Structuralism Essays (Examples)

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Psychology Term Comparison of Three

Words: 766 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6423877

In their book, Progress in Modern Psychology: The Legacy of American Functionalism, Owens and Wagner (1992) suggest that contemporary psychology reflects a common vision of the naturalistic framework that was first inspired by William James and later refined by John Dewey, James owland Angell, Harvey Carr, among others. In this regard, Owens and Wagner argue that one of the key contributors to early functionalism was John Dewey. In sharp contrast to the aforementioned structuralist approach which would analyze a situation into its continent parts, Dewey believed that sensation and the subsequent motor responses could not be legitimately separated, but rather comprised a more linear analysis that provided a coordinated response to a given condition (Owens & Wagner, 1992).

Behaviorism.

According to Zuriff (1985), behaviorism is not the science of behavior (consisting of findings, principles, laws, and theories that are formulated through the study of behavior) but rather provides a conceptual…… [Read More]

References

Badcock, C.R. (1976). Laevi-Strauss: Structuralism and sociological theory. New York: Holmes & Meier.

Hawkes, T. (2003). Structuralism and semiotics. New York: Routledge.

Noble, C.E. (2006). Structuralism. In Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved July 15, 2006, from Encyclopedia Britannica Premium Service.

Owens, D.A., & Wagner, M. (1992). Progress in modern psychology: The legacy of American functionalism. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
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Two First Schools of Psychology

Words: 899 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55982476

Structuralsim vs. Functionalism

The structuralist/functionalist debate in the field of psychology focuses on the framework that psychological approaches should take. In the pioneer days of psychology, scholars argued whether one should take a structuralist or a functionalist approach to interpreting how the mind works. The essence of structuralism was promoted by Wilhelm Wundt in Germany and his pupil, Edward Titchener, is the man who gave the approach its name when he brought its school to America. In competition with Titchener's "structuralism," however, was "functionalism," which grew out of the American response to the German ideas. Functionalism was rooted in the ideas of Darwin and William James, the American philosopher.

The debates between the two schools were heated in spite of calls for a reconciliation between the two, as some saw them as both dealing primarily with the same problem: the conscious self (Chalkins, 1906). The advocates of the two schools,…… [Read More]

References

Calkins, M.W. (1906). A reconciliation between structural and functional psychology. Psychological Review, 13: 61-81.

Fancher, R.E. (1996). Pioneers of Psychology. New York: Norton.

James, W. (1904) The Chicago School. Psychological Bulletin, 1: 1-5.

Jones, E.M. (2000). Libido Dominandi. IN: St. Augustine's Press.
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Psychology the Following Question Requires

Words: 775 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2152189

Behavioral activities are more of reactions to stimuli and have less to do with cognitive (or brain) processes and more to do with how one acts in a certain environment. Some behavioral activities would include: 1) sitting quietly while in the classroom or in church; 2) opening the door for somebody to walk in ahead of you; 3) using good manners while at a restaurant; 4) helping an old lady cross the street; and, 5) picking up a child that is crying.

4) the following question requires you to write a short essay consisting of a few paragraphs. Compare and contrast structuralism and functionalism by discussing elements such as their definition, founders, and similarities and differences. Edward B. Tichener formally established and gave a name to structuralism, which was first based on Wilhel Wundt's ideas. Structuralism is the first school of psychology and focuses on breaking down the mental processes…… [Read More]

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Chomsky and His Theory of Universal Grammar

Words: 2891 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68495998

Chomsky

Noam Chomsky and His Theory of Universal Grammar

Noam Chomsky name is not unknown to the world. Though he is not a psychologist or a psychiatrist but his contributions in the fields of psychology and linguistics has a great impact. His theory of generative grammar has been regarded as one of the most considerable contributions to the field of theoretical linguistics (Berger, 2005).

