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The American Society stratification according to the family income incorporates the individual's origin (nativity) and citizenship status in the country, the size of the household and region. The stratification also groups the American population according to age and the size of the household whether individual or comprised of other family members. According to the 2013 census report, 48,810,868 persons live below the poverty in America. Out of the total America's population, 89,190,000 men and women comprise the working class and those in the middle-class combine to make a total of 122,952,000 individuals (DeNavas-Walt & Proctor, 2013).
In India and Great Britain stratification excludes the various origins and ethnic affiliation of the population. The classification of household by their composition and size in India is not considered when determining the poverty threshold. In both India and the Great Britain, the income of individuals is used to determine where they fall in…
DeNavas-Walt, C., & Proctor, B.D. (2013). Income and Poverty in the United States: 2013 (Department of Commerce Economics and Statistics Administration). Current Population Reports U.S. (CENSUS BUREAU), September 2014(1), 260-249.
Henslin, J.M. (2014). Essentials of Sociology. United Kingdom: Pearson Education, Limited.
stratification and what evidence is there to suggest that contemporary Australia is or is not stratified?
ocial tratification refers to the division of society into various hierarchical layers based on their socio-economic conditions. ome groups are given more power and prestige than others, whilst lower groups are dominated by the higher (Homes; Hughes, & Julian, *).
ocial stratification is founded on four principles:
It reflects society rather than individual differences and therefore does not work according to meritocracy
(2) It is fixed and transmitted from generation to generation;
(3) It is universal but has different faces in different countries
(4) ocial stratification is not just inequality of power but also reflects variances in beliefs to that differ according to groups. For instance, higher groups are more likely to be politically Conservative and to share a certain religion / religious perspective. (Homes; Hughes, & Julian, *).
ocial stratification is usually categorized…
ACER e-news (2013) Report shows impact of growing social stratification among Australian schools
Aspin, LJ (1996), Focus on Australian Society, Longman, Melbourne.
Encel, S. (1970). Equality and Authority: A Study of Class, Status and Power
ole of Intergroup Inequality
Darity's Stratification Economics challenges the widely-held assumption that "group-based deficits in personal responsibility and cultural practices are explanatory" with respect to intergroup economic disparity. He cites politicians and economists alike as subscribing to this belief. His response is that "the emergence of economic stratification economics constitutes a systematic and empirically grounded alternative to the conventional wisdom on intergroup disparity." His view is that while the popular opinion is driven largely by anecdotal evidence, that empirical evidence can be used to test concepts and theories relating the economic stratification, and the results of such study would be more useful in terms of setting public policy.
Darity outlines several key concepts that flow from his theory of stratification economics. First, that intergenerational transmission effects are important. Second, the privilege serves to convey material benefits to specific groups of people. Third, that discriminatory privilege is persistent, in particular because…
Darity, W. (2005). Stratification economics: The role of intergroup inequality. Journal of Economics and Finance. Vol. 29(2) 144-153
Using an example of engineers vs. unskilled laborers at a factory, Tumin asserts that while the unskilled laborers might appear more dispensable, over time their functions are just as vital to the operation of the factory, reducing Davis and Moore's claim to a fantasy world removed from the realities of forward-moving time (Tumin, 1953). The main problem with such a justification, however, is that functional importance is determined by the society after stratification, and the system will necessarily uphold its already present system of stratification and assigned importance values, thus perpetuating the status quo regardless of societal benefit (Tumin, 1953). Tumin goes on to point out other flaws with the functional stratification theory, but the main flaw he sees is its perpetuation of the status quo without real consideration (Tumin, 1953).
The theory of functional stratification is closely linked to that of meritocracy. John Andersen claims that meritocracy, a system…
Andersen, J. (1999). "Post-industrial solidarity or meritocracy?" Acta Sociologica, 42 (4), pp. 375-85.
Davis, K. And Moore, W. (1945). "Some principles of stratification." Reprinted in Wealth and poverty in America, Dalton Conley, ed. New York: Blackwell, 2003.
Tumin, M. (1953). "Some principles of straification: A critical analysis." Reprinted in Social Stratification, David Grusky, ed. Boulder: Westview Press, 2001.
Wrong, D. (1959). "The functional theory of stratification: Some neglected considerations." American sociological review, 24, pp. 772-82.
Social power without capital under capitalism does not exist, unlike previous eras where, for example, the medieval church exerted great influence over policy as a class, in greater proportion than the (not inconsiderable) wealth it held. However, today, land, capital, and the ability to make money off of money are the primary means by which influence is leveraged. Having money perpetuates money. This is how rich hold onto their places in the social hierarchy. Money buys education, commodities like the 'right' clothes that signify success, money buys social influence for one's self and one's children, money buys property from which one can make more money, money buys media influence, and quite often the ears of the politically connected. The necessity of technology to do everything from allowing a business run efficiently to applying to college further underlines the ability of the digital divide between rich and poor peoples and nations…
Imperialism encouraged the exploitation of other countries in order to enrich imperialistic nations such as Great Britain, Germany, and Belgium. This created a cycle of exploitation in many countries ruled as imperial colonies, and the practice continues today in many ways, which adds to their inequity with core nations (Bartle).
Finally, technology has advanced many nations far beyond anything many of the periphery nations can ever hope for. Even the poorest Americans usually have at least a telephone and television, while these are great luxuries in many countries. There is such a great inequity between the wealthiest nations and the poorest that it does not seem hard to understand why so many people resent the wealthiest nations. It seems as if they exploit people and countries to enrich themselves and their decadent lifestyles, and this can add to deep resentment and hatred in some people.
Toss in a strict religion…
Bartle, Phil. "Global Stratification." Sociology Lecture Notes. 2007. 8 Feb. 2007. http://www.scn.org/cmp/modules/soc-glb.htm
Editors. "Inequality." WorldRevolution.org. 2007. 8 Feb. 2007. http://www.worldrevolution.org/guide/inequality
Galbraith, James K. "Global Pay." University of Texas. 14 Nov. 1998. 8 Feb. 2007. http://utip.gov.utexas.edu/papers/utip_03.pdf
Khler, Gernot. "The Global Stratification of Unemployment and Underemployment." Centro Argentino de Estudios Internacionales. 2005. 8 Feb. 2007. http://www.caei.com.ar/es/programas/teoria/t12.pdf
Social Stratification and the Kind of Political System That Society Is Likely to Be
Social stratification is distinguished in the society amongst one of four types: bands; tribes; chiefdoms; or states.
Bands -- are egalitarian simple kin units with power, if any, depending on skill, earned respect and capability. Decision-making is informal and shared by the group. Rank and stratification is homogenous for all particularly since members are related either by kin or by affinity. It is in this way that political, social, economic resources and decisions are shared and/or implemented corporately. An example of bands is foraging societies.
Tribes -- these are egalitarian complex kin units otherwise called 'sodalities' since they are based on common interest rather than on kinship affiliation (as with bands). They are similar to bands in their make-up and in their egalitarian rank and stratification. Headsmen or 'Big Men' become so by virtue of their…
Differentiate between race and ethnicity
Race refers to the socially constructed physical, genetic characteristics of a person. Ethnicity refers to the group he or she identifies with in a cultural fashion. For example, a person may be Caucasian racially, but identify in terms of his or her ethnicity as an Italian-American -- versus his or her Irish-American friend who is also classified according in same 'racial' category.
These identifications are not necessarily inevitable: although it seems as though race (like gender) is an easily-identifiable social characteristic, it is important to remember that many years ago Irish and Italian people were not considered truly 'American' or 'white' and only gradually, through a historical assimilation process were these differences erased in the cultural mindset. In Italy, regional conflicts are rife, but not nearly as manifest between Italians in the United States. 'Racial' and 'ethnic' identification is a fluid and ever-changing process, and…
" But added specialization of electives also means varying levels of legal quality in the basics of law as well as greater specialization at an earlier career juncture for most law students.
