency%20Test%20Results%20(Building)&str=048025,North%20Fork%20Local,038059,Utica%20Junior%20High%20School,Licking%20County
Theory and practice of multicultural and bilingual education
The demands of the competitive marketplace have caused a fundamental shift in the needs of ESL learners and will change the structure of ESL education. During the 1980s and 19980s, the predominant emphasis in ESL instruction was on social graces and basic fluency "Those objectives are now outdated and inadequate to meet the pressing needs of today's children. Increasingly complex, high-tech demands from industry and commerce mandate that every graduate, including those for whom English is a second language, acquire knowledge and skills to compete for jobs" (Beckett & Haley 2000). The goal is for ESL students to graduate not merely with a grasp of English, but with knowledge of subject areas commensurate with their non-ESL peers. Demands for strong ESL student performance are growing amongst parents as well as school administrators, who wish to give a more equitable education…
Beckett, E.C., & Haley, P.K. (2000). Using standards to integrate academic language into ESL
fluency. The Clearing House, 74(2), 102-104.
Son, J. (2008). Using web-based language learning activities in the ESL classroom. International Journal of Pedagogies & Learning, 4(4), 34-43.
The researchers found that the student's minimum performance rate correlated more closely with their IQ scores than any other single variable. High and low IQ scores were predicted on the basis of the worst performance (minimum recall) and the best performance (maximum recall). When compared, those that were predicted on the basis of the worst performance were more accurate, indicating that "worst performance reveals more about intelligence than best performance" (p. 9). The study was significant because it measured preparatory strategies which earlier research did not. It was also the first time the Worst Performance rule was tested on children rather than adults. The findings suggested "developmental invariance," that is, no difference between people of different ages. But this should be tested in a project that puts adults and children together and gives them the same task. The researcher points out that low-IQ participants sometimes do well, but they dip…
Coyle, T.R. (2001). IQ is related to the worst performance rule in a memory task involving children. Ablex Publishing Corporation, 29 (2), 117. Retrieved 3 December 2008 from Expanded Academic ASAP database via Gale.
Hogan, R. (2002). Might outdoor education help develop intelligence? Outdoor Council of Australia, 6 (2), 2. Retrieved 3 December 2008 from Expanded Academic ASAP database via Gale.
Holden, C. (2003). The practical benefits of general intelligence. American Association for the Advancement of Science, 299 (5604), 192. Retrieved 3 December 2008 from Expanded Academic ASAP database via Gale.
Nunley, M. (1995). "The bell curve" too smooth to be true, 39 (1), 74. Retrieved 3 December 2008 from General OneFile database via Gale.
I also taught both History and Math at the Haverford School from 1989 until 1997. In addition to these leadership roles I have also completed career development courses such as: Curriculum Development, Team Building Techniques, Motivation Techniques, Classroom Management, Technology Integration, Marketing & Advertising, Recruitment & Retention Enrollment Management, Standardized Test Evaluation and others.
I feel that completing these types of courses indicates not only my continued interest in the field or work that I have chosen but also my dedication and commitment to performing well in that field. This dedication will help not only me but those that I work with in the future, and those that work as my subordinates. When one has a strong commitment to one's job, others are aware of that and they understand that they are not the only ones being asked to work for what is important to them. This helps the relationship…
Letter of Intention respectfully apply for the master's program in Organizational Leadership. I wish to use the knowledge that I will gain in that program to work toward my goal of leading a non-profit organization such as a school or a foundation. This type of work is very important to me and I feel as though I will do well for myself and others by working in this field. However, I understand that I must have proper training and education before I can be completely effective in my chosen profession. I also believe that I can bring a great deal of knowledge to the program, as evidenced by the work experience that I have already had.
I have worked at the Haverford School since 1995, both as the Director of Tuition Assistance and as the Associate Director of Admissions. In 1999 I was promoted to the Director of Admissions while still retaining my Director of Tuition Assistance position as well. I also taught both History and Math at the Haverford School from 1989 until 1997. In addition to these leadership roles I have also completed career development courses such as: Curriculum Development, Team Building Techniques, Motivation Techniques, Classroom Management, Technology Integration, Marketing & Advertising, Recruitment & Retention Enrollment Management, Standardized Test Evaluation and others.