As a Person

Noam Chomsky, a well-known politician and an exceptional linguist, was born on December 7, 1928 in the state of Philadelphia in the home of a Hebrew scholar (Berger, 2005). He got his early education in Philadelphia while he went to study linguistics, mathematics and philosophy at the University of Pennsylvania. There, he also achieved his PhD degree though he completed most of his PhD work at Harvard University during early 1950s. Chomsky has been associated with Massachusetts Institute of Technology since 1955. He…… [Read More]

References

Berger, V. (2005). Famous Psychologist: Noam Chomsky. Retrieved January 2, 2012 from  http://www.psychologistanywhereanytime.com/famous_psychologist_and_psychologists/psychologist_famous_noam_chomsky.htm 

Cowie, F. (1999). What's Within?: Nativism Reconsidered. New York: Oxford University Press. Retrieved January 2, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=54457478

Lechte, J. (1994). Fifty Key Contemporary Thinkers: From Structuralism to Postmodernity. London: Routledge. Retrieved January 1, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=103622027

Language Acquisition. (2009). In The Columbia Encyclopedia (6th ed.). New York: Columbia University Press. Retrieved January 4, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=117028793
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Eliade and Levi Strauss

Words: 851 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2861801

Functionalism & structuralism in the works of Levi-Strauss, Eliade & Malinowski

The functionalist and structuralist approaches to understanding human culture in the works of Claude Levi-Strauss, Mircea Eliade, and Bronislaw Malinowski

The development of anthropology as the study and analysis of human cultures necessitated the formulation of theoretical frameworks and models in which social relations among humans as well as their artifacts, traditions, customs, and beliefs are further understood. Developments in the social sciences in the twentieth century demonstrate the advancement in anthropological studies, wherein diversity and awareness of other human societies have encouraged studies and research on Western as well as Eastern cultures (i.e., countries from the Asian, African, and Middle Eastern regions).

It is in this context that the theories on cultural analysis by Claude Levi-Strauss, Mircea Eliade, and Bronislaw Malinowski are developed, changing the way anthropological methods and analysis were conducted for research purposes. In this paper,…… [Read More]

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Prater Violet Was Above All Else a

Words: 741 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85111931

Prater Violet was above all else a book meant to elaborate on the creative process as it pertains to film. And although Prater Violet as not intended an avenue for analysis of literary theories, the characters display behaviors and personalities that fall into several theories contemplated in Terry Eagleton' s: Literary Theory:An Introduction. New Criticism, as Eagleton explains, points to the non-essential qualities of novels in their lack of need of an author's life and experiences to draw from. Analysis of the characters can be solely based on their own modalities rather than having anything derived from the writer.

As New Criticism states that the author's life can stand to have no influence on the characters of a story, Structuralism also focuses on elements within works of literature refraining from concentrating on historical social, and biographical influences, but rather linguistics. As Eagleton stated in his book: "If the poem was…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Eagleton, Terry. Literary Theory: An Introduction; with a New Preface. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2008. Print.

Isherwood, Christopher, Don Bachardy, and James P. White. Where Joy Resides: An Isherwood Reader. London: Methuen, 1989. Print.

Isherwood, C. Prater Violet: A novel. New York: Random House, 1945. Print.
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NGO Is a Non-Governmental Organization While an

Words: 1284 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32101899

NGO is a non-governmental organization, while an IGO is an intergovernmental organization. The latter is typically created between states. Trade agreements often create IGOs as enforcement mechanisms, for example. Thus, IGOs exist as intermediary between the constituent nations. There are often three or more nations party to the agreement, as per the UIA (2014) definition of an IGO. The body will typically have specific set tasks for which it has been created, and any authority that the IGO has will be related to the performance of those tasks.

An NGO is also an international organization, but exists outside of state influence. The UIA defines an NGO as being transnational in nature but not bound or run by any nation. An NGO may theoretically receive some funding from a nation-state, but in many cases will raise funds privately. NGOs therefore operate independent of state influence, and perform tasks on this basis.…… [Read More]

References

Hardin, G. (1968). The tragedy of the commons. Science. Vol. 162 (3859) 1243-1248.

