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There are many theories that seek to explain what causes crime to occur and what motivates individuals to engage in criminal or deviant behavior. One such theory is strain theory, which contends, "crime and criminal behavior is…essentially social phenomenon" (Arrigo, 2006, p. 57). As such, strain theory must look at society as a whole in order to determine what causes deviant behavior; however, just as strain theory seeks to explain the causes of crime, there are also limitations that are imposed upon the theory.
"Strain theory seeks to integrate the cultural context in which crime occurs…with the social mechanisms that teach one how to act criminally" (Arrigo, 2006, p. 56). obert Merton helped to define the factors that lead to strain. Merton (1968) believes that at the center of social organizations are strains, tensions, and contradictions that are "generated by society itself; they do not reside within the…
Arrigo, B. (2006). Criminal Behavior: A Systems Approach. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Merton, R. (1938, October). Social structure and anomie. American Sociological Review. 3(5),
The subject of strain theory is a very hot topic in the public, psychology and otherwise scholarly spheres. Indeed, academic search engines are teeming with reports, studies and summaries of strain theory in all of its forms, functions and offshoots. This report shall cover five scholarly-reviewed works pertaining to strain theory and/or its variants, in its entirety or in part. The true genesis of what leads some people to become criminals, what leads some people to become victims and how some people transcend both through their lives is the subject of rigorous study. While the true and complete answer to what causes some people to offend may never be known, some answers and trends are already known and some of those will be summarized in this report.
One "strain" of strain theory is the perspective of looking at direct and vicarious violent victimization. This paradigm can be…
Botchkovar, E., Tittle, C., & Antonaccio, O. (2013). Strain, Coping, and Socioeconomic
Status: Coping Histories and Present Choices. Journal Of Quantitative
Criminology, 29(2), 217-250. doi:10.1007/s10940-012-9177-7
Lin, W., Cochran, J.K., & Mieczkowski, T. (2011). Direct and Vicarious Violent
Strain theory states that certain societies may pressure individuals to commit a crime. Strain may be either structural, namely where the individual feels that his or her needs are not met and turns to crime, therefore, as way of meeting these needs. In this case, processes at the societal level filter adown and effect the individual's perception regarding how he or she perceives her need. For instance, the particular society may be too constricting and disallow the individual from meeting his needs. The individual then turns to crime as outlet to meet it.
The strain may be also individual where society's goals become so important to the individual that he or she looks for ways to achieve and meet them, and unable to accomplish them in the normal way, reverts to crime in order to do so. The end of achieving these goals, in other words, becomes more important than…
Jensen, G. (2003). Social disorganization theory. Encyc. Of Criminology. Fitzroy Dearborn Pub.
Pfohl, S.. (1994). Images of deviance and social control. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Sutherland, E.H.. (1974). Criminology (9th ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott.
e. money and tangible acquisitions) but in unconventional, deviant, or criminal ways (Schmalleger, 2009).
The other significant finding of the empirical literature is that racism also relates to Strain Theory in that social ostracism and oppression are noxious stimuli that contribute to the strain experienced by individuals (Agnew, 1992; Broidy, 2001). In that regard members of racial minority communities who are mistreated and subjected to negative messages from the predominant social groups typically identify less with the norms, values, and expectations of the predominant society. Alternatively, they may still seek the same goals promoted by the predominant society but resort to deviant and criminal methods to achieve them, partly as a result of perceived necessity and partly as a manifestation of resentment and hostility over the injustice inherent in racism and in the oppression of racial minority groups (Macionis, 2007).
acism also contributes to Anomie and strain perceived by the…
Agnew, R. "Foundation for a General Strain Theory." Criminology, Vol. 30, No. 1
Agnew, R. And Brezina, T. "Relational Problems with Peers, Gender, and Delinquency."
Youth & Society, Vol. 29, No. 1 (1997): 84-111.
General Strain Theory
General strain theory (GST) offers a unique explanation of delinquency and crime, which is in direct contrast to control and learning theories. The differentiation is through the type of social relationship that leads to delinquency, and the motivation for delinquency. By analyzing GST, we can determine the effect or how criminal behavior is developed. GST looks at how a negative relationship will affect and individual and their possibility of developing towards crime. A negative relationship can be defined as any relationship of other people that is not consistent with the individual's beliefs of how they should be treated. In this paper, we have analyzed two articles all focusing on GST. However, the two articles differ in the negative stimuli being researched. Cullen, Unnever, Hartman, Turner, and Agnew (2008) is analyzing the impact of bullying while Watts and McNulty (2013) is analyzing the impact of childhood abuse.…
The Saints and the Roughnecks
As Chambliss pointed out in his study of the “Saints and Roughnecks,” the label of deviance can become a self-fulfilling prophesy. This accords with what Lamert called the issue of primary and secondary deviance, with primary deviance being largely accepted and unpunished while secondary deviance leads more to punishment and the feeling of being an outcast (Liberman, Kirk and Kim). It also aligns with the concept of social strain theory, in which an individual is pushed to deviance by society because of inherent hypocrisy in society that angers the deviant and makes the deviant want to act out more in response (Agnew). Thirdly, it aligns with the idea of social control theory, which states that deviants act because they want to break from social controls and gain some power for themselves (Schreck and Hirschi). All three theories could be used to explain the situation of…
Agnew, R. Strain Theory. In V. Parrillo (Ed.), Encyclopedia of social problems. (pp. 904-906). Thousand Oaks: SAGE, 2009.
Lemert, Edwin M. \\\\"Primary and secondary deviation.\\\\" DR Cressey y (1969).
Liberman, Akiva M., David S. Kirk, and Kideuk Kim. \\\\"Labeling effects of first juvenile arrests: Secondary deviance and secondary sanctioning.\\\\" Criminology 52.3 (2014): 345-370.
Schreck, C. and T. Hirschi. Social Control Theory. 21st Century Criminology: A Reference Handbook. Thousand Oaks: SAGE, 2009.
Strain and Anomie Theories
In this text, I highlight the causes of strain and anomie. Further, in addition to describing the crime types addressed by this theoretical approach, I will also explain how the upper and middle class crimes apply to these theories.
Anomie or strain theories according to Einstadter and Henry (2006) "locate the cause of crime in the organization of the whole society, that is in its social structure and culture." Thus the insistence here is on what pressures individuals to commit crime. One of the causes of strain identified by Siegel (2012) is the lack of coping mechanisms that can be regarded adequate. In this case, citizens may be unable to cope with the social structures pressuring them to commit crime. As Siegel (2012) further points out, the major premise when it comes to anomie theory is that people may be forced to seek alternatives of attaining…
Einstadter, W.J. & Henry, S. (2006). Criminology Theory: An Analysis of Its Underlying Assumptions (2nd ed.). Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield.
Siegel, L.J. (2012). Criminology: Theories, Patterns, and Typologies (11th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
Vito, G. & Maahs, J. (2011). Criminology: Theory, Research, and Policy (3rd ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Psychology in Group Work
There are many theories that describe the process of human development. Most of us have identified with the learning theory. The learning theory has been given credit because it makes sense. In this article, we shall discuss one theory, which the author developed in an educational setting. The focus is on Bandura who is the key theorist in his learning theory (Agnew, 2007). Behaviors are taken into focus in Bandura's learning theory. The theory is significantly useful offering techniques of teaching and modifying of behavior. In the following sections, examples are going to be provided. This study will begin with clarification of the basic concept of the specified theory. This will be followed with a discussion of the theory's practical use: both classroom and clinical application (Bandura, 2006).
The learning theory of Bandura
The learning theory of Bandura provides that we learn from one…
Agnew, R. (1985). A revised strained theory of delinquency. Social Forces 64 (1): 151-167. doi:
Bandura, A. (2006). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory.
Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall
Sociological Theories of Crime
There are a number of respected sociological theories of crime and criminality, and in this paper four of those theories -- social control theory, strain theory, differential association theory and neutralization theory -- will be reviewed in terms of their strengths and weaknesses. Also, of the theories discussed, one or more will be referenced in terms of the relevance to a recently convicted offender.
Social Control Theory
According to professor Larry Siegel social control theories put forward the notion that everyone has the potential to become a law-breaker, and the society offers multiple opportunities for illegal activity. The attraction for some people to deal drugs or steal cars, Siegel explains, is that there is "…the promise of immediate reward and gratification" (Siegel, 2011, p. 248). And so, Siegel continues, given the attraction of crime for many, and the benefits for some, his question is: why do…
Akers, Ronald L. (1999). Criminological Theories. Florence, KY: Taylor & Francis.
Briggs, Steven, and Friedman, Joan. (2009). Criminology for Dummies. Hoboken, NJ: John
Wiley & Sons.
Siegel, Larry J. (2011). Criminology. Florence, KY: Cengage Learning.
By the 1980s, theories had begun to swing the other way again, with doubts being cast on the relevance of aggregate social strain theories (Bernard 1987). Even social strain theorists were finding new and more individualistic and specific features within the theory (Agnew 1985).