I feel that completing these types of courses indicates not only my continued interest in the field or work that I have chosen but also my dedication and commitment to performing well in that field. This dedication will help not only me but those that I work with in the future, and those that work as my subordinates. When one has a strong commitment to one's job, others are aware of that and they understand that they are not the only ones being asked to work for what is important to them. This helps the relationship an employer has with his or her employees and also strengthens the bond that the worker has with those that he or she helps.
individual is someone who has a distinct personality of his/her own that differentiates him from a group or class of people. This individual has a distinguishing intelligence level, achievement abilities and aptitude. As far as intelligence is concerned, it can be defined as the "ability to reason about personality and personality-relevant information and to use that information to guide one's actions and more generally, one's life" (as qtd. In Mayer, Panter & Caruso, 2012, p. 124). In other words, intelligence is a basic psychological capability in an individual that allows him/her to give explanation, plan and prepare and get to the bottom of troubles. Intelligence is something that is not acquired by reading books or being academically bright. In the similar fashion, achievement is the way a task is performed in a successful manner (Travers. 1970, p. 447). However, aptitude is a natural ability/tendency to carry out a task.
Fagan, T., & Wise, P.S. (1995). School psychology: Past, present and future. Columbus, OH: Charles E. Merrill.
Huss, M.T. (2009). Forensic psychology: research, practice, and applications. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publications.
Kaplan, R.M., & Saccuzzo, D.P. (2013).Psychological testing: principles, applications, & issues. Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
Mayer, J.D., Panter, A.T., & Caruso, D.R. (2012). Does Personal Intelligence Exist? Evidence From a New Ability-Based Measure. Journal of Personality Assessment, 94(2), 124-140.
The problem lies in the fact that NCLB is often used in a punitive fashion, even against schools that are making an effort and showing improvement. ithout some humanization and an appeals process, the use of standardized testing can be a blunt instrument in the hands of legislators.
Questions about the unfairness of other standardized measurements and assessments such as the SAT are also rife because of the negative impact they can and have had on students' lives. Theoretically, the SAT is supposed to give colleges information about how students will perform in college, and flag students from easier schools with high GPAs who still struggle with basic skills. But there are questions about the fairness and accuracy of the SAT, despite many recent revisions, including the introduction of an essay portion. omen and African-Americans and members of other minority groups continue to show stronger undergraduate performances than would be…
Moravcik, Meghan E. (2006, July 8). Horne sues education department. Arizona Republic.
Retrieved from Interversity on January 10, 2009 at http://www.interversity.org/lists/arn-l/archives/Jul2006/msg00009.html
Multiple choice tests. (2009). Engineers for education. Retrieved on January 10, 2009 at http://www.engines4ed.org/hyperbook/nodes/NODE-66-pg.html
Problems with standardized tests Engineers for education. Retrieved on January 10, 2009 at http://www.engines4ed.org/hyperbook/nodes/NODE-69-pg.html
standardized, national testing is implemented for students in elementary schools and secondary schools, the United States government will be making a statement that American students will leave their elementary and secondary schools having demonstrated competency in challenging subject matter including English, mathematics, science, history, and geography. In route to this, it will be shown that every school in America will ensure that all students learn to use their minds well, so they may be prepared for responsible citizenship, further learning, and productive employment in our modern economy. One of the methods that the government has adopted with hopes of assistance in reaching these goals is to apply, nationally throughout the school system, standardized assessments of each student's progress, which can subsequently offer some statistical proof on how well plans of education reform have worked.
This is an important matter, cause although the intentions of using standardized testing seem to be…
Bennett, William J. In Education, Character As Important As Skills. USA Today, http://www.empoweramerica.org/stories/storyReader$237?print-friendly=true.1997 .
Students Will Select a Construct of Interest
My construct of interest is whether there are any prejudice tests that can accurately measure prejudice to races other than Blacks.
Do the currently available standardized tests on prejudice measure prejudice to individuals other than Black people?