UIA. (2014). Types of international organization. Union of International Associations. Retrieved December 12, 2014 from http://www.uia.org/archive/types-organization/cc

UNCHR.org (2014). What are human rights? United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. Retrieved December 12, 2014 from http://www.ohchr.org/en/issues/pages/whatarehumanrights.aspx
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Applying Contemporary Theory to Contemporary Life

Words: 1235 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79854538

Breaching Experiment

A Game of Twister Played at Macy's Department Store

Brief Description of the Breaching Experiment

My daughter, Kayley, who is fourteen and one of her friends, Dani, with her mother's permission, participated in a brief experiment. The experiment was to play the popular game "Twister" in a social setting that would be extremely uncommon for something like that to occur. The three of us took the game to the mall and looked for a spot in which we could play. We asked a few people to participate in the game as the game's "spinner" however each person that was asked refused to participate. Eventually we chose the department store Macy's to play the game.

When playing the game there were several odd looks that were cast in our direction; one lady shook her head in what appeared to be disgust. Shortly after the game began, a store employee…… [Read More]

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Paul -- I Made Sure

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69598665

However, contemporary literature on the subject seems to establish the priciples of comparivie psychology as ones that focus on both proximate and ultimate causation (Dewsbury, 1984).

The power, though, of the comparative approach lies in the ability that the scholar can evaluate target behaviors from really four different perspectives, called Tinbergen's four questions (Burkhardt, 2005).

How pervasive is the behavior across the individual species -- how common is it?

How does the behavior contribute to overall evolutionary success via natural selection (reproductive success)?

What mechanisms are involved in the behavior -- what physiological, environmental or behavioral components must occur?

How does maturation and development contribute to this behavior?

Numerous studies have been done regarding comparative psychology, some even so popular that they are studied by elementary students. However, a few seminal studies have dominated the field. Pavlov, for instance, used dogs to understand the issues of conditioning. Thorndike studied cats…… [Read More]

One must first understand that Freud was not completely contemporaneous with Wundt and James, and therefore there is some scholarly overlap that occurred in the way the three men considered their subject matter, as well as their cultural experiences and the overall "theme" of the times in which they lived.

Freud tended to subdivide and categorize the mind into more quantitative levels of consciousness, but continued to emphasize the unconscious. This evoloved into his famous trio: the id, ego and superego as the building blocks for all human bahevior. It is this pre-counscious, or subconscious level that, for Freud, tended to establish the bulk of the individual's way of being, way of perceiving, and even way of learning (Kahn, 2002).

James, however, perceived himself as a philosopher, attempting to uncover the balances between reality and experience. It was the experience of religion, of esctascy, of pain,
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Magic of Images by Camille

Words: 662 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75203765

The 21st century culture, however, is at its early stage of development, and society has yet to see what would be the future of technology-driven culture. Possibly, the thousands-to-millions of global villages created through Internet technology would converge to create a cultural explosion that would be the biggest mark of the 21st century. It is also possible that the free, expansive knowledge acquired through the Internet would lead to new schools of thought that will redefine and change the way humans pursue knowledge and truth.

The author talks about the lack of discipline in the words and images that proliferate in the media age. It is important for the author to understand, though, that poststructuralism and postmodernism emanates mostly from words and images created by the technology-driven culture. The discipline Paglia talks about in her essay is still there, although this discipline is not spent on understanding art works from…… [Read More]

Works cited

Aylesworth, G. (2005). "Postmodernism." Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 18 November 2009. Available at:  http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/postmodernism/ .

"Poststructuralism." (2009). In Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 18 November 2009. Available at: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/472274/poststructuralism.
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Thomas Kuhn's the Structure of

Words: 3200 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14073607



What they had regarded as the most certain of all theories turned out to be in need of serious revision. In reaction, they resolved never again to bestow their faith in scientific truth unconditionally. Skepticism, not certainty, became their watchword. (ibid)

The implication of Kuhn's work was that science was seen to be dependent on history. It was no longer superior to historical analysis but could only be understood within the context of history. This too is another post-modern concept which is very important in deconstruction theory. "Philosophers therefore turned to a more serious study of history than they would have considered desirable even a few years earlier. They also learned more about the internal workings of the sciences than their earlier, much more abstract epistemological approach would ever have justified or even tolerated." (ibid)

3. Postmodern thought

Thomas Kuhn's groundbreaking work in the field of the philosophy of science…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bernstein, Richard J. Beyond Objectivism and Relativism: Science, Hermeneutics, and Praxis. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1983.