In the past two decades, social strain theory has continued to be attacked by some as an antiquated and invalidated method for explaining subversive and criminal behavior, with some theorists stating outright that the empirical evidence supports alternative explanations far better than it supports traditional social strain theories (Burton et al. 1994). Other researchers have found evidence that in their view directly refutes certain aspects of social strain theory while seeming to support certain other conclusions and hypotheses that are a part of the overall explanation for criminality (De Clercq & Dakhil 2009). Ultimately, all of the problems and discrepancies that have been found with social…
Agnew, R. (1985). A revised strain theory of delinquency. Social forces 64(1): 151-67.
Bernard, T. (1987). Testing social strain theories. Journal of research in crime and delinquency 24(4): 262-80.
Burton, V., Cullen, F., Evans, T. & Dunaway, R. (1994). Reconsidering strain theory: Operationalization, rival theories, and adult criminality. Journal of quantitative criminology 10(3): 213039.
De Clercq, D. & Dakhil, M. (2009). Personal strain and ethical standards of the self-employed. Journal of business venturing 24(5): 477-90.
In the world of criminology, several theories have been constructed to help legal professionals understand the nature of and motive behind criminal activity. Studying these more closely can help with the rehabilitation of criminals and curb criminal activity. Criminal theory, therefore, is constructed to determine ways in which to prevent crime and mitigate the crime being committed. Theories such as the social control theory, strain theory, differential association theory, and neutralization theory can therefore be used for the purposes mentioned above. Each theory has its strenghts and weaknesses; to determine the theory to use could be determined on a case by case basis, hence enhancing the strengths and minimizing the weaknesses of the theory in question.
According to Welch (1998), Hirschi wrote his Causes of Delinquency, in which he developed the social control theory, during the 1960s. This was a troubled time in social terms, and American society…
Ball, R.A. (2006, Mar 7). An Empirical Exploration of Neutralization Theory. Criminology, Vol 4, Iss 2. Retrieved from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1966.tb00147.x/abstract
Matsueda, R.L. (2000). Differential Association Theory. Retrieved from: http://www.soc.washington.edu/users/matsueda/DA.pdf
Nash, M. (2002, Nov. 15). General Strain Theory as an Explanation for Crime and Deviance. Retrieved from: http://web.viu.ca/crim/student/nash.pdf
Welch, K. (1998, Nov. 30). Two Major Theories of Travis Hirschi. Retrieved from: http://criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/hirschi.htm
influential theories related to deviance by Robert K. Merton. Firstly, the paper provides the historical context within which the theorist produced their ideas. Secondly, the paper provides a summary of their original theory. Thirdly, the paper provides a discussion of how the model has been critiqued and altered as new research has emerged. Lastly, the paper delves into the theory's current usage/popularity within criminology.
The historical context within which the theorist produced their ideas
There is huge contribution of influential theories related to deviance by Robert K. Merton. As a matter of fact, He is considered one of the most significant sociologists of modern times. Moreover, he has also made large number of contributions to the criminology field. Undoubtedly, Merton influenced various fields of science, humanities, law, political theories, economics and anthropology (Cole, 2004, p.37). Merton's introduced numerous concepts like anomie, deviant behavior, self-fulfilling prophecy, strain, middle range theory and…
American Sociological Review (2012). Retrieved January 29, 2014 from http://garfield.library.upenn.edu/histcomp/index-merton.html
Bernanke, Ben, S. (1995) 'The Macroeconomics of the Great Depression: A Comparative Approach', Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, 27 February.
Bivens, T. (2004). Robert K. Merton Draft. Florida State University Publications
Calhoun, C. (2003). Remembering Robert K. Merton. Papers in Honor of Robert K. Merton. 175-220. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
In this view, the fact that underprivileged subcultures already promoted a different set of social values emphasizing "street smarts" and toughness instead of socially productive attributes and goals combined with the substitution of deviant role models for father figures is a significant source of criminal conduct, particularly in poor communities (Adler, Mueller & Laufer, 2008).
Other modern sociological perspectives began reconsidering crime and other forms of socially deviant behavior as primarily a function of individual psychology.
However, whereas earlier theories of individual responsibility focused on the role of rational choice, the modern approach viewed crime much more as a function of the cumulative psychological effects on the individual of the consequences of social labeling.
Furthermore, it has been suggested that much of the difference in crime rates in underprivileged communities also relates directly to the different types of characterizations and institutional responses to different types of crime in American society.…
John Adler, John Mueller, and John Laufer. Criminology (6th Edition). City, State:
McGraw-Hill, 2008. MLA
Adler J, Mueller J, and Laufer J. (2008). Criminology (6th Edition). City, State: McGraw-Hill. APA
A more long-range vision related to a transformation of drug laws will also prevent the staggering numbers of women who encounter the criminal justice system. Theories related to role integration can inform programs designed for role modeling and coaching, which will go a long way toward promoting future community and personal health.
Bloom, B., Owen, B. & Covington, S. (2004). Women offenders and the gendered effects of public policy. eview of Public Policy esearch 21(1). etrieved online: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:Qx8Zf7qTlCYJ:cooley.libarts.wsu.edu/schwartj/pdf/bloom.pdf+&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESjdkZ0qzVgoMeOkxN_ylkKlthKinOficQx_QNfbXxiJnSWFVpcexlY4fekDBrNW1TsKK3OTVz8Ph7PJqqIW8P6AZ7_3DHeLLBqZfwdT75GFga8yw-dfyDDPE77wwcsok_ced&sig=AHIEtbOjWa5vU-Cordw1sOx2rrIhPJcQ
Bonta, J., Pang, B. & Wallace-Capretta, S. (1995). Predictors of recidivism among incarcerated female offenders. The Prison Journal 75(3): 277-294.
Covington, S.S. (1998). The relational theory of women's psychological development: Implications for the criminal justice system. etrieved online: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:IzpJVCQisyAJ:www.stephaniecovington.com/pdfs/14.pdf+&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEEShMi1zxp51XEKWScZuXra2PExdCe99H2YYt3cvPUtvm8vYxswqFa9zAHjEgCYKYzfl83Y6rf-alcMjCF8eD565m1fscAianN1Z9uwImmqDiZqQYnHrrsxZ5rNWaNyxr22BOr&sig=AHIEtbSWo_ivZrhu-c4vlIUDHqnfiObow
Covington, S.S. (1998). Women in prison. etrieved online: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:_XJIn_-dwTYJ:www.stephaniecovington.com/pdfs/15.pdf+&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESjOFr-tbjzcD1I16sbZX07sDOIfzDJCXkS-WCIXPp4JwiDQ2992lXvuillpAs-T2H-ksCWaLiQhc_Shx7bBKFqNdZKqc53vsmHniit_M2WGmxnvQIyXT7mZjpzQnTNzEFtpjB&sig=AHIEtbeyTi4bj3vJxT_gcvCOy1Q5-QIZA
Fletcher, B.., Shaver, L.D. & Moon, D.G (1993). Women Prisoners: A forgotten population. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Martinez, D.J. (2010). ole accumulation theory and…
Bloom, B., Owen, B. & Covington, S. (2004). Women offenders and the gendered effects of public policy. Review of Public Policy Research 21(1). Retrieved online: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:Qx8Zf7qTlCYJ:cooley.libarts.wsu.edu/schwartj/pdf/bloom.pdf+&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESjdkZ0qzVgoMeOkxN_ylkKlthKiRnOficQx_QNfbXxiJnSWFVpcexlY4fekDBrNW1TsKK3OTVz8Ph7PJqqIW8P6AZ7_3DHeLLBqZfwdT75GFga8Ryw-RdfyDDPE77wwcsok_ced&sig=AHIEtbROjWa5vU-CorRdw1sOx2rrIhPJcQ
Bonta, J., Pang, B. & Wallace-Capretta, S. (1995). Predictors of recidivism among incarcerated female offenders. The Prison Journal 75(3): 277-294.
Covington, S.S. (1998). The relational theory of women's psychological development: Implications for the criminal justice system. Retrieved online: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:IzpJVCQisyAJ:www.stephaniecovington.com/pdfs/14.pdf+&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEEShMi1zxp51XEKWRScZuXra2PExRdCe99H2YYt3cvPUtvm8vYxswqFa9zAHjEgCYKYzfRl83Y6rf-alcMjCF8eD565m1fscAianN1Z9uwImmqDiZqQYnHrrsxZ5rNWaNyxr22BOr&sig=AHIEtbSWo_ivZrhu-c4vlRIUDHqnfiObow
Covington, S.S. (1998). Women in prison. Retrieved online: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:_XJIn_-dwTYJ:www.stephaniecovington.com/pdfs/15.pdf+&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESjOFr-tbjzcD1I16sbZX07sDOIfzDJCXkS-WCIXPp4JwiDQ2992lXRvuillpAs-T2H-ksCWaLiQhc_ShxR7bBKFqNdZKqc53vsmHniit_M2WGmxnvQIyXT7mZjpzQnTNzEFtpjB&sig=AHIEtbReyTi4bj3vJxT_gcvCOy1Q5-QIZA
Sociological theories have helped widen people's scope on social behaviors and societies. In fact, the study of sociological theories makes one develop a comprehensive understanding of sociology's past, present and future. There are a number of sociological theories namely: symbolic interaction theory, conflict theory, functionalist theory, feminist theory, critical theory, labeling theory, social learning theory, and structural strain theory among others (Giddens, 1997).