One attorney notes that the changing practice and professional emphasis of law on specialization has also created a change in the culture of many law firms. He states that there has been stratification between old and new members of the profession, as much larger portion of law practice is carried on in large organizations. Those at the top of these hierarchical structures feel removed from the day-to-day practice that they increasingly do not understand and those at the bottom "feel a loss of community and autonomy. Everyone finds less warmth and collegiality." Lawyers themselves do not like this, notes Cramton, citing attorneys who complain, "hen we have a firm party, we have to have name tags." Furthermore, the…
A.B.A. (2005) "Curriculum Survey." American Bar Association Publication. Retrieved 2 Jul 2005 at http://www.abanet.org/legaled/publications/curriculumsurvey/executivesummary.pdfRoger
Cramton, C. (2005) "The Lawyer as a Professional." Texas Legal Ethics Institute Retrieved 2 Jul 2005 at http://www.txethics.org/resources_lawyerprofessional.asp?view=2Cramton
LSAC. "F&Q for minority students." Retrieved 2 Jul 2005 at http://www.lsac.org/
Newton, Frank W. "Crisis in the Legal Profession." Texas Legal Ethics Institute. Retrieved 2 Jul 2005 at http://www.txethics.org/resources_lawyerprofessional.asp?view=1Newton
What it does mean is that the number of illegal immigrants entering the U.S. is less than the number leaving. And according to the Federation for American Immigration Reform, the nations from where the most illegal immigrants came from were Highest to lowest) Mexico, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Philippines, India, Ecuador, Brazil, Korea, and China. ("2011 Yearbook of Immigration Statistics")
4. Because we live in a society where we calculate the intrinsic human worth of a person based on the external characteristics that society deems acceptable or not, immigrants are usually considered to be "out-groups" as they do not possess the external characteristics that society approves of. Because they are considered "out-groups" and usually maintain their original language, customs, religion, etc., they are usually relegated to the lower socio-economic level. In this way immigrants add to the issue of inequality by arriving and starting out at the bottom. In the…
On the other hand it is very difficult to estimate the numbers of illegal immigrants to come to America. Because they live in the shadows, use a cash economy, and do not usually involve themselves in the census, it is difficult for government statisticians to calculate exactly how many are currently in the U.S. But by using roundabout measures, and some scientific assumptions, the American government does have a pretty good idea of their numbers. According to the same yearbook the estimated number of illegal immigrants actually dropped from 11.6 million in 2010 to 11.5 million in 2011, a decrease of close to one hundred thousand.("2011 Yearbook of Immigration Statistics")
3. In 2011 the United States allowed more than a million immigrants to legally enter the United States from a variety of nations. With this in mind, the greatest number of legal immigrants came from the following ten nations (ranked highest to lowest): Mexico, China, India, Philippines, Dominican Republic, Cuba, Vietnam, Korea, Haiti and Jamaica. While the U.S. may have had a drop in illegal immigration, it doesn't mean that there have been no immigrants entering illegally. What it does mean is that the number of illegal immigrants entering the U.S. is less than the number leaving. And according to the Federation for American Immigration Reform, the nations from where the most illegal immigrants came from were Highest to lowest) Mexico, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Philippines, India, Ecuador, Brazil, Korea, and China. ("2011 Yearbook of Immigration Statistics")
4. Because we live in a society where we calculate the intrinsic human worth of a person based on the external characteristics that society deems acceptable or not, immigrants are usually considered to be "out-groups" as they do not possess the external characteristics that society approves of. Because they are considered "out-groups" and usually maintain their original language, customs, religion, etc., they are usually relegated to the lower socio-economic level. In this way immigrants add to the issue of inequality by arriving and starting out at the bottom. In the video where the hosts of the "Smiley and West" radio show are discussing their "Poverty Tour," immigrants are mentioned as one of the largest percentage of people living in poverty. (Smiley and West, 2011) and the PBS news hour video made a point to stress that with the current economy, more Americans than ever are living below the poverty level. (Lehrer, 2010) but if one accepts the Davis and Moore theory on social stratification, the country needs a constant supply of people to fill the lower levels of the strata to replace those who have been here longer move up the levels. (Davis and Moore, 1945) Unfortunately, as the PBS video demonstrated, with the stagnant economy there seems to be little upward mobility at the moment and therefore an increase in immigration could put even more
In a 2003 issue of Monthly Review, Tony Platt writes that the U.S. has the most regressive system of welfare for the poor among developed nations and in recent years it has become even more punitive (Platt pp).
The New Yorker Fact eb site is a site that contains the latest issue of the New Yorker magazine. The essay for October 21, 2005 was titled "Day Stripper: Clothing-optional swimmers get into trouble with the natives" by Mark Singer, discussing nudist in New England.
Birdsall, Nancy. "hy inequality matters: some economic issues."
Ethics and International Affairs. October 01, 2001. Retrieved October 21, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library eb site.
Bradbury, Katharine L. "The growing inequality of family income: changing families and changing wages." New England Economic Review. July 01, 1996. Retrieved October 21, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library eb site.
Malamud, Deborah C. "ho they are - or were:…
Birdsall, Nancy. "Why inequality matters: some economic issues."
Ethics and International Affairs. October 01, 2001. Retrieved October 21, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
Bradbury, Katharine L. "The growing inequality of family income: changing families and changing wages." New England Economic Review. July 01, 1996. Retrieved October 21, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
Malamud, Deborah C. "Who they are - or were: middle-class welfare in the early New
ethnicity and stratification is of importance because modern society is culturally diverse, it is important to know what motivates various ethnic groups to strive for success and how social stratification plays a significant role in this process. The opportunity for training and furthering ones level of education is promising for individuals of all ethnicities. Providing there is some form of stratification system within society, it is likely that individuals will view this inequality as a motivational factor to undergo sacrifices and receive additional training for these jobs. This will facilitate individuals in these groups to achieve higher strata in society and be deemed successful. Social stratification is necessary in order to motivate ethnically diverse groups to train for more important jobs. There are three theories of stratification including, the functional theory of stratification, conflict theory and stratification and social interactionism and stratification. All three theories can relate to relationship between…
Age Stratification and Methods of Social Networking
Old Age and Interpersonal Relationships
As the baby boomer generation ages, America becomes increasingly a senior nation. This has caused an increasing degree of scrutiny to be directed at the process of aging, and the effects which it has upon the social fabric of the nation. Only a few decades ago, as Grant McCracken puts it, old people were "expected to remove themselves from the public stage, to relinquish positions of influence and usefulness, to retire their claims to a place at the center of things." (2004) hether they were locked away in nursing homes or the back bedrooms of their own children's homes or quaint little apartments and retirement facilities, the elderly were generally like ideal children seen and not heard or noticed. However, increasingly middle aged and senior individuals are beginning to appear as vibrant actors in society and culture, boosted…
Mahoney, S. (2003) "Seeking Love" AARP Magazine (online). Accessed at http://www.aarpmagazine.org/lifestyle/Articles/a2003-09-23-seekinglove.html,25 Jun 2004.
McCracken, G. (2004) "Plenitude" Accessed at http://www.cultureby.com/books/plenit/html/Plenitude2p4.htm,25 Jun 2004.
Navon, A. & Sieger, M. (2000) "Pal Power: If friends are the gifts we give ourselves, it's good to be greedy. Hold on to the ones you've got -- and grab some more."
Time, Nov 13, 2000.
Before discussing a sampling plan, there has to be clear and unambiguous definitions of what a sample and sampling are. Despite diversity in the definition of a sample, the best meaning is that a sample could be considered as a subset of a population, with which a researcher would like to use as participants in a given research study (Landreneau & Creek, 2012). According to Deming (1990), sapling is a science, which specifically guides quantitative studies, materials, behavior and the different causes of difference. In other aspects of research such as the qualitative research, sampling could be considered as the art of selecting a part of a population, in a given research area that is a representation of the entire population.
Both the qualitative and quantitative researchers approach their sampling differently. For the quantitative researchers, samples which are selected are those that will give the researcher easy time…
Adler, E.S. & Clark, R. (2008). How It Is Done: An Invitation to Social Research. New York: Cengage Learning Publishers.
Babbie, E.R. (2010). The Practice of Social Research. New York: Cengage Learning.
Bartlett, J.E., Kotrlik, J.W. & Higgins, C.C. (2012). Organizational Research: Determining Appropriate Sample Size in Survey Research. Retrieved 28th October, 2012 from http://www.osra.org/itlpj/bartlettkotrlikhiggins.pdf
Beri, (2007). Marketing Research. India: Tata McGraw Hill Publishing.
.. To an active fashion accessory. Most significantly the logo itself growing in size, ballooning from a three quarter inch emblem into a chest-sized marquee."
