Issues of race and ethnicity have typically been touchy ones that provoke strong reactions out of people living in the United States. An excellent example of this fact is demonstrated in "The Color of Fear," in which director Lee Mun ah groups together eight men from four different ethnicities and provides an unflinching commentary on some of the most prevalent issues related to race relations at the time of the documentary's unveiling in 1984. hat this documentary indicates, and what a bevy of literature (including Albert Johnson's "Power, Privilege and Difference," David Meyer's "How Nice People Are Corrupted," and Reid Luhman and Stuart Gilman's "Ethnic Groups in the United States: A Short History") alludes to is the fact that race plays an intrinsic part in one's social standing, and that there are a variety of factors related to these realities that influence perceptions of and interactions between people of…… [Read More]
The other men of the less considered races however, also express their concerns but with less conviction since the society has set them as the less privileged. The differences between them cause each to express their issues with concern; hence this theory explains the men's behavior in the film.
The standpoint theory is one that considers the way our society and the culture shapes our way of thinking and views in different ideologies and perspectives
. Using the inequalities that exist within the society shapes how we perceive each other and hence; the stand point we have as individuals are not really considered as significant. The view point is usually exhibited through the culture we show and the language we use. The culture is diverse and the identities we express are usually rooted within the individuals.
The standpoint theory consists of three ideas; the first is that our standpoint is…… [Read More]
In ode to get beyond such shallow viewpoints, they need to meely use such diffeences as the stating point fo thei conception of people fom othe ethnicities, and actually get beyond that bing about an impovement in inteacial elations.
As such, it is extemely inteesting to note how sociological concepts of standpoint theoy and systems of pivilege typify many of the esponses that Chistenson had to opinions and statements voiced by othe men in the video. Fo the most pat, Chistenson's esponses eithe contained an element of ignoance o outight disbelief to many of the social baies and misconceptions that the men of colo spoke about. These poclivities of Chistenson can widely be ationalized via standpoint theoy, which poses the notion that people's system of beliefs is geatly affected by the social goup they ae a pat of. Moeove, this theoem places a fai amount of emphasis on hegemony, a…… [Read More]
A relationship exists between theories, research, practical application, and education. The latter three, in fact, ought to be directed by the former. Further, research works inform education as well as practical application through offering evidences for nursing instruction- and care provision- related best practices. Education forms the context for learning. Educators need to base their teaching on scholarly evidences in the areas of learning/teaching, learning/teaching theories, and practice arena requirements. Practice contexts are where learners are taught, patients are provided evidence-based care, and nurses acquire experiences to aid them in formulating novel nursing theories and topics for future studies. Theory is the foundation for:
· How to learn and teach nursing concepts like nursing theories, brain-based education, neurocognitive studies, principles/frameworks, learning approaches, adult learning models, and educational models.
· How to frame researches and understand findings within professional settings, and how to develop the profession for ensuring most…… [Read More]
Most people who knew ebecca knew that she was beautiful, charming, and wealthy. Most people did not know her feelings of self-loathing, anger, and wishing for death. Maxim de Winter accommodates her by supplying her a decadent lifestyle, by catering to her every whim, even by murdering her -- she tempts and pushes him to fulfill her wishes: to end her life. She has terminal cancer and numerous affairs. Mrs. Danvers honors and accommodates ebecca with convergence with every breath; she accommodates the second Mrs. de Winter with divergence between her and ebecca. Mrs. de Winter spends the novel obsessed with ebecca -- who she was, and desires very much to be just like her. The only action taken that does not accommodate ebecca and is severely divergent, is the burning of the mansion, Manderley, and the de Winters fleeing after the fire. As for the future communication behaviors of…… [Read More]
Theory Help You to Make Sense of Your Own Organization and the Management Practices in Your Organization?
Too often, individuals get an idea stuck in their heads and they cannot dislodge it no matter how hard they try. In actuality though, most people who can only contrive a particular system for working, whether that be managing or running an organization, and there is no interest in change. I realize that falling back to a secure position is comforting, but it is also damaging from a growth standpoint. And, growth is the object in business; that is, aside from the fact that making money is probably the primary concern.
But making money has led to some troubling consequences in the world as businesses have grown greedy and managers have become overly authoritarian and sure of their stagnant methods. The reality is that "managing and organizing are not isolatable objects of study…… [Read More]
They are not forced to only do what others in the company want.
That is a big problem with followers, as well - they feel as though they cannot do anything on their own and/or that their interests are not valuable to the company. Some of these people have great ideas, but if no one listens to them it becomes very hard for them to keep their interest in working for the company or organization. When they see that their voices matter, they remain interested in what is taking place. If the leader they report to makes them feel welcome and appreciates their ideas, there is a growth period that can take place. It can be much more valuable than just having a leader who orders followers around. The leader and the followers, says ennis (2003) should be a true team.
Things that get done in a company should be…… [Read More]
203). Others who lose a loved one they had cherished for many years may have a disposition "towards compulsive caregiving" (Bowlby, p. 206). The welfare of others is of prime concern for these individuals; instead of experiencing "sadness and welcoming support for themselves" after the death of a loved one or family member that has been loved for many years, these individuals "proclaim that it is someone else who is in distress and in need of the care which then insist on bestowing."
This compulsive caregiving often manifests itself with the selection of a handicapped person to become that person's caregiver. Imagine the daughter who since adolescence has idolized her father, and never left the home but rather attended college nearby to her parents' home. She never made a lot of close friends and preferred to be home with her dad especially. So when he died, according to Bowlby's compulsive…… [Read More]
A more long-range vision related to a transformation of drug laws will also prevent the staggering numbers of women who encounter the criminal justice system. Theories related to role integration can inform programs designed for role modeling and coaching, which will go a long way toward promoting future community and personal health.
