Strain Theory Essays (Examples)

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Strain Theory
There are many theories that seek to explain what causes crime to occur and what motivates individuals to engage in criminal or deviant behavior. One such theory is strain theory, which contends, "crime and criminal behavior is…essentially social phenomenon" (Arrigo, 2006, p. 57). As such, strain theory must look at society as a whole in order to determine what causes deviant behavior; however, just as strain theory seeks to explain the causes of crime, there are also limitations that are imposed upon the theory.

"Strain theory seeks to integrate the cultural context in which crime occurs…with the social mechanisms that teach one how to act criminally" (Arrigo, 2006, p. 56). obert Merton helped to define the factors that lead to strain. Merton (1968) believes that at the center of social organizations are strains, tensions, and contradictions that are "generated by society itself; they do not reside within the individual" (White….

Consumer FraudIntroductionThe crime problem selected for this essay is consumer fraud, a form of deceit perpetrated against consumers involving deceptive business practices. Consumer fraud can include various scams, false advertising, identity theft, and other illicit activities intending to deceive consumers out of their money. The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) estimates that in the United States alone, millions of people fall victim to consumer fraud each year, leading to billions of dollars in losses. The impacts of consumer fraud are profound, extending beyond financial losses to include psychological distress and diminished trust in commercial transactions. This essay aims to explore this crime problem from both sociological and psychological perspectives, applying Strain Theory and Routine Activities Theory respectively. These theories will be used to unpack the phenomenon of consumer fraud, offering potential insights into prevention strategies and implications for public policy. The essay will begin by defining consumer fraud, followed by a….

Offshoots of Strain Theory
PAGES 5 WORDS 1832

Strain Theory
The subject of strain theory is a very hot topic in the public, psychology and otherwise scholarly spheres. Indeed, academic search engines are teeming with reports, studies and summaries of strain theory in all of its forms, functions and offshoots. This report shall cover five scholarly-reviewed works pertaining to strain theory and/or its variants, in its entirety or in part. The true genesis of what leads some people to become criminals, what leads some people to become victims and how some people transcend both through their lives is the subject of rigorous study. While the true and complete answer to what causes some people to offend may never be known, some answers and trends are already known and some of those will be summarized in this report.

Analysis

One "strain" of strain theory is the perspective of looking at direct and vicarious violent victimization. This paradigm can be applied to juvenile….

Strain theory states that certain societies may pressure individuals to commit a crime. Strain may be either structural, namely where the individual feels that his or her needs are not met and turns to crime, therefore, as way of meeting these needs. In this case, processes at the societal level filter adown and effect the individual's perception regarding how he or she perceives her need. For instance, the particular society may be too constricting and disallow the individual from meeting his needs. The individual then turns to crime as outlet to meet it.
The strain may be also individual where society's goals become so important to the individual that he or she looks for ways to achieve and meet them, and unable to accomplish them in the normal way, reverts to crime in order to do so. The end of achieving these goals, in other words, becomes more important than the….

e. money and tangible acquisitions) but in unconventional, deviant, or criminal ways (Schmalleger, 2009).
The other significant finding of the empirical literature is that racism also relates to Strain Theory in that social ostracism and oppression are noxious stimuli that contribute to the strain experienced by individuals (Agnew, 1992; Broidy, 2001). In that regard members of racial minority communities who are mistreated and subjected to negative messages from the predominant social groups typically identify less with the norms, values, and expectations of the predominant society. Alternatively, they may still seek the same goals promoted by the predominant society but resort to deviant and criminal methods to achieve them, partly as a result of perceived necessity and partly as a manifestation of resentment and hostility over the injustice inherent in racism and in the oppression of racial minority groups (Macionis, 2007).

acism also contributes to Anomie and strain perceived by the individual indirectly….

General Strain Theory Summary
General strain theory (GST) offers a unique explanation of delinquency and crime, which is in direct contrast to control and learning theories. The differentiation is through the type of social relationship that leads to delinquency, and the motivation for delinquency. By analyzing GST, we can determine the effect or how criminal behavior is developed. GST looks at how a negative relationship will affect and individual and their possibility of developing towards crime. A negative relationship can be defined as any relationship of other people that is not consistent with the individual's beliefs of how they should be treated. In this paper, we have analyzed two articles all focusing on GST. However, the two articles differ in the negative stimuli being researched. Cullen, Unnever, Hartman, Turner, and Agnew (2008) is analyzing the impact of bullying while Watts and McNulty (2013) is analyzing the impact of childhood abuse. Both articles….