From the perspective of social stratification and social stratification through branding, today, our main motivation to consume is our desire to be similar to some people and different from others. Consumerism stands rudimentary to social stratification, or vice versus. According to Miller (2013), "Social stratification may be defined as long-standing power, wealth, and status between groups within a single society. These groups are typically separated into classes or castes, but may also extend to ethnic separation." Miller (2013) contends that "placement into a social hierarchy is dependent on an individual's access to valued resources: stratification is a system where groups are treated differently based on their societal roles or social status." Members of society can align with various social status groups or separate themselves from…
McLaren, Warren. (2008). Logo no go for Nau. A peek at branding and consumerism . Available:
www.treehugger.com/culture/logo-no-go-for-nau-a-peek-at-branding-and-consumerism.html. Last accessed 12th May 2013.
Miller, Rene. (2013). What is social stratification. Available:
http://www.ehow.com/info_8690268_social-stratification.html. Last accessed May 12, 2013.
occupation of computer programmer reflects a number of traditional components of society in the United States. Demographically, the profession is largely made up of while males in their late thirties. As such, the profession reflects stratification by race, class, and gender. However, recent changes in the profession, such as outsourcing of programming jobs to India, threaten this perception. At the same time, the degree of publicity such outsourcing has received (when compared to attention paid to job losses incurred by Black Americans) continues to reflect the race stratification in American society.
A computer programmer, by definition, is an individual who creates programs that allow computers to perform specific functions. This includes creating computer programs, and designing and testing logical structures for solving computer problems. In the simplest terms, programmers tell computers how, where, and when to access information. Commonly used computer languages include Java, C++, and COBOL (Bureau of Labor…
Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2004-
05 Edition, Computer Programmers, on the Internet at http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos110.htm (visited October 14, 2004).
Department for Professional Employees. The Professional Computer WorkForce, 2001. 14
October 2004. http://www.dpeaflcio.org/pros/workplace/computer.htm.
elationships and Social Lives
This is the hierarchical way in which large social groups based on their control over basic resources. A key characteristic of stratification systems is the extent to which the structure is flexible. Slavery, a form of stratification in which people are owned by others, is an extreme type. In a caste system, people's status is determined at birth based on their parents' position in society
The class system, which exists in the United States, is a type of stratification based on ownership of resources and on the type of work people do. Functionalist perspectives on the U.S. class structure view classes as broad groupings of people who share similar levels of privilege based on their roles in the occupational structure. According to the Davis-Moore thesis, positions that are most important within society, requiring the most talent and training, must highly rewarded. Many people define classes as…
1. Eichar, Douglas (1989). Occupation and Class Consciousness in America. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press.
2. Gilbert, Dennis (1998). The American Class Structure. New York: Wadsworth Publishing.
3. Thompson, William; Joseph Hickey (2005). Society in Focus. Boston, MA: Pearson.
4. Levine, Rhonda (1998). Social Class and Stratification. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
Managerialism in Advanced Industrial Societies
According to Weber there are three options of structural power available to the entrepreneur in advanced industrial societies. These include the bureaucracy, charisma and tradition, or feudalism. These three options are discussed below in terms of organizations and elites, rationalization and bureaucratization, stratification, authority, and domination.
The bureaucratic option is also referred to as transactional in nature. Bureaucratization occurs as a result of knowledge.
Rationalization in this option occurs in the form of legality, where there is a rational legal hierarchical power; this is built on the basis of rational knowledge. All other aspects is subject to rationalization. Elites are chosen according to their merits based on knowledge, as are stratification, authority and domination.
Legal authority is therefore carried out in terms of issuing rules. The leader also must submit to systematic and impersonal discipline. Rational values and rules are determined by agreement among…
Social Stratification and Social Mobility
Systems of social stratification
The systems refer to the manner that the society utilizes in ranking individuals in a hierarchy. Undeniably, the classifications suffice the reality that some groups of individuals possess greater wealth, power, and status compared to others. Differences in the groups of individuals describe the nature of social stratification. Social inequality occurs as a significant aspect of the society as it facilitates the smooth operation of the society. For example, high rewards lure and motivate highly talented individuals to perform involving tasks such as brain surgery. On the other, most individuals can perform blue-collar jobs such as cleaning toilets and mowing grass thereby limiting its level of returns.
The open class system allows social interactions between classes that rely on achievements, prevalent in industrialized nations. On the other hand, the closed class system confirms on the social status of individuals and ancestral…
Gane, Nicholas (2005). Max Weber as Social Theorist 'Class, Status, Party'. European Journal of Social Theory, 8(2):211-226
Resnikoff, Ned (2014, November 11). Global inequality is a rising concern for elites. Aljazeera America. Retrieved from http://america.aljazeera.com/articles/2014/11/11/global-inequalityisarisingconcernforelites.html
Community Power and Social Distribution: A Debate Over Social Stratification and Elitism from Hunter Onwards
Floyd Hunter was a sociologist whom identified himself as part of the early stages of a movement to enact greater systems of localized, community social justice. Such movements were to later grip the American nation during the 1960's. However, as early as the 1950's, Hunter sought to quantitatively and qualitatively measure who had 'political power' in the community of Regional City in the American South over the course of the early 1950's. Hunter stated in his text Community Power Structure that in Atlanta, ostensibly a regional power base of the time, he had 'found' an elite whom formed the core of the local political power nexus, an elite that was not institutional in nature, but personal. In other words, through Hunter's social excavation over the course of his doctorial dissertation, Hunter discovered a hidden elitist…
Bachrach, Peter and Morton Baratz, (December 1962). "Two Faces of Power." American Political Science Review. Volume 56. December 1962. Pp.947-952.
Hunter, Floyd. Community Power Structure. (1953). Chapter 4: The Structure of Power in Regional City.
Polsby, Nelson. (1980). Community Power and Political Theory. Second Edition. Chapter 5: Power and Social Stratification: Theory or Ideology?
Stone, Clarence N. (1980). "Systemic Power in Community Decision Making: A Restatement of Stratification Theory." American Political Science Review 74: 976-90
Between 1995-2002, 99% of all births in ussia were attended by skilled health personnel, while the number of physicians per 100,000 people was 420 between 1990-2003, and the number of people with sustainable access to affordable essential drugs in 1999 was between 50-79% (http://hdr.undp.org/statistics/data/cty/cty_f_US.html)."
Nutrition, Water and Smoking
The United Nations reports that in 2000, 99% of ussia's population had "sustainable access to an improved water source. Between 1999-2001, 4% of the population was undernourished, while between 1995-2002 of all children under the age of 5, 3% were underweight and 13% were under height for their age group. From 1998-2002, 6% of all infants in ussia were born with low birth weight (http://hdr.undp.org/statistics/data/cty/cty_f_US.html)."
One of the leading, preventable health risks is smoking.
In 2000, 10% of all adult ussian women smoked, compared to 63% of all adult men (http://hdr.undp.org/statistics/data/cty/cty_f_US.html)." This illustrates why men may be more likely to suffer from…
Lokshin, Michael M. And Ruslan Yemtsov. (26 February, 2001). "Household Strategies for Coping with Poverty and Social Exclusion in Post-Crisis Russia." The World Bank
Group. (accessed 28 February 2005). http://econ.worldbank.org/working_papers/1417/).
UN Development Programme. (accessed 28 February 2005). http://hdr.undp.org/statistics/data/cty/cty_f_RUS.html ).
WHO. (accessed 28 February 2005). http://www.who.int/countries/rus/en/ ).
separation of the society into different segments by the use of castes or classes. Social stratification indicates a hierarchy of social groups and emphasizes social inequality. Social stratification refers to social groups, which are ranked one above another in terms of the power, prestige and wealth, which the members of the group possess. The members of the same group share common interests and have common identity and share a life style, which is similar to some extent, which ultimately distinguishes them from other members of the social strata. The Indian caste system is an example of the system of social stratification.
The system of caste has historically been an Indian concept and was designed to keep different castes of groups of individuals in their designed places in society. Similarly, the class system is a modern day device for use for the same purpose. Since the caste system is an Indian…
Srinivas, M.N. "Social change in modern India" California: University of California Press (1966)
Bougle, C., "The essence and Reality of the Caste System." In D. Gupta, ed., Social Stratification. Delhi: Oxford University Press (1992).