Government, religion, education, economics and family are some of the five major social institutions that have been there for quite some time. This term paper seeks to evaluate the impacts of functionalism, conflict, and interaction theories on the family institution. The paper will address how each of the theories apply to the family as a social institution; the similarities and differences that exist; how each theory affects the views of an individual who is a member of the family unit; how each of the theories affect approach…
Giddens, A. (1997). Sociology. Cambridge: Polity.
McLennan, G, Allanah, R., & Spoonley, P. (2000). Exploring society: Sociology
for New Zealand students. Auckland: Pearson.
Stephens, P., & Leach, A. (1998). Think Sociology. New York: Nelson Thornes.
371). In addition, the cultural strain can result to conflicts like for instance when the fundamentalists denies the proposition to abandon their traditions (Allan, 2005, p. 367), where the strain as an agitation of a cultural anticipation in a system, as it tries to disturb the equilibrium of the system.
Considering a society characterized by different individuals that have varied backgrounds and understanding, shaped by different surroundings, and having understanding that there exists no perfect society, this society from the continuing challenges is experiencing cultural strain, as there exists differences in opinions from the structural constituents of the system thus an abrupt need for social modification. This is from the mechanical solidarity resulting from valued traditional practices as well as values and beliefs, and on the other part organic solidarity where there are differences on individual demands concerning their tasks. From a Parson's approach, this rapid need for change then…
Allan, K. (2005). Explorations in classical theory: Seeing the social world. Thousand Oaks, CA:
Pine Forge Press.
Hartnell. (n.d.). Sociological theories: the anomie strain theory, society is underachiever.
Hartlnell.edu. Retrieved from www.hartnell.edu/faculty/lbertomen/.../Sociological%20TheoriesI.ppt
Criminal Justice Theory and the Los Angeles County Probation Department
Criminal and antisocial behaviors have been studied in the field of criminology for many years. Criminologists are very interested to learn what types of things cause specific criminal and antisocial behaviors. hile criminal behavior and antisocial behavior are not always related, they often have close ties. Criminologists and other researchers are looking to find commonalities between certain genetic makeups and deviant behavior. They believe that many people are genetically predisposed to be violent, and if these people can be located they can be treated.
That does not mean that criminologists are in favor of testing everyone's genetic makeup on the planet to see if any of them show violent tendencies. hat they are interested in doing, however, is studying criminals who already have a history of violent and deviant behavior to see what other traits they have, and what their…
Anderson, R.H. (2000, January 13). Unit 5: deviance, conformity and social control. University of Colorado at Denver. Retrieved September 2, 2005, from http://psychology. about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http%3A%2F%2Fthunder1.cudenver.edu%2F%2Fsociology%2Fintrosoc%2Ftopics%2FUnitNotes%2Fweek05.html
Brand, C. Cycad Web Works. (2003, February). Can crime be traced to such often-mooted personality features as extraversion and lack-of-conscientiousness? Are genetic factors involved-in whatever interaction with the environment? And can any therapeutic or preventive steps by recommended? Retrieved August 29, 2005, from http://www.cycad.com/cgi-bin/Brand/quotes/q16.html
Brunet, J.R. (2002, November 15). Discouragement of Crime Through Civil Remedies: An Application of a Reformulated Routine Activities Theory. In Western Criminology Review 4 (1) Retrieved September 5, 2005, from http://wcr.sonoma.edu/v4n1/brunet. html
Casey, D. Human Genome Project. (1997, June). Introduction. Retrieved September 1, 2005, from http://www.ornl.gov/TechResources/Human_Genome/publicat / primer/prim1.html
Certainly, the reason that some individuals become criminals has to do with biological predisposition, particularly in the case of many crimes of violence. On the other hand, circumstances, greed, desperation, and opportunity also play an undeniable role in many crimes. Social class and exposure to deviant subcultures also contributes to criminal behavior (Henslin, 2002; Macionis, 2003), but even so, those risk factors do not affect everyone the same; therefore, those approaches also fail to explain crime in many cases (Henslin, 2002; Macionis, 2003).
In some ways, the recent occurrences involving ernard Madoff and several other high profile white collar criminals do not seem to fit any of the traditional criminological theories other than rational choice and possibly psychological disorder. These perpetrators were already the recipients of the considerable benefits of social class and opportunity and were already wealthy even by contemporary American definitions of wealth before resorting to crime to…
Henslin, J.M. (2002). Essentials of Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Macionis, J.J. (2003). Sociology 9th Edition. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Schmalleger, F. (2007). Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st Century. Hoboken, NJ: Prentice Hall
social structures exert a definite pressure upon certain persons in the society to engage in nonconformist rather than conformist conduct," (Merton, 1938, p. 672). With his own italics emphasizing the stress and strain that social structures can produce in the individual, obert Merton outlines the basis of strain and stress theories. Stress is a natural part of life; it is how people cope with stress or react to it that matters most. Individual differences in background, situational variables, and also personality and psychological traits can also impact how people deal with stress and respond to stressors. However, some people will naturally encounter more stressors and more strain than others. Merton and other sociologists who recognized the value of strain theory showed how poverty and other structural variables cause stress and strain, and can often be the cause for behavioral problems including criminality. Yet once a person has been labeled a…
Agnew, R. & Scheuerman, H. (2015). Strain theories. Retrieved online: http://www.oxfordbibliographies.com/view/document/obo-9780195396607/obo-9780195396607-0005.xml
"Labeing Theory," (n.d.). Retrieved online: https://www.d.umn.edu/~bmork/2306/Theories/BAMlabeling.htm
McLeod, S. (2010). Stressful life events. Retrieved online: http://www.simplypsychology.org/SRRS.html
Merton, R.K. (1938). Social structure and anomie. American Sociological Review 3(5): 672-682.
theoretical concepts from parts XII and XIII to the events and actors at the Malheur Wildlife efuge occupation. Be sure to utilize the different sections in your application.
Environmental criminology often focuses on opportunity theory, which is linked with rational choice theory. Opportunity theory suggests that criminal behavior is motivated or prompted by available opportunities to commit the crime. Although the Malheur occupiers were not environmental criminals in the traditional sense of being motivated also by an environmentalist agenda with related ecological goals, the Malheur Wildlife efuge is a nature preserve. There are also compounding issues related to territoriality, the "extent to which a space conveys a sense of being 'owned' or 'private' and has having clearly designated purposes," (XII, p. 459). Territoriality has been a primary driving factor in the occupation. The occupiers, spearheaded by Ammon Bundy and the Hammond brothers "sought to turn the refuge into a symbol…
Bernton, Hal. "Birds -- and staff -- return to Malheur National Wildlife Refuge." Seattle Times. 27 March, 2016. Retrieved online: http://www.seattletimes.com/seattle-news/northwest/birds-and-staff-return-to-malheur-national-wildlife-refuge/
Carpenter, Zoe. "Inside the Bundy Brothers' Armed Occupation." The Nation. Jan 5, 2016. Retrieved online: http://www.thenation.com/article/inside-the-malheur-wildlife-refuge-occupation/
Classical theory elucidates crime as a creation and outcome of beliefs that advantages of committing crimes are extremely greater than normative, socially acceptable behavior. The foundation of this school of thought on criminology is that crime is a rational choice and that many individuals have the capacity to resort to crime. In addition, individuals will commit crime subsequent to the comparison of prospective advantages and disadvantages of such actions. The positivist school of criminology tries to ascribe crime causation to understood, contemplative assertion of advantages that criminal activities carry. Next, sociological school of criminology asserts that crime comes about due to manifold factors that can be split into mental, biological, and social factors. Therefore, it implies that crime is a result of social factors and elements that influence the behavior of human beings.
eek 2 Discussion
Siegel delineates the three different ways crime is recorded in our country. The…
Boston University Metropolitan College. Reintegrative Shaming & Restorative Justice, 2016. Web. Retrieved: https://learn.bu.edu/bbcswebdav/pid-1942479-dt-content-rid-6162758_1/courses/14sprgmetcj602_ol/week06/metcj602_W06L01T04_Reintegrative.html
Criminal Justice. Similarities and Differences Between Social Control Theories and Other Major Theories of Crime. Social Control Theory, 2016. Web. Retrieved http://criminal-justice.iresearchnet.com/criminology/theories/social-control-theory/7/
Mongold, Jennifer L., and Bradley D. Edwards. "Reintegrative Shaming: Theory into Practice." Journal of Theoretical & Philosophical Criminology 6.3 (2014): 205.
Podgor, Ellen S. "The challenge of white collar sentencing." The Journal of criminal law and criminology (2007): 731-759.