Boon, Timothy. "Making the Modern World" History Today Aug. 2001: 38. Questia. 10 Dec. 2004 http://www.questia.com/.

Borradori, Giovanna. The American Philosopher: Conversations with Quine, Davidson, Putnam, Nozick, Danto, Rorty, Cavell, Macintyre, and Kuhn. Trans. Crocitto, Rosanna. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1994.

Burns, Tony. "Zamyatin's We and Postmodernism." Utopian Studies 11.1 (2000): 66. Questia. 10 Dec. 2004 http://www.questia.com/.
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Bandura A 1999 Moral Disengagement in the

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79224993

Bandura, A. (1999). Moral Disengagement in the Perpetration of Inhumanities. Personality and ocial Psychology Review, 3(3), 193-209.

Discusses the moral agency embedded in socio-cognitive theory and other self-regulatory mechanisms responsible for restraining immoral personal behavior. Focuses primarily on specific factors that lead to moral disengagement, in which individual root justification for immoral behavior. Author sheds light on the importance of having a moral agency and dangers of not have one. He maintains that in the absence of such an agency, immoral conduct becomes rampant and destroys the moral fabric of the society. The thesis revolves around the idea that "Given the many mechanisms for disengaging moral control, civilized life requires, in addition to humane personal standards, safeguards built into social systems that uphold compassionate behavior and renounce cruelty." I found the article valuable because the author backs his arguments with findings from previous studies. However a moral detailed discussion on…… [Read More]

Social work text exploring a wide range of sociological principles with an emphasis on critical analysis of each school of thought; objective consideration of the efficacy and utilitarianism of each social work paradigm.

Harrison, L.E., & Huntington, S.P. (Eds.). (2000). Culture Matters: How Values Shape Human Progress (1st ed.). New York: Basic Books.

Specifically addresses the relationship between cultural values and societal development. Concludes that changes in societal values result in subsequent shaping of the developmental process of social structures. The
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Colbert Report Has Been on

Words: 2863 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57346436

Changes within a text are accounted for as transformations in the synchronic system, and this meant a tendency to fail to deal with time and social changes, which concerned many of the method's critics from the beginning.

Ferdinand de Saussure offers an explication of the linguistic approach and the meaning of language and contributed to the development of structuralism. He sees the nature of communication as deriving from ongoing processes and also considers the relationship between the human being and language as a social relationship. He offers an analysis of the different planes on which language operates and so points to areas for study and comprehension to be applied to literary criticism as to language studies in general. In emphasizing process, he also emphasizes structure, for he denies that we can begin with units -- with words, say, or phonemes -- and instead sees language as deriving meaning and value…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Agar, Michael. Language Shock. New York: William Morrow and Company, 1994.

Chandler, David. Semiotics for Beginners. 2005. August 1, 2007. http://www.aber.ac.uk/media/Documents/S4B/semiotic.html.

The Colbert Report." Imponderables (2005).

August 1, 2007.  http://www.imponderables.com/archives/000321.php .
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Criticism of the Neoclassical Theory Comparative Economics

Words: 1159 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81677753

Economics: Neoclassical, Keynesian, And Marxian Theories

Social theories attempt to explain how people interact with each other, and with their surroundings. For this reason, it is believed that social theories shape society, so much so that people will theorize elements in their surroundings based on their life situations and what they experience in their interactions. Towards this end, what one person thinks or believes about a certain aspect may not necessarily be what another person thinks; people hold different theories about how the economy works, and how it influences human interactions - and this is particularly why we have multiple economic theories today. Social theories are broadly categorized into three -- humanism, structuralism, and dialectics. These three have been applied to economic theory to explain how the various elements of the economy interact to realize maximum outcomes. This text demonstrates how the aforementioned social theories have been used to shape…… [Read More]