Bloom, B., Owen, B. & Covington, S. (2004). Women offenders and the gendered effects of public policy. eview of Public Policy esearch 21(1). etrieved online: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:Qx8Zf7qTlCYJ:cooley.libarts.wsu.edu/schwartj/pdf/bloom.pdf+&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESjdkZ0qzVgoMeOkxN_ylkKlthKinOficQx_QNfbXxiJnSWFVpcexlY4fekDBrNW1TsKK3OTVz8Ph7PJqqIW8P6AZ7_3DHeLLBqZfwdT75GFga8yw-dfyDDPE77wwcsok_ced&sig=AHIEtbOjWa5vU-Cordw1sOx2rrIhPJcQ
Bonta, J., Pang, B. & Wallace-Capretta, S. (1995). Predictors of recidivism among incarcerated female offenders. The Prison Journal 75(3): 277-294.
Covington, S.S. (1998). The relational theory of women's psychological development: Implications for the criminal justice system. etrieved online: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:IzpJVCQisyAJ:www.stephaniecovington.com/pdfs/14.pdf+&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEEShMi1zxp51XEKWScZuXra2PExdCe99H2YYt3cvPUtvm8vYxswqFa9zAHjEgCYKYzfl83Y6rf-alcMjCF8eD565m1fscAianN1Z9uwImmqDiZqQYnHrrsxZ5rNWaNyxr22BOr&sig=AHIEtbSWo_ivZrhu-c4vlIUDHqnfiObow
Covington, S.S. (1998). Women in prison. etrieved online: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:_XJIn_-dwTYJ:www.stephaniecovington.com/pdfs/15.pdf+&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESjOFr-tbjzcD1I16sbZX07sDOIfzDJCXkS-WCIXPp4JwiDQ2992lXvuillpAs-T2H-ksCWaLiQhc_Shx7bBKFqNdZKqc53vsmHniit_M2WGmxnvQIyXT7mZjpzQnTNzEFtpjB&sig=AHIEtbeyTi4bj3vJxT_gcvCOy1Q5-QIZA
Fletcher, B.., Shaver, L.D. & Moon, D.G (1993). Women Prisoners: A forgotten population. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Martinez, D.J. (2010). ole accumulation theory and…… [Read More]
When children are given the option between a reward they would like and the internal desire to learn something, most children would rather have the reward. That is also true of many adults, whether they are in an educational setting or a business setting. Still, that does not mean that intrinsic interest cannot come along with extrinsic reward, or that operant theory is completely wrong. Many educators mix operant theory with cognitive theory in an effort to provide those with different learning styles more of an opportunity to learn and develop. This helps to reach the largest number of students per educator, improving the overall educational goal.
ognitive Theory of Learning
The cognitive theory of learning has been part of education since the late 1920's, when a Gestalt psychologist focused on the issue of Gestalt teaching and learning, and what that could offer to students who were not learning…… [Read More]
Psychological theories of criminal behavior focus on the individual, rather than on contextual factors (as sociological theories of crime do) or on biological factors (such as genetics). Personality, traits, and cognitions are all covered under the rubric of psychological theories of crime. One of the prevailing and most widely accepted psychological theory of crime is rational choice theory. ational choice theory " is perhaps the most common reason why criminals do the things they do," accounting for a wide variety of criminal behaviors (Dechant, 2009). The theory was first suggested and developed by William Glasser, and has since become a default theory of explaining everything from petty theft to white-collar crime.
ational choice theory is relatively straightforward. The individual is believed to be acting rationally, making decisions based on personal need, convenience, and expediency. The theory permits for individual differences, as each person may be motivated by different…… [Read More]
The term auteur emanates from France and it means author, which in film theory implies that a film by a director mirrors their artistic and ingenious vision. In accordance to Pearson and Simpson (2001), an auteur is delineated as a film director that generates a distinguishing and unique way to film creation by means of visual autograph and thematic and storyline constancy. The auteur theory was instigated in the 1950s in France by directors such as Francis Truffaut who promoted an emphasis on the input made by directors with respect to their style and type of film. The conception of auteurs came about as a way of connecting films together by the precise director that made them, pointing out the various repetitive techniques employed and the stylistic manipulations in different film projects as a representation of the persona and impact that the director has in such film projects (Nelmes, 2012).…… [Read More]
In summary, this exercise showed that quality management is much more integrative and synchronized in nature. Quality cannot be dictated into an organization; it must become part of its culture, and it is apparent from this balsa wood glider that the organization producing them is lackadaisical in their commitment to the principles mentioned in this analysis.
Foster, ST & Gallup, L 2002, 'On functional differences and quality understanding', Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 86 -- 102
Galbreath, J & ogers, T 1999, 'Customer relationship leadership: a leadership and motivation model for the twenty-first century business', The TQM Magazine, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 161 -- 71
Kraines, GA 2001, 'Are you L.E.A.D.ing your troops?', Strategy & Leadership, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 29 -- 33.
Kruger, V 2001, 'Main school of TQM: "the big five," The TQM Magazine, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 146 --…… [Read More]
A truly gendered theory would therefore provide a more unified theoretical framework. The gendered theory that the authors suggest has four key elements. These are the following. Male as well as female criminal behavior should be able to be explained by the theory. This is achieved through the understanding of the he organization of gender. For example, the organization "... deters or shapes delinquency by females but encourages it by males." This refers to norms and gendered identities as well as the effect of institutions and relationships that shape both female and male criminal behavior and criminal predilection.