Conduct research on other assessments used to measure the same or similar construct,
The Modern acism Scale
According to the SAGE Handbook of prejudice, Stereotyping and Discrimination (Dovidio, 2010), the scale of modern racism is popular because of high construct validity and predicting relevant criteria, states critics Sniderman & Tetlock, (1986). Prejudice and politics cause individuals who are not prejudice to appear so since their views are conservative (Sniderman & Tetlock, 1986). One might argue that the MS is outdated (e.g. Kunda, 1999) as well as that it deals exclusively with a specific population (i.e. Black), however this test has been used in recent studies and…
Dovidio, J.F. (2010). Handbook of prejudice, Stereotyping and Discrimination. SAGE: NY.
Dunton, B.C., & Fazio, R.H. (1997). An Individual Difference Measure of Motivation to Control Prejudiced Reactions. Personal Social Psychology Bull, 23(3), 316-326.
Gordijn, E.H.,Koomen, W., & Stapel, D.A. (2000) Level of Prejudice in Relation to Knowledge of Cultural Stereotypes, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 37, 150 -- 157.
Kline, P (1999). Handbook of Psychological Testing Psychology Press
Because of this, students who had disabilities, low language proficiency, and who come from various ethnic backgrounds are viewed as such during the grading process. In addition, these kinds of assessments allow professors to not only assess whether the students have learned the subject matter, but also whether or not they have the skills to proceed in the academic realm. According to the Ohio Department of Education (n.d.), there are many types of assessment, including formal and informal that include everything from teacher observations to extended projects. By combining a variety of these formal and informal testing methods over an extended period of time using multiple assessors, students' predictions for success will be more accurate. This way, it is easier to determine whether or not students have learned the necessary skills and are ready to move on to the next level or obtain their degree. Although opponents of these ideas…
Fleming, Jacqueline. (2000). Affirmative Action and Standardized Test Scores. The Journal of Negro Education. Retrieved from Find Articles: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3626/is_200001/ai_n8882179/
Geisinger, K.F. (2005). The Testing Industry, Ethnic Minorities, and Individuals With
Disabilities. In R.P. Phelps (Ed.), Defending Standardized Testing. (pp. 187-204).
Goodman, D. And Hambleton, R.K. (2005). Some Misconceptions About Large-Scale
Figure 1. Pre-Test eading Scores
A second independent samples t-test was run to determine whether there were significant differences between the two groups on the post-test FCAT 2.0 reading scores. The results indicate that there was a significant difference between the two groups, such that the students in the intervention group had higher post-test scores than the students in the control group (t58 = -4.677, p < .001.). The group difference in post-test scores is shown in Figure 2.
Figure 2. Post-Test eading Scores
Two paired t-test analyses were also run. The first paired t-test analysis examined individual improvement between pre and post-tests for the entire sample. The results showed a significant increase in test scores, with a mean increase of 13 points and a standard deviation of 6.2, t59 = -16.14, p < .001.
A second paired t-test analysis, with the data split by group, indicated that both groups…
Anderson, S. (2000). How parental involvement makes a difference in reading achievement. Reading Improvement, 37(2), 61-86.
Callenbach, C. (1973). The effects of instruction and practice in content-independent test-taking techniques upon the standardized reading test scores of selected second-grade students. Journal of Educational Measurement, 10: 25 -- 29.
Halpern, R. (1999). After-school programs for low-income children: Promise and Challenges. The Future of Children, 9(2), 81-95.
Herman, J.L. And Golan, S. (1993). The Effects of Standardized Testing on Teaching and Schools. Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 12: 20 -- 25.
The Act also has the chance to widen, not lessen, the gap between rich and poor. Poorly funded schools will have fewer tools with which to reach and teach all students. Well-funded schools will have access to the best materials, technologies, and teachers. Students attending poorly funded schools are, in my opinion, being penalized for circumstances beyond their control. No Child Left Behind is leaving many of our most talented students behind. Neill (2003) echoes my sentiments, claiming "NCLB is a fundamentally punitive law that uses flawed standardized tests to label schools as failures and punish them with counterproductive sanctions." Ironically, the official Department of Education Web site seems stuck in its own circular reasoning. The Department of Education offers no clear solutions for how to improve "consistently low-performing schools," but points out that many children are "trapped" in them.