References

Hackett, Steven. Environmental and Natural Resources Economics: Theory, Policy, and the Sustainable Society (2nd ed.). Armonk, NY: ME Sharpe, 2012. Print

Wolff, Richard and Resnick Stephen. Contending Economic Theories: Neoclassical, Keynesian, and Marxian. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2012. Print

Wolff, Richard. "The New Reading of Karl Marx's Capital in the United States." Professor Wolff's Social Movement Project, 2007. Web. 3 March 2015 http://www.rdwolff.com/content/new-reading-karl-marx%E2%80%99s-capital-united-states
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Saussure on Language Ferdinand De

Words: 687 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44662457

The mental concept or signified basically refers to the particular thing or event within the mental representation.

The Linguistic Sign:

Saussure considers language as a form rather than substance because the linguistic sign is basically fabricated by a combination of the obvious sound image (signifier) and the mental concept (signified). In fact, he considers the linguistic sign as a mental relationship between the signifier and the signified rather than being the connection between a thing and a name (alker par, 5). Furthermore, while the signifier is a link between a sound pattern and a sound, the signified is a connection the mental image of a concept and the concept itself. Therefore, language consists of not only a process of translating concepts into sounds but it is also a process of translating sounds into concepts. As a result of this process, the connection between a sound image and a mental concept…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Klages, Mary. "Structuralism and Saussure." University of Colorado. University of Colorado, 6 Sept. 2001. Web. 19 Aug. 2010. .

"Structuralism and Poststructuralism - Saussure And Structuralism." JRank. Net Industries and Its Licensors. Web. 19 Aug. 2010. .

Walker, Christopher. "The Swiss and The Sign." MartNet.com. MartNet, 14 Apr. 1998. Web. 19 Aug. 2010. .
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Post-Modern to Contemporary Psychology

Words: 3161 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16183152



Diversity and Psychology

There were two major developments that influenced the field of psychology and the professions' views regarding multicultural competence, emphasized in 2003. The American Psychological Associations' 2002 Ethical Principles and Code of Conduct and the Guidelines on Multicultural Education, Training, Research, Practice and Organizational Change for Psychologists published in 2003 both stressed the importance of moving from a mono-cultural school of thought to a multicultural perspective and that these 'new rules' acknowledge an appreciation of differences as well as an "understanding of the inherent ambiguity and complexity in psychological practice (Pack-rown & Williams, 2003; Manesse, Saito, & Rodolfa, 2004). Knapp and VandeCreek (2003) said of these new guidelines that they articulate a need for greater sensitivity regarding linguistic and cultural minorities. The development of the new Code of Ethics and the APA's positioning were purported to be in response to a long awaited recognition of the need for…… [Read More]

Bibliography

American Psychological Association (2003). Guidelines on multicultural education, training, research, practice, and organizational change for psychologist. American Psychologist, 58(5), 377-402.

Barbour, I. (2000). When science meets religion: Enemies, strangers, partners? San

Francisco: Harper.

Blumenthal, A. (2001). A Wundt primer: The operating characteristics of consciousness.
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Humans Have Been Intrigued by the Workings

Words: 1069 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99071998

humans have been intrigued by the workings of the human mind. Philosophers and physiologists pondered the questions that psychology, as an independent science, now addresses. Psychology is the study of mind and behavior, both in humans and animals. There exist many subfields within this discipline and as such, supporters of each may alter the aforementioned definition to emphasize their area of concentration.

Developmental psychology examines changes and growth over the lifespan. Child and adolescent psychology along with gerontology are subdisciplines of developmental psychology. The influence and effect others have on our feelings, behaviors, and thoughts describes social psychology. Personality psychology is the study of stable characteristics that influence behavior. Traits include aggressiveness, anxiety, and sociability to name a few. Experimental psychology, as the name implies, relies on the experimental method in its proceedings. Fields of research include cognition, sense perception, and memory. iological processes are the central concerns in physiological…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Cardwell, Mike (1996). Schaum's A-Z Psychology. United Kingdom: The McGraw-

Hill Companies.