Kocher, Robert L
Political Economy 301: The American Class System; Prerequisite: Healthy Realistic Iconoclasm 300 Fundamental Issues, Part 2 The Laissez Faire City Times, Vol 3, No 13, March 29, 1999
" (Dafler, 2005) Dafler relates that for more than thirty years children who were 'half-caste' "were forcibly removed from their families, often grabbed straight from their mother's arms, and transported directly to government and church missions." (Dafler, 2005) This process was termed to be one of assimilation' or 'absorption' towards the end of breeding out of Aboriginal blood in the population. At the time all of this was occurring Dafler relates that: "Many white Australians were convinced that any such hardship was better than the alternative of growing up as a member of an 'inferior' race and culture." (2005) it is plainly stated in a government document thus:
The destiny of the natives of Aboriginal origin, but not of the full blood, lies in their ultimate absorption by the people of the Commonwealth, and [the commission] therefore recommends that all efforts be directed towards this end." (eresford and Omaji, Our…
Dafler, Jeffrey (2005) Social Darwinism and the Language of Racial Oppression: Australia's Stolen Generations ETC.: A Review of General Semantics, Vol. 62, 2005.
Erich Fromm Foreword to a.S. Neill SummerHill (New York, 1960).
Hawkins, Social Darwinism; Shibutani, Tamotsu and Kwan, Kian M. Ethnic Stratification: A Comparative Approach. New York: The Macmillan Company (1965).
Jacques Ellul, the Technological Society (New York, 1967), 436.
To wit, power is a huge influence in any social interaction, and in a study reported by the University of California Press (est, 2008, p. 87), men often interrupt women during conversations because men are generally viewed as the power in any male-female interaction. "Physicians interrupt patients disproportionately" in doctor-patient interactions, est writes, "except when the doctor is a 'lady'; then, "patients interrupt as much or more than physicians, and their interruptions seem to subvert physicians' authority" (est, p. 87). In other words, the stratification of male doctors having the power to interrupt is reversed when a woman is the doctor.
Blumer, Herbert. (1986). Symbolic Interactionism: Perspective and Method. Berkeley:
Breen, Catherine M., Abernethy, Amy P., Abbott, Katherine H., and Tulsky, James a. (2007).
Conflict Associated with Decisions to Limit Life-Sustaining Treatment in Intensive Care
Units. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 16(5), 283-289.
Donovan, Jenny L., and Blake,…
Blumer, Herbert. (1986). Symbolic Interactionism: Perspective and Method. Berkeley:
Breen, Catherine M., Abernethy, Amy P., Abbott, Katherine H., and Tulsky, James a. (2007).
Conflict Associated with Decisions to Limit Life-Sustaining Treatment in Intensive Care
Units. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 16(5), 283-289.
In other words, when the total number of people characterized by each variable (or stratum) oscillates within the population, to the researcher would choose the size of each sample for each stratum according to the research requirements. uch a choice is prejudiced by the probability of obtaining an adequate number of sampling units from each stratum within the final sample. As a rule, disproportionate stratified samples are used either to compare two or more particular strata or to analyze one stratum intensively (Creswell, 1994). Therefore, when researchers use a disproportionate stratified sample, we have to weight the estimates of the population's parameters by the number of units belonging to each stratum. In this sample, weighting strategies were not performed in the original data.
Once researchers have defined the population of interest, they draw a sample that adequately represents that population. The actual procedure involves selecting a sample from a sampling…
Sources of information . nd. http://www.fao.org/docrep/W3241E/w3241e03.htm#the%problems%20of%20secondary%20sources
acial and Ethnic Differences National Contexts
A sociologist analyze racial ethnic differences national contexts. For, U.S., tend race a . In order develop skill, select analyze a society demonstrating ethnic stratification conflict, including evidence prejudice discrimination.
In sociology, the predominant line of thought has favored new prejudice interpretations, arguing for the continuing relevance of prejudice and discrimination in forming political opinions and in generating discrimination. New prejudice theories have argued that modern prejudice is multidimensional, combining racial and ostensibly nonracial beliefs. Little known to most sociologists, recent psychological research provides a new approach to understanding the sources of racial discrimination that compliments ideas from the new prejudice literature (Livingston, 2002).
esearch has demonstrated that implicit racial attitudes exist even for individuals who score low on measures of explicit racial prejudice and that these implicit beliefs influence judgments and perceptions. This literature provides one way to reconcile differences between continuing high…
Brockner, J., & Wiesenfeld, B. (2000). An integrative framework for explaining reactions to decisions: Interactive effects of outcomes and procedures. Psychological Bulletin, 120(1), 189-208.
Census Bureau U.S. (2001). (2001). The Hispanic population: 1990-2000 growth and change., . Washington DC:: Guzmin.
Feather, N.T. (2002). Values and value dilemmas in relation to judgments concerning outcomes of an industrial conflict. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin,, 28(2), 446-459.
Issacharoff, S., Karlan, P.S., & Pildes, R.H. (2002). The law of democracy: Legal structure of the political process (Rev. 2nd ed.). . New York: Foundation Press.
Cambridge; Cambridge, MA: Polity Press
Devine, F. (ed.) (2004). ethinking class: culture, identities and lifestyles. Houndmills, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan
Joyce, P. (ed.) (1995). Class. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press
eid, I. (1989). Social class differences in Britain: life-chances and life-styles. London: Fontana [Franklin-Wilkins HN400.S6 EI]
ose, D and K. O'eilly (eds.) (1997). Constructing classes: towards a new social classification in the UK. Swindon: ESC/ONS
Wright, E. (1997) Classes. London: Verso
Zbigniew, a. (1972). Karl Marx: economy, class and social revolution. London: Nelson
Cohen, G. (2009) Why not socialism?
Elster, J (1986) an introduction to Marx
Gurley, J. (1976). Challengers to capitalism: Marx, Lenin and Mao
Lee, S. (200). European dictatorships, 1918-1945.
Marx, K. And Engels, F. (2005). The Communist Manifesto
Newman, M. (2005). Socialism: a very short introduction
Schumpeter, J (2010) Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy
Wacquant, L. (2009). Punishing the poor; the neoliberal government of social insecurity
Butler, T. (2007). Understanding social inequality. London; Thousand Oaks, Calif:
Cohen, G. (2009) Why not socialism?:
Crime in the City of Philadelphia
The crime rate in Philadelphia has been a major issue for many years. Philadelphia is known as one of the cities with a highest crime rate in America. Crime is any act committed that breaks the laws, breaking rules that were established by a state or federal authority. New York, Chicago and Los Angeles are cities that are bigger than Philadelphia, with much larger populations, however they have lower crime rates compared to Philadelphia. The Philadelphia Police Department have made many different attempts and tried several strategies in an effort to reduce crime rate in this city. In 2002 the Police Department launched Operation Safe Streets, where police officers were placed on all the known drug infested streets in attempt decrease crime rates (Lawton, Taylor & Luongo, 2005). In this paper I will discuss some of the issues associated with the crime rate…
Barlas, F. & Farrie, D. (2006). Perceptions of Neighborhood Safety: Social Disorganization and Racial Differences in the Impact of Neighborhood Characteristics. American Sociological Association.
Census (2010). Philadelphia population by race and ethnicity. Retrieved from http://www.clrsearch.com/Philadelphia_Demographics/MS/Population-by-Race-and-Ethnicity
Lawton, B.A., Taylor, R.B. & Luongo, A.J. (2005). Police Officers on Drug Corner in Philadelphia, Drug, Crime and Violent Crime: Intended, Diffusion, and Displacement Impacts. Justice Quarterly. 22 (4) 427-451
Miller, L.L. (2010). The invisible black victim: How American Federalism perpetuates racial inequality in criminal justice. Law and Society Review. 44 (3/4) 805-842
seasons of life" that are characteristic of Western societies. Name the rites of passage that mark the transitions from one period of life to the next.
Seasons of life: Childhood, Adolescence, Adulthood, Old Age, and Dying.
Rites of Passage: Puberty and struggling to gain independence and learn their own identies in the transition from Child to Adult (some religions have Bar and Bat Mitzvahs or Communion); marriage, maintaining a family, and participating in all aspects of society in Maturity; Status as matriarch or patriarch and declining health mark the passage of Elder to Death.
Over half of all women over 65 are widows, whereas only 13.6% of men over age 65 are widowed. What factors account for these statistics?
Answer: As socialization takes over men become more aggressive, and more individualistic which results in higher rates of accidents, violence, suicide, and hazardous behaviors like smoking and drinking in excess leading…
Race, Geography, Gender, Deviance, Oppression, and Social Stratification on Educational
Effects of Race, Geography, Gender, Deviance, Oppression, and Social Stratification on Education
High school dropout cases have occurred as a silent epidemic that has affected the nation. In the U.S., dropout cases have disproportionately affected young people, especially those from low-income families, ethnic minority groups, urban children, and single-parent children that join public schools. Statistics indicates that about 30% of public high school students in the U.S. fail to graduate (Heckman & LaFontaine 15). In this paper, we endeavor to demystify this high school dropout issue, an aspect that affects educational institutions. Identification of the prevalence and risk factors associated with high school dropouts facilitates the understanding of the reasons behind this issue and how best to solve them.
Research puts high school graduation rate at 68-71%. The rate at which minority students, including the Native Americans, Blacks, and…
Brait, Ellen. (2015, Dec 10). "Flotus on the Track: Michelle Obama's Rap Video Hypes Going to College." The Guardian. 10 Dec. 2015. Web. 16 Dec 2015.
Heckman, James. & LaFontaine, Paul. (May 2010). "The American High School Graduation Rate: Trends and Levels." NCBI (2010). doi: 10.1162/rest.2010.12366. Web. 16 Dec 2015
U.S. Department of Education. "Trends in High School Dropout and Completion Rates in the United States: 1972-2009." IES 2012-006 (2011). Web. 16 Dec 2015
At which point, they were seen as a neutral between the two different sides. ("Egypt Revolution," 2011)
The protestors played a role in the conflict, by pushing for various changes to take place. This is despite the fact that they were: attacked, some of their key leaders were sent to jail and access the Internet was shut down. Yet, despite these different obstacles the underlying message would spread through the social networking site Facebook. This is when many of the protestors would become united and galvanized under a common cause. Where, this would push them to continue with their demonstrations; until their issues surrounding: the frustrations with the government and lack of opportunity were addressed (starting with the resignation of President Mubarak). This is important, because it shows how the Facebook page would help to: unite the protestors under one common cause and it kept the momentum of the movement…
Egypt Revolution. (2011). Huffington Post. Retrieved from: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/01/30/egypt-revolution-2011_n_816026.html
Freed Google Executive. (2011). Jerusalem Post. Retrieved from: http://www.jpost.com/International/Article.aspx?id=207292&R=R4
Newman, D. (2008).The Architecture of Stratification. Sociology. (pp. 292 -- 316). Los Angeles, CA: Pine Forge.
MLA Format. http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/01/
These problems can hinder the development of a high quality of life for all Americans by creating structural barriers to success. Some important steps would be to increase political participation at the roots level of all underrepresented members of society and to lend a voice to those who currently have little say in the governance of the nation.
Wk-4 DQ-1. The political-economic system is generally set up along the lines of specific economic ideology that helps to define the role of government in the development of American society. The nature of work is in part defined by economic principles as well, for example the prevailing view that low-priced labor is key to competitiveness. This ideology intends to promote maximum economic development but it differs from the reality of work, in which economic distribution fails most Americans while benefiting few.
Wk-4 DQ-2. Some of the major causes of illiteracy are inadequate…
Furthermore, it is suggested that the roots of the problem lie deeper than the superficial debate about gun control. In sociological terms, this problem is to do with the lack of meaning and the breakdown of inherent normative structures. In this sense the debate about gun control should be seen against the underlying background of these sociological issues. Even if a compromise was be reached about whether or not to have gun control, there would still be underlying structural causative features that would need to be addressed and which are the source of this problem in the first place.
Cukier, V. And Sidel W. 2005.The Global Gun Epidemic: From Saturday Night Specials.
New York: Praeger Publishers.
Deviance and Social Control. etrieved November 21, 2004
Egger, Steven A., et al. 1990.Serial Murder: An Elusive Phenomenon. New York:
Praeger Publishers, 1990.
Lintelman, D. Gun Control. etrieved November 21, 2009…
Cukier, V. And Sidel W. 2005.The Global Gun Epidemic: From Saturday Night Specials.
New York: Praeger Publishers.
Deviance and Social Control. Retrieved November 21, 2004
During the proposed study's process, the researcher plans to fulfill the following objectives.
Objective 1: Address each of the proposed study's research questions during literature review:
Examine the effect athletic participation has on student GPAs;
Identify the effect athletic participation has on student DC CAS math scores;
Determine the effect athletic participation has on student DC CAS English eading scores;
Explore the effect music participation has on student GPAs;
Investigate the effect music participation has on student DC CAS math scores;
Discover the effect music participation has on student DC CAS English eading scores.
Complete study with 150 tenth grade student participants in the first semester of school year 2008-2009.
Analyze test results and compare with findings from literature reviewed.
One of the Best Investments
Despite current reported budget cuts and constraints in education, high school activity programs continue to constitute one of the best…
Baker, Christina. (2008, August). Under-represented college students and extracurricular involvement: the effects of various student organizations on academic performance. Social Psychology of Education, Volume 11 (3). Retrieved January 27, 2009 at http://www.springerlink.com/content/b6432j1361233004/
The case for extracurricular activities. (2008). National Federation of State High School Association. Retrieved January 23, 2009 at http://richwoodstrack.com/extracurricular_case.htm
The Columbia World of Quotations. (1996). Columbia University Press, New York. Retrieved January 27, 2009 from www.bartleby.com/66/.
Draper, Michelle. (2008, September 7). Vic: Principals link mental health to academic achievement. (www.highbeam.com/Search.aspx?q=publication:%22AAP+General+News+(Australia)%22&sort=DT&sortdir=DAAP General News (Australia). Retrieved January 28, 2009 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P1-156068940.html
Islamic Cultural Center
The building of an Islamic Cultural centre (ICC) has been a subject of controversy since it was conceived. The Islamic centre is intended to host several Islamic infrastructures like the rooms for Islamic teachings and Madras as well as a worship centre for the Muslims and a section that would be dedicated to the Islamic culture display.
The controversy that ahs surrounded the commencement of the building of the centre has been not so much on the legality of such an entity in the U.S.A. But on the proximity to the ground zero, that is known fro the 9/11 bombings by Islamic extremists. It is considered by many of those who oppose the idea as being too close to the 9/11 site that it would prohibit or injure their ability to commemorate, as one Mr. Brown, a complainant in the supreme court once noted (ABC News, 2011).…
ABC News, (2011). Ground Zero Mosque' Clears Legal Hurdle to Build. Retrieved November 14, 2011 from http://abcnews.go.com/U.S./ground-mosque-wins-legal-battle-build/story?id=14062701#.Tr_8QFKQvKQ
Allvoices Inc., (2011). Islamic Mosque And Cultural Center Blocks From Ground Zero. Retrieved November 14, 2011 from http://www.allvoices.com/contributed-news/6499574-islamic-cultural-center-blocks-from-ground-zero
SBA, (2011). Basic Zoning Laws. Retrieved November 14, 2011 from http://www.sba.gov/content/basic-zoning-laws
The people who have not yet gone in for the Plasma TV are more or less happy viewing the conventional TV, but want to go up in the value chain and aspire one day to buy a Plasma TV and like to be at par with their aspirational group who has already bought one. (the Psychology of Consumers -Consumer Behavior and Marketing)
Associative reference groups comprise of people who more practically represent the individual who are equal as regards their position in the society, income levels like co-workers, neighbors, members of clubs and organizations. As these people considers them near equals, a purchase by one member within the reference group triggers to think about the purchase by the other members of the society. The purchase of a Plasma TV, by a colleague belonging to a particular organization might instill confidence in the other employee to think about buying a similar…
Buying a Plasma TV" (November, 2004) NSW Office of Fair Trading-Department of Commerce. Retrieved at http://www.fairtrading.nsw.gov.au/pdfs/corporate/reportonpurchasingaplasmatv.pdf. Accessed on 18 February, 2005
Cassavoy, Liane. (November 03, 2003) "Should You Buy a TV From a PC Maker?" Retrieved at http://www.pcworld.com/news/article/0,aid,113009,00.asp . Accessed on 18 February, 2005
Gateway feels lure of consumer electronics" Retrieved at http://news.com.com/Gateway+feels+lure+of+consumer+electronics/2100-1041_3-1015744.html . Accessed on 18 February, 2005
Gateway Plasma TV to undercut prices" Retrieved at http://news.com.com/Gateway+plasma+TV+to+undercut+prices/2100-1040_3-964156.html . Accessed on 18 February, 2005
eber made appoint of recognizing that, even something so seemingly objective and abstract as the law, was, in reality, a substantive tool in the hands of judges and politicians. Judges are not "automata of paragraphs' (eber) because they are of necessity implicated in the values they are compelled to adjudicate. Substantive judgments and discretionary, extra-juristic evaluations are smuggled in under the camouflage of formal legal rationality." (Baehr 2002) the law, as it was printed on the page, was objective - it always said the same thing. However, it was the various judges, each of whom brought to the bench a unique collection of experiences, who necessarily interpreted those words in different ways. All of this was thus, a completely natural and "scientific" process. Each part of the machine performed as it was supposed to - it just depended on how you assembled the machine.
One sign that is frequently taken…
Baehr, Peter. 2002. In the Grip of Freedom: Law and Modernity in Max Weber. Canadian Journal of Sociology 27, no. 4: 587+. Database online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/.Internet. Accessed 4 June 2005. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=49065068
1990. The Forms of Power: From Domination to Transformation. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=94050575
Grusky, David B., ed. 1994. Social Stratification: Class, Race, and Gender in Sociological Perspective. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5007673311
When this happens, the total amounts of social satisfaction will improve. Moreover, the U.S. will be able to reduce the number of people that are living in the lower economic classes by understanding these viewpoints. This is when there will be increased amount of economic mobility, which helps to reduce any kind of class divisions. ("Multi Culturalism in America," 2012)
How would deviance be defined in America through a multicultural perspective?
Deviance would be defined as those groups that are unwilling to embrace different American cultural traditions (over several generations). This is because select nationalities could be focused on embracing their cultural practices and are not learning those of their new country. What would make the situation worse is when future generations do not accept American attributes with their own traditions. ("Multi Culturalism in America," 2012)
For example, a family from another country will automatically practice certain traditions when they…
Multi-Culturalism in America. (2012). Buzzle.com. Retrieved from: http://www.buzzle.com/articles/multiculturalism-in-america.html
Santorum, R. (2012). Multi-Culturalism Threatens America. Town Hall. Retrieved from: http://townhall.com/columnists/ricksantorum/2011/02/18/multiculturalism_threatens_america
population identified and described? Are eligibility criteria specified? Are the sample selection procedures clearly delineated? Yes. The sample consisted of 350 college students at a Midwestern University. All the students were enrolled in a personal health class as a social science elective.
Do the sample and population specifications support an inference of construct validity with regard to the population construct? Of n=350, 86% were White, 5% African-American, 4% Asian-American, 3% Latino, and 2% Other. This is not representative of the collegiate population in general, nor is it representative of the baseline population breakdown for most of America. However, because the classes are a social science elective, the sample does serve as an adequate representation of a cross-section of this particular Midwestern University.
What type of sampling plan was used? Would an alternative sampling plan have been preferable? Was the sampling plan one that could be expected to yield a representative…
Finally, the rise of science and technology due to industrialization militated against institutionalized religion (Bruce, 2002, p. 18). As people became more educated and reliant on science and technology in their everyday lives and work lives, religious disagreements with science and led people to abandon institutional religions as unscientific and backward. People knew that science and technology worked; therefore, religious arguments against science and technology tended to be rejected. In sum, the religious and secular teachings of the Protestant Reformation caused people to move toward greater secularization for religious, economic, social and intellectual reasons.
The Protestant Reformation significantly contributed to both Capitalism and Secularization in the est. By eliminating or reducing the Roman Catholic Church's underpinnings, including the Sacraments and obedience to Church authorities for salvation, the Reformation caused individuals to search here on earth for signs that they were saved and to rely on themselves rather than…
Bruce, S. (2002). God is dead: Secularization in the west - (Religion and spirituality in the modern world). Malden, MA: Blackstone Publishing, Ltd.
Stepan, a.C. (October 2000). Religion, democracy, and the "twin tolerations." Journal of Democracy, 11(4), 37-57.
Weber, M.A. (2003). The Protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, Inc.
Personal Social Class
My Parent's Class Position
My parents grew up in poverty in Latin America. Their story is not an unfamiliar one in America. My parents were able to obtain a middle school education, which at that time in Latin America, was a good educational accomplishment. Like most children living in impoverished, lower class families, my parents both had to contribute to the household income. Opportunities for earning extra money were scarce, but my parents were creative and determined; they took what jobs they could find and set themselves up to establish work where there had previously been none. My mother would say that sometimes people just didn't know what work they needed someone else to do -- but if you do some work, and the people like it, they see that it is nice not to have to do the work for themselves. When my grandparents immigrated to…
arxist or Neo-arxist Research
Critique of Theory
According to ax Weber the state is a special entity that possesses a monopoly on the legitimate use of violence. Weber believes politics is a required activity of government used in order to influence and control the relative distribution of force and power in the country.
Weber wrote of three main types of authority and political leadership domination that is present in society. These three types are charismatic, traditional and legal domination.
Weber also developed a theory of stratification where he explained and used such ideas as class, status, and party. According to his theory class is determined by an individual's economic situation. The notion of status is similar to prestige and honor. And the main purpose of parties is to gain domination in certain spheres of life. Like Weber, arx saw society as the struggle for class…
Marxism identifies only 2 types of production, Two types of production can be used, human and material. These two aspects have interrelation and they depend on each other. However, Mao tried to prove that such an interrelation is not essential. In his opinion both types of production should be included in the economic plan. He also took care and observed the process of population growth. Initially, China's post-1949 leaders were ideologically disposed to view a large population as an asset. Mao said an army of people is invincible. During Mao's rule, from 1949 to 1976, China's population increased from around 550 to over 900 million people. Mao believed that family planning should be integrated as a part of the overall plan for the development of the national economy, and that people should learn how to manage material production and how to manage themselves.
computers and culture, using the book "Technopoly: The Surrender of Culture to Technology," by Neil Postman, and other resources. Specifically, it will answer the questions: How have computers and computer networks changed human thinking, behavior, and lifestyle? What has been gained? What has been lost? What are the advantages of computers in communication? In education? In entertainment? In the economy? What are the disadvantages in these areas? Is computer technology creating winners and losers, or furthering social stratification? Have we become too dependent on computers? Do computers limit social skills and physical activity to a damaging degree? Why or why not? Computers have changed our national culture and our global culture, and not always for the better. When they were first developed for the mass market, computers were meant to increase productivity and cut down on paper work. Today, computers have permeated every section of our lives, and our culture.…
Berg, R. Dreyer. "Our Computational Culture: From Descartes to the Computer." ETC.: A Review of General Semantics 51.2 (1994): 123+.
Marsha Kinder, ed. Kids' Media Culture. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1999.
Perrolle, Judith A. "Information, Technology, and Culture." The Relevance of Culture. Ed. Morris Freilich. New York: Bergin & Garvey Publishers, 1989. 98-114.
Postman, Neil. Technopoly: The Surrender of Culture to Technology. New York, Vintage Books, 1992.
Communication and Sociology
Sociology and Poverty
Poverty, in absolute terms, is defined as a lack of the things considered basic for human survival. There are many causes of poverty; sociologists, however, explain the existence of poverty using two major approaches -- the structural-functionalism approach and the conflict approach (Andersen & Taylor, 2007). The structural-functionalism theory postulates that poverty is inevitable and is in fact one of the human processes that are necessary for the stability and continuity of society (Andersen & Taylor, 2007). Just as is the case with inequality and stratification, poverty is beneficial to society because it creates a balance that ensures that the best people occupy the most important positions, and the less worthy remain at the bottom (Andersen & Taylor, 2007). The conflict approach agrees with the argument that poverty is inevitable, but disputes the idea that it is beneficial, arguing that poverty exists only because…
Andersen, M. & Taylor, H. (2007). Sociology: Understanding a Diverse Society, Updated (4th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
Kornblum, W. (2007). Sociology in a Changing World (8th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
University of Washington. (2014). Presentation Tips. University of Washington. Retrieved 26 July 2014 from http://www.washington.edu/doit/TeamN/present_tips.html
In addition, stratification contributes to cultural determinism, which again, alludes to when a person's position or class within a stratified society determines their culture, what kind of labor they will have the opportunity to have, what quality of education they may have access to, and other aspects (or limitations) of a particular culture.
When social stratification becomes too extreme and tensions within a culture rise too high, there is a distinct possibility for cultural differentiation. This occurs in societies where the tensions and imbalances are apparent and transparent. In many countries, such as the United States, the media helps to minimize class imbalances. The media is often used as an institution that will communicate and distribute the dominant ideology and specific hegemony. Hegemony is a form of social control and ideology is the greater societal structure of which hegemony is a tool or strategy. Hegemony may is often skewed or…
Understanding Race and Ethnic Relations, 4th Edition. Chapter 3 -- Understanding Race and Culture. Print. Provided.
daily living standards for those living in the high income, middle income, and low income countries. Things like life expectancy, healthcare, housing, and education will be considered in the discussion. The definition of social stratification shall also be looked at.
Social stratification simply refers to a hierarchy of posts with respect to the economic production that affects the social rewards to individuals occupying these posts. Stratification entails structural inequity patterns, which are linked with membership in all the groups, in addition to the beliefs that encourage inequity. The categories that comprise the societal hierarchy are assessed by social groups, who also wish to establish the manner through which inequities are formed and continue with time (Kendall, 2013).
Low-Income: Approximately 35 countries are presently categorized by the World Bank (2012) as low-income economies. In these particular economies, majority of the citizens are involved in agricultural endeavors, live in…
(n.d.). Free Sociology Notes, Sociology Definition, Sociology Study Guide, Meaning Scope Of Sociology, Define Sociology Theory, and Define Sociology, Introduction To Sociology, Sociology Study, Sociology Concept, And Online Sociology Course. Social Stratification, Definition Social Stratification, Class Social Stratification, Define Social Stratification, Mobility Social. Retrieved September 22, 2015, from http://www.sociologyguide.com/questions/social-stratification.php
Kendall, D. (2013). Sociology in our Times (10 Ed.). Cengage Learning. Retrieved from http://online.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781305450387/pages/111567106
Thus, the relation between students is imperative for determining such disorders (Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development, 2007). As with the previous two categories, this is seen as incredibly subjective in the idea that no medical diagnosis or visible physical symptoms are needed to be placed within the category.
Stratification is essentially the ranking of individuals within a hierarchy based on the structures present in a functioning society. Sullivan and Artiles (2011) define stratification as "the patterned and differential distribution of resources, life chances, and costs / benefits among groups of the population" (p 1529). One's rank on this hierarchy determines one's quality of life and opportunities in relation to the structures and the groups these structures serve.
Overrepresentation and Segregation of acial Minorities in Special Education.
According to the research, there are much higher rates of overrepresentation of minorities in what is known as high-incidence categories,…
Anyon, Y. (2009). Sociological theories of learning disabilities: Understanding racial disproportionality in special education. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 19(1), 44-57.
Blanchett, Wanda J. (2010). Telling it like it is: The role of race, class & culture in the perpetuation of learning disability as a privileged category for the while middle class. Disability Studies Quarterly, 30(2). Retrieved from http://dsq-sds.org/article/view/1233/1280
Blau, Peter M. (1977). A macro social theory of social structure. American Journal of Psychology, 83(1), 26-54.
Burt, Ronald S. (1995). Structural holes: The Social Structure of Competition. Harvard University Press.
" Because of the ability to reproduce in large amounts in a small amount of time, phytoplankton are considered as the first link in the food chain of nearly all marine animals. Phytoplankton provide food for a large variety of organisms, including the microscopic animals (such as the zooplankton), bivalve molluscan shellfish (like mussels, oysters, scallops, and clams), and small fishes (such as anchovies and sardines). To continue the food chain, these group of animals then provide their own kind of food to other group animals like crabs, starfish, fish, marine birds, marine mammals, and humans (Karl, et al., 2001).
Figure 1. Sample food chain involving phytoplankton
Mortality Rate of Phytoplankton
It was recorded that from 1980's to the present, phytoplankton have been continuously increasing in frequency and distribution worldwide. The reason for such continuing increase in biomass is yet to be determined, but scientists have provided several…
Alvarez Cobelas, M., J.L. Velasco, a. Rubio, and C. Rojo. (1994). The time course of phytoplankton biomass and related limnological factors in shallow and deep lakes: a multivariate approach. Hydrobiologia 275/276:139-151.
Anya, M. (1996). Phytoplankton biodiversity.(Marine Biodiversity) Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.
Biomass distribution of phytoplankton" (2006). [Available online] www.astro.temple.edu/~sanders1/balance.gif
Carpenter, S.R., J.F. Kitchell, and J.R. Hodgson. (1985). Cascading trophic interactions and lake productivity. BioScience 35:634-639.
Upward Mobility Through Sports
Stanley Eitzen's article "Upward Mobility Through Sports" is an analysis of the ability of individuals to raise themselves upward through the social stratification that currently exists in America. Sports are often seen by those on the lower end of the social strata as a means of rising up and becoming economically successful. However, Eitzen points out that the chances of rising socially and economically through a career in professional sports is not likely. This article fits in with the readings from our textbook as they discuss the existence of social stratification and the effects on an individual of their position within that society.
Chapter 7 in our textbook opens with Murray Milner's theories on high school social structure as a means to begin a discussion on social stratification; or the inequalities among individuals and groups within society. This leads to a listing of the three characteristics…
Eitzen, Stanley. "Upward Mobility Through Sports? The myths and realities."
Z Magazine, March 1999. Web. 26 Oct. 2013.
This construction gave credence to the concept of class consciousness. Class consciousness is really class identity; it is the way entire groups of people conceive themselves as belonging to a whole. This understanding permeates the corpus and unites the initiated into a common group think. This group or class view is reinforced through the economic determinants that are at the foundation of the group's position. These determinants reinforce inequalities and class identities.
The challenge to class as a locus of identity formation; results from the assertion that contemporary society is too layered and complex for class identity to be relevant. The discussion centers not on the existence of inequalities but the explanation of those inequalities. In the postmodern context the inequalities that exist are not anchored in an a priori formulation of class structure. This formulation considers the development of a classless society. This is not to be interpreted as…
Becker H.S. (2003).The Politics of Presentation: Goffman and Total Institutions Symbolic
Interaction, 26 (4):659-669.
Bottero, W. (2004). Class Identities and the Identity of Class. Sociology 38 (5): 985-1003.
Burnhill, P., Garner, C., McPherson, a. (1990). Parental Education, Social Class and Entry to Higher Education 1976-86. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series a (Statistics
film La Otra Conquista captures the complexity of the process of colonialism, as even after he becomes known as Tomas, Topiltzin never loses his Aztec identity. The brutal use of force against the indigenous people of Mexico could not have alone erased the collective memories, dreams, and experiences of the people who survived. Historians have repeatedly pointed out the all-encompassing, major ways the colonial social systems and institutions transformed life for the indigenous people of Mesoamerica. Even the most "basic institutions" such as "family, marriage, and access to property," the issues that affect daily life as well as long-term survival of individual identity and community, would become "Europeanized."[footnoteef:1] Yet it would be impossible for Indian memory to completely end with the conquests. Collective memory is not so easily erased. Moreover, the indigenous people's customs, values, worldviews, and beliefs sometimes permeate and permanently alter those of the conquistadores. As La Otra…
Katz, Friedrich. "Rural Uprisings in Preconquest and Colonial Mexico." In Riot, Rebellion, and Revolution, Princeton University Press, 1988.
Medrano, Ethelia Ruiz. "Indigenous Negotiation to Preserve Land, History, Titles, and Maps: Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries." In Mexico's Indigenous Communities. University Press of Colorado, 2010.
Villella, Peter B. "Pure and Noble Indians, Untainted by Inferior Idolatrous Races." Hispanic-American Historical Review 91, no. 4 (2011): 633-663.