Theories of DelinquencyIntroductionTwo theoretical frameworks through which juvenile delinquency can be examined are Strain Theory and Social Learning Theory. For instance, Strain Theory suggests that societal pressures and the inability to achieve socially accepted goals through legitimate means lead to delinquency. In contrast, Social Learning Theory posits that delinquent behavior is learned through social interactions and observation of others. This paper explores the similarities and differences of these theories and discusses their application to the problem of juvenile delinquency.Strain TheoryStrain Theory was first developed by sociologist Robert Merton in the 1930s. It is centered on the concept of anomie, or a state of normlessness in which social norms and the established social structure both fail in terms of providing guidance and constraints on behavior (Merton, 1938). Merton believed that when individuals are unable to achieve desirable social goals, such as wealth and success, through hard work and education, they lash….

The Saints and the Roughnecks As Chambliss pointed out in his study of the “Saints and Roughnecks,” the label of deviance can become a self-fulfilling prophesy. This accords with what Lamert called the issue of primary and secondary deviance, with primary deviance being largely accepted and unpunished while secondary deviance leads more to punishment and the feeling of being an outcast (Liberman, Kirk and Kim). It also aligns with the concept of social strain theory, in which an individual is pushed to deviance by society because of inherent hypocrisy in society that angers the deviant and makes the deviant want to act out more in response (Agnew). Thirdly, it aligns with the idea of social control theory, which states that deviants act because they want to break from social controls and gain some power for themselves (Schreck and Hirschi). All three theories could be used to explain the situation of the….

Strain Theory and Crime
PAGES 6 WORDS 2126

Crime and Its Impact on Youth
Crime impacts children differently than it does adults. This paper examines the differences and the reasons children are affected uniquely by crime. It looks in particularly at the multiple theories that can be used to explain these impacts, such as Strain Theory and Social Control Theory. It also identifies the unique challenges that children and adults face as they struggle to cope both with the environments in which they live and the criminal justice systems that confront them. The paper concludes that children are uniquely impacted by crime because they are still in their developmental stage, wherein their psychology and physicality are still highly susceptible to external influences.

Introduction

Children suffer from the effects of crime in different ways from adults. This is primarily due to the fact that children are still developing, both cognitively and physically, whereas adults are already developed. Crime thus impacts the development….

Strain and Anomie Theories
In this text, I highlight the causes of strain and anomie. Further, in addition to describing the crime types addressed by this theoretical approach, I will also explain how the upper and middle class crimes apply to these theories.

Anomie or strain theories according to Einstadter and Henry (2006) "locate the cause of crime in the organization of the whole society, that is in its social structure and culture." Thus the insistence here is on what pressures individuals to commit crime. One of the causes of strain identified by Siegel (2012) is the lack of coping mechanisms that can be regarded adequate. In this case, citizens may be unable to cope with the social structures pressuring them to commit crime. As Siegel (2012) further points out, the major premise when it comes to anomie theory is that people may be forced to seek alternatives of attaining the various….

Sociological Theories of Crime
There are a number of respected sociological theories of crime and criminality, and in this paper four of those theories -- social control theory, strain theory, differential association theory and neutralization theory -- will be reviewed in terms of their strengths and weaknesses. Also, of the theories discussed, one or more will be referenced in terms of the relevance to a recently convicted offender.

Social Control Theory

According to professor Larry Siegel social control theories put forward the notion that everyone has the potential to become a law-breaker, and the society offers multiple opportunities for illegal activity. The attraction for some people to deal drugs or steal cars, Siegel explains, is that there is "…the promise of immediate reward and gratification" (Siegel, 2011, p. 248). And so, Siegel continues, given the attraction of crime for many, and the benefits for some, his question is: why do people obey the….