Schultz, Duane & Schultz, Sydney Ellen (1994). Theories of Personality. California:

Brooks/Cole Publishing Company.
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Archaeological Controversy Archeological Controversies Are

Words: 1906 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57198237



The Paleolithic arts and culture assumes its significance from more studies conducted on the issue. Shea, John (441-450) argued that recently found stone artifacts of Middle Paleolithic occupations of Kebara Cave (Mount Carmel, Israel) depict that the Middle Paleolithic populations used technology-assisted hunting as the artifacts had clear representation and meanings regarding the use of tools and this use of tools was not limited to hominids. This suggests that the paintings, artifacts, and the cultural significance of carvings is more than usually thought by some researchers. The way of life that was prevalent in that era clearly impacted the artifacts. Further the cognitive development of human is also represented in the artifacts as these were drawn, carved, and developed by using same tools and technology materials used by those people.

Conclusion

The Paleolithic era people have produced many artifacts that have provoked an archeological controversy in the academic and research-based…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Halverson, John, et al. "Art for Art's Sake in the Paleolithic [and Comments and Reply]." Current Anthropology 28.1 (1987): 63-89.

Leroi-Gourhan, Andre. "The evolution of Paleolithic art." Scientific American 218 (1968): 58-70.

Lewis-Williams, J. David, et al. "The Signs of All Times: Entoptic Phenomena in Upper Paleolithic Art [and Comments and Reply]." Current Anthropology 29.2 (1988): 201-245.

Pfeiffer, J.E. (1985). The emergence of humankind (p. 38). New York: Harper & Row.
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American and Japanese Early Childhood

Words: 14069 Length: 50 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63412707

Generally, it works by either giving a reward for an encouraged behavior, or taking something away for an undesirable behavior. y doing this, the patient often increases the good behaviors and uses the bad behaviors less often, although this conditioning may take awhile if the rewards and removals are not sufficient to entice the patient into doing better.

Existentialism is important to discuss here as well, and is often seen to be a very drastic way to examine human behavior. There are two types of existentialism. One is Atheistic Existentialism, and the other is Theistic Existentialism.

Atheistic existentialism has its basis in the statement that the entire cosmos is composed only of matter, and human beings see reality in two forms. Those forms are subjective and objective. People who believe in Atheistic Existentialism do not believe that anyone or anything specific made the world. They do not know whether it…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Adams, M.J., Treiman, R., & Pressley, M. (1998). Reading, writing, and literacy. In W. Damon (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Child psychology in practice, 4, 275-355. New York: Wiley.

Albertson, L., & Kagan, D. (1988). Dispositional stress, family environment, and class climate among college teachers. Journal of Research and Development in Education, 21(2), 55-61.

Amidon, E. (1980). Personal Teaching Style Questionnaire. Philadelphia: Temple University, College of Education.

Allison, Anne. (1996). Producing mothers. In Anne E. Imamura (Ed.), Re-imaging Japanese women (pp. 135-155). Berkeley: University of California Press.
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Educational Theory and Philosophy in

Words: 5040 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21973033

Nearing the end of the 1960s, the analytic or language philosophy became the central focus point which led to the isolation of the classroom setting and the problems that came with it (Greene, 2000).

Most of the educational philosophers of the time were inclined towards restricting themselves to the official aspects and problems like the sovereignty of the system without any influence from the society and the surrounding environment and the assessment of the calls and school structure conducted for its growth or for the progression of the epistemology that it embodied (Greene, 2000).

All those setups that seemed to be coming across as invasive or seemed to add a personalized bias where it didn't belong were quickly identified and removed. This was one of the reasons that led to the obsession of the possible consequences that could exist due to the practicality of the philosophical theories. Inflexibility was adeptly…… [Read More]

References

Aleman, a.M. (1999). Que Culpa Tengo Yo? Performing Identity and College Teaching. Educational Theory 49, no. 1: 37-52;

Arons, S. (1984). Playing Ball with the Rodriguez Court: Three Strikes and You're Out. Educational Theory 34, no. 1: 23-27.