As they mature, students left behind at an early age…
Neill, M. (2003). Don't Mourn, Organize! Rethinking Schools Online. Retrieved Feb 9, 2009 at http://www.rethinkingschools.org/special_reports/bushplan/nclb181.shtml
Reality-Testing NCLB." Fair Test. Retrieved Feb 9, 2009 at http://www.fairtest.org/realitytesting-nclb
United States Department of Education. Retrieved Feb 9, 2009 at http://answers.ed.gov/cgi-bin/education.cfg/php/enduser/std_adp.php?p_faqid=4
This view is reflected in increasing calls for financial equity among schools, desegregation, mainstreaming, and standardized testing for teachers and students alike; it has been maintained that by providing the same education to all students, schools can equalize social opportunity (Bowman, 1994).
This latter position is typically followed up with the use of a particular curriculum designed to support the approach. In this regard, Bowman suggests that, "Knowledge is thought to exist in the collected wisdom of a canon, and education is the transferral of established wisdom to the learner" (p. 218). Unfortunately, when educators attempt to impose a "one-size-fits-all" curriculum on a diverse study body, there are bound to be problems -- particularly for those students who are already marginalized through language and other socioeconomic constraints.
Furthermore, in many ways, the public schools are unique in that they have been assigned the responsibility of communicating what American society regards…
Artiles, A.J., Higareda, I., Rueda, R., & Salazar, J.J. (2005). Within-group diversity in minority disproportionate representation: English language learners in urban school districts. Exceptional Children, 71(3), 283.
Banks, J.A. (1994). An introduction to multicultural education. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Bowman, B.T. (1994). The challenge of diversity. Phi Delta Kappan, 76(3), 218.
Breitborde, M.L. (1993). Multicultural education in the classroom. Childhood Education,
Schools are the instrument of change. Do you agree? Why or Why not? Yes, I agree, we as educators have a lot to do with what way a child will go and choices that they will make. In school we have the power to build confidence, and show students how to communicate and what it takes to be a productive person, contributing to society in a positive manner.
Do you feel focusing the school year on standardized testing preparation prevents building the student-teacher relationship? Yes, I believe that those relationships are harder to build focusing on standardized testing. The classroom is more mechanical, and repetitive. However a great teacher will find ways to still build those relationships with their students. The interview with Larissa really made me evaluate my current philosophies. I understand the importance of focus on the student as an individual and attempting to mold those things in…
Whitfield, P. (2005). No child left behind. Journal of Children & Poverty, 11(1), 43-54. doi:10.1080/1079612042000333045.
Specifically, the researchers wanted to determine which explanations of academic performance actually gave Penn most additional predictive value, the most bang for the buck. The factors included class rank in high school, SAT II achievement scores on various academic subjects, and SAT I scores on general verbal and quantitative reasoning; the SAT most high school seniors take.
Among the predictors, the SAT I reasoning test was by far the weakest, able to explain just 4% of the changes in academic performance of students at Penn (Goetz & LeCompte, 2001). The SAT II subject tests were somewhat better, accounting for 6.8% in the variation in grade point averages. ank in high school was the clear winner, however, able to explain 9.3% of changes in cumulative GPAs, a predictive punch more than twice that of the SAT (Clementson & Wenger, 2008). Now, the usual drill at many institutions, particularly highly selective ones,…
Appalachia Educational Lab. (1994). Perceptions of school change: Interviews with Kentucky students. A report submitted to the Kentucky caucus of the AEL board of directors. Charleston, WV: Author.
Blumer, H. (2004). Symbolic interactionism. In J. Spradley (Ed.), Culture and cognition (pp. 65-83). Prospect Heights: Waveland Press.
Brown, D.F. (2002). Altering curricula through state testing: Perceptions of teachers and principals. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Francisco, CA. (ERIC Reproduction Service No ED 344-925)
Callahan, C.M., Tomlinson, C.A., Hunsaker, S.L., Bland, L.C., & Moon, T.R. (2005). Instruments and evaluation designs used in gifted programs (Report No. 95132). Storrs, CT: National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented.