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Prison Culture
Words: 1950 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18919889
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Corcoran State Prison: Prison Culture and Effect on Inmates

The prisons in the U.S. have a long history of offering correction services and rehabilitation for the people convicted of various crimes within the society. There have been increased incarceration of inmates over the last few decades with prisons getting more populated than before hence the introduction of the privately run correction facilities to help handle the large number of people within the prison walls at any given time. However, the inclusion of the private prisons have not helped matters much neither have they improved the rehabilitation process or the living standards of the inmates in comparison to the state owned correction facilities. There have continued to thrive the prison cultures and in effect influenced the way the prisoners relate to each other and even relate to the correctional officers. This prison culture will be the focus of this paper and…

References

Bureau of Justice Statistics (2011). Prison and Jail Deaths in Custody, 2000-2009 - Statistical Tables. Retrieved August 21, 2014 from  http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/pjdc0009st.pdf 

California State Prison, Corcoran, (2013). California State Prison, Corcoran - Mission Statement. Retrieved August 21, 2014 from  http://www.cdcr.ca.gov/Facilities_Locator/COR.html 

David R. Shaw, (2009). California State Prison, Corcoran Warden Derral Adams One-Year Audit. Retrieved August 21, 2014 from  http://www.oig.ca.gov/media/reports/ARCHIVE/BOA/Audits/Warden%20Derrel%20Adams%20One-Year%20Audit,%20Corcoran%20State%20Prison.pdf 

Paige J., (2013). Court experts cite 'serious' healthcare risks at Corcoran prison. Retrieved August 21, 2014 from http://prisons.einnews.com/article/161057067/jrpGKHrWmZXOXTKc

Prison Gang Is a Select Group of
Words: 1468 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86506062
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prison gang is a select group of inmates with an organized chain of command and an established code of conduct. They operate in secrecy with a view to controlling their prison environment through intimidation and violence meted on non-members. Some of the oldest prison gangs in the U.S. were formed as early as 1950s. Some notable example is Gypsy Jokers that operated in Washington State prisons (Fleisher & Decker, 2001). Violence in correctional facilities in the United States is something that has been with us for quite a while. Prisoners and prison officers have both fallen victims to this violence.

Think of the San Antonio, Texas incident where 281 prisoners were stabbed and 13 slain (The Ledger, 1984). There was divided opinion on what motivated such heinous acts with some prison officials opining that prison gangs who were divided along racial lines were responsible. Some attacks were thought to be…

References List

Fleisher, M.S. & Decker, S.H. (2001). An overview of the Challenge of Prison Gangs.

Corrections Management Quarterly, 5(1), 1-9.

Knox, G.W. (2005). The Problem of Gangs and Security Threat Groups (STG's) in American

Prisons Today: Recent Research Findings From the 2004 Prison Gang Survey. Retrieved from  http://www.ngcrc.com/corr2006.html

Jail Time and Death Penalty Finding New
Words: 2882 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 55231289
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Jail Time and Death Penalty: Finding New Ways to Deter Criminal Behavior

Jail Time and Death Penalty: A Deterrent?

For years many law enforcement agencies have relied on the assumption that jail time or the death penalty serve as adequate deterrents to crime or criminal activity. However multiple studies confirm that jail time and the death penalty are not effective methods alone for deterring criminals. Because of this it is important that law enforcement agents, government officials and community members work together to uncover effective tools for deterring crime and discouraging criminals from repeating crimes after release.

Jail time and the death penalty do not deter crime. Early Gallup Polls conducted in the 1980s and 1990s show that while roughly two thirds of Americans and law enforcement agents support the death penalty, there is inadequate evidence supporting its use as an effective deterrent to crime (Akers & adelet, 1996). Many…

References:

Abraham, E., Boyle, J., Mullen, R. & ratelle, J. (1996). "California program reduces recidivism and saves tax dollars." Corrections Today, 58(5): 118.

Akers, R.L. & Radelet, M.L. (1996). "Deterrence and the death penalty: The views of the experts." Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 87(1): 15.

Clayton, S.L. (2005 -- Apri). "Jail inmates bake their way to successful reentry."

Corrections Today, 67(2):78.

Overcrowding in Prisons
Words: 1976 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 54169893
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Prison Overcrowding

Arguably the most pressing issue facing the field of corrections today is the problem of prison overcrowding. Overcrowding negatively impacts nearly every aspect of running a corrections facility, and even exacerbates problems when inmates are eventually released (Specter, 2010). Overcrowded prisons increase the likelihood of violence against both inmates and corrections officers, and there is evidence tying overcrowding to higher rates of suicide and homicide (Davies, 2004, & Camp, Gaes, Langan, & Saylor, 2003). The problem has only gotten worse over the last few decades, and there is no evidence that policymakers or administrators have plans to do anything soon (Giertz & Nardulli, 1985, & Taggart, 1996). After examining the relevant literature concerning the history, scope, and reasons behind prison overcrowding, it becomes clear that the solution to overcrowding and its attendant costs must come in the form of administrative/institutional reform coupled with a serious reconsideration of the…

References

Camp, S.D., Gaes, G.G., Langan, N.P., & Saylor, W.G. (2003). The influence of prisons on inmate misconduct: A multilevel investigation*. Justice Quarterly: JQ, 20(3), 501-533.

Davies, R. (2004). Deaths in UK prisons are due to overcrowding, says report. The Lancet,

363(9406), 378-378.

Giertz, J.F., & Nardulli, P.F. (1985). Prison overcrowding. Public Choice (Pre-1986), 46(1),

Smuggling of Drugs Into Prison
Words: 1411 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 43266895
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Prison Substance Abuse

If there are two things that plague prisons the most other than violence, they would obviously be drug dependency and mental illness. Quite often, there is a combination of the two in the same prisoners. However, there is also the problem of active drug use and dealing in prison and that shall be the focus of this brief research report. Within this report, there will be a statement of purpose, a description of the research design, the overall research findings, a discussion section and then a conclusion with a resolution. eferences to scholarly literature will pervade this report. While prisons and their personnel due to their best to curb or even stop substance abuse in prison, the influx of drugs is never-ending and the importation thereof is done in many different ways.

Statement of Purpose

The purpose of this study is fairly easy. The amount of literature…

References

Forsyth, Simon J., et al. "Striking Subgroup Differences In Substance-Related Mortality After Release From Prison." Addiction 109.10 (2014): 1676-1683. SocINDEX with Full Text. Web. 6 Dec. 2015.

Obstbaum, Yaira, and Sasu Tyni. "Who Receives Substance Abuse Treatment In The 'Real World' Of The Prison? A Register-Based Study Of Finnish Inmates." Journal Of Scandinavian Studies In Criminology & Crime Prevention 16.1 (2015): 76-96. Legal Collection. Web. 6 Dec. 2015.

Wood, Steven R., and Anthony, Jr. Buttaro. "Co-Occurring Severe Mental Illnesses And Substance Abuse Disorders As Predictors Of State Prison Inmate Assaults." Crime & Delinquency 59.4 (2013): 510-535. ERIC. Web. 6 Dec. 2015.

Zarkin, Gary A.1, et al. "Lifetime Benefits And Costs Of Diverting Substance-Abusing Offenders From State Prison." Crime & Delinquency 61.6 (2015): 829-850. Education Abstracts (H.W. Wilson). Web. 6 Dec. 2015.

Prison as a Deterrent for
Words: 579 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 66810200
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This will also lead to the finding on whether the kind of offense committed translates to a lengthier sentence on imprisonment and in effect, on the likelihood that the ex-convict will commit the same or a different kind of offense again. Lastly, the researcher is also interested to determine whether the commitment of re-offense, if indeed committed by the ex-convict, changes in level or degree -- that is, whether the re-offense has a greater, lower, or the same level of punishment.

In terms of the research sample, the researcher proposes looking into a sample of ex-convicts who came from the same correctional/prison facility. By sampling a group of ex-convicts from the same prison facility, the researcher prevents data from being tainted with extraneous variables, such as the existence of prison programs, which might influence the ex-convict's reformation during his/her prison term. Thus, when a particular correctional or prison facility is…

Jail Memo To the County
Words: 666 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 47346676
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However, given that the problem of overcrowding is pervasive in the prison system in general, and not simply at these specific junctures of the judicial process, the choice between a low-use jail and a high-use jail would seem to be the real question. More and more prisoners who might once be shipped to the state penitentiary are now being confined to jails for more extended periods of time than ever before. Thus, to accommodate this problem, a high-use jail that has many of the monitoring and rehabilitative capacities of a prison system would be more useful to the community.

The purpose and function of a high-use jail low-use jail is designed for shorter-term inmates, while a high-use jail is designed to accommodate not simply more inmates, but a wider variety of inmates for longer durations of time. It has the ability to deal with more violent offenders, but also has…

Works Cited

What is the difference between jail and prison?" (2006). Public Health and Criminal

Justice. Operated by the CDC: Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Page last reviewed 18 Oct 2006. Retrieved 9 Mar 2007 at  http://www.cdc.gov/nchstp/od/cccwg/difference.htm

Prison Privatization of Prisons Privatization of Prisons
Words: 646 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7091042
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Prison Privatization

Privatization of prisons

Privatization of prisons is referred as a way of taking over the existing public amenities or facilities by the private operators, building of new operations and additional prisons by for profit prison sectors. Private prisons are more safe, efficient and effective compared to the public sector prisons. This is because; the public sector prisons are wasteful in terms of money that is spent more than the available money. Privatized prisons tend to run more cost effectively as well as efficiently if it happens to meet the budget (Cheung, 2004). When there is a good budget in the private companies, they more often than not make sure that the necessary changes run within the set budget, however the public sector only prints more money and that is the reason as to why the private prisons are more safe and effective.

esearch shows that privatized prisons in…

References

Cheung, A., (2004). Prison Privatization and the Use of Incarceration. The Sentencing Project. Retrieved February 9, 2013, http://www.sentencingproject.org/doc/publications/inc_prisonprivatization.pdf

Smith, A. (2012). Private vs. Public Facilities, Is it cost effective and safe? Retrieved February 11, 2013, from  

Prison Punishment Should Prison Be Punitive or
Words: 2477 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 52781814
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Prison Punishment

Should Prison be Punitive or Rehabilitation in Nature?

A question that has existed since the beginnings of the modern prison system has been that of whether prison should be an unbearable punishment for an action committed, or rehabilitation for the accused to rid them of a particular behavior. In ancient times, a violent crime was usually responded with a violent verdict, resulting in torture and pain, and the concept of 'an eye for an eye' that led human law for thousands of years. Recently, however, civilization has rejected the outward torture of prisoners, and has tried to implement a system based on fairness, both during the trial and during the punishment. hile prisoners may not feel like their jail time is fair, modern civilization has elected judges to make these decisions for society. There is still the question, however, of what in today's world is the goal of…

Work Cited

Larrabee, A., (2006). Punishment vs. Rehabilitation in the Criminal Justice System. Retrived from,  http://voices.yahoo.com/punishment-vs.-rehabilitation-criminal-justice-119962.html .

Multiple authors. (2010). Should Criminal Justice Focus More on Rehabilitation or Punishment. IDebate. Retrieved from http://idebate.org/debatabase/debates/law-crime/house-believes-criminal-justice-should-focus-more-rehabilitation.

Peak, K., (2012). Justice Administration: Police, Courts and Corrections Management (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson: Prentice Hall.

Turner, A., (2012). Work Programs for Texas Inmates Go High Tech. Chron. Retrieved from,  http://www.chron.com/news/houston-texas/article/Prison-factories-train-inmates-and-save-the-state-3450137.php .

Arizona's Correctional Healthcare System Prison Healthcare Arizona's
Words: 1975 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40325503
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AIZONA'S COECTIONAL HEALTHCAE SYSTEM

Prison Healthcare

Arizona's Correctional Healthcare System

The Arizona Department of Corrections (ADC) is the agency ultimately responsible for providing healthcare to the state's prison population. Even though the Healthcare Services division within the ADC manages the medical clinics in Arizona's prisons, there are a number of sections and divisions that have important roles to play in ensuring inmates receive the care they are legally entitled to recieve. This essay describes the structural organization that ultimately provides healthcare to inmates and how it operates to ensure statutory compliance.

Arizona's Correctional Healthcare System

Arizona Department of Corrections Organizational Structure

The Arizona Department of Corrections (ADC) is ultimately responsible for providing healthcare for the prison inmate population in the state of Arizona (ADC, 2011). This state agency is responsible for maintaining and administering all ADC institutions and programs, including community supervision for adult inmates released to their communities. The…

References

America Civil Liberties Union. (2009). Know your rights: Medical, dental, and mental health care. ACLU.org. Retrieved 15 Dec. 2011 from  http://www.aclu.org/prisoners-rights/know-your-rights-medical-dental-and-mental-health-care 

Arizona Department of Corrections. (2011). AZCorrections.gov. Retrieved 15 Dec. 2011 from  http://www.azcorrections.gov/ 

Arizona Department of Corrections. (2011). Medical Services. AZCorrections.gov. Retrieved 15 Dec. 2011 from

Mental Health Prisoners Usa I've Included Outline
Words: 1860 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83733055
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mental health prisoners usa. I've included outline main idea, I apply ideas questions. contact clarifications. I. Introduce define global health issue connection nursing. For, .

Mental Health in the American Prison System

There has always been much controversy regarding prisoners and their mental health, but as civilization has experienced much progress throughout this century people have become more and more concerned about making sure that prisons are able to differentiate between individuals who are mentally ill and persons who are not. Even with the fact that prisons were never design to accommodate the mentally ill, conditions are critical today as a great deal of men and women who are unable to get mental health treatment in the communities they live in are incarcerated consequent to committing an illegality. There are a great deal of people suffering from schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or depression in U.S., thus meaning that society needs to…

Works cited:

Austin, W. And Boyd, M.A. (2010). Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing for Canadian Practice. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Cornwell, D.J. (2009). The Penal Crisis and the Clapham Omnibus: Questions and Answers in Restorative Justice. Waterside Press.

Finkel, M.L. (2010). Public Health in the 21st Century: [Three Volumes]. ABC-CLIO.

Videbeck, S.L. (2010). Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Pocatello Prison Case Study
Words: 657 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 95581698
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Pocatello, Idaho New Women's Prisons

ISSUES, COST, ENEFITS

New Women's Prisons in Pocatello, Idaho

Approximately 8 years ago, former State Corrections Director Tom eauclair defended the need for three new prisons at the Pocatello Women's Correctional Center before the Joint-Finance Appropriations Committee (Russell, 2005). If lawmakers would approve the proposal, the additional 300 beds to the existing privately-run prison near oise, a new 400-bed prison for female inmates and a 1,500-bed new prison for male inmates. These additional structures would cost almost $160 million Director eauclair emphasized that these structures were needed in the five succeeding years in order to manage prisoners safely. He said that every State prison is overbooked, with the corrections department then having 360 more inmates than beds. At that time, the State had 6,502 inmates, which was an increase from 2,900 in 1994. Director eauclair said they expected the population to increase by 30 every…

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Boone, R. (20100. Auditing agency: replace Pocatello Women's Correction Center.

Idaho State Journal: The Associated Press. Retrieved on May 26, 2013 from http://www.idahostatejournal.com/news/local/article_dd40c684-0aec-11df-b882-001cc4c002e0.html?

Russell, B.Z. (2005). Idaho wants new prisons. The Spokesman-Review: The

Spokesman. Retrieved on May 26, 2013 from  http://www.spokesman.com/stories/2005/jun/16/idaho-wants-new-prisons

Gang Life in Prison When
Words: 754 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 12735233
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When Santano looks back on his old life in prison he comments that Fulsom was the "big time." He had more power there. Before the gang, if someone wanted something from him, "They just took it" because he was weak, but being in the gang stopped that because he became strong. He looks back on prison life with a certain sense of nostalgia and tells his girlfriend, "I loved it in there."

The gang allows him to be competent under horrible circumstances. He has been deprived of all the ordinary, normal experiences we take for granted, such as dancing, learning to drive a car, going to the beach, standing in the moonlight with a girl, and making love. All he has ever known is violence and the need to keep others afraid of him in order to protect himself. He's more or less ruined for life on the outside by…

Life in Prison Life in
Words: 1453 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 4912157
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Williams...consistently denied killing Owens.

March 11, 1979 --...three of Williams' friends -- all with criminal histories and motivation to lie, Williams says -- testify that he confessed to the killings. A ballistics expert links a shotgun shell at the motel to Williams' gun. Williams has also steadfastly maintained his innocence in the Yang killings.

1981 -- Williams is tried and convicted in Los Angeles Superior Court of all four murders, plus...sentenced to death. He arrives at San Quentin's death row on April 20.

1987 -- Williams is placed in solitary confinement for 6 1/2 years after committing a string of violent incidents behind bars, including assaults on guards and other inmates.

1988 -- the California Supreme Court affirms Williams' death sentence, and he files his first federal appeal to the U.S. District Court.

1996 -- Williams, with co-author Barbara Cottman Becnel, publishes the first of a series of anti-gang books…

References

Stovall, Jeffrey, M.D. (2001, March). Prison Madness: The Mental Health Crisis Behind Bars and What We Must Do About it. American Psychiatric Association. Retrieved December 8, 2007, at  http://psychservices.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/52/3/394-a 

Nieves, Evelyn, (2005, December 14). "Schwarzenegger Clemency Denial Called Politically Safe." Washington Post, p. A18, Retrieved December 8, 2007, at  http://www.washingtonpost.com/wpdyn/content/article/2005/12/13/AR200512100026 . tml

Tookie's Path to Death Row." (2005, December 13). Retrieved Decembe 9, 2007, at  http://www.npr.org /templates/story/story.php?storyId=5047269Timeline:Tookie's Path to Death Row

Williams, Stanley, with Becnel, Barbara Cottman. (2001). Life in Prison. Chronicle Books.

Catalysts for Prison Violence
Words: 683 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 61104925
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Catalysts for Prison Violence

There are many catalysts that are reported as being typically identified as problems inherent in American prisons. Many feel these problems are the catalysts of any and all violence found in American prisons. Without considering and acting on these problem areas, there can be no realistic hope of lessening the amount of prison violence, or the potential of its occurring. These problems include crowding, antiquated architecture, budgeting, poor facility management, mandatory sentencing, antiquated inmate classification, poor security, inherent inmate friction, absence of proper training, and low pay (Levinson, 2002).

In prison sociology two well-established, but contrasting perspectives are the deprivation model and the importation model. The deprivation model holds that the prison environment and loss of freedom cause deep psychological trauma so that for reasons of psychological self-preservation prisoners create a deviant prison subculture that promotes violence. The importation model emphasizes what prisoners bring into the…

References

Behrens, S. (2010, May 17) How many people are incarcerated for drug related offenses? Open salon. Retrieved March 30, 2012, from http://open.salon.com/blog/stephannie/2010/05/16/how_many_people_are_incarcerated_for_drug_related_offenses

Homel, R. & Thomson, C. (2005). Causes and prevention of violence in prisons. In Sean O'Toole & Simon Eyland (Eds.), Corrections criminology (pp. 101-108). Sydney: Hawkins Press

Levinson, D. (Ed.) (2002). Encyclopedia of crime and punishment, Vol. 3. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Schlosser, E. (1998, December). The prison industrial complex. Atlantic monthly. 51-77. Retrieved March 30, 2012, from  http://core.ecu.edu/soci/juskaa/SOCI2110/Prison_Industrial_Complex.htm

Moore E 1989 Prison Environments
Words: 724 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 92291157
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Secondly was that their perception of the environmental changes changed and the last is that the inmates had different perceptions of the influences of the change.

69% of the inmates felt an improvement in mood level while only 9% has a decrease in mood level. 25% of the inmates experienced fewer incidents of confrontations after their move and 9% experienced more incidents of confrontations. 75% of the inmates were generally satisfied with the move to Ionia. There was an increase by 100% of the health care demands of the inmates. There was no significant change to the inmate's perceptions of changes in the environment such as jobs, activities, usage of spare time, staff satisfaction, and medical care. However, there was some improvement in the food, general relationship and satisfaction with the cell/room/ward. Additionally, there was a negative change in the attendance of religious activities and the number of visits as…

Overcrowded and Under-Funded Prisons According
Words: 3353 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 55816431
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In the American Disease: Origins of Narcotic Control, David Musto notes that throughout the twentieth century, America's drug wars have regularly scape-goated minority groups, like the Chinese with opium, marijuana among the Mexicans, and cocaine among the African-Americans (McCormick 2000).

The National Advisory Commission on Criminal Justice Standards and Goals reported in 1973 that "the prison, the reformatory and the jail have achieved only a shocking record a failure. There is overwhelming evidence that these institutions create crime rather than prevent it," yet during the next two decades both state and federal legislatures implemented increasingly stiffer penalties and mandatory minimums claiming that prisons were an effective tool for crime control, and longer prison terms would reduce crime by deterring or incapacitating criminals (McCormick 2000). However, at the end of this period, after the average prison sentence had tripled and the prison population at more than quadrupled, a National Academy of…

Works Cited

Demleitner, Nora V. (2005 October 01). Smart public policy: replacing imprisonment with targeted nonprison sentences and collateral sanctions. Stanford Law Review. Retrieved September 18, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.

Dickenson, Rachel. (1996 February 01). The prison population bomb.

American Demographics. Retrieved September 18, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.

Incarceration. (2005). The Sentencing Project. Retrieved September 18, 2006 at http://www.sentencingproject.org/issues_01.cfm

Against Increasing Funding for Prison-Based
Words: 1945 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 71638724
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The cost for processing a drug court case through the court system is only a fraction of the cost for processing criminal drug cases through the court system. Furthermore, the cost of drug court and other drug treatment for drug offenders is only a fraction of the cost for imprisonment of these individuals. Drug offenders finishing alterative drug court or other treatment programs have been found less likely to have repeated charges and convictions of drug offenses and to have longer abstinences from use of drugs. Finally, in terms of costs to society that cannot be measured in monetary terms, the alternative sentencing of drug offenders to drug courts and other treatment programs will end the breakdown of society that has been witnessed due to imposition of prison sentences on drug offenders. The research conducted in order to prepare for the debate and in order to complete the research within…

Bibliography

The Federal Prison Population: A Statistical Analysis (2004) the Sentencing Project. Online available at http://www.sentencingproject.org/Admin/Documents/publications/inc_federalprisonpop.pdf

Clay, Rebecca (2006) Incarceration vs. Treatment: Drug Courts Help Substance Abusing Offenders. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration News March/April Vol. 14. No.2. Online available at  http://www.samhsa.gov/samhsa_news/VolumeXIV_2/index.htm 

Shaffer, Deborah; Bechtel, Kristin; and Latessa, Edward J. (2005) Evaluation of Ohio's Drug Courts: A Cost Benefit Analysis. Center for Criminal Justice Research Dec 2005. Online available at  http://www.uc.edu/criminaljustice/ProjectReports/Ohio_Drug_Courts_Cost_Benefit_Analysis_2005.pdf 

Drug Court Benefits (nd) Online NCDI.org available at  http://www.ndci.org/courtfacts_benefits.html

Norway and Germany Compared to US in Incarceration
Words: 1669 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87948356
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Sentencing in the US versus in Germany and the Netherlands

There is one major difference between the sentencing and corrections policies of the US and the sentencing and corrections policies of Germany and the Netherlands. The former bases its policy on the ideas of retribution and incapacitation, whereas the latter base their policies on the ideas of rehabilitation and socialization (Vera Institute of Justice, 2013). This basic philosophical orientation towards the corrections is what distinguishes the two policies. The US views corrections as a punitive measure while Germany and the Netherlands view corrections in a positive light -- a measure that is designed to return the inmate to society. Indeed, recidivism rate in the US is 40% -- meaning that 4 out of every 10 inmates released will return to prison within the first three years (Vera Institute of Justice, 2013). In Germany and the Netherlands, such a rate is…

How Islam Is Getting Into U S Prisons
Words: 1062 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78482299
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Terrorism and Correctional Administrations

As if correctional administrators and other connected with prisons don't have enough problems on hand, when prisoners are also terrorists, or prisoners get radicalized in prison and attempt to conduct terrorist activities, prisons have a huge problem. This paper reviews the issues surrounding terrorism and prisons.

Ann Coppola, News Reporter for Corrections.com

This interview between counterterrorism planning expert, Bill Sturgeon, and reporter Ann Coppola, took place on the 12th of November, 2007, long before the more recent terrorism issues in the news (ISIS, and "lone wolves" doing terrible violent deeds). Sturgeon flatly said, "hile currently there is not a large number of terrorists in American prisons and jails, that could change quickly in corrections" (Coppola, p. 2).

Sturgeon said that throughout history prisons have been places where "disgruntled groups" such as terrorists, revolutionaries, and others have seen as "targets" for disruption and violence (Coppola, 2007). Coppola…

Works Cited

Coppola, A. (2007). Terrorism in corrections, a ticking time bomb. Corrections.com.

Retrieved April 19, 2015, from  http://www.corrections.com .

Hamm, M.S. (2010). Locking Up Terrorists: Three Models for Controlling Prisoner

Radicalization. Indiana State University. Retrieved April 19, 2015, from  http://www.indstate.edu .

Examination of Private Prisons
Words: 931 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13690677
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America's private prison system has led to drastic changes in the criminal justice system. Beginning in the early 1980's profiting from running prisons first started with the Corrections Corporation of America. They pictured inmates like selling real estate, hamburgers, and cars (Aviram, 2015). While corporate-run prisons only account for eight percent of the American inmate population, it has generated a significant change in how criminals are prosecuted and handled in the criminal justice system. It all began with the founder of the world's first private prison company, Corrections Corporation of America.

Founders T. Don Hutto and Thomas Beasley introduce Corrections Corporation of America in 1983. A year later the company operated a Tennessee-based juvenile detention center and county jail. CCA then opens a Houston-based privately owned facility that held immigration detainees. In 1985 CCA tried a $250 million offer to lease Tennessee's entire prison system for 99 years. They were…

References

Allen, J. & Sawhney, R. (2014). Administration and Management in Criminal Justice. SAGE Publications.

Aviram, H. (2015). Cheap on Crime: Recession-Era Politics and the Transformation of American Punishment. Univ of California Press.

BJS,. (2016). Total Correction Population. BJS. Retrieved 7 October 2016, from  http://www.bjs.gov/index.cfm?ty=tp&tid=11

Drug Prison Email L Jones Officer
Words: 389 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 86701001
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Of course, I completely understand the volatile nature of the prison vs. rehab debate. However, I believe that if you take a look at the information available. Specifically check out the publications from Deputy Director of the Prison Reform Trust, Nick Flynn -- especially, "Drugs in Prison, Another Quick Fix (2005)." Also, consider the 2002 Corrections Today article by Jeff Goodale. I trust that both of these writers will present my point quite will.

In short, I urge you to consider my opinion regarding an alternative sentencing option for offenders like Mr. Smith. In my opinion one of the states in-patient, minimum security rehabilitation centers may be more appropriate. Please let me know what you think.

Thank you very much for your time.

Sincerely:

Officer Betty Rumble

orks Cited

Goodale, Jeff. (2002). The prison that drugs built: Illinois designs a new women's prison for the new reality. Corrections Today. August.…

Works Cited

Goodale, Jeff. (2002). The prison that drugs built: Illinois designs a new women's prison for the new reality. Corrections Today. August. Retrieved from Web site on October 18, 2005, from,  http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_go1850/is_200208/ai_n7187734 

Flynn, Nick. (2005). Drugs in Prison: Another Quick Fix. Web page. DrugText.org. Retrieved on October 18, 2005, from,  http://www.drugtext.org/library/articles/four1.html

Role and Evolution of the American Prison
Words: 3536 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 27365626
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ole and Evolution of the American Prison System

Explain the Primary ole and Evolution of the American Prison System and Determine if Incarceration educes Crime

The United States constitution is the fundamental foundation of the American criminal justice system. Given that the document is now over two hundred years old, it constantly experiences numerous amendments and interpretations. As a result, the criminal justice system over the years experienced alterations in order to reflect the needs and beliefs of each subsequent generation. The configuration of the modern prison system has its basis in the late 1700's and early 1800s. The development of the modern prison system aims at protecting innocent members of the society from criminals. The prison systems also deter criminals from committing more crimes through detaining and rehabilitating them. However, more and more deluge of white-collar crimes and other crimes, burdens the American criminal justice system and the prison…

References

Barnes E. Harry. (1921). The Historical of the Prison System in America. Journal of the American Institute of Criminal Law and Criminology. Vol. 12, No. 1, May, 1921

Craig Haney. (1998). The Past & Future of U.S. Prison Policy Twenty-Five Years after the Stanford Prison Experiment. American Psychological Association July 1998 Vol. 53, No. 7, 709-727

Dina R. Rose & Todd R. Clear (2006). Incarceration, Social, Capital, & Crime: Implications for Social Disorganization Theory. Volume 36, Issue 3, pages 441-480.

Escresa - Guillermo, Laarni (2011) Reexamining the Role of Incarceration and Stigma in Criminal Law. Law and economics, criminal law, stigma, social norms, behavioral economics.

Annotated Bibliography for Prisons Conditions
Words: 1321 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Annotated Bibliography Paper #: 36753201
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Aleinikoff, . (2014). Between National and Postnational: Membership in the United States. Palgrave Macmillan UK, 110-129. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/9780230554795

his paper focuses on the 'postnational viewpoint' to the American notion of sovereignty and membership. he author defines what postnational viewpoint is and explains it means the view that a universal model of membership is replacing national citizenship and is doing so because it is anchored within deterritorialized concepts of persons' rights. Essentially this means there is a respect for global human rights norms leading to a "deterritorialized membership." his is important to consider when comparing the states of prisons in Russia and the United States because the rights of prisoners may reach a form of universal expression in that everyone gets treated in a way that people deem appropriate regardless of location.

Kennedy, S., Sharapova, S., Beasley, D., & Hsia, J. (2016). Cigarette Smoking Among Inmates by Race/Ethnicity: Impact of Excluding African-American…

This article shares the extent of prison conditions in an American prison named Pelican Bay State Prison in California. July 1, 2011, prisoners there started a sustained hunger strike. The reason being the majority of them were kept in complete solitary confinement, experiencing conditions considered torturous like extreme sensory deprivation for over five years. Some were kept in isolation for two decades. They asked for basic things during their strike like a phone call once a week, warm clothes to go outside in, supply of decent food, and a chance at escaping solitary confinement. {risons like this show how bad the American prison system can be.

Sarang, A., Platt, L., Vyshemirskaya, I., & Rhodes, T. (2016). Prisons as a source of tuberculosis in Russia. International Journal of Prisoner Health, 12(1), 45-56.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/ijph-07-2014-0022 

This study examines the poor conditions of Russian prisons that leads to a prevalence of tuberculosis. They analyze the poor prevention, treatment, and management of tuberculosis through collecting data from qualitative interviews with participants that are former medical specialists and prisoners in the region of Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia. They also show aside from poor management of tuberculosis infection; HIV infection are poorly managed revealing a poor prison health system in Russia. The study highlights the need for reform of the health system as well as the most common serious infections in Russian prisons. The most common being Tuberculosis and HIV.

Privatization of Prisons
Words: 1735 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 13417431
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Furthermore, even the goal of preventing recidivism (and crime rates in general) conflict with the profit motive of any industry whose demand is measured by the numbers of criminals convicted and sentenced to terms of incarceration.

Conclusion:

Prison privatization has increased in the last few decades in the U.S. Its proponents believe that privatizing prisons will reduce the financial strain on government authorities in connection with maintaining correctional services. Critics are extremely wary of any transition to for-profit business models in the realm of corrections, primarily because of the tremendous potential for inherent conflicts of interests. Ultimately, the best approach might be a hybrid format where private entities supplement government authorities, but subject to appropriate legislative guidelines and oversight mechanisms sufficient to ensure that industry standards and integrity are not compromised the way they might be under unrestricted privatization policies.

eferences

Cullen, F.T., Eck, J.E., Lowencamp, C.T. (2002). Environmental Corrections:…

References

Cullen, F.T., Eck, J.E., Lowencamp, C.T. (2002). Environmental Corrections: A New Paradigm for Effective Probation and Parole Supervision. Federal Probation, Vol. 66, No. 28.

Dershowitz, a.M. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York: Little Brown & Co.

Gaines, L.K., Kaune, M., Miller, R.L. (2006). Criminal Justice in Action: The Core.

Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

U S Corrections Systems the Current U S Prison
Words: 640 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59811484
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U.S. Corrections Systems

The current U.S. prison system has several purposes, including retribution, incapacitation, deterrence, and rehabilitation. (Legal Encyclopedia, 2011). Although the current model is attempting a greater emphasis upon rehabilitation, this objective has met varying successes and failures. One of the most legitimate criticisms against prison rehabilitation programs is the fact that the treatment involved is compulsory or coercive. This factor then led to the likelihood of returning to criminal activity once the prisoner is released.

According to the Legal Encyclopedia (2011), there have been advances in rehabilitation programs that have in fact proved to reduce recidivism. The success of these programs are based upon their focus on offenders' needs and on improving their cognitive and social skills. ecidivism resulting from these programs amounted to 30% or more.

Because of the high costs of maintaining and constructing prisons, the rehabilitation purpose has enjoyed increased attention over recent years. Simply…

References

Gest, T. (2010). Covering Sentencing. Covering Crime and Justice. Retrieved from:  http://www.justicejournalism.org/crimeguide/chapter14/chapter14_pg05.html 

Legal Encyclopedia (2011). Prisons and Jails: Development of Prisons and Jails in the United States. Retrieved from:  http://law.jrank.org/pages/18929/Prisons-Jails.html

Performance Management in Prisons
Words: 2476 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61412476
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Performance-Based Standards

Accreditation plan for the American Correctional Association

The accreditation of the correctional facilities is aimed at ensuring the well-being of the inmates but also is targeted at benefiting the employees, the victims, the courts as well as the legislators of a state. The standards that are set do allow the protection of the judicial system from embarrassment as well as allowing the correctional institutions to have and retain the autonomy from outside interventions.

Goals and functions of functional areas

Safety; this involves provision of conditions that are humane, protection of the inmates from rape and possible assault, giving of nutritious food as well as medical care, giving the inmates a hygienic living environment and recreation activities. This will ensure the inmates are safe from ill health or physical harm while within the walls of the facility as well as being safe from abusive guards.

Security; this functional are…

References

American Correctional Association, (2014). Public Correctional Policy on Standards and Accreditation. Retrieved March 7, 2014 from https://www.aca.org/government/policyresolution/view.asp?ID=44

David Ronald R., (2006). Evaluating American Correctional Association Accreditation of Adult Correctional Institutions. Retrieved March 7, 2014 from  https://www.google.co.ke/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=5&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CEgQFjAE&url=https%3A%2F%2Fdspace.uta.edu%2Fbitstream%2Fhandle%2F10106%2F478%2Fumi-uta-1244.pdf%3Fsequence%3D1&ei=r3YcU97SBubb7Aa2hIHAAQ&usg=AFQjCNGeh6YJwRQeOzwduuSGkhI3J9IXMg&sig2=jVsH_ysiTj7ZUyDagJDjSA&bvm=bv.62578216,d.bGE 

Flynn E.E., (1977). The Correctional Facility: The Environment Today and in the Future. Library Trends. Summer edition.

Manitoba Laws, (1999). The Correctional Services Act. Retrieved March 7, 2014 from  https://web2.gov.mb.ca/laws/statutes/ccsm/c230e.php

United States Has the Highest Rate of
Words: 13726 Length: 50 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23718315
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United States has the highest rate of confinement of prisoners per 100,000 population than any other Western country. Analyze this phenomena and discuss actions that you feel are necessary to combat this problem.

The United States currently has the highest incarceration rate of any nation worldwide. For example, greater than 60% of nations have incarceration rates below 150 per 100,000 people (Walmsley, 2003). The United States makes up just about five percent of the world's population and yet it houses 25% of the world's prison population (Walmsley, 2009). In 2008 there were more than 2.3 million people held in United States prisons and jails, a rate of approximately 754 inmates per 100,000 people (Sabol, West, & Cooper, 2009). So if we only count adults in the population that translates into a one in 100 American adults is locked up. ussia is the only other major industrialized nation that comes close…

References

American Psychiatric Association (APA, 2002). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th Ed.). Arlington, VA: Author.

Breggin, P.A. (2008). Brian disabling treatments in psychiatry: Drugs, electroshock, and the psychopharmaceutical complex. (2nd Edition) New York: Springer University

Press.

Burton, R. (2002). The Irish institute of nutrition and health. In Diet and criminality.

Since the Middle of the 20th Century Prisons and Other Corrections Issues
Words: 977 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 78984314
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corrections models in the United States have changed significantly over the past several generations, from a rehabilitative toward a punitive paradigm. After World War Two, a strong sense of national security and prosperity prevailed in the United States, leading to a corrections system that was based more on rehabilitation than on punishment. During these idealistic times, criminals were believed to be "ill," and correctable via a treatment model ("History and Development of Corrections 1700-Present," n.d.). Trust in governmental institutions also helped politicians and the public alike agree that corrections should be built upon the theory that criminal behavior can be unlearned, or "corrected." The rehabilitation approach persisted well into the 1960s, as humanistic psychology informed corrections models. A humanistic worldview encouraged "deinstitutionalization" of corrections through the use of community-based services like halfway houses and probation ("History and Development of Corrections 1700-Present," n.d.). Sentencing policy during the middle of the 20th…

References

Christianson, S. (n.d.). Prisons: history. Retrieved online:  http://law.jrank.org/pages/1786/Prisons-History.html 

"History of American Corrections," (n.d.). In Corrections: A Text/Reader. Retrieved online:  http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/26034_1.pdf 

"History and Development of Corrections 1700-Present," (n.d). Retrieved online:  http://www.preceden.com/timelines/23091-history-and-development-of-corrections-1700-present 

Mackenzie, D.L. (2001). Sentencing and corrections in the 21st century. Retrieved online:  https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/189106-2.pdf

United States it Is Estimated That Up
Words: 666 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10383732
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United States, it is estimated that up to 350,000 inmates in prisons suffer from some sort of mental illness. In fact, the U.S. penal system holds three times more people with mental illness than the nation's entire psychiatric hospitals. Some have seen a trend that tends to incarcerate the mentally ill in order to keep them locked away from society; often the only alternative because of the dwindling funding for mental hospitals and clinics. Indeed, incarceration may actually increase the trauma of mental illness causing even more damage to their psyches. In addition, what happens to these incarcerated individuals when their service time is up? Simply, they are released into society and often become homeless because of their illness, and thus often victimized by police and other law enforcement agencies (National Public Radio, 2012).

According to a recent study by the United States Department of Justice, 56 per cent of…

Works Cited

National Public Radio. (2012, April 2). A Pateint's Perspective: Police and the Mentally Ill. Retrieved from npr.org:  http://www.npr.org /2012/04/02/149857042/a-patients-perspective-police-and-the-mentally-ill

Public Broadcasting System -Frontline. (2009, April 28). The Released. Retrieved from pbs.org:  http://video.pbs.org/video/1114528522/

Correction System in the United States the
Words: 608 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 11298957
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Correction System in the United States

The objective of this brief study is to examine the correctional system in the United States. This system was historically a state-owned and government-operated institution however, in recent years the prison system in the United States has become privatized and this has created a new paradigm in terms of housing prisoners under the present judicial system's orders.

If It Is roken

The prison system received a wake-up call in the Spring of 2011 due to a ruling by the U.S. Supreme Court that the California prison system was required to reduce the inmates in its overcrowded prison system by 30,000 individuals. The court ruled that the California state's system was "incompatible with the concept of human dignity." (Thomas and eckel, 2011) The United States is reported to have roughly 2 million individuals incarcerated in local, state, and federal jails or prisons, which equals "the…

Bibliography

Mikkelsen, Randall (2007) U.S. Prison System: Costly and Harmful Failure. Reuters News. 19 Nov 2007. Retrieved from:  http://www.reuters.com/article/2007/11/19/us-usa-prisons-idUSN1841666120071119 

Private Prisons are Back (2012 ) Corrections. Retrieved from:  http://www.correctionsproject.com/corrections/pris_priv.htm 

Thomas, Cal and Beckel, Bob (2011) Jailbroken: 5 Ways to Fix the U.S.A.'s Prisons. 13 Jul 2011. Retrieved from:  http://www.usatoday.com/news/opinion/forum/2011-07-13-prison-jail-system-america_n.htm

Federal and States compared
Words: 417 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Chapter Paper #: 25207906
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Anti-Drug Legislation Matrix

CJA/305 Version

Complete te matrix by selecting tree states to add below Federal. Ten, answer eac question listed in te first row for eac corresponding law.

Is marijuana illegal?

Wat are te penalties for possession of cocaine?

Wat are te penalties for possession of eroin?

Wat are te penalties for possession of prescription drugs?

Wat is te blood alcool level for a driving wile intoxicated (DWI) or driving under te influence (DUI) crime?

Is tere extreme DWI or DUI? If so, wat is te punisment?

Federal

Up to a year (1st offense)

Up to a year (1st offense)

Up to 1-3 years in jail (depending on prior record)

(altoug tere's a pus to lower to 0.05)

No

Colorado

Yes

monts in prison and a fine

6-12 monts in prison and a fine

Depends on substance and prior record. 1-6 years in prison and up to $500k fine…

http://statelaws.findlaw.com/texas-law/texas-drug-possession-laws.html 

 http://www.dui-usa.drinkdriving.org/dui_dwi_state_laws.php 

 http://www.westword.com/news/how-harsh-are-colorados-dui-penalties-the-20-toughest-states-8189914

United States Should Continue to Extradite Roman Polanski
Words: 746 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 42595585
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extradition case regarding film director oman Polanski is a rather sordid affair. According to the information available on March 10, 1977 the 43-year-old Polanski had a sexual escapade with a 13-year-old girl named Samantha Jane Gailey (now known as Samantha Geimer; Schwarzbaum, 2013). According to testimony provided by Geimer to a grand jury Polanski had gotten permission from her mother to photograph her for a spread in the magazine Vogue. According to the reports the session took place at the home of actor Jack Nicholson who was on a vacation; however, Nicholson's then girlfriend Anjelica Huston was there but did not witness the incident although she was concerned and knocked on the bedroom door several times in an effort to find out what was happening (Schwarzbaum, 2013).

According to Geimer's testimony Polanski shot photos of her drinking champagne while topless. He also reportedly made her take a Quaalude and then…

References

Day, M. (2015, May 22). Roman Polanski U.S. extradition case adjourned by Polish court. The Telegraph retrieved on July, 9 2015 from  http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/film/roman-polanski/11622582/Roman-Polanski-due-to-appear-in-Polish-court-over-U.S.-extradition.html .

Legifrance (2005). Code of criminal procedure (legislative part), Articles 696-1 to 696-7.

Retrieved on July 8, 2015 from  http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/Traductions/en-English/Legifrance-translations .

Palmer, B. (2009, September 28). What's "unlawful sexual intercourse"? Slate. Retrieved on July 9, 2015 from  http://www.slate.com/articles/news_and_politics/explainer/2009/09/whats_unlawful_sexual_intercourse.html .

Prison Management From the Prison
Words: 1606 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 96996046
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In addition, prison managers must deal with the mundane as well as the human equation, because much of their jobs are in the paperwork, union rules, state statutes, and other regulations that are required in the prison system. Management in the prison is a unique challenge, because of the many responsibilities that come with it. It is clear, just as business management and leadership are evolving, that prison management will continue to evolve, and as it does, it could create model prison systems of the future.

Finally, it is important to note that prisons are unique operations, but they still should uphold management principles. Author Daly continues, "Management is responsible for the mission and strategy of the organization. Prisons are unique with special features but they still reflect the philosophy and methodology of management" (Daly, 2002). Prison management should have clearly defined goals and missions regarding their inmate populations, but…

References

Boin, a. (2001). Crafting public institutions: Leadership in two prison systems. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.

Daly, W.C. (2002). Shades of gray in prison administration. Education, 122(3), 488+.

Greene, J. (2003). Chapter Five Lack of correctional services. In Capitalist punishment: Prison privatization & human rights, Coyle, a., Campbell, a., & Neufeld, R. (Eds.) (pp. 56-66). Atlanta: Clarity Press.

prison psychologists and biases in corrections
Words: 935 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90528984
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.....psychologists working in prisons in the United States, Boothby & Clements (2000) found some disturbing trends in corrections. Although the number of prison psychologists has doubled in the past twenty years, the vast majority of prison psychologists remain Caucasian males who may be unable to address the diverse needs of the incarcerated community. Biases and assumptions about inmates may also hinder the ability of inmates to seek and receive psychological treatment. Moreover, a full third of prison psychologist work time is spent on administrative duties -- more than the time spent on direct treatment. Only 26% of their work time is devoted to directly treating the inmates, meaning that structural and institutional variables are impeding the delivery of quality mental health care to the prison community.

Interestingly, the profession of clinical psychology was practically born in the prison context. As Magaletta, et al. (2016) point out, prison wardens partnered with…

Prison Crowding
Words: 1287 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 53618609
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prison overcrowding and its effect on the criminal justice system. Prison overcrowding has skyrocketed in the United States in the last three decades, leading to a multitude of problems in the criminal justice system. Overcrowding costs taxpayers money, it leads to dysfunction within the penal population, and it creates dangers for prison staff. It is a result of many items in society and the criminal justice system, and it must change if America's prisons are to remain effective and viable.

Many people may not be aware just how much the prison population has grown in the last thirty years. One researcher notes, "From 300,000 prisoners in 1977, the prison population has risen steadily to over 1.5 million as of June 30, 2005, a 400% increase" (Pfaff, 2008). The two largest states housing prisoners, California and Texas, have seen stupendous growth in their prison populations, but not in their funding. Another…

References

Haney, C. (2006). Prison overcrowding: Harmful consequences and dysfunctional reactions. Retrieved 31 July 2009 from the Commission on Safety and Abuse in America's Prisons Web site:  http://www.prisoncommission.org/statements/haney_craig.pdf . 1-17.

Jacobs, J.B. (2007). Finding alternatives to the carceral state. Social Research, 74(2), 695+.

Moore, S. (2009). The prison overcrowding fix. Retrieved 31 July 2009 from the New York Times Web site:  http://www.nytimes.com/2009/02/11/us/11prisons.html .

Pfaff, J.F. (2008). The empirics of prison growth: A critical review and path forward. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 98(2), 547+

Jail and a Prison What
Words: 379 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 80339327
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Generally, persons sentenced to prison have been convicted of a felony offense. There are both state-run and federally run prisons. hether a prisoner is confined to a state or a federally run prison determines on whether he or she was convicted in a federal or a state court. (hat is the Difference Between a Jail and Prison, 2006, Public Health and Criminal Justice) prisoner may begin his or her movement through the criminal justice system in a jail. However, after his or her case has been heard, and he or she has been arraigned, then he or she will likely be able to post bail, or, if unable to do so, be confined to a prison in the jurisdiction where he or she will be tried. After his or her conviction, the most appropriate venue for incarceration will then be determined, depending on the length of the sentence and the…

Works Cited

What is the Difference Between a Jail and Prison?"(18 Oct 1006) Public Health and Criminal Justice. Retrieved 30 Oct 2006 at  http://www.cdc.gov/nchstp/od/cccwg/difference.htm

Prison Culture and Restorative Justice
Words: 1269 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 27277658
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Prisoners with Ties to TerrorismDescribe and Explain the unique challenges associated with the increase in prisoners with ties to terrorism and other extremist groups. Develop a plausible approach that prison administrators could implement in tackling some of the most significant challenges.One of the challenges associated with the increase in prisoners with ties to terrorism and other extremist groups is the problem of preventing terrorist recruitment in correctional institutions (Hamm, 2007). Another challenge is that prisons can often be where inmates are first introduced to radicalization (Siegel et al., 2019). However, as Jones (2014) notes, it is not necessarily a given outcome that terrorist prisoners will recruit or radicalize others; in fact, a lot of it depends on the type of programs the prison has available. An additional concern is the culture of the prison and whether or not it is giving inmates the dignity they require in order to have…

ReferencesBurdett, F., Gouliquer, L., & Poulin, C. (2018). Culture of corrections: The experiences of women correctional officers.Feminist Criminology,13(3), 329-349.Hamm, M. S. (2007).Terrorist Recruitment in American Correctional Institutions: An Exploratory Study of Non-traditional Faith Groups; Final Report(pp. 1-128). Indiana State University, Department of Criminology.Jones, C. R. (2014). Are prisons really schools for terrorism? Challenging the rhetoric on prison radicalization.Punishment & Society,16(1), 74-103.Siegel, A., Brickman, S., Goldberg, Z., & Pat-Horenczyk, R. (2019). Preventing future terrorism: Intervening on youth radicalization.An International Perspective on Disasters and Children\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'s Mental Health, 391-418.

Prison Conditions in the United States and Russia
Words: 974 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 98729681
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Maximum security prisons have grown in recent decades and have implemented methods some may deem inhumane. A 2016 article discusses prison conditions in maximum security prisons and addresses specifically the topic of preservation of human dignity and disease prevention. The author mentions the Dudley Lee v. Minister of Correctional Services case that held "that prison authorities have a duty of care to prevent prisoners from being infected with HIV-related illnesses such as TB" (Torriente, Tadion, & Hsu, 2016). The applicant was sent to a maximum security prison in South Africa where he eventually was diagnosed three years later with TB. Another instance of the government and its failure to acknowledge the need to safeguard a prisoner's health is the . v. Secretary of State for the Home Department, ex-parte Glen Fielding. Here the case discusses of a prisoner in the United Kingdom asking for condoms and being denied unless given…

References

Engel, P. (2013). Here's What Life Is Like Inside Russia's Toughest Prison.Business Insider. Retrieved 16 April 2016, from  http://www.businessinsider.com/inside-russias-black-dolphin-prison-2013-10?op=1 

Torriente, A., Tadion, A., & Hsu, L. (2016). Opening the Door to Zero New HIV Infections in Closed Settings. Health and Human Rights Journal. Retrieved 16 April 2016, from  http://www.hhrjournal.org/2016/02/opening-the-door-to-zero-new-hiv-infections-in-closed-settings/ 

Vasiliades, E. (2005). Solitary Confinement and International Human Rights: Why the U.S. Prison System Fails Global Standards. American University International Law Review, 21(1). Retrieved from  http://digitalcommons.wcl.american.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1045&context=auilr

Prison Term Policy
Words: 810 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12121537
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Classical Criminology theories in examining a case that studies a bill which is meant to increase the maximum term for prisoners charged with armed robbery, by double.

The Enlightenment was the basis on which Classical Criminology theories came to be. The theories emphasize on the notion that people choose to end their own lives, and that people need to be punished to prevent them from committing crimes in the future. Classical theories are based on the assumption that people have their freedom, and committing an offense is by choice (The Classical School of Criminology & Its Influence Today). The theories are also based on the assumption that people try to look for pleasure and avoid painful experiences. The notion of hedonism was one of the major ideas, which means that people try to look for pleasure and avoid pain. The idea is used in classical theories to inform punishment. Every…

References

(2011). Legislative News, Studies and Analysis - National Conference of State Legislatures. Principles of Effective State Sentencing and Corrections Policy. Retrieved August 29, 2016, from  http://www.ncsl.org/research/civil-and-criminal-justice/principles-of-sentencing-and-corrections-policy.aspx 

South. (2010). Homepage - Times Free Press. Bill would keep armed robbers in prison longer - Times Free Press. Retrieved August 29, 2016, from  http://www.timesfreepress.com/news/politics/state/story/2010/jun/08/bill-would-keep-armed-robbers-in-prison-longer/19461/ 

(n.d.). Study.com - Take Online Courses. Earn College Credit. Research Schools, Degrees & Careers. The Classical School of Criminology & Its Influence Today - Video & Lesson Transcript - Study.com. Retrieved August 29, 2016, from  http://study.com/academy/lesson/the-classical-school-of-criminology-its-influence-today.html 

Writer Thoughts

State of Human Rights in the Arab World
Words: 3599 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 85324547
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Human ights in the Arab World

As stated by the "Universal Declaration of Human ights" in the United Nations, Human rights has almost become one of the most important factors that decided the development of a country. To be able to promote economic growth and prosperity it is essential that a country controls its power of creativity and enterprise of its citizens, which would aid it to move into the global market in terms of trade, communication and investment systems.

It has been noticed that the most talented members of the society are usually not granted their human rights and hence the political, social, and cultural developments of the society are being not in order due to human rights being violated. This gets us to realize that we need to follow human rights development not only to protect a single individual but the entire society on the whole.2 Wrong use…

References

Arzt, Donna E. "Religious Human Rights in Muslim States of the Middle East and North Africa" Retrieved from  http://www.law.emory.edu/EILR/volumes/spring96/arzt.html  Accessed on 03/04/3004

Bard, Mitchell G. "Myths & Facts Online: Human Rights in Arab Countries." Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved from http://www.us-israel.org/jsource/myths/mf16.html Accessed on 03/04/3004

Gordon, Dick. "Human Rights in the Middle East." Retrieved from  http://www.theconnection.org/shows/2002/04/20020424_a_main.asp  Accessed on 03/04/3004

'Human Rights and Modern Arab States." Thinking Clearly. Retrieved from  http://www.habtoor.com/thinkingclearly/html/issue42.htm  Issue 42 / September 2001 Accessed on 03/04/3004

Criminal Justice Prison Architecture
Words: 728 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6645815
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Prison Architecture

Criminal Justice, Prison Architecture

The evolution of prison architecture is a reflection of societies changing attitudes toward crime and punishment. Prisons have progressed from simple places for incarceration where the primary purpose is to protect the public to instruments of punishment where the loss of freedom is penalty for breaking the law, to institutions for reform dedicated to mould the guilty to conform to society's norms. Initially imprisonment was a means of detaining debtors to ensure payment, the accused before trial, or the guilty before punishment. Courts imposed sentences including fines, personal mutilation such as flogging or branding, or death. In 18th-century England transportation to penal settlements in the Thirteen Colonies and later Australia, became an increasingly popular penalty because it removed the guilty from local society; length of sentence and destination reflected the severity with which the court viewed the offence. Eventually a new type of prison,…

References

Johnson, D. (2011) Prison architecture. The Canadian encyclopedia. Retreived October 16, 2011, from http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&Params=A1ARTA0009130

Lewis, J. (2009, june 10). Behind bars…sort of. The New York times magizine. New York Times. Retrieved October 16, 2011, from  http://www.nytimes.com/2009/06/14/magazine/14prisons-t.html?pagewanted=all

History Correctional Facilities in the US
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Prison system plays a significant part in promoting the well-being and sustainability of the global societies. he American prison system is an example of the prison system that has undergone significant transformation over decades to become what is seen in the present. he origin of the American prison system is traceable back to early ages before the 19th century when incarceration was introduced as a method of criminal punishment to those who violated the law. he early ages of the development of the prison system was characterized by a geographical widespread of the penitentiary systems that could serve the purposes of law. However, exposure of this system to significant changes such as scientific and political developments alongside reform movements resulted in the improvement of the prison conditions.

raditionally, the prison systems of the U.S. were used for punishing people who evaded paying their taxes. he history of the U.S. prison…

The mass prison era featured between 1825 and 1876. The use of treatments such as hard labor and whipping of the criminal offenders characterized this period. The system was the key competitor of the Pennsylvania system of prison that persisted between 1790 and 1825. This stage of the history of the U.S. prison system was dominated by the cases of vandalism, stealing water from the standpipes, and failure of individuals to pay taxes to the government. The reformatory era came between 1876 and 1890 where the prison system adopted the used of intermediate sentencing as a form of punishing the criminal offenders. This phase aimed at reforming the criminal offenders rather than punishing them. As such, it adopted the use of graded stages where there was the use of parole systems to achieve the desired social sustainability and well-being. However, the system failed due to the effects of recidivism during this period. Urban crimes such as burglary, robbery with violence, and murder were the most common crimes during this stage of the growth of the U.S. prison system.

The industrial era followed where the prisoners were used to provide cheap labor. Among the systems of inmate labor that were used during this period, include the piece-price system, the contract system, public account system, lease system, public works system, and state-use system. However, the passing of the Ashurst-Sumners Act and the Hawes-Cooper Act reduced the labor that could be provided by the inmates. Among the crimes during this period included murder, robbery, and rape cases among other forms of crimes. The 1935-1945 punitive era was characterized by the holding of prisoners owed a debt to their societies. As such, there were few innovations during this period and the form of crimes committed during this era-included robbery, murder, and other forms of violence against humanity.

The treatment era of 1945-1967 came where there was the recognition of the need of the use of medical models for the sick inmates. The forms of crimes encompassed the above crimes. The community-based era (1967-1980) followed where inmates were provided with privileges such as work release, study-release, and halfway houses. This was followed by the warehousing era (1980-1995) and the Just desert era (1995 to the present) that recognized the need for provision of services that recognized human needs of the inmates. The forms of crimes included terrorism, robbery, murder, and all other forms of crimes present in the other eras. Therefore, it is apparent that the prison system of the U.S. has undergone significant transformations over time to become the present prison system.

Analyzing Prison Life for Inmates
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Prison Life for Inmates

Sending offenders to prison has been used as a way of dealing with prisoners for a long time. It was not always seen as a way of punishment; rather, it was used as detention pending the actual punishment of these offenders. The application of imprisonment has been around, perhaps, for as long as humanity has existed. In Old Testament times, prisons were used in Jerusalem. Some prominent personalities have been reported to have been born in prison environments. Others have been imprisoned. It is reported that Lord Krishna was born in prison at a place called Mathura. Shahjahan was imprisoned by his son at Agra. The ritish constructed the historic cell at Port lair for detaining for life those who revolted against their rule. Prisons have not always been viewed as a way of punishing offenders; rather they have been used to detain offenders before the…

Bibliography

Bradford, Andrew Ryan. "An Examination of The Prison Environment: An Analysis of Inmate Concerns Eight Environmental Dimensions." School of Graduate Studies (2006).

Burlington County. "Prison Museum." A National Historic Landmark Located in The Heart of Holly 2013.

Covert, H. "Ministry to The Incarcerated." Chicago: Loyopla Books, 1995.

Department of Corrections. Victims Services Programs. 2015. .

Analyzing Prison Condition in USA vs Russia
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Prison Condition in USA vs. ussia

In assessing the human rights conditions of maximum security facilities, human rights groups look into 3 main areas: the duration of confinement; the conditions of confinement, and the criteria of eligibility. Each of these areas must be looked into individually and then considered in the context of the entire situation (Human ights Watch). Quite a number of concerns have been raised about the human rights conditions of the individuals held in prisons including: mistreatment of inmates / detainees by prison officials; unsafe conditions; and lack of sufficient legal protection (United States Department of State, n.d.). This paper also compares the situation of prison facilities in the United States and ussia.

Introduction

The Standard Minimum ules, or the SMs for the Treatment of Prisoners are one of the most important international agreements on how prisoners should be handled. The SMs were adopted in 1955 by…

References

Hounshell, B. (2010). What are Russian prisons like? Retrieved March 15, 2016 from  http://foreignpolicy.com/2010/12/28/what-are-russian-prisons-like/ 

Human Rights Watch (n.d.). Supermax Prisons: an overview. Retrieved March 15, 2016 from  https://www.hrw.org/reports/2000/supermax/Sprmx002.htm#TopOfPage 

Markovic, V. (2000). Maximum Security Prisons: A Comparative Analysis. CRIME AND JUSTICE INTERNATIONAL, 16(39), 9-10.

Rosen, A. (2012). Inside Russia's Prison System. Retrieved March 15, 2016 from  http://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2012/10/inside-russias-prison-system/263806/

Role of Prisons in the Society I
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role of prisons in the society. I have included the theories of deterrence, rehabilitation, retribution, incapacitation, non-interventionism and restoration to support my discussion along with their positive and negative aspects. In the conclusion, I have given my preferred theory of imprisonment as the most effective and important ones.

A prison can be defined as a protected and locked institution where juvenile and grown-up offenders are housed with punishments that vary from a year to life. Such facilities hold the objective of accomplishing the verdict that the courts impose on the offenders and also of protecting the community and civil society by taking measures to prevent escapes. These facilities are also liable to provide programs and services that are important for taking care of the convicted population under their custody (Sumter 2007).

The issue of imprisonment has constantly been an intense experience for every individual found guilty of committing offenses. Sometimes…

References

Banks, C. (2004). The Purpose of Criminal Punishment. In: Criminal Justice Ethics: Theory and Practice. Thousand Oaks, Calif: Sage Publicaton, pp 103-126.

Mauer, M. (2004). Thinking About Prison and its Impact in the Twenty-First Century. Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law [online].2, p.607-618. Available from: . [Accessed February 17, 2013].

Macionis, J.J. & Plummer, K. (2008). Control, Crime and Deviance. In Sociology: A Global Introduction (5th edition), New York: Pearson Prentice Hall, pp591-592.

MacKenzie, D.L. (1996). Criminal Justice and Crime Prevention. Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice University of Maryland, Maryland. Available from: . [Accessed February 17, 2013].

United States Digressions With Current
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Therefore, any war waged on a terrorist group then becomes a war to protect the personal liberties of those who can not do so themselves.

However, the United States itself has not even been able to stand up to the standards of liberated individual rights. Within the context of the most recent foreign soil wars, American soldiers in a military base have proven that the nation itself is unable to live up to its high standards of personal liberty. In a prisoner of war camp located at a military base in Guantanamo Bay, American soldiers violated international prison code standard during a humiliating act of submission where prisoners were forced to perform unlawful acts and behaviors at the behest of the soldiers on duty, (Sullivan, 2008). The very rights which were being so violently being protected in the eyes of the American public were actually being violated in our backyard.…

References

National Security Council. (2008). The national security strategy of the United States of America. www.whitehouse.gov.17 May. 2008.  http://www.whitehouse.gov/nsc/nss.pdf 

Radelet, Steve. (2005). Think again: U.S. foreign aid. www.foriegnpolicy.com.18

May, 2008.  http://www.foreignpolicy.com/story/cms.php?story_id=2773 

Shah, Anup. (2006). Criticisms of current forms of free trade. Free Trade and Globalization. 18 May. 2008.  http://www.globalissues.org/TradeRelated/FreeTrade/Criticisms.asp#ErodingWorkersRights

Case of Arizona Et Al V United States
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Arizona vs. USA

The recent Supreme Court spat between the United States and the state of Arizona has raised some interesting questions. These questions include whether and when laws are clearly discriminatory in nature, whether the federal government should have sole dominion over immigration enforcement, whether the federal government is indeed doing its assign duties as far as immigration enforcement goes and what levels of involvement the state can or should have given the answers to the above. While the points made by the United States are certainly valid and the decision by the Supreme Court is technically valid because the state law SB 1070 should indeed be enjoined, the court also made a valid point by stating that it is not beyond the pale to consider whether or not the state law even conflicts with the federal one.