Brameld, T. et al., (1952). Existentialism and Education. Educational Theory 2, no. 2.

Buchmann, M. (1987). Impractical Philosophizing about Teachers' Arguments. Educational Theory 37, no. 4: 361-411.
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Gestalt Psychology Theory in

Words: 1804 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64580467

"The song was there before me, before I came along" Dylan answered. "I just sorta came down and just sorta took it down with a pencil, but it was all there before I came around…" (www.edlis.org)].

Meanwhile Ginger explains the practical application of Gestalt theory from the perspective of Fritz Perls: a) "we all know that each of us perceives the world from our own personal perspective…" and yet people look in vain for the objectivity that comes from science; b) we also know that the "how" is more important than the "why" and that the "spirit in which something is done is important… but we are still mostly interested in the 'bottom line'" (Ginger).

Conclusion

As alluded to earlier in this paper Gestalt has indeed been controversial and clearly it is misunderstood after years of its myriad applications. However, this paper supports the value that is Gestalt, in its…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Edlis. (1997). Ballad of Donald White. Retrieved September 3, 2011, from  http://www.edlis.org/twice/threads/donald_white.html .

Feldman, Robert. (2009). Psychology and Your Life. New York: McGraw-Hill Companies.

Ginger, Serge, (2007). Gestalt Therapy: The Art of Contact. London, UK: Karmac Books.

Melnick, Joseph, and Fall, Marijane. (2008). A Gestalt Approach to Group Supervision.
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Theoretical Approach to Generational Poverty

Words: 3947 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70625438

Theoretical Approach to Generational Poverty

Poverty is one of the most pressing social problems and the generational nature of poverty remains one of the reasons it is so difficult to eradicate poverty. While there are several different theories suggesting why poverty is transmitted from generation to generation and theorists sometimes strongly disagree on those reasons, there is almost universal acceptance of the idea that poverty is transmitted from one generation to another. In fact, there has been a significant amount of study directed at chronic poverty in the developed and developing countries. This research suggests that while poverty may be simplistically defined as a lack of money, the problem of poverty actually addresses the "absence of transfer of different forms of capital: human, social-cultural, social-political, financial/material and environmental/natural" (Moore, 2001). This more complex definition of poverty helps explain why simply providing financial resources to a family does not generally fix…… [Read More]

References

Andrisani, P. (1977). Internal-external attitudes, personal initiative, and the labor market experience of black and white men. The Journal of Human Resources, 12(3), 308-328.

Bartos, O. & Wehr, P. (2002). Using conflict theory. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Buck, M. & Austrin, H. (1971). Factors related to school achievement in an economically disadvantaged group. Child Development, 42(6), 1813-1826.

Duckitt, J. & Mphuthing, T. (1998). Political power and race relations in South Africa: African attitudes before and after the transition. Political Psychology, 19(4), 809-832.
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Overrepresentation of Minorities in Special

Words: 4423 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67221345

Thus, the relation between students is imperative for determining such disorders (Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development, 2007). As with the previous two categories, this is seen as incredibly subjective in the idea that no medical diagnosis or visible physical symptoms are needed to be placed within the category.

Stratification.

Stratification is essentially the ranking of individuals within a hierarchy based on the structures present in a functioning society. Sullivan and Artiles (2011) define stratification as "the patterned and differential distribution of resources, life chances, and costs / benefits among groups of the population" (p 1529). One's rank on this hierarchy determines one's quality of life and opportunities in relation to the structures and the groups these structures serve.

Literature eview

Overrepresentation and Segregation of acial Minorities in Special Education.

According to the research, there are much higher rates of overrepresentation of minorities in what is known as high-incidence categories,…… [Read More]

References

Anyon, Y. (2009). Sociological theories of learning disabilities: Understanding racial disproportionality in special education. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 19(1), 44-57.

