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Stereotypes have existed since time immemorial. They are as old as human culture itself and are beliefs and ideas that a certain group of people hold for those who differ from themselves. A stereotype can exist in a simple word for example "nerd" or in a collection of words and images which are evoked when others hold similar opinions. Stereotypes can be positive, however, most of the times they are associated with negative connotations and make one group of person feel superior and above another group. Stereotypes are oversimplifications and are usually based on behavioural aspects or on the way people physically appear. (Stangor, 2000)
In today's society it is almost impossible to escape stereotypes. The media, entertainment, sports and politics all bring to light stereotypes and because of this the lives of many are affected. According to several studies people who feel they are being stereotyped tend to perform…
Macrae, C.N., Stangor, C., & Hewstone, M. (1996).Stereotypes and stereotyping. The Guilford Press.
Stangor, C. (2000). Stereotypes and prejudice, essential readings. Psychology Pr.
Practitioners of certain religions have faced prejudiced and stereotyped ideas about the personages because of the negative affiliations of their religion. Perhaps no religion is as stereotyped as the religion called Islam. Islam, antithetically to what the majority of ignorant people believe, is "a religion of ethics, obedience, harmony, and is based on a faithful belief system" (Hossain). It is a religion that promotes peace and the toleration of others. Due to the unfortunate actions of a handful of terrorist extremists, many people mistakenly associate the religion with terrorism. There are violent people in all walks of life and from every religion, but ignorance does not allow people to see that the vast majority of Islamic believers are not terrorists. Those who practice Islam, Muslims, are not violent people. The stereotype of Muslims is that they are violent extremists bent on destruction and death. This is absolutely not the…
Al-Marayati, Laila and Semeen Issa. "An Identity Reduced to a Burka." Women's Muslim
League. 2002. Print.
Elliott, Justin. "Debunking Stereotypes of Muslim Americans." Salon. Web. March 2012.
We are all guilty of judging others based on a wide range of traits we perceive in them. In so doing, we end up attaching (wrongly) certain traits to such individuals. In this text, I concern myself with stereotyping, its meaning, and the effects it has on those who experience it.
According to Schneider (2005), "stereotypes are qualities perceived to be associated with particular groups or categories of people." In that regard, stereotypes include all those assumptions as well as generalizations we make about all members of certain groups based on our perceived characteristics of the group under consideration. Personally, I have in the past encountered a variety of stereotypes. The most common of these include stereotypes on gangs and abortions. The other rather outrageous, yet common stereotype I do encounter is that all tell men play basketball.
When it comes to gangs, one commonly held stereotype…
DeLamater, J.D. & Myers, D.J. (2010). Social Psychology (7th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
Kemick, A. (2010, August 10). Stereotyping has a Lasting Negative Impact. Retrieved July 21, 2012, from the EurekAlert website: http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2010-08/uot-sha081010.php
Schneider, D.J. (2005). The Psychology of Stereotyping. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
The Sopade (underground messages to the Social Democratic Party's headquarters in exile) confirmed that a plurality of attitudes towards Jews -- ranging from virulent hatred to apathy and indifference -- continued to exist during the Third Reich and that these attitudes were shaped as much by geographical, class, and religious affiliations as by propaganda (Brown, 2002)."
An example of Christian in 2004, Director Mel Gibson became embroiled in controversy for producing what may likely be considered the most direct and explicit work of anti-Semitism created for mainstream consumption since II. In the Passion of the Christ, which would ultimately gross more than $370 million at the box office, Gibson would retell the story of Jesus with a focus on the myth of the Jew as a weak, effeminate figure whose treachery caused the death of the Messiah. (BOM, 1) the recall of an otherwise fading perspective on the Jews returned…
Alba r. And Kasinitz p. (2006) Sophisticated Television, sophisticated stereotypes. Contexts 5 (4). 74
Armour J. (1995) Stereotypes and Prejudice: Helping Legal Decisionmakers Break the Prejudice Habit. California Law Review. 83 (3), pp. 733-772
Becker, a. (2007) 'Sopranos' Makes a&E a Big Shot. Broadcasting & Cable. 137 (10), p4-25, 2p
BOM. (2004). "The Passion of the Christ" Lifetime Box Office. Box Office Mojo. Online at http://www.boxofficemojo.com/movies/?page=releases&id=passionofthechrist . tm.
The current study investigates two questions: a) do positive self-affirmations influence the likelihood of individuals holding prejudicial and stereotypical beliefs? And b) are suggested self-concepts projected onto others who are often stereotyped? It is hypothesized that positive self-affirmations will result in reduced stereotypical and prejudice beliefs. It is also hypothesized that positive self-concepts (high intelligence) through suggestion will result in the projection of these concepts onto others that are often stereotyped, resulting in the belief that others are intelligent as well.
200 undergraduate university students participated in this study in order to fulfill course credit for an introductory psychology course.
Half of the participants received a bogus spatial orientation exercise to complete and were told that it was a test of intelligence. Upon completion of the task, they were all told that their score indicated that they were of very high intelligence. The remaining participants completed the…
Fein, S., Spencer, S. (1997). Prejudice as self-image maintenance: affirming the self through derogating others. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73(1), 31-44.
Govorun, O., Fuegen, K., Payne, B. (2006). Stereotypes focus defensive projection. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 32(6), 781-93.
Newman, L., Duff, K., Baumeister, R. (1997). A new look at defensive projection: thought suppression, accessibility, and biased person perception. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72(5), 980-1001.
Seibt, B., Forster, J. (2004). Stereotype threat and performance: how self-stereotypes influence processing by inducing regulatory foci. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87(1), 38-56.
The counselor makes clear several guidelines that guide behavior in boys' activities. For instance, first of all, the counselor should state that each member is equal, no matter of gang affiliation or other criteria. Therefore, each member is due to respect the other and is not allowed to call names or manifest other forms of bullying behavior. The tasks are accomplished by members regardless their gang affiliation. The boys should be taught that cooperation is a better way to interact during task accomplishment that competition. These rules may be written and placed in the classroom, in the recreation room. ewards are established for those who respect at least one of the rules established by the counselor; for instance they are allowed to watch TV or do their favorite activity for an extra-time.
Ensure that different groups interact as equals. This is related to stereotyping reducing and cooperation in diverse groups.…
Swisher, L.C. (1997). Conflict resolution/peer mediation: Everybody wins. Masters Abstracts International, 36-01, p. 0024, Eastern Michigan University. Retrieved from the Peer Facilitator Quaterly, Volume 16 No. 1 Fall 1998
Thomason R., (2006) Kindness: The Foundation of Service-Learning, Retrieved at http://www.tolerance.org/teach/activities/activity.jsp?ar=734
Crawford, D., Bodine, R., (1996) Conflict Resolution Education a Guide to Implementing Programs in Schools, Youth-Serving Organizations, and Community and Juvenile Justice Settings. Retrieved at http://www.ncjrs.gov/txtfiles/160935.txt
In my daily encounters I normally encounter gendered assumptions that are prejudicial to both male and female gender. In these encounters, gender role stereotypes are manifested. The human race behaves in gender stereotypical ways without taking their time to reflect on such behaviors (University of Toronto, 2010). Our society is programmed in such a way that when a person strays from gendered expectations; s/he has to face the consequences (Kemeck, 2012). People would be very quick to correct or behave in a way that makes it obvious to somebody that he has strayed from what is considered feminine or masculine. Straying is at times met with violence or harassment.
One fine morning when my sister was mowing the front lawn, quite a number of the male gender who lived next to our home stopped to give her some advice on how to properly mow a lawn. In fact I…
Kemeck, A. (2012). Stereotyping Has Lasting Negative Impact. Retrieved December from http://www.usnews.com/science/articles/2010/08/12/stereotyping-has-lasting-negative-impact
Mosser, K. (2011). An Introduction to Logic. San Diego: Bridgepoint.
University of Toronto. (2010). Stereotyping Has a Lasting Negative Impact. Retrieved from http://www.sciencenewsline.com/articles/2010081012000040.html
The human mind has been blessed with the gift of empathy and, when used properly, can be used to great benefit if not for great learning. The purpose of this essay is to describe the exploration into the perceived experience of another group or minority. This writing will focus from the perspective of the Native American Indian as it relates to professional and collegiate sports adoption of their likeliness for mascots and team representation.
This issue has been discussed in recent times and has become a hot button issue in many regions where Native American Indians are represented has a team mascot. Some examples of this are edskins, Indians, Chiefs and Seminole. These mascots have been associated with their school or city for many generations and whiling offer a sense of pride and a centerpiece to culturally revolve around; many find this practice outdated and bigoted.
Taking the perspective…
Merriam Webster Online. "Stereotype." Viewed 4 Oct 2013. Retrieved from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/stereotype .
Merriam Webster Online. Glass Ceiling. Viewed 4 Oct 2013. Retrieved from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/glass%20ceiling
Men, on the other hand, are more likely to be old, job holders, out of the home and authorities on the products. They are also more likely to explain why the products are good and to recommend expensive items." (Sakamoto, 1999)
However over the years, changes have been noticed in some respects. Women are not as much associated with cheaper products as they once were due to their improved financial status. However they were still preferred as young and beautiful instead of older or more mature. The study found that while in terms of argument and product price, stereotypes had decreased, they had become more prominent in terms of location. Location here refers to being in the home, in the kitchen or outside home.
The study suggested in its conclusion that, "traditional stereotypic portrayals of men and women in Japanese television commercials have not substantially decreased from 1961 to 1993.…
Ford, J.B., Voli, P.K., Honeycutt, E.D., Casey, S.L. (1998), "Gender role portrayals in Japanese advertising: a magazine content analysis," Journal of Advertising, Vol. 27 No.1, pp.113-25.
Sakamoto, a., Kitou, M., Takahira, M., & Adachi, N. 1999. Gender stereotyping in Japanese television: A content analysis of commercials from 1961-1993. In T. Sugiman, M. Karasawa, J. Liu, & C. Ward (Eds.), Progress in Asian social psychology (Vol. 2, pp. 201-212). Seoul: Kyoyook-Kwahak-SA.
They feared difference, lacked an understanding of my culture and used stereotypes as an excuse to keep me isolated within the company. This was an organization where I find myself unable to remain for any lengthy period of time.
It was also an extremely important moment of revelation with regard to the way that I approach others, particularly those who are in some manner different from me. I was now alerted to my own tendencies with respect to others, and even to realize that I had been guilty of employing stereotypes in the past as well. Perhaps in a sense, I had been somewhat standoffish around my new all-white coworkers because I allowed this sense of cultural isolation to become a self-fulfilling prophecy. This again causes us to consider the theories discussed in Ruchlis' text. The author explains avoidance as a dimension of stereotyping that is passive in nature but…
Ruchlis, H. (1990). Clear Thinking: A Practical Introduction. Prometheus Books.
PUTNAM COUNTY, Fla. -- Three days after a woman was shot and killed by an armed robber, deputies released a composite sketch of a possible suspect.
On Friday afternoon, Summer Smith was shot and killed during a robbery.
"She's gone now from us," said Smith's fiance, Clint Horvatt, who was in the car with the victim when she was shot.
Standing in front of the sheriff's office, Horvatt held a flier with his fiancee's photo, and told Channel 4 he didn't know what else to do help catch the man who killed the he was going to marry.
He said he and Smith were en route to Gainesville to do some Christmas shopping but they stopped near Swan Lake Camp on state oad 26 just north of Melrose. Horvatt said Smith recognized what she thought was a friend's pickup truck and they pulled over to help.
"Deputies Search for Robber Who Shot, Killed Woman." News4JAX.com, December 15, 2008. http://www.news4jax.com/news/18286775/detail.html
Gilens, M. (1999). Why Americans Hate Welfare: Media and the Politics of Antipoverty Policy. University of Chicago Press.
Hill, D. (2010). "Video: Teen Derrion Albert Attacked, Beaten to Death in Melee. FoxNewsChicago.com, December 9, 2010. http://www.myfoxchicago.com/dpp/news/metro/video_derrion_albert
Kirst-Ashman, K.K. And C. Zastrow (2010). Understanding Human Behavior and the Social Environment. Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning.
Stereotyping Inevitable: An Investigation of How People Use and Maintain Stereotypes, and How They Can Be Changed
Social psychology by nature deals with the examination of social phenomena including stereotyping. The intent of this paper is a close review of the nature of stereotyping, in order to determine whether stereotyping is inevitable and to determine whether or not social stereotypes can be changed. In particular stereotyping will be examined to determine whether or not people have an unconscious tendency to create perceptions of others, and what if anything can be done to change this unconscious pattern of thinking. The effects of stereotyping on members of groups will also be discussed and analyzed.
Analysis of Problem
Before one can examine the question of stereotyping, they must first understand exactly what stereotypes are. Stereotypes can be defined in a number of ways; most simply stereotypes are a set view or image of…
Anthony, T., Cooper, C., & Mullen, B. (1992). "Cross-racial facial identification: A
social cognitive integration." Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 18, 296-301.
Aronson, E., Wilson, T.D. & Akert, R.M. (2004). Social Psychology, 5th edition. New York: Prentice Hall.
Devine, P.G. (1989). "Stereotypes and prejudice: Their automatic and controlled components." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56, 5-18
The different social groups that I feel I belong to are female and 20s age group. Although I have many ethnicities, the ones that I indentify the most with are Mexican-American/Yaqui Indian and Caucasian. I belong in the group who has a degree and is pursuing an even higher degree. Some stereotypes that I have heard about for the discussed groups are that if you are a mature (i.e. older) white male, you are assumed as more intelligent, than say, a young Mexican woman. People like to assume that if you have a college degree it must mean you are smarter than the average person is, but I know plenty of people who never went to college and have a higher IQ than mine, and I also know many people who have a degree and skated through school. I think people may perceive those with high skills in…
Steele, C.M. (1997). A Threat in the Air: How Stereotypes Shape Intellectual Identity and Performance. American Psychologist, 52(6), 613-629.
Negative Impacts of Stereotypes
What are stereotypes?
Stereotypes can be defined as generalizations passed about a group of individuals where they may be associated with particular kinds of characteristics which defines them in a particular way and attaches a label to them. This may be a negative attachment or a positive label but they have strong implications on those that undergo this stereotyping. It is generally easy when the group has some clear attributes that can be defined and identified in a particular way. These stereotypes may be based on qualities like race, ethnicity, color, gender, age, etc.
The impacts of stereotypes on the labeled groups can be quite long lasting and drastic. It may mentally torture a person and in some instances there are physical harassments taking place as well. There may be high levels of discrimination that a person has to face due to the stereotypes attached to…
Johnston, Lucy. (2006). Reducing stereotyped-based judgments: Impact of habitual stereotype use.
New Zealand Journal of Psychology.
McCauley, Clark. (1995). Stereotype Accuracy: Towards appreciating group differences.
American Psychological Association.
The modern United States of America is very different in regards to race relations to previous decades in America's history. Mainstream Americans overwhelmingly do not question racial equality, integration of schools, mixed marriages, and equal opportunities for education and jobs. Today's America is "post-racial," a term used after the election of President Obama. However, this is not completely true. The news periodically mention racially charged shootings such as the Trayvon Martin case and more recently, racist incidents on college campuses nationwide. Fraternities throwing "gangsta" parties, majority white-male organizations dressing as the stereotypical African-American or Latino gangster are causing minority students to speak up. All these incidents stem from lingering stereotypes. Stereotypes are popular beliefs that are oversimplified about a particular group or person. Stereotypes branch from cultural misunderstandings and a complex history of social interactions. This paper will examine the reasons why stereotypes exist through the eyes of Judith…
Stereotyping effects not only other people image of an ethnic group but it can also influence the self-image of that group. [Tatum, 1999] describes a discussion with her children while driving them to school.
A drove past a Black teenager running down the street." hy is that boy running?" my son asked. "I don't know," I said absentmindedly. "Maybe he stole something." I nearly slammed on the brakes. "hy would you say something like that?" I said. "ell, you know, in the city, there's a lot of crime, and people steal things," he said. He did not say "Black people," but I knew the cultural images to which he was responding.]."
The stereotyping of blacks as good in sports has often been at the expense of negative image in other areas. The blacks were considered a 'race of physical bodies (athletes) without minds or spirits' [Entine, 200]. Breaking this stereotype…
Entine, J., Why Black Athletes Dominate Sports and Why We Are Afraid to Talk about It, Publisher: Public Affairs. Place of Publication: New York. Publication Year: 2000.
Feagin, J.R. And Sikes, P.M., Living with Racism: The Black Middle-Class Experience, Publisher: Beacon Press. Place of Publication: Boston. Publication Year: 1994.
Gates, H.L. (Ed) (1991). Bearing Witness: Selections from African-American Autobiography in the Twentieth Century, New York: Pantheon Books.
Ruiz, D.S., Handbook of Mental Health and Mental Disorder among Black Americans, Publisher: Greenwood Press. Place of Publication: New York. Publication Year: 1990.
Myths That Maim
There are numerous gender stereotypes that have been propagated in the past. Female stereotypes, however, seem to be far too common. Gender stereotypes, in basic terms, are all those generalizations made in reference to a particular gender. The Myths that Maim video presents images depicting a number of female stereotypes that have particularly been long standing. In addition to ranging over the social construction of gender violence, the video also surveys grouping of people by the society with reference to gender identities. It traces not only the images but also the myths and stories of our culture and demonstrates models of subordination and dominance that have triggered abuse and violence. The myth that this text will highlight has got to do with the widely held view that men are 'superior' to women; meaning that women should assume 'inferior' roles. In accordance to this stereotype, men are portrayed…
Abbott, P., Tyler, M. & Wallace, C. (2006). An Introduction to Sociology: Feminist Perspectives (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.
Kerpoperly's Channel. (2009, Aug 4). Clorox 2 Commercial [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=djDBMryseB0
WebMD. (2014). How Male and Female Brains Differ. Retrieved from http://www.webmd.com/balance/features/how-male-female-brains-differ
Contemporary Nursing Stereotypes on Television
Author Carol J. Huston writes in a boldly honest narrative that the nursing industry must seek to be populated with "smart… bright…highly motivated" nurses who "want to make a difference" in the lives of the patients they tend to (Huston, 2013, p. 319). Nurses must "…stop acting like victims" and instead use their best instincts and have a positive influence on public policy (Huston, 319). In order to do that nurses must be able to break out of the stereotypes that seem to follow them, especially on television and in the movies, Huston explains.
The stereotypes on television that Huston presents to the reader include: a) a nurse is an "Angel of mercy"; b) nurses have love interests in doctors; c) nurses are "sex bombshells" and "naughty"; d) a nurse is a "handmaiden to the physician"; e) nurses can be "battle-axes"; and f) male…
Huston, Carol J. (2013). Professional Issues in Nursing: Challenges and Opportunities.
Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.
The Truth about Nursing. (2010). What can you do to shape a better image of nursing? Retrieved
April 16, 2013, from http://www.thetruthaboutnursing.org .
Microagression and the Concept Stereotype Threat
The objective of this brief study is to examine microaggression and the concept of stereotype threat.
The American Psychological Association reports that all individuals "exist in social, political, historical and economic contexts." (2008, p. 377) The work of Ross-Sheriff (2012) reports that social workers and academians who are female are "targets of microaggression." (p. 1) This si reported to often be the case when these individuals are coping with institutions on behalf of their clients or in the management of "relations and careers within their own institutions." (Ross-Sheriff, 2012, p. 1) Chester M. Pierce coined the term microaggression and reported that microaggression is "...subtle, stunning, often automatic and nonverbal exchanges which are put downs of blacks by offenders." (cited in Ross-Sheriff, 2012) Microaggression is defined as "verbal, behavioral, or environmental indignities, whether intention, or unintentional that communicate hostile derogatory or mental indignities, where…
Ross-Sheriff, F. (2012) Micro-Aggression, Women and Social Work. Sage Publishers. 15 Aug 2012.
Guidelines on Multicultural Education, Training, Research, Practice, and Organizational Change for Psychologists (2008) American Psychological Association.
Guidelines for Psychological Practice With Older Adults (2008) American Psychological Association. Report.
Guidelines for Psychotherapy with Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual Clients. (2000) American Psychologist. Division 44. Reports of the Association.
This fear may lead people to develop a negative attitude about older persons because it is rooted in fear -- fear of what will become of them someday (if they live that long). Nelson (2004, x) adheres to this way of thinking. He says, "Merely thinking about (or seeing) an older person tends to arouse anxiety about the fact that one has a short time on earth, and the fear associated with such cognitions tends to provoke the perceiver to dislike the individual (or group) who elicits such fear." While Nelson's (2004, x) theory may be easy to understand, it still does not make ageism right.
Another factor related to ageism is the way in which men and women who are aging are viewed differently. Women may hear the compliment, "You look so young," more than men because in our society it is much more important for women to look…
Nelson, T.D. (2004). Ageism: stereotyping and prejudice against older persons. The MIT
And a study showed that just in the U.S.A., more than half (57%) said that their friends used these sites only for self-promotion, narcissism and attention-seeking (Jason, 2009). They end up "sending messages," "sharing thoughts," "poking friends," letting people know "what are they doing," and therefore spamming their profiles with unnecessary details of their lives (that, again, may not necessarily be true) just to hit the right note.
On the other hand, one might still argue that social networking sites do really give opportunities to make real friends. One might say that exchanging messages, updating people what we are doing, and poking each other in the virtual world are no different than doing them in reality. But ask yourself: when you have a problem, could you replace a real tap on the back with a virtual smiley? Could a real rose be replaced by a virtual one on a Valentine's…
Boyd, D.M. And N.B. Ellison. Social Network Sites: Definition, History, and Scholarship. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 2007.
Jason, S. Are social networks making students more narcissistic?. USA Today, 2009.
The main subject of this report is the art and practice of stereotyping. The test case for this analysis will be a playground apparatus that was set up at an inner-city school in New York. The obvious theme of the playground setting was a jail environment. Given the minority nature of the kids present and the harsh realities that do and will exist for the kids (not to mention the parents) that are in the area, this playground theme obviously rubbed some people the wrong way. This report will answer a few questions including concerns over the theme, what socialization means, how the children will be adversely affected by the jail theme, what stereotypes are, how stereotypes can be harmful to minorities and so forth. While the jail theme, in and of itself, will not condemn those kids to a life of crime and depravity, the optics of…
Bolton, E. (2014). Why Stereotypes Are Bad and What You Can Do about Them. AAUW: Empowering Women Since 1881. Retrieved 14 September 2015, from http://www.aauw.org/2014/08/13/why-stereotypes-are-bad/
MIC,. (2014). 6 Actual Facts Shatter the Biggest Stereotypes of Black Fathers. Mic. Retrieved 14 September 2015, from http://mic.com/articles/90965/6-actual-facts-shatter-the-biggest-stereotypes-of-black-fathers
The actor, Joe Nakashima, is simply listed in the credits of the film as "Old Hawaiian Man," and, like the Ula character, is simply used by the filmmakers as a tool for comic relief.
This desultory treatment is nevertheless emblematic of how the vast majority of the native Island characters are depicted in the film. Unlike Henry, Lucy, and Lucy's family, we never get a real image of their intimate, emotional lives or the circumstances of their lives. They are simply there for the entertainment - and service - of the European-American characters, who are the real protagonists of the film.
This is easy to see when evaluating the occupational roles that the characters in the film fill. At the center of the movie, of course, is Henry Roth, who is a veterinarian - a white-collar profession that requires a high degree of education. The Islanders, on the other hand,…
Goad (1997) notes the use of stereotypes helps reduce uncertainties one may have with their own status or relationships in society. He goes on to suggest people use the term "redneck" to reduce their anxiety and insecurities they may have about their own ability or socio-economic status, or their concerns about the welfare of their own ethnicity in an environment where they may feel outnumbered (Goad, 1997). To resolve stereotypes generated by groups as Goad suggests, education would help placate people by addressing their fears and providing them with tools to reduce anxiety and insecurities that arise when one encounters a member of a different ethnic or cultural background. (the uncertainty reduction theory suggests most people tend to amass feelings of insecurity and anxiety when approached by members of a group unknown to them Mullin & Hogg, 1999). Another theory commonly used to explain group behaviors is the social identity…
Allen, I.L. (1990), Unkind words: Ethnic labeling from redskin to WASP. New York:
Bergin & Garvey.
Booker, K.M. (2002), Strange TV: Innovative television series from the Twighlight Zone to the X-Files. Westport: Greenwood Press.
Brown, M.E. (2000), Bluegrass and "White Trash": A case study concerning the name folklore" and class bias. Journal of Folklore Research, 37(1): 23.
Steeotypes: Positive and Negative Ones
Tuthfully, thee is no such thing as a positive steeotype. Steeotypes ae inheently limiting and cicumscibe the expectations and the peceptions of an individual towads anothe, a goup, o towads entie statifications of social, eligious, ethnicities, and othe categoizations fo people. A moe accuate assessment of the concept of a positive steeotype is to denote that some steeotypes ae based on assumptions that ae supposed to be complimentay in attempts to solicit "steeotype endosement" (Okeke et al., 2009, p. 366). Fo instance, egading the instucto's emaks about May, it is supposed to be a compliment that just based on he ethnicity that she should pefom well as a dance. Nonetheless, even these sots of steeotypes can poduce a noxious effect by ceating uneasonable expectations. May might actually be a faily poo dance; she might have avoided taking dance classes all he life because she wanted…
references: Exploring the role of social identity and intergroup emotions in influencing support for affirmative action. Communication Monographs. 77, 102-120.
Different cultures have vastly different communication norms. For example, different cultures have different expectations about eye contact, body gestures, and especially proxemics and tactile communication styles. "In areas of the Middle East and South America, people stand very close when talking. European-Americans like to have more distance between them, while some African-Americans prefer even more space." (McGee)
Low-contact cultures, such as North American, Northern European and Asian cultures, prefer to communicate in the Social Zone (four to twelve feet) and tend to avoid physical contact. High-contact cultures, such as Mediterranean, Arab, and Latin cultures, prefer to communicate within the Intimate and Personal Zones (up to four feet) and do use a great deal of tactile communication. (Bremer) Even different races within the same country may have a difficult time with tactile communication because of the significant differences in comfort levels. "Halberstadt's (1985) gave a review of race differences in nonverbal…
Bremer, J. (2004) Proxemics - how we use space. Image insights (Bremer Communications). Retrieved July 19, 2005 at http://www.bremercommunications.com/Proxemics_How_We_Use_Space.htm
Chang, Y. (2001) Theories of persuasive communication and consumer decision-making. Nonverbal communication.
Retrieved July 19, 2005, at http://ciadvertising.org/student_account/fall_01/adv382j/utamychang/1st_assignment/Preface_content.htm
Human Rights Commission. (2004). Racial Harassment Resource: The Co-ordinator's Handbook. Retrieved July 19, 2005, at http://www.hrc.co.nz/index.php?p=13834&format=print&id=&keywords=&month=&year=&Submit=
female characters and how they overcome stereotypes in society. It contains three references.
Introduction stereotype is an oversimplified definition of a person or type of person, institution, style or event; to stereotype is to pigeonhole, to thrust into tight slots of definition which allow of little adjustment or change. Stereotyping is widespread because it is convenient - unions are like this, blacks are like this, Jews are like this, teenagers, women, Scots, foreigners are like this. Stereotyping is often - though not always - the result or accompaniment to prejudice. It serves the media well because they are in the business of instant recognition and ready cues. It is very rare that one actually knows any stereotypes: one only reads of them, hears of them or has them framed on TV. Stereotyping is not just limited to mass media but its reinforcement is most effective when it is transmitted by…
media, British or otherwise, has been known to stereotype all groups of people, including men, women, the gay community, and racial minorities. Young people are no exception. In particular, racial stereotyping and body image form part of the media's agenda setting practices, mostly in terms of advertising products.
In the media then, women and girls are normally portrayed as flawlessly beautiful, white, and very thin. The impact on the body image of the youth is profound. Black girls for example are taught through this that it is better to be white and very thin than black and of a more normal, healthy size. Girls thus go through torturous practices such as continuous dieting to accomplish something as close as possible to the ideal image portrayed by the British media. Black girls and those of other races are also taught that they are somehow not as beautiful as white girls, which…
Negative stereotypes within African-American communities
ournal Reaction: "A Soldier's Play" by Charles Fuller and negative stereotypes within the African-American community
They still hate you." These are the first words of this military drama set during World War II, America, in a segregated army camp in Louisiana 1944 called Fort Neal. However, the hate referred to by the African-American commander Vernon Waters, who is shot down dead shortly after uttering this phrase is not simply the hate between the races, but also the hate so often expressed by Blacks against other Blacks. Although the play begins with the far more obvious and openly acknowledged conflicts between Southern Whites and Blacks with the army and within larger American society as a whole, eventually the Black investigator, Captain Davenport, of the murder discovers that according to witnesses, the murder was likely committed young black soldier whom Sergeant Waters had bullied into near insanity…
Journal Reaction: "A Soldier's Play" by Charles Fuller and negative stereotypes within the African-American community
They still hate you." These are the first words of this military drama set during World War II, America, in a segregated army camp in Louisiana 1944 called Fort Neal. However, the hate referred to by the African-American commander Vernon Waters, who is shot down dead shortly after uttering this phrase is not simply the hate between the races, but also the hate so often expressed by Blacks against other Blacks. Although the play begins with the far more obvious and openly acknowledged conflicts between Southern Whites and Blacks with the army and within larger American society as a whole, eventually the Black investigator, Captain Davenport, of the murder discovers that according to witnesses, the murder was likely committed young black soldier whom Sergeant Waters had bullied into near insanity because of his belief that the young, callow man was not upholding the integrity of the African-American race. Waters projected negative stereotypes, learned from Whites, upon this young man, and psychologically, the young man felt he had no other recourse than to react with violence.
Along the progress of the investigation, the "Soldier's Play" becomes as much about the hatred in Waters' last words as well as the murder of Waters himself. The fact that the African-American unit was segregated, the play suggests, created a kind of hothouse environment, where Blacks were turned against one another. Ironically, by demanding perfection of one another, any sense of unity within 'the Race' was destroyed by Waters' style of leadership. It becomes clear as Fuller's drama progresses that the Black officers of the play are less concerned with finding the ultimate solution to the murder, or even to the meaning of Waters' last words and why the murder occurred. Rather, they are more concerned with surviving in terms of their self-esteem in a society that either denies them their manhood, or within the community, makes unreasonable demands upon their bodies and souls to thwart White expectations.
The homosexual community is also associated with chaacteistic manneisms that, in fainess, do poject homosexuality.
Thee is nothing necessaily pejudiced o closed minded about making assumptions that those who adopt manneisms and clothing o haistyle choices that geneally denote a specific oientation (whethe to cime o homosexuality), ae likely to be associated with that oientation. In many cases, the extenal behavio and manne of dess helps individuals communicate infomation (such as thei sexual oientation) about themselves to the wold. But the convese is not tue. Specifically, when we make assumptions about people knowing nothing else about them othe than thei sexual oientation, it is inappopiate. Fist, sexual oientation is not necessaily associated with any othe behavios; if anything, the manneisms and style of dess geneally associated with homosexuality ae mattes of pefeence, choice, and social modeling (o mimicy). Second, to the extent any othe behavios ae moe often evident in…
Ultimately, the film is a reminder not to make generalizations about people and not to allow any single aspect of other people define your entire impression (or expectations) of them. The message seems most directed to the audience within ten years of Meagan's age and helps promote the relative insignificance that sexual identity and preference should have on our opinions about and expectations from other people.
We see some repentance on his part ("Lawd Jesus, heah my prayer! I'se a po' sinner, a po' sinner! I knows I done wrong, I knows it!" p. 285), but not much else in the way of growth or progress in his character. We know from the stereotype that if Jones escaped, he would go back to being the same old Jones. We know from the beginning how the play has to end because we know how the character is going to react to everything that happens. The play would be considerably more interesting if Jones were a real flesh-and-blood person whose unique character could develop during the action. We see his past come back to haunt him, but the events which we are allowed to see are only the violent events. One wonders, who was his mother? Did he have a wife? When he was a member of the…
O'Neill, Eugene. Early Plays. New York: Penguin Books, 2001.
Culture is the true origin of the limitations of collective thought and this is where the ideas of bias and stereotypes takes form. Northouse (2013) added " culture consists of traditional (i.e., historically derived and selected) ideas and especially their attached values; culture systems may, on the one hand, be considered as products of action, on the other, as conditioning elements of future action " (p.18). Culture is an imaginary force, and like our biases, are merely thoughts and should be treated as such. Culture can be very unfriendly when irrational stereotypes are applied in situations where clear judgments and a rational weighing of the issues is more pertinent.
As a society we should not try to eliminate diverse methods of thought simply because they over-generalize a situation. Stereotypes ring true too often for them to be totally dismissed and should be incorporated in more useful and practical ways like…
Adler, N (2013).International Dimensions of Organizational Behavior 5th ed
Northouse, P.G.(2013).Leadership: Theory and Practice 6th ed
, 2009). To the extent that these young people are perceived in terms of stereotypical views by clinicians will likely be the extent to which the therapeutic relationship will be adversely affected. In this regard, Villaneuva and her associates conclude that, "Myths and stereotypes about mental illness that can create personal biases and lead to discrimination. Such stereotypical views together with long-standing beliefs about mental illness can affect the nurse-patient relationship and ultimately influence the care that patients receive" (p. 221).
In response to this potential for stereotypical perceptions influencing clinicians' treatment of adolescents with mental disorders, a growing number of programs across the country have been launched in recent years to educate the public and healthcare professionals concerning stereotypes about mental illness in general and among young people in particular. Popular stereotypes about mental illness, though, can be powerful forces that are not easily changed. For example, a study…
Hinkelman, L. & Granello, DH (2003). Biological sex, adherence to traditional gender roles, and attitudes toward persons with mental illness: An exploratory investigation. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 25(4), 259-261.
Overton, S.L. & Medina, S.L. (2008). The stigma of mental illness. Journal of Counseling and Development, 86(2), 143-144.
Villanueva, C.S., Scott, S.H., Guzzetta, C.E. & Foster, B. (2009). Development and psychometric testing of the attitudes toward mental illness in Pediatric Patients Scale.
Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 22(4), 220-221.
Stereotypes -- Why are Black People Good at Sports?
In the United States black people, African-Americans that is, make up roughly 1/16th of the population. Yet, if one looks at professional sports, in particular, football, basketball, and baseball, relative to their overall population percentage (1/16th) they make up a disproportionate percentage of professional athletes. The NFL is roughly 70% African-American, as is NBA, and baseball, which has seen a relative decline in the number of black athletes over the year (for various reasons) still boasts a healthy figure. Moreover, even in sports where black athletes are not traditionally known for being preeminent figures, i.e. golf and tennis, black athletes have, in recent years, made their mark (Tiger Woods, The Williams Sisters). Unfortunately, as a result of their success, black athletes have been forced to confront stereotypes that pretend to explain and/or rationalize their athletic prowess and relative dominance in the…
The author of this brief report has been asked to answer a few questions as it pertains to stereotypes and interacting with people of other cultures. Indeed, the author has been asked to identify what a stereotype is. Second, there will be the identification of a culture that is challenge to work with in one or more ways. The stereotypes that are affiliated with the selected culture, at least some of them, will be defined. The author will then describe two practices that will help the author of this response work with this group more effectively. Finally, there will be a conclusion. While Asians are becoming a larger and larger asset to the melting pot that is the United States, it can sometimes be challenging to interact with them and frustrations can abound.
A stereotype is a belief or presumption about a race, gender or other defined group.…
Listovative. (2014). Top 10 Common Asian Stereotypes List - Listovative. Listovative. Retrieved 11 June
2016, from http://listovative.com/top-10-common-asian-stereotypes-list/
The role of stereotypes in the selection and acceptance of female leaders.
As Carter & Silva (2010) point out, there are several stereotypes about women's behavior and goals that influences the selection and acceptance of female leaders. Some of the stereotypes about women include the myth that women will leave their positions to start families; the myth that women don't actually aspire to upper management; and the myth that there are regional differences that invalidate the gender bias argument altogether (Carter & Silva, 2010, p. 1). In fact, empirical research debunks each one of these myths and points to a deeper issue related to ongoing misogyny in the corporate world.
One of the prevailing stereotypes held by both men and women is that women are "better at stereotypically feminine 'caretaking skills' such as supporting and rewarding," and that men are better at the "taking charge" skills "such as influencing…
Amble, B. (2005). Gender stereotypes block women's advancement. Management Issues. 20 Oct, 2005. Retrieved online: http://www.management-issues.com/2006/8/24/research/gender-stereotypes-block-womens-advancement.asp
Carter, N.M. & Silva, C. (2011). Delusions of progress. Retrieved online: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:6KLe4O9kjt8J:www.maternity-coaching.co.uk/uploaded/articles/Delusions-of-Progress.pdf+&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESj8377PPjIZHJNykWXmAosw1iHBGLouB-HxKWOLGcMmEB6OTs-ttb2jBosZ8iA146ZWRi18H1f8vmndEmZb0cAQJscorvhFFpG0vuSJI6U67tmnMghCykXqIMNqAdu-1SABk02n&sig=AHIEtbRKrIlENimvwKNBOYrekj9eGob39Q
King, S. (2012). Critical success factors for women leaders. Institute for Management Studies. Retrieved online: http://www.ims-online.com/outline.asp?id=king1
Marcus, L.P. (2010). Developing women leaders: Five factors that matter. Retrieved online: http://marcusventures.com/notebook/developing-women-leaders-five-factors-that-matter
In fact, most lawyers practice neither criminal law nor personal injury law; they assist individuals prepare wills, set up their businesses, protect themselves from financial risks, purchase homes, patent inventions, and respond to IS tax audits. Most lawyers spend long hours working at their desks and never actually see courtrooms or accident victims (Haskell 1998). Certainly, some lawyers are dishonest people without moral scruples or ethics who will do almost anything to make money. But more often than not, that is a function of the type of person they are, just as some schoolteachers, postal carriers, and even members of the clergy are dishonest and immoral.
Telemarketers suffer from common stereotyping as being dishonest, rude, inconsiderate liars who care only about making a sales pitch. As with other stereotypes, some telemarketers may fit those negative characterizations, but assuming them to be true about everyone who happens to earn a…
Conlon, Edward. (2004) Blue Blood. New York: Riverhead
Gerrig, R.J., Zimbardo, R.G. (2005)
Psychology and Life 18th Ed.
New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
omen ere Still Stereotyped in 1998
According to its dictionary definition, a stereotype can be an innocent thing, a mere stencil, or a preexisting form or stencil that can be used to make a template for an image. However, when a stereotype is a cultural and a psychological rather than a physical or artistic device, and is wielded against an entire gender, and filled with the copier's notions of correct behavior to the extent that it limits the ability of another person to be a fully functional and fully fledged human being, the stereotype must be questioned and subsequently broken down.
In 1998, although feminism was officially en vogue, the popularity of "chick lit" was at its height, and speculations about it being easier for a woman to be killed by lightening than to be married over the age of thirty or so had become less vociferously promoted by the…
'EEOC SCORES MAJOR VICTORY IN MITSUBISHI LAWSUIT." EEOC Webpage. Last modified January 21, 1998. http://www.eeoc.gov/press/1-21-98.html 14 November 2004.
Kirchler, Erich, and Erik Holzl and Crista Rodler. "Gender Stereotypes of leaders: an analysis of the contents of obituaries from 1974-1998 -- Statistical Data Included. Sex Roles: a Journal of Research. December 2001. Retrived 14 November 2004 using Find Articles.com at http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2294/is_2001_Dec/ai_89238997
Chinese-Americans form one of the most professional and most well educated sections of American population yet they are still portrayed as 'unwanted' ethnic minority by electronic and print media. The stereotyping of Chinese-Americans goes back to the days when trade cards were used for advertising and is still a part of media depiction of this community. Stereotypes may not always be negative in nature, but they are certainly based on generalizations, which may or may not fit every individual of a certain community. However in our media, we notice that some communities are always presented in one fixed way and change is rarely accepted or allowed to creep in which says a great deal about biases prevailing in media circles. James Chan in his article " ough on ats" traces the history of this type of stereotyping of Chinese-Americans and shows that most of the times, media presents…
James Chan, "Rough on Rats" --Racism and Advertising in the Latter Half of the Nineteenth Century:
Marsha Ginsburg, Chronicle Staff Writer, Crisis Inflames Bias Against Asians, -- Ethnic stereotypes in broadcast, print media prompt protests, San Francisco Chronicle, Saturday, April 14, 2001
Candice Choi, Stereotypes about Chinese-Americans Remain Pervasive in U.S., Poll Finds, April 27, 2001, http://www.kscitv.com/viewentry.asp?ID=188278&PT=HOTTOPICS
correctional stereotypes in the movie " the Shawshank edemption." This essay will explain the correctional policies that are demonstrated in the movie and suggest ways in which these portrayals are accurate or inaccurate.
The movie "The Shawshank edemption" revolves around the life and times of a prisoner named Andy. Andy was a banker in his former life before he was framed for the murder of his wife and her lover. The story documents the unfair treatment Andy has received in society and concludes with him escaping prison and finding his redemption that he felt that he had earned by maintaining an attitude of hope and faith.
The Shawshank Prison, where Andy was detained, resonated with many prison system stereotypes within the movie. The warden of the prison is depicted as a cruel and inhumane person, bent on sadistically treating his prisoners and guards. This stereotype of the "evil warden" provides…
Fiddler, M. (2007). Projecting the prison: The depiction of the uncanny in The Shawshank Redemption. Crime, Media, Culture, 3(2), 192-206.
Kermode, M. (2003). The Shawshank Redemption. British Film Inst.
By being born a man or a woman signals to bearing certain clear sexual characteristics. Socialization takes individuals through a path that inculcates certain norms and codes of conduct depending on whether one is born a male or a female. In other words, the rules that one adopts and follows are guided by whether they are biologically male or female. Therefore, one’s communication, expression and behavior is shaped by the preexisting cultural and social norms including non-verbal language. Consequently, people’s behavior may differ because they are shaped by cultural and social norms from varying socio-ethnic and cultural setups. All these forces define gender; which is effectively a social construction of one’s biological sex. It allows for the recognition and distinction between men and women. According to Lippman (1922), stereotypes were important because they were an offshoot of a people’s ideas and heritage and, thus, served important purposes. Stereotypes helped…
Gender stereotyping is a pernicious and pervasive practice. The media reinforces already existing gender norms, thereby perpetuating structural inequalities and gender inequity. However, the media can also be instrumental in transforming gender norms by combatting stereotypes and depicting gender in unconventional ways. Gender stereotypes can confirm unconscious biases and beliefs about the role and status of men and women. Likewise, the portrayals of gender in the media reinforce behavioral norms. Research shows that “constant exposure to the same dated concepts in the media” can lead to adverse effects that can “last a lifetime,” (Knorr, 2017, p. 1). Therefore, it is critical to become active, engaged consumers of media and to increase media literacy throughout the society.
Gender portrayals in the media will differ according to media type, such as news media versus advertisements, or children’s programming versus programming for adults. Similarly, gender stereotypes vary from culture to culture. Although gender…
Native American Culture and Stereotypes.
Kind Hearted oman
hat did you learn that you did not already know?
There are many different stereotypes that are common in the media that are related to Native Americans and their culture. Some of these include the notion that all native americans are alcoholics, that they are all lazy, live on reservations, get government privileges, among many other such stereotypes that incorrectly biased according to the evidence (Ridgeway, 2013). For example, white males are actually known to be the demographic with the highest rates of alcoholism. Although I'm am familiar with many of these portrayals, I did not realize how tough life can be for some individuals that have to live with many of the problems that Robin faces on a daily basis due to the fact that such stereotypes exist.
ere you already aware of the points made in the clip?
Jaffe, E. (2005, March). Reality Check. Retrieved from Association for Psychologist: http://www.psychologicalscience.org/index.php/publications/observer/2005/march-05/reality-check.html
Ridgeway, S. (2013, June 21). Common Native American Stereotypes Debunked. Retrieved from Everyday Feminism: http://everydayfeminism.com/2013/06/common-native-american-stereotypes-debunked/
Prejudice and social psychology
Gender-based stereotypes and influence of society
Cultural impact of host cultures
The contribution of Stanley Milgram has been significant in the field of social psychology. Milgram conducted experiments of human behavior in a laboratory setting and concluded that obedience to authority usually disregards moral or legal normative standards. An individual's behavior is thus shaped by the environment, people around, and his figure of authority. "Because humans are social animals, human behavior is strongly influenced by behavior of other humans; this influence is often very direct"(Aarts & Dijksterhuis, 2003; Pg. 18). The current paper investigates as to what extent the human behavior is influenced by others. The paper adopts an investigative approach and cites peer reviewed articles to substantiate the discussion. Social identity theory is also an important theoretical explanation that explains how and why an individual voluntarily gets influenced from socially constructed relationships.
Aarts, H., & Dijksterhuis, A. (2003). The silence of the library: Environment, situational norm, and social behavior. Journal of personality and social psychology, 84(1), 18-28.
Bearden, W.O., Netemeyer, R.G., & Teel, J.E. (1989). Measurement of consumer susceptibility to interpersonal influence. Journal of consumer research, 15(4), 473-481.
Blass, T. (2009). The man who shocked the world: The life and legacy of Stanley Milgram. Basic Books (AZ).
Brewer, M.B., & Kramer, R.M. (1986). Choice behavior in social dilemmas: Effects of social identity, group size, and decision framing. Journal of personality and social psychology, 50(3), 543-549.
Cross Culture elations and Medical Procedures Insurance
Medical Insurance Procedures
In the U.S., using preventive care has helped in the prevention of chronic diseases and detection is possible due to appropriate screenings. At every stage of life, when one uses the right preventive care, then it helps in making Americans stay healthy, lead productive lives, delay onset of disease, and reduce costs of health. Therefore, I agree that preventive services are viable solutions of cutting down on the rising health costs in America. Commercial groups have opted to give their employees a health plan that ensures productivity is maintained by providing them with preventive medical care that creates a healthy workforce (Green, 2012, p. 488). According to PACE team, they have offered and managed to provide preventive care in day health centers, hospitals, homes, and nursing facilities thus help the individuals maintain independence, quality of life, and dignity (Green, 2012,…
Green, M (2012). Understanding Health Insurance: A Guide to Billing and Reimbursement (11) Eds.). Delmar: Cengage Learning
Samovar. L., Porter, R., & McDaniel, E. (2009). Communications between Cultures (7 Eds.). Wadsworth: Cengage Learning
On the other hand, their depiction as perpetual victims of racial violence tended to diminish the degree of true society and infrastructure that existed for these tribes, reducing them to lone individuals or small bands and the obvious underdog in a game of cat and mouse. Certain characters are also used to depict the stereotypical pride of the Native Americans, showing a willingness to die against all reason for a cause that was already lost. This is another romanticized vision of Native Americans that almost attempts to assuage the guilt of white oppression by making the sacrifices of the Native tribes seem almost willing and granting of a certain degree of nobility.
In the early 1990s, Northern Exposure was a very popular and rather unique show, providing comedy not in the standard sitcom-with-laugh track format, but through more dramatic and realistic explorations of an isolated town full of…
Our media is a major element of socialization for a number of reasons. The first is that it is, to some degree, a representation of the world we live in. While much of what is depicted is fiction, the way that people's home and work lives are presented on television is an influencer with respect to how we view our own lives, and the types of things to which we aspire. We pick up behavioral cues from the characters on TV shows, for example, but also cues about social structures and how we interact with one another. Our media is the means by which the majority of ideas are transmitted to us in the modern world, with television, the Internet and radio all receiving hours every day of exposure.
An example of this can be found in the sitcom. The sitcom as a medium is intended to generate…
Kendall, D. (2015) Sociology in Our Times, Tenth Edition. Cengage.
Humans Behavior: Discriminative Control of Punished Stereotyped Behavior
The problem of controlling behavior in humans who are challenged in their mental scope is of concern. While the majority of people shun the use of force, and punishments and the modern thinking on enforcing appropriate behavior is leaning to therapeutic and learning modes, altering the environment and peer pressure, there could be some truth in the use of punishment being effective in controlling impulsive and undesirable behavior. These traits and appropriate settings for the same have to be seen in the general light of the literature in psychology over the issue. For example researchers have gone deep into the exact use of discriminative control and response is still in infancy, and using the background of mental retardation, Doughty et al. (2007) have researched the results of the use of differential punishment and the antecedent stimulus using three adults with mental retardation…
Biderman, Albert D; Zimmer, Herbert. (1961) "The Manipulation of Human Behavior." John
Wiley & Sons: New York.
Brown, Judson Seise. (1961) "The Motivation of Behavior."
McGraw-Hill: New York.
Stereotyping Indian Cities
The architecture of India that dates back to the 16th and 17th Century often amazes those who visit the country in the present time. There are several cities, towns and even villages that have and preserve mega structures whose wonder not only lie in their size but also in the architectural works and the history that lies behind the walls. Indeed, while recording his expedition into studying The Taj Mahal, Ebba Koch (2005:Pp129) indicates that he was overwhelmed by its perfection, splendor and sheer size, and further notes that he was not in this as a scholar, but several other scholars in archeology had the same reaction as his to that building and most of these buildings around India.
This paper will take a general approach to the buildings within India and expound on the Indo-Islamic architecture that is evident on these buildings around India and the…
Ebba Koch, (2005). The Taj Mahal: Architecture, Symbolism, and Urban Significance, Muqarnas, vol. 22.
Eckhart Ehlers and Thomas Krafft, (2003). Shahjahanabad/Old Delhi: Tradition and Colonial Change, New Delhi: Manohar Publishers.
K.K. Trivedi, (1994). The Emergence of Agra as a Capital and a City: A note on Its Spatial and Historical background during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries," Journal of the Economic and Social History, Vol.37 No. 2.
There are two chambers of Congress, the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Senate has two representatives from each of the 50 states for a total of 100 senators. The House has representatives that from each state that are proportional to the state’s population. So some states have more representatives than others. This difference is so that big states do not have more say in the federal government over small states (i.e., this is how the Senate is made up) while at the same time big states with big populations are also represented fairly (i.e., this is how the House is made up). Senators are elected to six year terms. Representatives in the House are elected to two year terms and elections are held every even year (Visit the Capitol).
While women in positions of leadership is nothing new, there is the perception that there…
Debate: Harris/Pence. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t_G0ia3JOV s
Horowitz, J., Igielnik, R. & Parker, K. (2018). Retrieved from https://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2018/09/20/women-and-leadership-2018/
Visit the Captial. https://www.visitthecapitol.gov/about-congress/two-bodies-one-branch
harsh realities of the human condition is the fact that everyone, including students and teachers, has stereotypical views about other people that influence the manner in which they think and behave. When stereotypes are introduced into the classroom, though, they can adversely affect the environment in ways that detract from the learning experience for all students. Besides traditional gender-based stereotypes, the increasingly multicultural nature of American society has created a wide range of new stereotypes in the classroom today. To determine what can be done, this paper provides a description of different approaches that teachers can use to eliminate stereotypes from their classrooms. A summary of the research and important findings concerning stereotypes in the classroom are provided in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
Impact of Stereotypes on Learning
Beginning in the early 1990s, social psychologists first identified the cognitive processes that activated various negative stereotypes in the minds of…
Berman, N. & White, A. (2013, December 1). Refusing the stereotype. Youth Studies Australia,
Billings-Harris, L. (2014). The diversity advantage: Enhancing inclusion in the classroom.
Teachers of Color. Retrieved from http://www.teachersofcolor.com/2009/11/the-diversity-advantage-enhancing-inclusion-in-the-classroom/ .
In short then, the Pilot is everything the stewardess is not. He even supplies the sense of dash and adventure that the stewardess keeps "bottled up" within her button-down exterior. However, it is not just the pilot's overall demeanor - or persona - that is significant. We often have no direct contact with the pilot of our craft except via the airplane intercom. As this is our sole means of interface with this individual; this individual who is so essential to our own personal safety and survival, it is important that even on the intercom the pilot must sound like our preconceived image of him:
speaker's personality may be judged by listeners not only on the basis of the choices of behaviour he makes, but also possibly to some extent on physical features over which he has no possibility of volitional control at all. In our culture, a man…
Beaulieu, R.A. (1991). 10 the Pilot and the Thinking Machine. In Pilots, Personality, and Performance: Human Behavior and Stress in the Skies, Deitz, S.R. & Thoms, W.E. (Eds.) (pp. 145-164). New York: Quorum Books.
(1991). The Gift of Speech: Papers in the Analysis of Speech and Voice. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=35389004
Grant, C.A. (Ed.). (1999). Proceedings of the National Association for Multicultural Education: Seventh Annual Name Conference, October 29-November 2, 1997, Albuquerque, Nm. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=96547023
The event is more a series of events. I went on vacation with some friends to Miami, and while not everything I experienced on that trip would count as a cultural experience, there is little question that there were some very different experiences. There was the visit to the Haitian restaurant, for example, but the event that stands out the most was my visit to Calle Ocho, the old Cuban neighborhood. As Korean student I find it challenging enough to deal with mainstream American culture, but Hispanic culture is completely different again, so this experience provided me with an interesting counterpoint to my usual experiences in the United States.
In this neighborhood, if people can speak English they do not admit it. There are coffee windows where strong, sugary shots of Cuban coffee and cafe con leche are dispensed to passers-by in a hurry. There are old…
Devine, P. (1989). Stereotypes and prejudice: Their automatic and controlled components. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Vol. 56 (1) 5-18.
Geert Hofstede.com (2012). National culture. Geert-Hofstede.com. Retrieved May 7, 2012 from http://geert-hofstede.com
Hofstede, G. (1983). The cultural relativity of organizational practices and theories. Journal of International Business Studies. Vol. 14 (Fall 1983) 75-89.
Mallol, C., Holtom, B. & Lee, T. (2007). Job embeddedness in a culturally diverse environment. Journal of Business Psychology. Vol. 22, 35-44.
B: No you didn't.
A: You just weren't listening.
A. The trash still has not been taken out. Would you like to do that?
B. Oh, uh, no but I will if you want me to.
A: Thank you
Prompt (2) Stereotypes:
Stereotyping comes from a deeply rooted survival mechanism for self-protection that helps us to identify friends from foe. It is based in the synthesis of sensory awareness. There are three sub-process of perception that help us to understand what our senses are telling us.
The three sub-processes of perception include subliminal perception, external attention factors, and interpretation.
Impressions lead to an implicit personality theory. Describe.
We develop an implicit personality theory by generalizing about certain traits, or assuming that the presence of one trait necessitates the presence of another trait.
Stereotyping leads to totalizing. Describe Stereotyping leads to totalizing, or the act of blurring out any…
Center for Nonviolent Communications. "Founder." Retrieved online: http://www.cnvc.org/about/marshall-rosenberg.html
Eyewitness and ecalling
I shook hands with Bugs Bunny... Describe and evaluate the role of schemas and stereotypes on recalling past events. What implications does this have for the accuracy of eyewitness accounts of events?
I shook hands with Bugs Bunny... Describe and evaluate the role of schemas and stereotypes on recalling past events. What implications does this have for the accuracy of eyewitness accounts of events?
Literature on Schemas
Literature on Schemas and Stereotypes and their role in Eyewitness
I shook hands with Bugs Bunny... Describe and evaluate the role of schemas and stereotypes on recalling past events. What implications does this have for the accuracy of eyewitness accounts of events?
To investigate and prosecute crime the criminal justice system heavily depends on eyewitness identification (Wells & Olson, 2003). An eyewitness goes through different psychological procedures prior to the courtroom testimony. It is evident that before…
Brewer, W.F., & Treyens, J.C.(1981). Role of schemata in memory for places. Cognitive Psychology, 12(2), 207-230
Charman, S., & Wells, G.(2008). Can eyewitnesses correct for external influences on their lineup identifications? The actual/counterfactual assessment paradigm. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 14(1), 5-20.
Christianson, S., & Hubinette, B.(1993). Hand up A study of witnesses' emotional reactions and memories associated with bank robberies. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 7(5), 365-379
Duffy, E.L.(1948). Motivational theory of emotion. Psychological Review, 55, 324-328.
These shows depict diverse expressions of sexuality and relationships within the gay and lesbian communities, but they also tend to overgeneralize. Bisexuality is hardly treated at all, because it does not fit into neatly defined categories like "gay" and "straight." Occasionally this theme is discussed in films and television, as with one episode of Six Feet Under.
Stereotypes can constrain real-life behavior as film and television offer visual cues for modeling. This is why it is important to feature more diverse characters and diversity of experiences. Not all black men are highly sexed, aggressive, and dominant in their sexuality, and not all black men abandon women as is sometimes suggested by the media. Likewise, not all Asian men are nerdy and asexual and not all Asian women are detached vixens.
When stereotypes do capture a general truth, they can be funny, which is why they are commonly used in the…
A further stereotype about Asians that cannot be ignored is that regarding the sexuality of the Asian female. "Asian Pacific women have generally been perceived by Hollywood with a mixture of fascination, fear, and contempt....If we are 'good' we are childlike, submissive, silent, and eager for sex or else we are tragic victim types. And if we are not silent, suffering doormats, we are demonized dragon ladies -- cunning, deceitful, sexual provocateurs." (Hagedorn) the pornography industry is highly populated with Asian women fulfilling the male desire for sexual stereotypes. Japanese school girls in short skirts with lollipops and repressed sexual needs are a popular fetish. The subservient Geisha wife in kimonos, pale make-up, and most importantly donning a subservient, unthreatening, submissive sexual attitude is another. Look again and one is certain to find the "dragon lady" as mentioned above: the over-sexed, wild, uninhibited Asian girl looking to please as many…
Hagedorn, Jessica. "Asian Women in Film: No Joy, No Luck."
Mura, David. "Fargo and the Asian-American Male."
Shah, Sonia. "Race and Representation: Asian-Americans." 1999.
Gilliam, Frank. "The Local Television News Media's Picture of Children - 2001." Study on Race, Ethnicity and the News. October 2001.
Stereotypes and Diversity
Stereotypes are bad. Diversity is good. Such ideas seem to be truisms in today's American business climate, which is often broadly brushed with the label of being 'politically correct' to the detriment of productivity. However, it is easy to speak highly of the value of diversity. It is easy to say the cultural wars of the business world have been won. It is easy to engage in such rhetoric but far more difficult to achieve a truly harmonious and diverse workforce in a functional fashion. After all, stereotypes are one of the ways individuals apprehend the world -- making assumptions based on what they have been told about other people and past experiences.
Often this cognitive tendency towards stereotyping can work against creating a climate of positive diversity in the workplace. But being aware of possible differences between individuals is not necessarily an act of…
Civil Rights act of 1964 -- EEOC Website. (2004) Retrieved on June 6, 2004 at http://www.eeoc.gov/policy/vii.html
Microsoft. (2004). Official Website. Retrieved on June 6, 2004 at http://www.microsoft.com/
Proctor and Gamble. (2004) Official Website. Retrieved on June 6, 2004 at http://www.pg.com/jobs/sectionmain.jhtml;jsessionid=HR42HRANVSOSLQFIAJ1CZOWAVABHOLHC
Tannen, Deborah. (2001) Talking from 9 to 5. New paperback edition: New York: Quill, 2001
SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY AND WHAT DOES IT AIM TO STUDY?
Inspired by Kurt Lewin (1951), social psychology adopted the experimental method to study human behavior (Wood & Kroger, 1998). In this regard, Wood and Kroger (1998) report that, "Lewin's experiments in leadership style (autocratic, democratic, laissez-faire) became classics in the new experimental social psychology" (p. 267). Lewins' early work was carried on by Festinger and others who explored cognitive dissonance for the next 20 years at MIT and subsequently at the Universities of Michigan and Minnesota, making this one of the foundations of social psychology (Wood & Kroger, 1998).
Simply stated, social psychology uses the scientific method to study human social behavior (ogers, 2003). According to ogers, psychological social psychology "studies how social events and phenomena influence the ways in which individual people feel, think and act. It is concerned with the psychological processes (such as social perception and cognition) that…
Hayes, D. (2004). RoutledgeFalmer guide to key debates in education. New York:
Karakashian, L.M., Walter, M.I., Christopher, A.N. & Lucas, T. (2006). Fear of negative evaluation affects helping behavior: The bystander effect revisited. North American
Journal of Psychology, 8(1), 13.
omen have long faced media images that create unrealistic images of themselves to live up to, but a lesser known fact is that men face the same problem. In today's mass media, men are dunderheaded, philandering imbeciles, or impossibly perfect heroes. These are equivalent to the slut and the Barbie images that women face in the media, and such false, unrealistic images of men are just as dangerous as their female equivalents. The portrayal of men in the mass media is negative and needs to be changed.
In a landmark study, Macnamara (2006) examined over 2000 mass media instances and found that 69% of them portrayed men in a negative light, and much of the rest was dismissive about the positive coverage. On their own, such images can be foolish and absurd, but as occurs with the negative images of women, the negative images of men have negative…
Macnamara, J. (2006). "Men become the main target in the new gender wars." Palgrave MacMillan. In possession of the author.
Petersen, S. (2013). Dumbing down dad: How media present husbands, fathers as useless. Deseret News. Retrieved October 14, 2013 from http://www.deseretnews.com/article/865574236/Dumbing-down-Dad-How-media-present-husbands-fathers-as-useless.html?pg=all
Wecks, E. (2012). This is how you lose her by Junot Diaz is a difficult but illuminating tale of failure and growth. Wired. Retrieved October 14, 2013 from http://www.wired.com/geekdad/2012/11/junot-diaz/