Homelessness in America has been a problem for a very long time. The homeless are a vulnerable population therefore something has to be done to make sure that the situation is either controlled or improved. One suggestion I would make is putting the homeless up in a local shelter and tries to re-integrate them back to the society very rapidly. The shelter encourages the people to look out for themselves by requiring that the homeless take part in the upkeep of the shelter if they want to stay. The second suggestion would be enabling these homeless people at these shelters go back to work. Social workers can help the homeless get their birth certificates or proof that they are citizens and a social security card hence they can be bale to get work. These ideas can make the homeless more responsible and hence they can be able to stand out…
Rebecca Bay, (2014). Testing for the Chivalry Hypothesis within the Central Nebraska Drug Court System. University of Nebraska at Kearney. Retrieved July 24,2014 from http://www.lopers.net/student_org/SSRP/papers/pdf/crj_bayr.pdf
Social Control Theory of Juvenile Delinquency
Travis Hirschi's Social Control theory of deviance assumes that deviant behavior is largely a function of the connectedness of the individual to his or her society; more specifically, Hirschi's assumptions are that juvenile delinquency, and criminal deviance more generally, are inversely related to the following elements of connectedness between the individual and the community: involvement, commitment, attachment, and belief (Akers & Sellers, 2004; Huebner & Betts, 2002).
Structure of Theory
Hirschi used the concept of involvement to describe the manner and extent to which the individuals takes part in the so-called "conventional" activities, such as extracurricular school functions and other organized opportunities for socially productive youth recreation available in the community (Macionis, 2008). Hirschi used the concept of commitment, to describe the basic "acceptance" in the most general senses, of fundamental social and behavioral norms, values, and expectations in the individual's community…
Akers, R.L., and Sellers, C.S. (2004). Criminological Theories: Introduction,
Evaluation, and Application. California: Roxbury Publishing Company.
Button, D.M. "Social Disadvantage and Family Violence: Neighborhood Effects on Attitudes about Intimate Partner Violence and Corporal Punishment." American
Journal of Criminal Justice, Vol. 33 (2008):130 -- 147.
In ode to get beyond such shallow viewpoints, they need to meely use such diffeences as the stating point fo thei conception of people fom othe ethnicities, and actually get beyond that bing about an impovement in inteacial elations.
As such, it is extemely inteesting to note how sociological concepts of standpoint theoy and systems of pivilege typify many of the esponses that Chistenson had to opinions and statements voiced by othe men in the video. Fo the most pat, Chistenson's esponses eithe contained an element of ignoance o outight disbelief to many of the social baies and misconceptions that the men of colo spoke about. These poclivities of Chistenson can widely be ationalized via standpoint theoy, which poses the notion that people's system of beliefs is geatly affected by the social goup they ae a pat of. Moeove, this theoem places a fai amount of emphasis on hegemony, a…
references within this article, he explains how people tend to follow those who are in authority, and also display the tendency to not desire to deviate from the norm. Doing so within the social context of interracial relations, for instance, would require regarding people with less power and privilege in a manner in which there is social equality -- which is a character trait that is not generally part of human nature, which tends to follow an established tradition. Meyer's article implies that nice people would rather go along and do what everybody else is doing, adhering to any authority figures along the way, that deviate and actually think for themselves and treat people differently as a result. This article denotes all the more reason why it is important to merely use the differences in various ethnic groups as a starting point for the nature of interracial relations.
In summary, there is a plentiful amount of evidence that denotes that there are pronounced differences afforded to people of different social standings. Privilege theory and standpoint theory indicate that these differences can account for the bulk of the way that people view and, ultimately, treat other people. Johnson's first two chapters in his manuscript confirm the degree of privilege afforded to those of historical majority groups in the U.S. Meyers' indicates that people will tend to conform to such unfair treatment of others -- unless they make a conscious decision to only use ethnic differences as a starting point, not ending point, for the basis of treatment between races.
theories currently being used in the field of nursing today. While each has their respective positive and negative points, all are useful in certain nursing settings, and can assist nurses in their positions. This paper will discuss two of those theorists, Jean Watson and Jean Piaget. Each theory will be discussed and explained, and examples of how each can be applied in the field of nursing will be discussed. This paper will show that both theories, though very different, can be useful in the field of nursing.
The Theory of Human Caring, created by Jean Watson, was originally developed based on Watson's experiences as both a teacher and in the nursing profession. According to Watson, the theory was created to explain those values of nursing that differ from the values of "curative factors," those of doctors and specialists. The Theory of Human Caring is devised based on the explicit values,…
Erci, B., Sayan, A., Kilic, D., Sahin, O., & Gungormus, Z. (2000). The effectiveness of Watson's caring model on the quality of life and blood pressure of patients with hypertension. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 41 (2), 130-139.
Evans, R. (1973). Jean Piaget: The Man and His Ideas. New York, N.YE.P. Dutton & Co., Inc.
Watson, J. (1979). Nursing: The philosophy and science of caring. Boston, M.A.: Little Brown.
Watson, J. (1988). Nursing: Human science and human: A theory of nursing. New York, N.Y.: National League for Nursing.
S. involvement in World War II.
Is it possible to have a general theory of war?
Perhaps the most well-known "theory" of war is articulated in Matthew 24:6: "You will hear of wars and rumors of wars. . . . Such things must happen" (New International Version 1984). Therefore, although it is possible to have a general theory of war, any such theory will be limited in its ability to explain the why's and how's of its occurrence. According to Gray (1999), in his seminal text, on War, Carl Philipp Gottfried von Clausewitz, set forth a modern general theory of war, but Sun Tzu's Art of War also addressed this issue. Clausewitz, though, is cited time and again in the relevant literature as having propounded a general theory of war. For instance, eid (2004) reports that, "In particular, he seeks to explain the methods to establish a general theory of…
Clausewitz, C.V. (1976) on War. Princeton, NJ.
Gray, C.S. (1999) Modern Strategy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
-. The 21st Century Security Environment and the Future of War. Parameters, 38(4): 14-9.
Lichbach, M.I. (1989) "An evaluation of 'does economic inequality breed political conflict?'
Compare and contrast at least three views on what constitutes a theory. Distinguish the related concepts of theories, such as hypothesis, paradigm, model and concept.
Differentiating between hypothesis and theory
The word hypothesis is a description of various phenomenon occurring. In most cases, it's not a confirm statement. In other cases, it can be well-developed, designed and explained to follow through the workings and mechanisms of certain phenomenon. According to one definition, it states particularly that it's a precursor to a conditional proposition. A hypothesis is an unconfirmed theory. One can develop a hypothesis while the observation is being tested, that could be unconfirmed too. By an observation, one can simply have a window of opportunity to verify a hypothesis. A hypothesis can be detailed and inclusive of details. This permits lucid testing. Apart from that, it is the distinguishing factor from a theory (Harris, 2001).
The word theory…
Ardichvili, A., & Gasparishvili, A. (2001). Leadership profiles of managers in post-communist countries: A comparative study. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 22(2): 62-75.
Ashkanasy, N.M., Trevor-Roberts, E., & Earnshaw, L. (2002). The Anglo cluster: Legacy of the British Empire. Journal of World Business, 37, 28-39.
Bakacsi, G., Sandor, T., Andra, K., & Viktor, I. (2002). Eastern European cluster: Tradition and transition. Journal of World Business, 37, 69-80.
Bass, B.M. (1990). Bass and Stogdill's Handbook of Leadership. (3rd Edition.). New York: Free Press.
Bioecological Theory and the Family and Community Resource Conceptual Framework)
The Case History
"Kerry" has twin girls who are now 4 years old. he had been living with her defacto "Dean" for the past 6 years. he is a qualified beautician and has previously run a small business from home before the birth of the twins. he undertook schooling until year 12 (equal to UA high school diploma) at a public school, is one of two children herself and has supportive parents in a middle income suburb. he left her defacto 10 months ago after two years of domestic violence brought on by the use intravenous "speed." he has an AVO (Aggravated Violence Order) on "Dean" for 12 months. During the previous two years "Kerry" was subjected to physical and psychological trauma, the twins witnessed this abuse. "Dean" is on a fly in fly out basis working in the mines…
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The Ecology of Human Development: Experiments by Nature and Design. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Caspi, J (2008). Building a Sibling Aggression Treatment Model: Design and Development Research in Action, Research on Social Work Practice, 18: 575
Paquette, D & Ryan. J (2001). Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Systems Theory
Prochaska, J.O., & Norcross, J.C. (2007). Systems of Psychotherapy: A Trans-theoretical Analysis, Sixth Edition. Belmont, CA: Thompson Brooks/Cole.