A second key aspect of this theory is context. This is an essential aspect of the theory and is a concept that makes it different to many other theories on this subject. Context is the aspect that possibly raises this gendered theory to another level of significance. By context is meant that…… [Read More]
Deontology and Consequentialism
An Analysis of "Rightness" from Deontological and Teleological Perspectives
Deontological ethics stems from the notion that one is obliged by duty to behave in a "moral" manner. There are a number of theories that range from moral absolutism to Divine Command theory that may be described as deontological, but each differs in its approach to "morality" even though each recognizes an "obligation" to attend to a set of rules. In contrast to deontological ethics are teleological ethics, which gauge the morality of one's actions by their consequences. A number of theories may be classified as teleological, such as utilitarianism, pragmatism and consequentialism. This paper will explore the ideas behind deontological and teleological ethics and show how an approach to "morality" must observe at least some objective standard, and that it is the objective standard that makes an action "right," and not the dutiful adherence to the standard…… [Read More]
"From an historical standpoint, her concept of nursing enhanced nursing science this has been particularly important in the area of nursing education." ("Virginia Henderson's Need...," 2008) Principles of Henderson's theory, published in numerous primary nursing textbooks utilized from the 1930s through the 1960s, along with principles embodied by the 14 activities continue to prove vital in evaluating nursing care in thee21st century, not only in cases such as Keri's, but in a myriad of others benefiting from nursing.
Kearney, Kathleen M., the Nurse's Duty to eport Child Abuse vs. The Attorney's Duty of Confidentiality: The Nurse Attorney's Dilemma Journal of Nursing Law. Social Science Electronic Publishing, Inc.; January 25, 2007. etrieved September 25, 2007, at http://ssrn.com/abstract=1256366.
esuggan, ay N;PN;MN. (Last Modified: August 17, 2008). "Virginia Avernal Henderson." Nurses.info. etrieved September 25, 2007, from: http://www.nurses.info/nursing_theory_person_henderson_virginia_.htm.
Singleton, Joanne K. "Nurses' perspectives of encouraging clients' care-of-self in a short-term rehabilitation unit within…… [Read More]
Teachers will continue to lead the educational process, but they need to be very sensitive about the issues facing the society as a whole and the children as individuals in this society. Then, education becomes a means of identifying the issues in the life of the students and gaining knowledge and understanding about them. Education in this global society also has to acknowledge that cultural diversity is valued and preserved (Tozer, Violas, & Senese, 2002, p. 190). Teachers have to ensure that their students are taught in ways that respond to cultural groups without bias (Tozer, Violas, & Senese, 2002, p. 420). In education, there is a responsibility for students to gain a respect for other races, religions and gender that are different from their own. This is the only way that a diverse society can successfully survive.
Best, S. And Douglas, K. (1991) Postmodern Theory: Critical Interrogations, New…… [Read More]
The most important difference in the factors between materialist/realist and symbolism/idealist theories is direct experience as it relates to direct knowledge.
Experiences are concrete evidences of the external world through the use of the world as it is today. What someone experiences is tangible, definable and explainable therefore gives strength to the materialist/realist theory (http://websyte.com/alan/symbolsm.htm).
In the symbolic area of life things including emotions, feelings, induced actions or beliefs are all components of symbolism which are not as tangible or definable as actual experiences can be.
An adequate account of human mentality requires an explanation of how we can know truly, how we can err, and how we can critically distinguish truth from error. Such an explanation requires that we distinguish that type of mental functioning which by its nature yields immediate acquaintance with fact, from that type of functioning which is only trustworthy by reason of…… [Read More]
Herzberg and Blanchards' Theory
Leadership and Motivation
Comparison of Situational Theory against the Two Factor Theory
Hersey and Blanchard's Situational Leadership Model
Leadership / Behavior of the leader
Development Level of the Follower
Steps in the Situational Leadership Strategy
Strengths of the Situational Leadership Strategy
Drawbacks of the Situational Leadership Strategy
Assumptions of Situational Leadership Conditions
Fredrick Herzberg's Theory of Human Motivation
Hygiene Factors of the Two Factor Theory
Hygiene / Maintenance Factors
Motivating Factors of the Two Factor Theory
Limitations of the Two Factor Theory
Contrast between the two theories
What do we mean by leadership? It can be identified as the process through which a person is capable of influencing people's thoughts, attitudes, behavior and making an impact by what they say and how they act. A leader sets out the pattern for others to follow and lead on. A leader may guide his followers…… [Read More]
Sociology and Feminist Theories on Gender Studies
Postmodern Feminism in "Cherrie Moraga and Chicana Lesbianism"
In the article entitled, "Cherrie Moraga and Chicana Lesbianism," author Tomas Almaguer analyzes and studies the dynamics behind Moraga's feminist reading of the Chicano culture and society that she originated from. In the article, Almaguer focuses on three elements that influenced Moraga's social reality as she was growing up: the powerful effect of the Chicano culture, patriarchal orientation, and homosexuality that she experienced within the context of her nationality.
Chicano culture centers on race as an indicator of one's cultural orientation, while patriarchy serves as the ideology that is prevalent in Moraga's social reality. Homosexuality, particularly, lesbianism, is Moraga's release from the somewhat repressing role that she perceives women receive in her culture. Thus, lesbianism becomes Moraga's alternative sexual orientation to a heterosexually conservative Chicano culture. Using the following factors concerning the cultural, social, and…… [Read More]
In fact I sincerely wanted to help them find positions where they could excel. The lack of trust on their part and the acute resistance to change was so strong that structuring for integration to the point of even defining what conditions needed to be changed to overcome shortcomings and design a new position for them was not possible. As trust was not present and despite my best attempts to earn it through being genuinely concerned about them, all attempts were seen more as patronizing and less about attempting to help them. On the occasion that they did ask for pay increases, I told them they would need to get their cumulative customer satisfaction scores up and also call volumes. Not interested in the position or excelling at it, these employees refused to improve and when let go, saw it as very personal given my continual efforts to help them…… [Read More]
From the standpoint of the labor market, the lack of equity in the public system would continue to exist until the market force becomes united and demands a better protection of its rights. For now however, when the people fear the loss of their jobs and when the market place is saturated, the public employers are not pressured to implement equity. At the level of personal evaluation and job contributions, these are only able to reveal the cases of lack of equity through a comparative analysis of contributions, evaluations and compensations of several public sector employees. Individually however, a person who is inequitably rewarded will not be able to make a difference in the system.