The issues of race and its ramifications are some of the most pressing issues facing American society today, and will continue to challenge us in the decades to come. Of course, issues of race and socio-economic stratification have always been of vast importance, but in America the problems are magnified since the country and its people pride themselves on being a true melting pot, and the reality does not always match the ideals.
One way of examining race is the functionalist theory or perspective. The functionalist theory of social inequality contends that stratification exists because it is beneficial for society. Society must focus on and with human motivation because the duties associated with the various statuses are not all equally pleasant to the human species, important to social survival, and in need of the same abilities and talents.
In other words, society depends on certain types of people…
Interpretive sociology does not agree with the thought that behavior is related to society as effect is related to cause since this entire idea is dysfunctional with that which composes social life in reality. Interpretive sociology holds that understanding of our fellow man should be the pursuit of each day as sense is made of their individual societal existence. Seeking to understand is the concept held in interpretive sociology instead of the seeking of an explanation. Therefore it is understood that "structural" or that of Marxism and Functionalism (i.e. The interpretive/interactionist/social action sociologies) as well as Weber's interactionism, ethnomethodology and the Structural arguments in sociology that a "science of society" is likely. Therefore, there exists an agreement even among the interpretive sociologies. The natural science argument is based on "cause and effect" principles. That claim that the behavior of humans is the effect of some cause in society or class…
Townsend, Peter (1970) the Concept of Poverty. Heinemann Weber, Max (1958) the Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.
Gilbert (1999) Social Research Update No. 27 University of Surrey Department of Sociology
Marx, Karl (1970) first published 1870 capital Vol.1 Penguin.
Sanjeev Prakash is Director of the Environment, Technology and Institutional
a&P by John Updike
The Themes of omen Empowerment and Modern vs. Traditional American Society in John Updike's A&P
The short story A&P by John Updike chronicles the contemporary American society and how it treats issues of social stratification among members of the society. ritten in the 1960s, A&P provides an insightful look at the dynamics of gender and socio-economic differences of people in American society. hat is remarkable about this literary work is that it discusses issues on social stratification in the eyes and viewpoint of Sammy, a young man who works at the convenience store A&P. Sammy's character is an interesting and essential factor that gives the issue of social stratification because he serves as Updike's 'commentator' on sensitive issues such as gender discrimination on women and the snobbish and oppressive nature of the elite class in the society. Through Sammy's eyes, Updike's audience is given a holistic…
Updike, J. A&P. Available at http://www.tiger-town.com/whatnot/updike/ .
Traditional Interpretation of Images: Class Stratification in John erger's Ways of Seeing and Sexual Politics in Susan ordo's Hunger as Ideology
The proliferation of popular or mass culture following after the emergence of the Industrial Revolution in 19th century gave birth to new ideologies that seek to understand how these new social phenomena (pop culture and industrialization/capitalism) affected the life of human society over the years. One of the most popular theories that developed in light of the Industrial Revolution is the critical theory perspective, which posits that in the society, there will always be an existing conflict between the elite or bourgeois and middle class/working or proletariat classes. Indeed, this stratification in terms of race, class, gender, and even religion has become the focus of modern studies nowadays. John erger and Susan ordo, adopting the classical Marxist approach, attempted to analyze how popular culture has affected human society, and…
Berger, J. Ways of Seeing.
Bordo, S. Hunger as Ideology.
This idea is also strengthen by the example of the inhabitants from the northern region. Yet, the idea is not completely tolerated. There are, of course, groups which benefit from the current context, like the elite groups that one would furthermore refer to when analyzing social stratification.
Along with the political context of Somalia, which is the principal factor of the economical failure of the country, another significant reason consists in Somalia's vulnerability and lack of defense in front of the world's biggest states which transformed it, at the beginning of the 1990s in a sort of testing ground for all the issues they confronted with.
For example, one knows the fact that a significant amount of the local economy before the 1990 stood in natives' activity of fishing, as both the Aden Gulf and the Indian Ocean are known as being rich in piscicultural resources. After becoming independent in…
Mubarak, Jamil Abdalla (1996). From Bad Policy to Chaos in Somalia: How an Economy Fell Apart. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Abdullahi, Mohamed Diriye (2001). Culture and Customs of Somalia. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press
Feldman, Stacy, Slattery, Brian (2003). Living without a Government in Somalia: An Interview with Mark Bradbury: Development Processes in Somalia Exist Not as a Result of Official Development Assistance, but in Spite of it. Journal of International Affairs, 57 (1), pag 1.
U.S Department of State- Bureau of African Affairs (2011). Background Note: Somalia [January 3, 2011]. Retrieved from http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/2863.htm
Weber, on the other hand, did not agree that social and political class could really be considered one and the same. For him, the material inequality observable in society was the source of power and stratification, and not merely the result of the system (Davidson 2009). While still uniting the concepts of ideology and materialism, Weber's view can in some ways be seen as a reversal of Marx's; the material inequality was the means by which the ideological and political inequality could be perpetuated (Davidson 2009). The greater opportunities available to those who had greater wealth allowed for their continued dominance.
Briefly describe how two different theorists might analyze the economic climate of today and what brought it on? How would each of them understand how it would happen and what will happen in the near future.
There are many similarities between the sociological theories of Emil Durkheim and Max…
Bartle, P. (2009). "Durkheim & Weber." Accessed 12 October 2009. http://www.scn.org/cmp/modules/soc-web.htm
Davidson, a. (2009). "Comparing Karl Marx and Max Weber." Accessed 12 October 2009. http://www.helium.com/items/1598754-marx-and-weber-on-social-class
Ritzer, G. & Goodman, D. (2004). Sociological Theory. New York: McGraw Hill.
However, one can still see remnants of Morgan's ideals as globalization takes hold in developing nations. Although differences are tolerated, the "westernization" of the rest of the world is still a growing reality. One need look no further than modern business attire to see that western ideals are quickly replacing traditional modes of dress and modes of doing business. Morgan's work makes the modern anthropologist aware that "globalization" may be a soft sell for "westernization."
Fried, Morton H. 1960. On the Evolution of Social Stratification and the State. In Anthropological Theory: An Introductory Theory. Fourth Edition. R. McGee and Richard Warms. McGraw Hill.
Fried explored the development of social stratification, as opposed to a non-ranked society. His primary purpose was to explore the reasons for changes in society that lead to changes in social structure. He compared simple forms of social organization to more complex ones. Fried explored…
It is somehow difficult to reconstruct with certainty the way in which the Neolithic society was composed and functioned. However, the existing knowledge of the Neolithic society is mainly derived from the architecture, economic activities, figurines, burial traditions and other discoveries from the Aegean sites. With a population of between 50 to 300 individuals, the initial Neolithic communities lived in compactly built settlements. The basic unit of society during the Neolithic Age was the extended family or clan that was composed of grandparents, parents, children and other close affinity. The members of this basic unit of society lived in one or more neighboring houses that were sharing hearths and ovens which were located in open spaces for common use. In most cases, these hearths and ovens that were shared amongst neighboring households were usually located in between the houses.
As the basic unit of society, the neighboring households…
Brosius, B & Stanicic, S. (2008, February). Neolithic Communism. Retrieved March 7, 2011,
"Chapter 3: The Neolithic Age." (n.d.). March of the Titans: A History of the White Race.
Retrieved March 7, 2011, from http://www.white-history.com/hwr3.htm
Black Reconstruction in America by .E.B. Du Bois
The Perpetuation of the "Color Caste" and Socio-economic Stratification in "Black Reconstruction in America" by .E.B. Du Bois
illiam E.B. Du Bois, American writer and historian, is known for his active participation in promoting Black Power movements in American society during the early 20th century, a period wherein society is dominated and controlled by the white American race. During this period also, there is a strong sentiment of racism and prejudice against black Americans, then called Negro slaves, wherein, Du Bois himself experienced the struggles and challenges his fellow black Americans had to go through in order to achieve emancipation from the bondage of slavery and racism.
Du Bois had written numerous discourses about black American prejudice throughout his lifetime. However, the essay "Black Reconstruction in America," written in 1935, provides an insightful and fresh perspective in looking at the socio-economic factors…
Du Bois, W.E.B. (1935). E-text of "Black Reconstruction in America." Available at: http://edweb.tusd.k12.az.us/uhs/APUSH/1st%20Sem/Articles%20Semester%201/Artiles%20Semester%201/Dubois.htm.