Psychological theories of criminal behavior focus on the individual, rather than on contextual factors (as sociological theories of crime do) or on biological factors (such as genetics). Personality, traits, and cognitions are all covered under the rubric of psychological theories of crime. One of the prevailing and most widely accepted psychological theory of crime is rational choice theory. ational choice theory " is perhaps the most common reason why criminals do the things they do," accounting for a wide variety of criminal behaviors (Dechant, 2009). The theory was first suggested and developed by William Glasser, and has since become a default theory of explaining everything from petty theft to white-collar crime.
ational choice theory is relatively straightforward. The individual is believed to be acting rationally, making decisions based on personal need, convenience, and expediency. The theory permits for individual differences, as each person may be motivated by different…
Dechant, A.B. (2009). The psychology of criminal behavior: Theories from past to present. Coastline Journal. Retrieved online: http://coastlinejournal.org/2009/04/13/the-psychology-of-criminal-behaviour-theories-from-past-to-present/
Gul, S.K. (2009). An evaluation of the rational choice theory in criminology. Sociology and Applied Science 4(8): 36-44.
Li, H., Zhang, J. & Sarathy, R. (2010). Understanding compliance with internet use policy from the perspective of rational choice theory. Decision Support Systems 48(4): 635-645.
Scott, J. (2000). Rational choice theory From Understanding Contemporary Society: Theories of The Present, edited by G. Browning, A. Halcli, and F. Webster. Sage Publications.
HM Organizational Behavior, Theories, Frameworks and the Links Between Individual and Organizational Performance
This work in writing conducts a critical evaluation of HM Organizational Behavior Theories Frameworks that link performance.
Defining and measuring the effectiveness and performance of workers is a specific part of the HM manager's work. The question presenting is one that asks how the skills, behaviors and attitudes that are needed by workers to successfully and effectively perform their roles is defined. One way of measuring this is linking the performance of individuals to the organizational goals. This is generally accomplished through use of competencies which are described as "the integrated knowledge, skills, judgment, and attributes that people need to perform a job effectively. By having a defined set of competencies for each role in the business, it shows workers the kinds of behaviors the organizational values…" (MindTools, 2011) Lawrence (1998) reports that people are "multifaceted and…
Alderfer, C.P. (1972). Existence, relatedness, and growth. New York: Free Press.
Argyris, C. & Schon, DA (1996) Organizational Learning II Theory, Method, and Practice. Reading MA: Addison-Wesley.
Beer, M. (1980) Organization Change and Development: A Systems View. Santa Monica, CA, Goodyear.
Castellano, William G. (nd) A New Framework of Employee Engagement. Center for Human Resource Strategy Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey.
Educational Theories Guiding Educational Experience
Description of an education event experienced
I am a dentist, and I have started a course on teaching dentistry. My experience with education was never a particularly encouraging one as my teacher was always absent. When I was at school, the teachers went on strike, and that left us with no attention from them. We had to do much of the studying alone, and all required research lay squarely on our shoulders in the absence of teachers for as long as they were striking. Whenever the teachers came around school, they applied a work to rule strategy and that was extremely devastating. Lecturers were never available for any extra consultation, and we had to take our learning as individual responsibilities instead of waiting for support or guidance from lecturers. Any difficulties, which we may have faced during the study never, had a chance in the…
Annand, D. (2011). Social presence within the community of inquiry framework. The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 12(5), 40-56. Aristotle.
(2002). Aristotle nicomachean ethics. (J. Sachs, Trans.). Newburyport, MA: Focus
Publishing/R. Pullins Co.
Baker, C. (2010). The impact of instructor immediacy and presence for online student affective learning, cognition, and motivation. The Journal of Educators online, 7(1), 1-30.
Motivational Theories for Various Employee Groups
The force that initiates certain behavior in a person is also called motivation. Motivational theories have been developed by researchers using various mechanisms like state of mind, basic needs, desires and goals of a person.
Two-Factor Theory (Herzberg)
The two-factor theory was published in 1959 by Herzberg after doing a research on the job attitudes for five years. Two different factors affect job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction, as the theory states. Thus, dissatisfaction and satisfaction should not be measured using the same continuum. The two motivating factors of the theory are motivation and hygiene factors. Motivation factors produce positive satisfaction to an employee, they are mainly intrinsic conditions e.g. responsibility, recognition, challenging work and achievement. Hygiene factors are extrinsic job conditions and absence of these results in job dissatisfaction e.g. working conditions, company policies, pay, supervision, job security, status and fringe benefits Sutaria, 1980()…
Gagne, M., & Deci, E.L. (2005). Self-Determination Theory and Work Motivation. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26(4), 331-362.
Gratton, L.C. (1980). Analysis of Maslow's Need Hierarchy with Three Social Class Groups. Social Indicators Research, 7(1/4), 463-476.
Shore, T., Sy, T., & Strauss, J. (2006). Leader Responsiveness, Equity Sensitivity, and Employee Attitudes and Behavior. Journal of Business and Psychology, 21(2), 227-241.
Sutaria, R. (1980). Personality, Needs and Two-Factor Theory of Work Motivation. Indian Journal of Industrial Relations, 16(2), 219-232.
Alcoholism and Upbringing
James' father is responsible for James' involvement in crime and burglary. Origin of the problem. Alcoholic parents are the reason for the moral decay of juveniles
Another reason for James' feelings of inadequacy
Effect of alcoholism in the upbringing of a child
The effect of taking James out of his mother's home as a juvenile
An examination of James' denial of his responsibility over his problem
Personality and sociological theory
An explanation of James' behaviors, and his father using the two frameworks
Thorburn (2005) suggests that a misapprehension that numerous alcoholics seem to have is that their behavior does not affect other people. They deny ever hurting other people but themselves. A great deal of research and huge anecdotal proof suggest otherwise. The behavior of alcoholics can affect those around them, including family members, friends, coworkers and employers. Children…
Plant, M.A., Peck, D.F., Samuel, E., & Stuart, R. (2000). Alcohol, drugs, and school-leavers.
London: Tavistock Publications.
Thorburn, D. (2005). Alcoholism myths and realities: Removing the stigma of society's most destructive disease. Northridge, Calif: Galt Pub.
Floyd, M.R., & Seale, J.P. (2002). Substance abuse: A patient-centered approach. Abingdon,
Nursing Concepts and Theory
Conceptual-Theoretical Structure paper
Personal belief about nursing theory and knowledge development process for nursing practice
All nursing theories play an important role in defining nursing and giving the roles that nurses need to play. Originally, the role of nurses was simply to carry out activities as instructed by doctors, however, over the years, this role has been changed to include more responsibilities as the nursing world has evolved. Nursing theories describe, predict and explain the various phenomena in nursing practice and thus create foundations for nursing practice. They also help to generate knowledge in the field of nursing and to point the direction which the field should develop in future. This view is supported by Carper (1978)
who states that nursing theories elaborate nursing practice and create professional boundaries for the profession. Nursing knowledge comes from research that has been conducted on nursing which forms scientific…
Anderson, A.M. (2005). Nursing Leadership, Management, and Professional Practice for the LPN/LVN (3rd ed.). Philadelphia: F.A. Davis Company.
Carper, B. (1978). Fundamental patterns of knowing in nursing. Advances in Nursing Science, 1(1), 13-23.
Clark, M.J. (2003). Community health nursing: Caring for populations (Fourth ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Dayer-Berenson, L. (2010). Cultural Competencies for Nurses: Impact on Health and Illness. Burlington, Massachusetts: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Rocks That Exhibit Ductile Strain Were Probably Deformed
Choose one answer.
at the surface of the earth.
when they were cold.
when the stress was applied very rapidly.
at a depth within Earth at elevated temperatures.
If rocks exhibit ductile behavior when exposed to compressive stress, they generally will form
Choose one answer.
Which of the following types of strain does not result in permanent deformation?
Choose one answer.
Faults are geologic structures that result from which type of strain?
Choose one answer.
a. brittle strain
b. ductile strain
c. elastic strain
In the Lesson 4 Topic 2 video, "Measuring Earthquake Intensity and Magnitude," you were able to see that the rupture from the 1906 earthquake traveled from mile marker 80 to mile marker 100 in 10 seconds. At…
Nearing the end of the 1960s, the analytic or language philosophy became the central focus point which led to the isolation of the classroom setting and the problems that came with it (Greene, 2000).
Most of the educational philosophers of the time were inclined towards restricting themselves to the official aspects and problems like the sovereignty of the system without any influence from the society and the surrounding environment and the assessment of the calls and school structure conducted for its growth or for the progression of the epistemology that it embodied (Greene, 2000).
All those setups that seemed to be coming across as invasive or seemed to add a personalized bias where it didn't belong were quickly identified and removed. This was one of the reasons that led to the obsession of the possible consequences that could exist due to the practicality of the philosophical theories. Inflexibility was adeptly…
Aleman, a.M. (1999). Que Culpa Tengo Yo? Performing Identity and College Teaching. Educational Theory 49, no. 1: 37-52;
Arons, S. (1984). Playing Ball with the Rodriguez Court: Three Strikes and You're Out. Educational Theory 34, no. 1: 23-27.
Brameld, T. et al., (1952). Existentialism and Education. Educational Theory 2, no. 2.
Buchmann, M. (1987). Impractical Philosophizing about Teachers' Arguments. Educational Theory 37, no. 4: 361-411.