In the hypothetical context of a perfect compensation system, several elements would sit at the basis of its evaluation. All these elements would be constructed on complex analyses of past trends, future estimations, equity theory…… [Read More]
Inteestingly enough, it can be obseved that the usage of books as souces of mateial is elatively educed in both aticles.
Afte a seies of analyses, Paul Conish comes to the conclusion that, despite the temendous intenational movements and advances, the secuity policy of the Euopean Union emains unclea. The main easons fo this uncetainty ae given pimaily by the difficultly in pedicting the county's subjection to any militay theats, the changing shape and size of the Euopean Union o the opaque inteests of the fomation. What does howeve impove the stand is the adheence of the EU membe states to NATO, which emains the most cedible secuity oganization acoss the globe.
Given this situation, the political appoach of the oveall Euopean continent to secuity issues seems to be mostly influenced by NATO, athe than the Westen Euopean Union o the Euopean Union. This context led to a situation in…… [Read More]
But that time is not unlimited. We respect the right of nations to access peaceful nuclear power, but one of the purposes of the United Nations is to see that we harness that power for peace. Make no mistake: a nuclear-armed Iran is not a challenge that can be contained. It would threaten the elimination of Israel, the security of Gulf nations, and the stability of the global economy. It risks triggering a nuclear-arms race in the region, and the unraveling of the non-proliferation treaty. That is why a coalition of countries is holding the Iranian government accountable. And that is why the United States will do what we must to prevent Iran from obtaining a nuclear weapon…"
Here Obama gives the possibility of Iran defending itself from the attacks from outside force like the UN and USA on their nuclear weapons, he goes on to create the risk factor…… [Read More]
Nursing theory chosen, which best aligns with my personal theory of nursing, is Neuman's System Model. This model was created by Betty Neuman, and designed to be holistic in nature (Memmott, et al., 2000). The focus of the model is on the whole person (patient), the environment surrounding that person, the overall health of the person, and the nursing care that person is provided with during his or her illness. While it might seem obvious that all of these areas should be considered, many models of nursing practice today ignore too many important factors regarding a person and why he or she may be ill (Barnum, 1998). With that in mind, it is very important to use a theory like Neuman's Systems Model in order to address more than just a set of symptoms (Memmott, et al., 2000). When nurses and other medical professionals take a look at a chart…… [Read More]
QUESTION THREE: "Is inequality of social classes inevitable?" The conflict theory put forward by Ralf Dahrendorf begins with a discussion of Marxism and the fact that in industry, the conflict between classes - the capitalist and proletariat (worker) - the worker had a natural inclination to be in conflict with the capitalists who were the authority, the bosses. The same kind of conflict carried over into the political realm as well, sometimes violent. The problem was that there was no system whereby conflicts could be resolved. But Marx's analysis, Dahrendorf goes on, was tainted because of his obsession with proletarian revolution.
At this point in his essay, Dahrendorf, though rejecting Marx in that context, asserts that since there are "interest groups" and "quasi-groups" those must then be considered "classes." And if there are classes, it is then logical to assume there will be groups, and quasi-groups that will always have…… [Read More]
In general terms, attribution theories are a person's psychological response to a conflict in an effort to explain the cause of the contention. While these theories may apply to any given situation, they are often closely intertwined with more intimate, interpersonal relationships. People in such relationships may attempt to explain their own actions or the actions of the other person in terms that may mitigate their own culpability. The ability to explain why someone would act or behave in a certain way may help a person alleviate the stress associated with the conflict. There are several different types of attribution theories that people use to explain another's behavior but three of them in particular are often cited in relationship studies.
Many people in a relationship may attempt to attribute their counterpart's behavior to personal vs. situational causes. In this way, a person seems to believe that another person…… [Read More]
'" (Moynihan, 1965)
Moynihan implies that the decreasing role of the black male is a central aspect to be addressed in resolving the matters of violence in the black communities. As a result, he proposes a series of social and political policies that would strengthen the role played by the black male in the family. These refer to better employment opportunities, wage increases or an improved social perception of the roles that fathers play within the family. The senator exemplifies by stating that the white families are mostly run by two parents and the presence and role of both mother and father foster the growth and development of a stable individual, who will not engage in criminal actions.
The report issued by Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan set the basis for years of controversy. Organized under the title the Negro Family: The Case for National Action, the findings were…… [Read More]
Knowledge, Theory, And Practice: Epistemology
Epistemology, or the nature of knowledge, is often different for each person, from the standpoint of perspective. In other words, each person sees knowledge differently, and that can make what is "true" for one person not "true" for someone else. James Frederick Ferrier, a Scottish philosopher, was the one who coined the term "epistemology." It is a term that not only relates to the nature and the field of knowledge, but it is also used to determine how people know the things that they know (Moser & Vander Nat, 2001). What makes knowledge real and true are not easily understood concept, because what a person knows is always able to be challenged. One could then make the argument that the "knowing" would be a belief, rather than actual knowledge. Getting to the nature of what is really true when it comes to knowledge begs answers…… [Read More]
The Rise of Collective Bargaining
According to Brody (1993), the collective agreement signed between unions and employers meant that the unions were no longer pushing for activism, but rather they were running the unions as a business. The unions were mostly concerned with ensuring that employees had job security and they worked hard to quell any disturbances that might arise. With employees working as expected and employers willing to pay the employees as agreed, there was a need for the unions to honor their contractual agreements. The contracts removed the unions from management and offered the company managers leeway to run the business as deemed fit. Unions opted to have collective bargaining agreements that in the long run meant that the unions were powerless and the power of workers no longer rested with the unions (Aidt & Tzannatos, 2002). Adopting collective bargaining agreements meant that unions had to adhere to…… [Read More]
LABO UNIONS IN THE U.S.: Evaluation of Social Theory as Applied to the Concept of Organized Labor
CHAPTE IN BIEF INTODUCTION history of labor unions, their composition and development in the U.S. over time, discussion of the "building blocks" of such organizations
ELEVANCE OF LABO UNIONS ACCODING TO SOCIAL THEOISTS discussion of the relevance of labor unions according to the following social theorists: Durkheim, Simmel, Weber and Marx. Why labor unions are formed according to each of the social theorists; the idea of labor unions as a positive or negative force; labor unions as collective representatives of society; labor unions as reflective of society's need to collectively gather; who is represented by labor unions; economic factors in labor gatherings (Marx, on the idea that labor unions are created to promote the economic interests of employees within organizations)
Labor unions were created for a variety of reasons, in part to…… [Read More]
Cody uses a lot of fancy words and makes mention of philosophy and nursing as a study and a science but it gets a little too sweet and sugary to the point of almost being self-serving or sycophantic, with the only real question whether Cody is trying to make himself look good, nursing as an industry/career/educational pursuit look good or a combination of the two. First, he makes mention of nursing possibly dying off as a science and that is simply specious. The form and function of nursing shall certainly change as the years change but it's NEVE going to go away. It may be called something else someday just like PTSD used to be called shell shock. However, the root nature of the job and the role is not going to change in its basic function, to ease pain and treat the sick.
Another dimension of the treatise mentioned…… [Read More]
Assumptions and Implications of the elational Theory
elational theory aligns with traditional views of social work. This theory has special significance on relationships and the settings that women attest to. In the recent times, researchers and psychologist have perceived the dissimilarities in mental development between men and women (Saari, 2005). A key conclusion is that women strongly emphasize on relationships whereas men lay emphasis on individuation (Quinn and Grumbach, 2015). One of the main assumptions of the relational theory is the intrinsically and innately social nature of human beings. Based on the belief that people are socially founded and instituted by associations, relational theory seeks to understand the complication behind the formation of relationships (Mccauley, 2013). In particular, the relational theory puts forward that the relational nature of us as human beings' steers and instigates us to grow and develop through and in the direction of connection. As…… [Read More]
MOAL DEVELOPMENT & GENDE CAE |
Moral Development and Gender Care Theories
Moral development in humans occurs naturally together with physical, social and mental development. Individually as well as in social settings, mankind evolves a developed moral character and conscience in spite of numerous social and psychological barriers, which temporarily retard or disturb the process. In axiology, concepts of moral development give rise to feelings of being an active and developing entity. Through potential self-realization or perfection, a grand innate legacy is inherited, to be fulfilled in one's individual character and via the community, revealing one's unseen but tremendous intrinsic value (Fieser & Dowden, 2016).
Kohlberg's Six Stages of Moral Development
Crain (2015) holds that the child development scholar and moral philosopher, Lawrence Kohlberg, noted that kids progress across distinct moral development stages similar to the way they progress across cognitive development stages (defined by Piaget). Kohlberg observed…… [Read More]
India from an economic standpoint. What will one discover? This country has changed much in the past decade. They are not the same as compared to the past. Management is aware of what needs done macro economically in order to make a living and help consumers and businesses to stay afloat. One will discuss an article in depth and the implications of it.
One will summarize the arguments that were used in The Economy; THE OUTLOOK: India Comes of Age, As Focus on eturns Lures Foreign Capital. These are as follows. India has failed in attempting to replicate China in regards to economic growth. However, this particular country does not have the type of advantages that are prominent in comparison to their counterpart. This is because everything is cheaper and that their policies are supportive through the government. In fact, many have feared that that India would become marginalized because…… [Read More]
Nursing Theory -- oy Adaptation Model
The oy Adaptation Model is one of the most commonly cited and used options when it comes to nursing theories. It has been in existence since 1976, and has had a number of years to be adjusted and changed to work with the adjustments that have occurred in the field of nursing over time (Alligood, 2011). Being able to adapt and change is a very important part of nursing, because all patients are different. Additionally, treatments and medications change rapidly, and that can be difficult to keep up with if a nurse is not focused on adapting his or her style and beliefs to the changing nature of medicine. Here, the importance of nursing theory will be explored, along with the key points that are used in the oy Adaptation Model. The views and ideas that the model provides when it comes to nursing…… [Read More]
Low Self -Control Theory
This theory deviates from the emphasis on informal relational controls and concentrates instead on individual controls. Through effective parenting practices of discipline and monitoring, some kids develop the ability to appropriately react to situations requiring deferred gratification planning. Delinquency is observed more frequently among males than females. One explanation for this is the divergent etiologies of delinquency for females and males. Males might be relatively more susceptible to inadequate parenting and other such factors that place them at risk of developing delinquency. An alternate hypothesis is: delinquency risk factors are identical for females and males, but the latter have relatively greater exposure to these. People with high self-restraint levels are more sensitive to others, have better verbal and cognitive skills, have lesser independence, and are more willing to accept any restrictions on their actions. On the other hand, those with poor self-restraint are characterized by insensitivity,…… [Read More]
Limitations of Great Theories
The psychoanalytic theory (Saul Mcleod, 2007)
ejection of the free will
Lack of scientific support
Samples were biased. For instance, only Austrian women were considered in proving the theory
Case studies were subjective
Cognitive Theory (Saul Mcleod, Cognitive Psychology, 2007)
Does not consider biology
The section on humanism dismisses scientific approaches
The ecological validity of the experiments is low
There is subjective introspection
Behavioral Theory (Saul Mcleod, Cognitive Psychology, 2007)
It is misplaced to compare humans and animals
It ignores the role of biology such as testosterone effects
There is little free will
Dismisses meditational process
The Surprises from Harlow's experiments
Harlow noted that that the existence of systems of affection that could fill in the gap for each other was sensible; from evolutionary standpoint. Indeed, compensations that were reciprocal presented a higher chance of social survival. According to Marga Vicedo (2010), diverse affectional…… [Read More]
Part 4 -- Just War and Iraq -- it can be very difficult to define intangible philosophies or actions that are both part of the human psyche and that seem obvious. One of these such intangibles is war. What is war? Each historical period has added a new meaning to the word, but the essence of it still remained the same. War is always associated with terror, cruelty and unhappiness. There are really five elements that allow a just war: cause, authority, intention, hope for success, and proportionality. Without becoming too cynical, most scholars would probably agree that the first Iraqi war was Just but the second, under Bush II, was not. There were clear distinctions. In the first, Iraq invaded a soverign country, Kuwait, who asked for aid and protection; in the second, data was never fully disclosed as to the infamous weapons of mass destruction, and later found…… [Read More]
At only $50 below the X5, Handheld must either drop the price to at least $175 for the X7 to alleviate cannibalization from occurring by the X5. The paradox however is that to lower the price of the X7 is to prolong the payback period for this specific model, which is the most unprofitable of the entire company. Ideally the X7 needs to have a higher price point associated with it, and in retrospect the better product strategy would have been to expand into higher-priced models where Handheld would have had ample room in terms of price points to differentiate. The new product needed to be approximately 30% or more than the X6, with significantly greater features including support for WiFi, social networking apps including Facebook, MySpace, Twitter, Friendfeed and other features that could be turned into value-added services that could be upsold to customers. A new product at the…… [Read More]
Great Gatsby: As Seen Through Marxist Perspective
A Marxist perspective of F. Scott Fitzgerald's famous novel, The Great Gatsby may be interested in social class representations, together with how characters acquired and retained riches and power. An overall analysis of the novel reveals that it portrays the extremely rich social class that does not work and devotes most of its day to leisure activities primarily. A few less rich minor characters also find mention, along with a smaller share of workers and servants seen at work in the course of the story. In terms of the Marxist theory, the affluent social class denotes the "haves." At the time of the American industrial revolution, capitalists -- the people with capital (i.e., wealth, equipment, or land) -- meant the upper social class. On the other hand, the "have-nots" indicated the lower social class, or workers. In Marx's opinion, a class with economic…… [Read More]
Kids today are overwhelmed!" A parent recently wrote in an email to GreatSchools.org "My first-grade son was required to research a significant person from history and write a paper of at least two pages about the person, with a bibliography. How can he be expected to do that by himself? He just started to learn to read and write a couple of months ago. Schools are pushing too hard and expecting too much from kids" (ilde, 2011).
However, the homework paradigm affects more than just the student -- it affects parents, teachers, caregivers, and any secondary programs (sports, music, etc.) that children participate in. Some studies show that students are not, on average, doing significantly more homework now than in the past; while others say that there are far more "things" to learn, more avenues of learning, and with standardized testing, a greater push to complete a curriculum at a…… [Read More]
International accounting - Evaluate research theories and methodologies to classify accounting systems internationally
The necessity of accounting standards is given by the fact that financial statements should describe financial performance in a fair and consistent manner. Lacking standards, users of financial statements would be required to master the accounting rules of each company, and any comparison between companies' performances would be almost impossible.
Accounting standards are essential to the healthy development of an international financial reporting structure. Around the world several accounting traditions have been developed as a response to the needs of users who are in need of the financial information. Some countries, for instance, chose to build the structure of accounting standards around the needs of private creditors, while other countries were more concerned with the needs of tax authorities or central planners. As a characteristic of the United States, the needs of participants in the capital markets…… [Read More]
The Central Question
How important is it that IR (International Relations) scholars reflect on the relationship between power and knowledge? From a feminist theory perspective, it is critical for IR scholars to highlight the relationship between power and knowledge in order to uncover the gender dynamics of power and knowledge in an IR setting. Feminism is more than simply a theory about women—it also provides a framework for understanding gender and gender constructs and how these constructs impact international relations.[footnoteRef:2] In order for IR scholars to excel in their work and more fully understand the parameters of IR, they have to be attentive to the socio-political implications of the political structures within which they work. [2: Christine Sylvester, “The Contributions of Feminist Theory to International Relations,” International Theory: positivism and beyond (1996), 254.]
Feminist IR theory proceeds from Critical theory, which is based on past fundamentally disruptive theories…… [Read More]
From a functionalist perspective, colleges are crucial parts or systems in the society because it promotes and makes possible education for the society. However, from a conflict theory standpoint, colleges can be considered structures or systems through which only those with access to education continue to perpetuate the 'oppression' of the "have-nots" -- people who cannot afford a college education. Symbolic interactionism, meanwhile, looks at colleges as an important tradition and process in the American society, wherein people are expected to be educated and go through the process of entering and having a college education, towards the goal of becoming a productive and/or learned member of the society. Primarily, symbolic interactionism focuses on the tradition of continuing education, and education as a critical part of every person's being and identity in his/her society.
enzetti, C. And D. Curran. (2000). Living Sociology. MA: Allyn and…… [Read More]
Classical and Positivist School of Thought in Criminology
The classical school of criminology as originally articulated by Cesare Beccaria was based upon a philosophy of human rationality: people would choose pleasant over unpleasant sensations. If there was no expected punishment for crimes, people would behave in a lawless fashion. If punishment was expected, people would strive to avoid pain in a utilitarian fashion. Beccaria's theories arose in a response to earlier systems of justice which tended to extract the same harsh penalties for all crimes, regardless of their nature. Beccaria acknowledged that sometimes the interests of people might be commensurate with the laws that were good for larger society; other times they might clash (Cesare Beccaria, 2014, Criminology). The purpose of the laws was to incentivize for rational individuals the pursuit of good acts that preserve social stability. Punishment must serve a practical function and it must also be proportional…… [Read More]
Lowenfeld's Stages Of Artistic Development
The artistic development theory that most pertains to the work I did with my student for this assignment is Lowenfeld's stages of artistic development. One of the things that was most interesting about applying this theory to the student I worked with is that she appeared to be between stages. Subsequently, my observations of her work, my interactions with her, and her expectations for her artistic prowess were different from any of the stages expressly identified by this theory. Nonetheless, by combining different aspects of two of those stages, I was able to influence this student's artistic expectations and understand exactly where she was in her process of artistic development.
Prior to explicating the relevance of Lowenfeld's stages of artistic development, it is necessary to provide some background information about the student with whom I worked. She is 11 years old, and is of both…… [Read More]
Tracy is a thirteen-year-old, Caucasian female, who is being raised by her mother, Melanie in Los Angeles. Also living in the home is Tracy's older brother Mason, who is fifteen. Tracy's parents are divorced, with Melanie as custodial parent. Tracy is in regular contact by telephone with her father, Travis, who is now remarried with a new baby. Travis is employed with a decent salary but has suffered periods of unemployment in the past; Melanie is a high-school dropout who receives child support but otherwise makes a basic subsistence income as a hairdresser for children and women, operating out of her own home. She is a recovering alcoholic who attends weekly A.A. meetings, but most of her social circle is from the recovery movement. For example, Melanie's boyfriend Brady, who is about ten years younger than Melanie but still substantially older than the children, also regularly stays at…… [Read More]
Another possible solution is a compromise. Freshmen that currently spend their entire first year performing menial tasks would now only do this for the first semester. The advantage of this plan is that the freshman class would receive representation in the second semester. Moreover, they would receive that representation from members with a full semester's worth of experience. The student government would function better for the input of the freshmen, and this alternative would avoid having raw rookies in student government. The downside to this alternative is that it still perpetuates the notion of the freshman subclass. Moreover, the first semester would still see the status quo and there could be exploitation of freshmen during this semester that would otherwise go unaddressed.
The best recommendation for solving this problem would be the second option. The student government tackles important issues, so some experience is necessary. However, many members of this…… [Read More]
Feminism 19th and Early 20th Century America
riting and woman suffrage were inextricably intertwined in the late 1800s and early 1900s. Suffrage gave them a voice, and they used that voice to challenge the early American patriarchal status quo. By examining those works, new light can be brought to bear on suffrage activists, who at the time were thought to be an unimportant fringe group. Through a study of their work, we can learn more about their day-to-day lives.
According to Sandra Harding in McClish and Bacon (p. 28), one's own knowledge depends on one's position in society. hen one is a subordinate in the social hierarchy, one understands life differently than someone at the top of the social hierarchy. However, as the most powerful write history, it tends to be rather one-sided. Since that is the case, Harding argues that these different viewpoints are equally valid. By looking at…… [Read More]
This paper discusses all the facets and considerations inherent to a cultural identity essay. Namely, the paper describes the importance of cultural identity, the definition of cultural identity, and examples of cultural identity—both theoretical and literal examples in the world today. This paper seeks to show how one’s cultural identity is so much more than just a melee of one’s race, environment and heritage. Cultural identity is made up of so many factors and influences, both positive and negative, and both direct and covert. This paper sheds light on how one’s cultural identity manifests and how the cultural identity of two people from the same family can be slightly or tremendously different, as a result of a difference of lived experiences and preferences. Finally, this paper investigates some of the more dominant theories of cultural identity.
One’s cultural identity is closely connected to one’s social…… [Read More]
Feminism 19th and Early 20th Century America
riting and women's roles were unavoidably mixed in the late 1800s and early 1900s. It was a time in which many women protested their restrictions through novels, poetry, pamphlets, and speeches. By analyzing those creations, readings can begin to understand the lives of those forward-looking women. In their own time, people dismissed them as inconsequential complainers. Minority authors, like blacks and lesbians were even more ignored. However, by learning about their work, we can learn about the daily life of the social classes to which they belonged.
Many people feel that our socioeconomic status limits our understanding of others (McClish and Bacon). Because our understanding is limited by our own viewpoint from our socioeconomic status, patriarchal societies tend to limit self-expression to that which is compatible with the patriarchy. As a result, it's important to remember to ask questions based one's own experience,…… [Read More]
Cruzan Case through a variety of medical ethical perspectives
The Consequentialist Paradigm
The ethical paradigm of consequentialism, as its name suggests, is the view that "normative properties," in other words, ethical actions in the world, should be judged upon and "depend only" upon their resultant consequences. (Sinnott-Armstrong, 2003) The Nancy Cruzan case is famous legal a 'right to die' case whereby, after Nancy Cruzan was almost killed in a car crash, "years later, Cruzan's parents wanted to withdraw the artificial hydration and nutrition that kept their daughter alive," whom was deemed 'brain dead' or in a permanent vegetative state, at the time (Healthcare ethics, 2004)
The general approach of consequentialist ethics could be applied in this case regarding the moral rightness of acts, holding that "whether an act is morally right depends only on the consequences of that act or of something related to that act (such as the motive…… [Read More]
Attribution Bias: Personal Anecdotes
One of the most common sources of conflict in relationships is incorrect interpretations of motivation. Because people are narcissistic and cannot always project themselves into the mindset of others, they focus on personality-based vs. situational reasons for behavior and misbehavior. A good example of this was a source of conflict during one of my years in middle school. My English class consistently ran late. Because it was located on the other side of the building, this meant that I was always late for math class the following period. My math teacher was a stickler about promptness, and was clearly prejudiced against me because she interpreted my lateness as rudeness and saw it as an expression of a lack of concern and respect for her class. However, the fault lay with my earlier teacher and the fact that I was too young and shy to ask my…… [Read More]
The 3M model is also one that thrives on internal competition between ideas for further funding, the progression to the next stage of the innovation process, and the development of prototypes and finished products. What unifies all of these elements together is the strong focus on innovation that is predicated on team-based assignment and requirements (Allio, 1993). There is also a strong focus on minimizing variation in new products once defined and in production using Six Sigma, a technique for minimize product variations over time (Hindo, 2007).
Bernardi, d. S. (2010). Theory of constraints contributions to outbound logistics. Management esearch eview, 33(7), 683-700. Link:
Goodrich, D.F. (2008). The relationship of the theory of constraints implementation to change management integration in professional service organizations. Nova Southeastern University). Link: http://gradworks.umi.com/33/12/3312014.html
Gupta, M.C., & Boyd, L.H. (2008). Theory of constraints: A theory for operations management. International Journal of Operations…… [Read More]
Knowledge Management Best Practices in Services Industries
The ability to stay on in step with customers' rapidly changing needs is only possible when a company completely commits itself to transforming data into information, while also capturing and using tacit and implicit knowledge. As this analysis will illustrate, data, information and knowledge are multifaceted and have many implications across the lifecycle of a business in general and customers specifically. Concentrating on how the data pertaining to customers can be optimized, this analysis concentrates on the Service Quality (SEVQUAL) methodology and metrics. SEVQUAL measures five dimensions of the customer experience including reliability, assurance, tangibles, empathy and responsiveness (Parasuraman, Zeithaml, Berry, 1985). While the scope of this analysis concentrates on SEVQUAL from the standpoint of capturing data, information and knowledge from a customer standpoint, there are many ancillary implications that also apply to the knowledge-based theory of firms as well. The use of…… [Read More]
It can be argued that from a responsibility standpoint, it is only money and can be replaced. Therefore, the risk associated with the actions of the manager do not compare with other professional fields. It would appear that licensure is not necessary, nor is a particular body of knowledge in order to become a successful manager.
Morality and Managers
We have demonstrated that managers do not have to possess a standardized set of minimal knowledge in order to perform their job well. Many examples illustrate successful entrepreneurs that do not have even the minimal knowledge base, yet they are a success by many standards. From the standpoint of the necessity of a minimal knowledge base, it would appear that managers do not qualify as professionals from a sociological perspective. However, the public and the company place an incredible amount of trust in managers to carry out their functions in a…… [Read More]
Ethical Behaviors of Mattel in the Toy Industry
The ethicacy of corporate behaviors are influenced by a myriad of factors yet most strongly reflect the internal culture, alignment of leadership to vision, and accumulated trade-offs made by management over years of ethical decisions, trade-offs and outcomes. In the study Mattel, Inc.: Global Manufacturing Principles (GMP) - A life-cycle analysis of a company-based code of conduct in the toy industry (Sethi, Veral, Shapiro, Emelianova, 2011) the authors successfully provide insights into the moral and ethical dilemmas of operating a multinational corporation (MNC) that is highly dependent on Global Manufacturing Principles (GMP). The life-cycle analysis of company-based code of conduct also illustrates how creating a solid ethical foundation using a Corporate Social esponsibility (CS) platform is only as effective as the aligning of senior management, vision and mission, and manufacturing, sourcing, supply chain and distribution is (Sethi, Veral, Shapiro, Emelianova, 2011). When…… [Read More]
Ethics and Public Policy
This paper discusses the application of the major ethical theories of consequentialism (utilitarianism), deontology, and virtue ethics to a specific policy question, namely how to improve the nutrition of the nation's poor and to reduce the rise in food insecurity. It also discusses the implications of ethical theories such as determinism and moral relativism. First, the theory is discussed in the abstract, followed by an exposition of how the theory relates to real-world practice. The paper concludes with a more general reflection on the implications of ethical theories for public policy-makers. The specific merits of virtue ethics are stressed vs. The more extreme and polarizing views of deontology and consequentialism.
An ethical dilemma: Food insecurity
One of the dilemmas facing public policy-makers regarding food insecurity and the need to improve the diet of poor Americans is the balance between individual liberties and the need…… [Read More]
Therefore, it is necessary to account for the acquisition of habits.
Due to certain limitations of the behaviorism approach, there have been revisions to the theory over the century. For example, although behaviorism helped people to forecast, alter, and change behavior over time, it did not attempt nor intend to understand how or why the theory worked. The present-day social cognitive approach asserts that behavior is results from an ongoing reciprocal three-way relationship among the individual (cognition), the environment (physical context, which consists of the organizational structure and design, social context or other people), and the person's past behavior. This broader view, called cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) incorporates the cognitive in addition to the behavioral approaches to therapy and view people "as active seekers and interpreters of information, not just responders to environmental influences" (Nevid, 2007, p. 484). Many psychologists now believe that behavior is understood best by studying the…… [Read More]