Analysis

As ordered by the parameters of this assignment, this is…

References

ACLU. (2013, November 2). American Civil Liberties Union. American Civil Liberties Union. Retrieved November 2, 2013, from  https://www.aclu.org/drug-law-reform-immigrants-rights-racial-justice/know-your-rights-what-do-if-you 

Department of Justice. (2013, November 2). Criminal Resource Manual 1034 Kidnapping -- Federal Jurisdiction. Criminal Resource Manual 1034 Kidnapping -- Federal Jurisdiction. Retrieved November 2, 2013, from http://www.justice.gov/usao/eousa/foia_reading_room/usam/title9/crm01034.htm

Flannery, N. (2013, September 9). Immigration Debate: What's More Important, Border Security Or Protecting Immigrant Workers?. Forbes. Retrieved November 2, 2013, from  http://www.forbes.com/sites/nathanielparishflannery/2013/09/09/immigration-debate-whats-more-important-border-security-or-protecting-immigrant-workers/

Correctional Policies and Efficiencies in the US
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Agency's ole

The Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP) is an agency under the prison health care systems. The Institution was established to provide a more humane and modern care for state prisoners, make the prison service more professional, and to oversee reliable and central management of the government prisons. The key role of this agency is to restrict perpetrator to a humane, safe, secure and cost-efficient location for them to spend time for the criminal offenses they have committed and receive the care that is needed. BOP also has a responsibility of reducing the possibility of future criminal offenses and law offenses wit programs where violators are prevented from breaking the law again. Statistically, these programs have proven to be very effective. BOP workers help criminals by offering a variety of services and programs to inmates, to help prepare them to regain a lifestyle with morals and live a life…

References

Siegel, L.J., & Bartollas, C. (2011). Corrections today. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.

Whitehead, J.T., Jones, M., & Braswell, M.C. (2008). Exploring Corrections in America. Burlington: Elsevier Science.

Programs for Drug Abuse Treatment in Prison
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Substance Abuse Programs in Prison

The work of Harrison (nd) reports that the 'Residential Substance Abuse Treatment (RSAT) for State Prisoners Formula Grant Program was created by the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994 in response to the increasing number of incarcerated individuals in the United States with substance abuse problems." (p.vi) It is reported that RSAT grants may be used to "implement or expand treatment programs for inmates in residential treatment facilities operated by State and local correctional agencies that provide individual and group treatment activities for inmates." (Harrison, nd, p. 2) The RSAT programs must be in a six to twelve month length, provide residential treatment facilities that are apart from the general prison population, be focused at the substance abuse problems of inmates, work in developing the cognitive, social, behavioral, vocational in addition to other skills that serve to bring about resolution to the…

Bibliography

Frantz, M. (2009) What You Need to Know…Before You Go To Federal Prison. Dog Ear Publishing. 2009.

Harrison, LD (nd) Residential Substance Abuse Treatment for State Prisoners Implementation Lessons Learned. Google Books. Retrieved from:  http://books.google.com/books?id=bbE6-erVr98C&dq=SUBSTANCE+ABUSE+PROGRAMS+IN+PRISON&source=gbs_navlinks_s

Adaptations to Prison Life the
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Prisoners feign conformity with rehabilitation programs merely in an effort to get ahead. Prison stays involving the shedding of one's former self, and its replacement with a new prison self that conforms to all the expectations and behavioral patterns of inmate culture. This inmate culture is inherently hostile to the aims of corrections staff. Corrections staff must avoid doing anything that would tend to enhance the validity of inmate culture. They must resort to equal measures in reaction to prisoner provocations. Prisoners must not be stripped of their humanity. They must be maintained as independent men and women capable of surviving on their own, in a reasonably normal society. Notions of status, respect, and hope for the future, must be maintained as they would outside the prison walls. Corrections personnel must enable prisoners to continue to follow, and believe in, the rules of normal society, even if, in the beginning,…

References

Frase, R.S. (2004). 4 Limiting Retributivism. In The Future of Imprisonment, Tonry, M. (Ed.) (pp. 83-112). New York: Oxford University Press.

(2003). Prisonization: Individual and Institutional Factors Affecting Inmate Conduct. New York: LFB Scholarly Publishing.

Richards, S.C., & Ross, J.I. (2001). Introducing the New School of Convict Criminology. Social Justice, 28(1), 177.

Stanko, S., Gillespie, W., & Crews, G.A. (2004). Living in Prison: A History of the Correctional System with an Insider's View. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Jails and Prisons the General Characteristics of
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Jails and Prisons

The general characteristics of prisons and jails are almost the same though they are considered as different entities in the criminal justice system. The main difference them is that whereas a prison holds convicted offenders who have sentences that are mostly beyond one year, offenders are locked in a jail either holding awaiting transportation to prison units or serving short-term sentences usually ranging from a few days to a year (Gaines and Miller, 2006). With reference to the United States of America criminal justice system the other difference is that prisons are under the jurisdiction of either federal or state while jails are controlled and used by local jurisdictions such as counties and cities. Due to the period of time that offenders take and the life they live in prisons, prisons have been considered to be total institutions. "A total institution can be defined as a place…

References

Alarid, W.L. et al. (2008). Community-based corrections, 7th ed. Thomson/Wadsworth:

Belmont, CA.

Davies, C. (1989). "Goffman's concept of the total institution: Criticisms and revisions" Human

Studies, 12(1-2): 77-95.

Holloway Hmp Holloway Road Prison
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The Home Office website was also a good source of informstion in this regard. A very good article that shed light on the more negative view of Holloway prison as well as units in other prisons was Getting it right? Services for pregnant women, new mothers, and babies in prison. An extremely useful report that deals specifically with Holloway prison was REPORT ON AN UNANNOUNCED FOLLOW-UP INSPECTION OF HM PRISON HOLLOWAY 11 -- 15 December 2000

Y HM INSPECTORATE OF PRISONS. This report provide some telling and insightful data that invaluable in terms of assessing the value and function of the mother and baby units in this prison.

4. Theoretical aspects

There are many theoretical aspects that pertain to the issue of mother and child units at a prison such as Holloway. In general terms, and from a criminological perspective, there is the view that units of this kind are…

Bibliography

Burrell I. Jail baby units reviewed 1998 [Online] Available at: By

 http://www.independent.co.uk/news/jail-baby-units-reviewed-1189057.html  [Accessed 2 April, 2010].

Female Prisoners [Online] Available at:  http://www.hmprisonservice.gov.uk/adviceandsupport/prison_life/femaleprisoners  / [Accessed 3 April, 2010].

Holloway [Online] Available at:  http://www.hmprisonservice.gov.uk/prisoninformation/locateaprison/prison.asp?id=454,15,2,15,454,0 [Accessed 3 April, 2010].

Failure of America's Prisons the
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238). Furthermore, prison stigmatizes convicts, and, upon release many people, particularly employers, are reluctant to take a chance on someone with the stigma of a prison record (Macionis, p.238). Prison also breaks social ties between the prisoner and non-criminal friends and family, weakening the very type of community ties that are believed to help deter criminal behavior (Macionis, p.238). Therefore, if one of the goals of the tough-on-crime stance is to reduce criminal activity, it is clear that American prisons simply are not accomplishing that goal.

In addition, over the past two decades, "the American prison population has climbed from 300,000 to more than two million- roughly equal to the combined population of Austin, Denver, Nashville, and ashington, D.C." (Silverstein, p.1). In addition, "largely because of racially-biased drug sentencing laws, about half of America's prison population is African-American and one-quarter of all black men are likely to be imprisoned at…

Works Cited

Macionis, John J. Sociology. 13th ed. City of Publication. Prentice Hall, 2009.

Silverstein, Ken. "Introduction." Prison Nation: The Warehousing of America's Poor. Eds.

Tara Herivel and Paul Wright. New York. Routledge, 2003.1-5. Print.

Street, Paul. "Color Blind." Prison Nation: The Warehousing of America's Poor. Eds.

Ardmore Prison Answer to Question
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And employers cannot by law attempt to intimidate or fire workers for their pro-union activities. Another action the correctional officers could have taken would have been to bring their Congressman or Congresswoman into the matter to put pressure on Duffy through the Illinois governor's office or through federal Civil Rights legislation. Clearly Duffy was in violation of civil rights under the federal Civil Rights Act of 1964.

Answer to Question Five: Two months in solitary confinement is far too harsh for a person violating a minor institutional rule. In fact it is outrageously cruel. It violates all five of the Supreme Court's tests for whether an act is a violation of the Eighth Amendment. This kind of power is that of a demented, vicious warden, who uses severe, inhumane tactics because he has some crazed vindictive nature against inmates. He is in the wrong job because he expects prisoners (who…

Works Cited

Library Index. (2008). Prisoners' Rights Under Law -- Eighth Amendment. Retrieved April 15,

2013, from  http://www.libraryindex.com .

National Labor Relations Board. (2010). Employer/Union Rights and Obligations. Retrieved April 15, 2013, from http://nlrb.gov.

Overcrowding in Prisons Impacts on African-Americans the
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Overcrowding in Prisons: Impacts on African-Americans

The overcrowded prisons in the United States are heavily populated by African-Americans, many of them incarcerated due to petty, non-violent crimes such as drug dealing. This paper points out that not only are today's prisons overcrowded, the fact of their being overcrowded negatively impacts the African-American community above and beyond the individuals who are locked up. This paper also points to the racist-themed legislation that has been an important reason why so many African-Americans are incarcerated -- and the paper points to the unjust sentencing laws that have unfairly targeted black men from the inner city.

Critical Analysis

hen overcrowding becomes an extremely serious human and ethical problem such that state or federal prison officials must find a temporary solution, one trend that has been implemented is to move inmates to other prisons in distant states. However, according to author Othello Harris, who is…

Works Cited

Dalrymple, Jane, and Burke, Beverley. (2006). Anti-Oppressive Practice: Social Care and the Law. New York: McGraw-Hill International.

Hallet, Michael A. (2006). Private Prisons in America: A Critical Race Perspective. Champaign,

IL: University of Illinois Press.

Harris, Othello, and Miller, Robin R. (2003). Impacts of Incarceration on the African-American