By the 1980s, theories had begun to swing the other way again, with doubts being cast on the relevance of aggregate social strain theories (Bernard 1987). Even social strain theorists were finding new and more individualistic and specific features within the theory (Agnew 1985).
In the past two decades, social strain theory has continued to be attacked by some as an antiquated and invalidated method for explaining subversive and criminal behavior, with some theorists stating outright that the empirical evidence supports alternative explanations far better than it supports traditional social strain theories (Burton et al. 1994). Other researchers have found evidence that in their view directly refutes certain aspects of social strain theory while seeming to support certain other conclusions and hypotheses that are a part of the overall explanation for criminality (De Clercq & Dakhil 2009). Ultimately, all of the problems and discrepancies that have been found with social….

influential theories related to deviance by Robert K. Merton. Firstly, the paper provides the historical context within which the theorist produced their ideas. Secondly, the paper provides a summary of their original theory. Thirdly, the paper provides a discussion of how the model has been critiqued and altered as new research has emerged. Lastly, the paper delves into the theory's current usage/popularity within criminology.
The historical context within which the theorist produced their ideas

There is huge contribution of influential theories related to deviance by Robert K. Merton. As a matter of fact, He is considered one of the most significant sociologists of modern times. Moreover, he has also made large number of contributions to the criminology field. Undoubtedly, Merton influenced various fields of science, humanities, law, political theories, economics and anthropology (Cole, 2004, p.37). Merton's introduced numerous concepts like anomie, deviant behavior, self-fulfilling prophecy, strain, middle range theory and focused….

In this view, the fact that underprivileged subcultures already promoted a different set of social values emphasizing "street smarts" and toughness instead of socially productive attributes and goals combined with the substitution of deviant role models for father figures is a significant source of criminal conduct, particularly in poor communities (Adler, Mueller & Laufer, 2008).
Other modern sociological perspectives began reconsidering crime and other forms of socially deviant behavior as primarily a function of individual psychology.

However, whereas earlier theories of individual responsibility focused on the role of rational choice, the modern approach viewed crime much more as a function of the cumulative psychological effects on the individual of the consequences of social labeling.

Furthermore, it has been suggested that much of the difference in crime rates in underprivileged communities also relates directly to the different types of characterizations and institutional responses to different types of crime in American society. Typically, many….

A more long-range vision related to a transformation of drug laws will also prevent the staggering numbers of women who encounter the criminal justice system. Theories related to role integration can inform programs designed for role modeling and coaching, which will go a long way toward promoting future community and personal health.
eferences

Bloom, B., Owen, B. & Covington, S. (2004). Women offenders and the gendered effects of public policy. eview of Public Policy esearch 21(1). etrieved online: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:Qx8Zf7qTlCYJ:cooley.libarts.wsu.edu/schwartj/pdf/bloom.pdf+&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESjdkZ0qzVgoMeOkxN_ylkKlthKinOficQx_QNfbXxiJnSWFVpcexlY4fekDBrNW1TsKK3OTVz8Ph7PJqqIW8P6AZ7_3DHeLLBqZfwdT75GFga8yw-dfyDDPE77wwcsok_ced&sig=AHIEtbOjWa5vU-Cordw1sOx2rrIhPJcQ

Bonta, J., Pang, B. & Wallace-Capretta, S. (1995). Predictors of recidivism among incarcerated female offenders. The Prison Journal 75(3): 277-294.

Covington, S.S. (1998). The relational theory of women's psychological development: Implications for the criminal justice system. etrieved online: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:IzpJVCQisyAJ:www.stephaniecovington.com/pdfs/14.pdf+&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEEShMi1zxp51XEKWScZuXra2PExdCe99H2YYt3cvPUtvm8vYxswqFa9zAHjEgCYKYzfl83Y6rf-alcMjCF8eD565m1fscAianN1Z9uwImmqDiZqQYnHrrsxZ5rNWaNyxr22BOr&sig=AHIEtbSWo_ivZrhu-c4vlIUDHqnfiObow

Covington, S.S. (1998). Women in prison. etrieved online: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:_XJIn_-dwTYJ:www.stephaniecovington.com/pdfs/15.pdf+&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESjOFr-tbjzcD1I16sbZX07sDOIfzDJCXkS-WCIXPp4JwiDQ2992lXvuillpAs-T2H-ksCWaLiQhc_Shx7bBKFqNdZKqc53vsmHniit_M2WGmxnvQIyXT7mZjpzQnTNzEFtpjB&sig=AHIEtbeyTi4bj3vJxT_gcvCOy1Q5-QIZA

Fletcher, B.., Shaver, L.D. & Moon, D.G (1993). Women Prisoners: A forgotten population. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Martinez, D.J. (2010). ole accumulation theory and prisoner integration. Probation Journal 57(2): 139-151.

Proctor,….