Deontology and Consequentialism
An Analysis of "Rightness" from Deontological and Teleological Perspectives
Deontological ethics stems from the notion that one is obliged by duty to behave in a "moral" manner. There are a number of theories that range from moral absolutism to Divine Command theory that may be described as deontological, but each differs in its approach to "morality" even though each recognizes an "obligation" to attend to a set of rules. In contrast to deontological ethics are teleological ethics, which gauge the morality of one's actions by their consequences. A number of theories may be classified as teleological, such as utilitarianism, pragmatism and consequentialism. This paper will explore the ideas behind deontological and teleological ethics and show how an approach to "morality" must observe at least some objective standard, and that it is the objective standard that makes an action "right," and not the dutiful adherence to the standard…
Dreier, Jamie. "In defense of consequentializing."
Horgan, Terrry; Timmons, Mark. "Untying a Knot from the Inside Out: Reflections on the 'Paradox' of Supererogation."
Locke, John. "Essay Concerning Human Understanding." Bartleby. Web. 27 Nov
Darwin's Theory Of Evolution
The construct of irreducible complexity is a pivotal aspect of genetic theory and of Darwinian theory. Irreducible complexity is a nexus of the older science of biology from which Darwin built his theory and modern genetic engineering. Darwin's words for irreducible complexity, most commonly associated with his argument about the construction of the eye, were "Organs of extreme perfection and complication," and Darwin further explicates,
"Reason tells me, that if numerous gradations from a simple and imperfect eye to one complex and perfect can be shown to exist, each grade being useful to its possessor, as is certainly the case; if further, the eye ever varies and the variations be inherited, as is likewise certainly the case and if such variations should be useful to any animal under changing conditions of life, then the difficulty of believing that a perfect and complex eye could be formed…
Abalaka, M.E. & Abbey, F.K. (2011). Charles Darwin theory of evolution and modern genetic engineering. Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Opinion, 1(7):174-177. 12 December 2014. Web. Retreived from http://innovativejournal.in/index.php/jpro/article/viewFile/685/592
Bergman, G. Pangenesis as a source of new genetic information. The history of a now disproven theory. Rivista di Biologia, 99(3): 425-43. 2006, September-December. Web. Retreived from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17299698
Darwin, Charles. "Difficulties on theory." Chapter 6. On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. (1st edition). 1859. Retrieved from http://friendsofdarwin.com/docs/origin-1/chapter-06/
Liu, Y. Darwin and Mendel: who was the pioneer of genetics? Rivista di Biologia, 98(2); 305-322. 2005. 12 December 2014. Web. Retreived from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16180199
The theory sees human organizational behaviors and conceptions culturally bound, rather than natural, unlike advocates of systems theory. Systems theory has been more influenced by sociology and linguistics than the natural sciences.
Analyzing symbolic interpretations may be more useful in organizations serving diverse populations: if a public health organization wants to alleviate the prevalence of diabetes in an area, it is not enough to more effectively disseminate information through the existing channels of communication (as systems theory might suggest) or even change the environment to create healthy options for consumption. Rather the people being served may require counseling to change what they consider good foods, a healthy diet, and a positive body image, if their culture tends to reinforce unhealthy practices. An ideological overhaul is necessary to change some behaviors, like the decreased social acceptability of smoking, for example. Organizations are social as well as formal, and cultural in nature…
Hatch, Mary Jo. (1997). Organization theory: Modern, symbolic and postmodern perspectives.
Oxford University Press, 2nd edition.
If the nurse is aware of an area of waste that can be addressed and does not reflect a legal concern (reusing some things is unlawful) then the nurse can bring this to the attention of the group and a solution can be developed and hopefully acted upon. This is a simple example. A more complex example would be an aspect of patient care that did not reflect the facility's goal to ensure effective home transitions for patients. If a nurse is aware of the fact that an individual patient has met all the healing goals but has no one at home to help them recover and is a party to allowing the individual to leave the facility without intervention, he or she may need to reflect on the overall policy and how he or she could have been involved in making a referral so that the individual patient did…
Bulman, Chris & Schutz, Sue. (2004). Reflective Practice in Nursing (3rd). (New York:
family by applying theories, concepts and knowledge. Through the study of the theories and concepts, the study will look at how families communicate, behave, operate and will also highlight common problems facing the family and especially tackling the health issue and how social systems affect provision of health care, and will illuminate this through an in-depth study of how it applies or affect the family unit. The study will discuss diversity issues in relation to the social system.
Family life is being scrutinized, and a new definition of a family is emerging every day, but in simple terms a family is a group consisting of parents and children living together in a household, caring and supporting each other. According to Merriam-ebster Dictionary; a family is a fundamental social group in society typically consisting of one or two parents and their children.
The family is the natural and fundamental group unit…
Boss P. Doherty W. LaRossa R. (2008). Sourcebook of Family Theories and Methods: A contextual Approach, New York: Springer
Crawford, (1999), Bilingual Education: History Politics, Theory and Practice, 23 July 2011, http://www.one nation.org/Crawford.html
LaRossa & Reitzes. (1993). Family Theory, Washington D.C: Chapman Publishers
McGoldrick M, Gerson R. & Shellenberger S. (1985). Genograms in Family Assessment. W.W. Norton: North America
Collective Behavior: Comparisons
Theories of Collective Behavior: Emergent-Norm Theory vs. Value-Added Perspective
Collective behavior, in basic terms, could be defined as a voluntary activity in which individuals engage. The behavior in this case is largely non-institutionalized. There are various theories that have been used over time to explain collective behavior. These include the emergent-norm theory, value-added perspective, and assembling perspective. In this text, I concern myself with two of these, i.e. The emergent-norm theory and the value-added perspective.
The emergent-norm theory according to Stolley (2005, p. 186) posits that "new norms develop (emerge) as events happen." The value added perspective, on the other hand, suggests that "people are likely to engage in social movements and other forms of collective behavior when society has certain characteristics" (Crawford and Novak, 2013, p. 455).
It should also be noted that while the emergent-norm theory largely focuses on the relevance of social norms in…
Crawford, L. & Novak, K. (2013). Individual and Society: Sociological Social Psychology. New York, NY: Routledge.
Locher, D.A. (2001). Collective Behavior. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Stolley, K.S. (2005). The Basics of Sociology. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group.
Nursing theory chosen, which best aligns with my personal theory of nursing, is Neuman's System Model. This model was created by Betty Neuman, and designed to be holistic in nature (Memmott, et al., 2000). The focus of the model is on the whole person (patient), the environment surrounding that person, the overall health of the person, and the nursing care that person is provided with during his or her illness. While it might seem obvious that all of these areas should be considered, many models of nursing practice today ignore too many important factors regarding a person and why he or she may be ill (Barnum, 1998). With that in mind, it is very important to use a theory like Neuman's Systems Model in order to address more than just a set of symptoms (Memmott, et al., 2000). When nurses and other medical professionals take a look at a chart…
Barnum, B. (1998). Nursing theory: Analysis, application, evaluation. NY: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Memmott, R.J. Marett, K.M. Bott, R.L. & Duke, L. (2000). Use of the Neuman Systems Model for interdisciplinary teams. Online Journal of Rural Nursing and Health Care, 1(2).
Postcolonial Theory on Imperialism
The Strains of Living in a Postcolonial orld
In the wake of Colonialism and Imperialism, much of the world still finds itself in pieces -- unable to remember life before being conquered. hat has resulted is great turmoil in many areas of the world caused by a confusion of cultural identity and a complete lack of national identity. Yet, this move to revive individual cultures has also set off a sharp debate within the field of postcolonial theory; these cultures become protective blankets which then keep nations separated in their own twisted visions. Conquerors such as the United States and Great Britain continue on this bravado of the superior nations who still power over their former colonies. This then results in estern literature romanticizing the East as to reaffirm those chauvinistic beliefs. Thus, the conquered people face a crucial internal dilemma -- adoption into what the…
Bahri, Deepika. "Introduction to Postcolonial Studies." Department of English. Emory College. 1996. Retrieved 9 Dec 2008 at http://www.english.emory.edu/Bahri/Intro.html .
McLeod, John. "Postcolonial Fictions of Adoption." Critical Survey. 18(2). 2006. 45-63.
McCormack, Brian. "Postcolonialism in an Age of Globalization: Opening International
Relations Theory to Identities in Movement." Alternatives: Global, Local, Political. 27(1). 2002. 99-136.
Third, certain circumstances are more likely to prompt self-objectification than others. These experiments confirmed that trying on a swimsuit is one of these circumstances. This circumstance appears to lead to a sense of being on display even though no actual observers were present. Data from the manipulation check suggested that wearing the swimsuit reduced the person's to feeling that they were nothing more than their body. Trying on swimwear led females to feel embarrassment and repulsion, while this identical circumstance led men to experience bashful and ridiculous thoughts. Shame has been thought to a failure to obtain moral standards. The researchers interpreted the increased shame felt by women as representing the increased cultural strains put on women to adhere to physical beauty standards.
Inducing state self-objectification also reduced math performance only for women, which was consistent with the prediction, that self objectification consume mental assets. The performance decrement established here…
Fredrickson, Barbara L. (1998). That swimsuit Becomes You: Sex Differences in Self-
Objectification, Restrained Eating, and Math Performance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75(1), pg. 269-284.
Heat of the Night
Theories on Prejudice and Discrimination
The first thought on prejudice and discrimination in this movie naturally falls to the race of Virgil Tibbs (i.e., Sidney Poitier) but this movie delves in much more subtle comparisons and stereotypical prejudices than mere skin color.
A film in the late 1960's did not headline a black actor. Significant is the fact that Tibbs is allowed to be smart, clever, empathetic, superior, and dedicated to finding the killer - even while realizing he is being framed for a murder he did not commit.
Sheriff Bill Gillespie (Rod Steiger) is the perfect white counterpoint to Tibbs: manipulative, curiously vulnerable, steely when crossed, and white - stereotypical redneck portrayal of a Southern public servant.
The underlying theory of prejudicial racism is clearly defined - if subtly - by the deserted condition of the train station, the hour of Tibbs' arrival, and being…
"From the moment of conception where our survival depends on the intrinsic and extrinsic decisions of our host, to the conflicts of development within our internal and external environment, we are consistently reconciling our past, present and future" (Bjorklund & Bee, 2008).
Many of the studies of stressful life events and health have used the Schedule of ecent Experiences, an instrument developed in the mid 1950s, or the Social eadjustment ating Scale, an elaboration of this instrument developed by Holmes & ahe in the mid 1970s. These instruments are not considered state-of-the-art at this time. A detailed history of the evolution of major stressful life event scales can be found in Cohen, Kessler and Underwood Gordon (1995; Chapter 1) and Wheaton & Turner (1995). Moreover, a reader planning to use a life events instrument is strongly encourage to read Wheaton & Turner's (1995) detailed discussion of issues in measuring stressful…
Eckenrode, J. Gore, S. Stress Between Work and Family (1990)
Bjorklund & Bee (2008). The Journey of Adulthood. (6 th ed). New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc.
Cohen, S. Kessler, R. Gordon, L. Measuring Stress: A Guide for Health and Social Scientists (1997)
"United Nations (UN)." Encyclopaedia Britannica. 2010. Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. 20 Jun. 2010 http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/616264/United-Nations .
"Our leadership development and training programs push each and every delegate to gain a rigorous personal insight into what makes them tick and then, with that understanding of themselves, to stretch the boundaries of what's comfortable for them" (Leadership development - Leadership skills and training, 2008, Impact Factory). Leadership training through the organization stresses emotional rather than technical skills, unlike GE. Human perception, creativity and out-of the box thinking is what is defined as leadership skills by Impact Factory and by the companies that use its services to train new and older employees alike, employees defined as leaders, and lower level employees as well. Key to success for individuals and the organization as a whole include: "Determining how well you perceive what's going on around you...polishing interpersonal skills and communication skills" (Leadership development - Leadership skills and training, 2008, Impact Factory).
The influence of leadership theory of a 'great man'…
General Electric: Imagination at work. (2008). GE. Retrieved 1 Sept 2008. http://www.gepower.com/commitment/en/integrity.htm
Ethos. (2008). The Impact Factory. Retrieved 1 Sept 2008 at http://www.impactfactory.com/ factory.shtml
Impact Factory. (2008). Impact Factory Homepage. Retrieved 1 Sept 2008 at
Strategy Theory and Actual Strategies Being Used in Small Insurance Companies
Ask any layman on the street what they think about insurance companies and the answer will invariably be negative. Consumers, by and large, view insurance companies with disdain. It is a business that sits among other necessary, yet not always understood businesses, therefore when the economy began to slump very few people had sympathy for the struggles the small insurance business faced. While insurance is a necessary evil that survives as an industry, through seemingly impossible financial odds at times, there small companies within the field that are working hard to maintain status quo while the economy batters them without sympathy. In addition to the need for economic stagnation maintenance the small insurance office has recently been challenged by big business. Across the nation large insurance companies are flooding the market with mass advertising and lower rates. This competition…
Reshmi Mitra and Venugopal Pingali, Analysis of Growth Stages in Small Firms: A Case Study of Automobile Ancillaries in India. Vol. 37 no, Journal of Small Business Management, 07-01-1999.
Foreman, Gary, Take a bite out of insurance costs., Countryside & Small Stock Journal, 09-01-2002, pp 104.
Mary Brandel, Is the World Ready for Web Quotes?., Computerworld Electronic Commerce Journal, 04-29-1996, pp 12.
BOB LEWIS, OPINIONS: IS SURVIVAL GUIDE. Vol. 19, InfoWorld, 07-28-1997.
Individual Education Plan
In education it is important to understand the pedagogy and historical philosophical perspectives on educational theories to fully understand the educational plan in a comprehensive fashion. Understanding this element of an education plan can provide insights to education that can have practical consequences on implementation. This analysis will provide a background into three of such theories -- behaviorism, cognitivism, and constructivism. Furthermore, it will discuss how these theories may or may not be consistent with each of the thirteen disability categories under the IDEA and what challenges and obstacles may be present relative to these perspectives and an individual student's circumstances. It will further provide insights into how these theories may be relevant to different stakeholder involvement strategies in the individual education plan (IEP) for students. Finally, it will discuss how these learning theories can influence the style of instruction in the IEP.
Behaviorism is a…
Brooks, M., & Brooks, J. (1999). The Courage to Be Constructivist. The Constructivist Classroom, 18-24.
Feldman, R. (2015). Child Development. Pearson.
McLeod, S. (2007). Skinner - Operant Conditioning. Retrieved from Simply Psychology: http://www.simplypsychology.org/operant-conditioning.html
Peoples, S., O'dwyer, L., Wang, B., Rosca, J., & Camelia, V. (2014). Development and application of the Elementary School Science Classroom Environment Scale (ESSCES): measuring student perceptions of constructivism within the science classroom. Learning Envrionment Research, 49-73.
The broad definition of the term 'theory' is development and elucidation of any aspect or field of cognition. Theory then is a collection of interrelated propositions that must forecast, describe, influence, or explain events. Theories of learning have attempted to offer explanations about learning as well as its application. In the last century, educational researchers and psychologists have postulated a number of theories to account for how people attain, organize and apply knowledge and skills. Rather than offering a specific theory, educational psychology provides multiple approaches and theories about the process of learning and the motivation for change and learning in individuals. Understanding theories of learning, (essentially educational psychology), is central to the field of education, for enabling nursing educators to offer an atmosphere conducive to learning, enhancing the educational system's efficiency and education harmonization. In the previous century, learning theory formulation and assessment has greatly facilitated the…
Ahmed, S. (n.d.) Theories and models of nursing practice. College of nursing/university of Baghdad. Retrieved from: http://www.conursing.uobaghdad.edu.iq/uploads/others/conursing/leacture/theory.pdf
Aliakbari, F., Parvin, N., Heidari, M., & Haghani, F. (2015). Learning theories application in nursing education. J Educ Health Promot. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4355834/
Azimian, J., Negarandeh, R., & Movahedi, A. F. (2014). Factors Affecting Nurses' Coping With Transition: An Exploratory Qualitative Study . Global Journal of Health Science, 1916-9744.
Duchscher (2015). Transition Theory. Nursing the Future. Retrieved from: http://nursingthefuture.ca/transition_theory
Hirschi's Social Bond Theory
Hirschi's social bonding theory argues that those persons who strong and abiding attachments to conventional society are less likely to deviate than persons who have shallow or weak bonds (Smangs, 2010). These bonds come in four interrelated forms, the first of which is attachment. Attachment, refers to the level of psychological affection one has for pro-social others and institutions. Parents and schools are of critical importance in this regard. Youths who form close attachments to their parents1 and schools will, by extension, experience greater levels of social control. The second type of bond is referred to as commitment. Commitment stresses the importance of the social relationships that people value, which they would not want to risk jeopardizing by committing criminal or deviant acts. People are less likely to misbehave when they know that they have something to lose. For juveniles, this could mean not wanting to…
"Key idea: Hirschi's social bond/social control theory." (NDI). Sage Publications. Retrieved February 11, 2013, from http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/36812_5.pdf
Smangs, M. (2010, December) Delinquency, social skills, and the structure of peer relations: Assessing criminological theories by social network theory. Social Forces, Vol. 89, Issue 2, 609-631. University of North Carolina Press. Retrieved February 11, 2013, from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=3&sid=a9dcb4b0-c42c-4f64-8b67-c1a089b82105%40sessionmgr110&hid=108
(Newman, 1) Here, it can be evidenced that the empathy accorded by the theoretical framework will provide an ideological umbrella for how best to address one's condition while simultaneously abiding the regulatory medical requirements common to most forms of modern treatment.
This means possessing a degree of pertinent information where nursing theory is concerned that will allow for such pragmatism and a firm understanding of the practices pertinent to kidney donation as denoted in the annotated bibliography provided here below.
Cohen, E. & Pifer-Bixler, J. (2009). Surgeons Remove Health Kidney Through Donor's Vagina. CNN. Online at http://www.cnn.com/2009/HEALTH/02/03/kidney.vagina.surgery/index.html
The article here described a first-ever successful procedure in which a healthy kidney was removed through a donor's vagina rather than through traditionally employed and far more invasive surgical procedures. This is useful to our discussion because it reduces the strain and cosmetic impact of making a kidney donation. The article cites the…
Cohen, E. & Pifer-Bixler, J. (2009). Surgeons Remove Health Kidney Through Donor's
Vagina. CNN. Online at http://www.cnn.com/2009/HEALTH/02/03/kidney.vagina.surgery/index.html
Griffin, D. & Fitzpatrick, D. (2009). Donor Says He Got Thousands For His Kidney. CNN. Online at http://www.cnn.com/2009/WORLD/meast/09/01/blackmarket.organs/index.html
McKay, R. (2010). Kidney Donor Needed Own Transplant. Chicago Tribune. Online at http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/chi-tc-nw-man-kidney-0104-0105jan05,0,2513301.story
Stanley Milgram on Obedience
Legitimacy and Proximity: Social Influences that Determines and Generates Obedience in Stanley Milgram's Obedience Study (ehavioral Study of Obedience, 1963)
For many years, psychology, as one of the main branches of social science, has tried to discern and understand human behavior and its relation to the society through empirical observation and experimentation. Social scientists, under the philosophy, methods, and principles of psychology, tried to understand human mind, particularly an individual's mental state. Experimentation as a primary research method for determining human behavior is specifically utilized in Stanley Milgram's research on the nature of obedience among humans, popularly known as the "ehavioral Study of Obedience," also known as the Stanley Obedience Study.
Stanley Milgram is a psychologist in the 1960s, who popularized the issue of obedience to authority. This issue is applied in the context of social psychology, wherein Milgram's study was based on the historical event…
Blass, T. (2000). Obedience to Authority: Current Perspectives on the Milgram Paradigm. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
Dittmann, M. (November 2003). "Lessons from Jonestown." Monitor on Psychology, Volume 34, No. 10. Published by the American Psychological Association (APA). Available at http://www.apa.org/monitor/nov03/jonestown.html.
Kimble, G, M. Wertheimer, and C. White. (1996). Portraits of Pioneers in Psychology, Vol. 2. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
Milgram, S. (1962). "Behavioral Study of Obedience." Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, Vol. 67, No. 4.
Immigrants and Discrimination
DuBois, in his "The Conservation of the Races" described racial prejudice as "the friction between different groups of people." (Dubois, 12) If one accepts this definition, then the United States contains a great deal of racial prejudice, as this nation is filled with different groups of people who are constantly experiencing friction. Considering that the United States of America is a country founded by immigrants, populated by immigrants, and built by immigrants, from a variety of nations, it is no wonder that the history of America is filled with incidents of racial prejudice and intolerance. Not only is there the friction between different groups of immigrants coming to America, but also between immigrants in general and those considered "natural-born" Americans. Natural-born Americans are those persons who ancestors were immigrants, but now enjoy the privileges of calling themselves "natural-born" Americans. Dubois wrote his book in the late 1890's,…
Borjas, George. "The Earnings of Male Hispanic Immigrants in the United States." Harvard Kennedy School. Web 16 May 2011.
Cristancho, Sergio, et al., "Listening to Rural Hispanic Immigrants in the Midwest: A Community-based Participatory Assessment of Major Barriers to Health Care Access and Use." Sage Publications. (2008) Web. 16 May 2011. http://www.udea.edu.co/portal/page/portal/bibliotecaSedesDependencias/unidades
theories listed, the relative deprivation theory and the general strain theory best explain domestic violence, as well as the high rate of recidivism, despite punishment. However, we should mention in the very beginning that each theory listed best explains a certain category of people, generally divided by income and level of education. The two I have selected are a match for the highest percentage of women batterers.
The relative deprivation theory believes that domestic violence occurs when there is a significant difference in the achievements of each of the members of the couple. In general, in my opinion, these tend to be professional achievements and the theory is best exemplified by those couples where the husband is unemployed or having a job that is not satisfying, while the wife is earning much more than him and is the one contributing most to the family budget.
The relative deprivation theory was…
1. Harmon, Patricia Anne. Why do men batter women? Assessing empathy, self-regard and narcissism levels, and attitudes toward women, men's roles and family of origin experiences among middle to upper class male batterers. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering, Vol 62(12-B), 2002. pp. 6023. U.S.: Univ Microfilms International
2. Chapter 5: Social Structure Theory: Because they are poor
Chapter 5: Social Structure Theory: Because they are poor. Page 143
In the past, any form of criminal activity was associated with low self-esteem that is why criminal activity was minimal. Paying for crime in the past involved ruthless means, including tying a criminal on a stone and throwing them into the river. Comparing the past with the modern world, a great contrast occurs. Criminal offenders in the modern world appear to be of very high self-esteem. The self-esteem arises from prior criminal activities, personal traits and participation in prison. It is so unfortunate because criminals do not fear the law, security officials and subsequently no regard for positive punishment.
Criminologists and psychologists have a task of establishing whether crime is in either way related to the human mind, behavior and psychology. Criminal activity is increasing by day, and the securities do not know what to attribute for especially, when correctional facilities are full of criminals. It is likely…
Broidy, L.M., (2001). A test of general strain theory. A Journal of Criminology, 39, 9-36.
Cesar, J.R., Nicole, L.P., Alex, R.P., & Stephen, G.T., (2010). Anticipated shaming and criminal offending. Journal of Criminal justice, 38, 988-997.
Inga, D.S., Alfgeir, L.K., & Robert, A. (2012). A comparative analysis of general strain theory.
Journal of Criminal Justice, 40, 117-127.
2. According to Merton's strain theory, who should commit more crime males or females? What is true in reality?
According to Merton's original strain theory, the primary source of strain in modern society relates to financial success and social status (Agnew & rezina 1997).
As the theory goes, males are more likely to succumb to the negative influences of strains simply because financial success and social status are more commonly considered to be within the realm of social expectations of males. Later theorists have suggested that Merton's strain theory focused too narrowly on socioeconomic factors because strain consists of many more elements, including those that pertain more to females. Generally, males do commit more crime than females (Ogle, et al. 1995), but this is less a function of strain theory, necessarily, than the fact that myriad other influences that lie wholly outside the realm of principles related to strain theory…
Agnew, R., Brezina, T. (1997). Relational Problems with Peers, Gender, and Delinquency; Youth & Society, Vol. 29, No. 1, pp. 84-111. Ogle, R., Maier-Katkin, D., Bernard, T. (1995). A Theory of Homicidal Behavior Among Women; Criminology, Vol. 33, No. 2, pp. 173-193.
Criminal Justice System
Challenges of Mara Salvatrucha (MS-13) to law enforcement
Law enforcement agencies view the Mara Salvatrucha (MS-13) the most harmful street gang in the U.S. The aggressive nature of MS-13 members have led to a variety of killings and terrible beatings. Various trials held in New York and Maryland have led to significant jail terms even extending to life imprisonment for MS-13 members. The FBI was first attracted by violence, but proof of the gang's escalating level of organization has drawn public attention. Organization is an indicator of a future where MS-13 is will be a transnational network of criminals extending from the United States to suburban communities in a multitude of U.S. towns (Mandel, 2013).
Despite functions of violence, it is worrying to note that MS-13 movement is improving its structure and organization. Many major security experts are comparing it to the illegal groups of the 50s…
Erbschloe, M. (2001). Information Warfare How To Survive Cyber Attacks. New York: Osborne/McGraw-Hill.
Mandel, R. (2013). Global Security Upheaval Armed Nonstate Groups Usurping State Stability Functions. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Scheck, B. (2010). 250 Exonerated, Too Many Wrongfully Convicted: An Innocence Project Report On The First 250 DNA Exonerations In The U.S. New York: Benjamin N. Cardozo School of Law, Yeshiva University.
Siegel, L., & Senna, J. (2009). Essentials of Criminal Justice (6th Ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Decriminalization of drugs is an ineffective legal policy that has harmed millions of Americans. Since Nixon's declaration of "war" on drugs, American policy towards mind-altering substances has been as violent and futile as the term "war on drugs" would suggest. Drug use is not qualitatively different from alcohol use. The prohibition of alcohol failed miserably in the early 20th century, leading also to a proliferation in profitable black market businesses that fueled organized crime. The same pattern has been occurring with mind-altering substances of all types. Drug cartels have blossomed throughout the Americas, and the global black marketplace is teeming with criminal behaviors that are linked to protecting the lucrative but illegal drug trade. If trading in drugs were akin to trading in alcohol, then drug cartels would no longer need the massive stashes of weapons used to protect their property. The war on drugs has ruined far more…
Sledge, M. (2013). The drug war and mass incarceration by the numbers. The Huffington Post. Retrieved online: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/04/08/drug-war-mass-incarceration_n_3034310.html