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2 Pages
Essay

Criminal Justice

Strain Theory There Are Many Theories That

Words: 600
Length: 2 Pages
Type: Essay

Strain Theory There are many theories that seek to explain what causes crime to occur and what motivates individuals to engage in criminal or deviant behavior. One such theory is…

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7 Pages
Essay

Criminal Justice

Strain Theory and Identity Theft

Words: 2172
Length: 7 Pages
Type: Essay

Consumer FraudIntroductionThe crime problem selected for this essay is consumer fraud, a form of deceit perpetrated against consumers involving deceptive business practices. Consumer fraud can include various scams, false…

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5 Pages
Term Paper

Criminal Justice

Offshoots of Strain Theory

Words: 1832
Length: 5 Pages
Type: Term Paper

Strain Theory The subject of strain theory is a very hot topic in the public, psychology and otherwise scholarly spheres. Indeed, academic search engines are teeming with reports, studies and…

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2 Pages
Term Paper

Criminal Justice

Compare and Contrast the Strain Theory and the Social Disorganization Theory

Words: 701
Length: 2 Pages
Type: Term Paper

Strain theory states that certain societies may pressure individuals to commit a crime. Strain may be either structural, namely where the individual feels that his or her needs are…

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5 Pages
Research Paper

Sociology

Anomie Strain Theory and Race Introduction

Words: 1432
Length: 5 Pages
Type: Research Paper

e. money and tangible acquisitions) but in unconventional, deviant, or criminal ways (Schmalleger, 2009). The other significant finding of the empirical literature is that racism also relates to Strain Theory…

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8 Pages
Research Paper

Criminology

General Strain Theory Bullying Childhood Abuse

Words: 2254
Length: 8 Pages
Type: Research Paper

General Strain Theory Summary General strain theory (GST) offers a unique explanation of delinquency and crime, which is in direct contrast to control and learning theories. The differentiation is through the…

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6 Pages
Essay

Sociology

Sociological Theories That Explain Delinquency

Words: 1773
Length: 6 Pages
Type: Essay

Theories of DelinquencyIntroductionTwo theoretical frameworks through which juvenile delinquency can be examined are Strain Theory and Social Learning Theory. For instance, Strain Theory suggests that societal pressures and the…

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4 Pages
Essay

Sociology

Social Deviance and Society

Words: 1054
Length: 4 Pages
Type: Essay

The Saints and the Roughnecks As Chambliss pointed out in his study of the “Saints and Roughnecks,” the label of deviance can become a self-fulfilling prophesy. This accords with what…

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6 Pages
Research Paper

Criminal Justice

Strain Theory and Crime

Words: 2126
Length: 6 Pages
Type: Research Paper

Crime and Its Impact on Youth Crime impacts children differently than it does adults. This paper examines the differences and the reasons children are affected uniquely by crime. It looks…

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2 Pages
Essay

Criminal Justice

Strain and Anomie Theories in This Text

Words: 657
Length: 2 Pages
Type: Essay

Strain and Anomie Theories In this text, I highlight the causes of strain and anomie. Further, in addition to describing the crime types addressed by this theoretical approach, I will…

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4 Pages
Essay

Criminal Justice

Sociological Theories of Crime There Are a

Words: 1298
Length: 4 Pages
Type: Essay

Sociological Theories of Crime There are a number of respected sociological theories of crime and criminality, and in this paper four of those theories -- social control theory, strain theory,…

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7 Pages
Article Review

Criminal Justice

Social Strain Robert K Merton's

Words: 1904
Length: 7 Pages
Type: Article Review

By the 1980s, theories had begun to swing the other way again, with doubts being cast on the relevance of aggregate social strain theories (Bernard 1987). Even social…

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11 Pages
Essay

Sociology

Influential Theories Related to Deviance by Robert

Words: 3803
Length: 11 Pages
Type: Essay

influential theories related to deviance by Robert K. Merton. Firstly, the paper provides the historical context within which the theorist produced their ideas. Secondly, the paper provides a…

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4 Pages
Essay

Criminal Justice

Sociology - Crime Theories Making

Words: 1174
Length: 4 Pages
Type: Essay

In this view, the fact that underprivileged subcultures already promoted a different set of social values emphasizing "street smarts" and toughness instead of socially productive attributes and goals…

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5 Pages
Term Paper

Criminal Justice

Conference Theories to Support Conference

Words: 1609
Length: 5 Pages
Type: Term Paper

A more long-range vision related to a transformation of drug laws will also prevent the staggering numbers of women who encounter the criminal justice system. Theories related to…

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