Blanchett, Wanda J. (2010). Telling it like it is: The role of race, class & culture in the perpetuation of learning disability as a privileged category for the while middle class. Disability Studies Quarterly, 30(2). Retrieved from  http://dsq-sds.org/article/view/1233/1280 

Blau, Peter M. (1977). A macro social theory of social structure. American Journal of Psychology, 83(1), 26-54.

Burt, Ronald S. (1995). Structural holes: The Social Structure of Competition. Harvard University Press.
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Mrner Magnus With Harold Sims Adventurers and

Words: 601 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57060929

Mrner, Magnus with Harold Sims Adventurers and Proletarians: he Story of Migrants in Latin America. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1985.

Although the issue of illegal immigration from Central America into North America has become an issue of almost obsessive national interest, the issue of 19th and early 20th century migration and immigration to Latin America from Europe has not received nearly as much attention from historians. o address the need for a more detailed history and examination of this issue, Magnus Mrner embarked upon an examination for the reasons behind "the massive voluntary displacement" of people that took place in Latin America during the 19th century and lasted up to the beginning of the Great Depression (5).

he first chapters give a brief historical overview of the reasons for why this migration occurred, and the situation the European migrants entered to when they arrived in Latin America, such as…… [Read More]

The first chapters give a brief historical overview of the reasons for why this migration occurred, and the situation the European migrants entered to when they arrived in Latin America, such as the nations' colonial past. Then, the book provides a broad overview of the different forms of assimilation that occurred after different waves of migration occurred. Assimilation was influenced by the different reasons that people migrated -- such as to prosper from the coffee plantations of Brazil. The author attempts to provide a comparison of the various complex interactions between the new groups in different nations. The book evolves chronologically, examining how different 'injections' of new ethnic groups changed the composition of Latin America as a whole. Although all nations are discussed, if only parenthetically, because 79% of all migrants to Latin America between 1851 and 1924 settled in Argentina and Brazil, much of the book is focused on these nations, along with Chile, Paraguay, and Uruguay.

The book ends with a review of contemporary migration, and a general discussion of why human migration occurs. It examines the theory of equilibrium and the theory of historic-structuralism and tests their validity in the historical Latin American context. Equilibrium theory suggests that mobile labor forces create a "leveling" or equality of "human well being" and ultimately make the world a more economically equal and diverse place (124). The historical-structuralism perspective examines migration as a product of "structural transformation" and social formations, such as the coming to power of different racial and class groups and the influence of industrialization on the economies of different nations (124). Mrner believes these different theories offers some insight to explain mass migrations but also cautions the reader that non-economic and political influences had a profound influence on the period he chronicles.

This book is rather dry in terms of its presentation of historical information and sociological theory, perhaps because it was originally commissioned as a study by UNESCO, and was not originally intended to be read by the wider public. But learning about immigration to Latin America, and how it affected the racial and class structures within different nations, helps a reader becomes more aware of the social diversity of the region, and gain a better understanding of why some nations are more economically and politically stable at present than other Latin American nations. The book strives to put a human face on a now-often forgotten aspect of Latin American history. Usually, the ability of immigrants to make a positive contribution to the land to which they immigrated ultimately "depended more upon the socioeconomic structure of the receiver country" than upon the personal characteristics of the immigrants (84). The potential of a nation to become stronger because of immigration, Mrner writes, is contingent upon its social permeability and openness to change, not upon the educational or economic status of the migrants -- an important caveat to keep in mind during the present debate upon immigration in America.
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Why Don't Class Politics Predominate in Advanced Industrial Societies Advanced Capitalism Social Differentiation and Politics

Words: 1539 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48546093

Politics Predominate in Advanced Industrial Societies? Advanced Capitalism, Social Differentiation, and Politics

The focus of this work is to examine the question asking why it is that class politics fail to be predominant in advanced industrial societies. Towards this end, this work will review the work of Karl Marx entitled "Classes" (1867) and the work of Calhoun, et al. (2012) entitled "Contemporary Sociological Theory."

Summary of the Theories

The work of ourdieu (1976) entitled "Outline of a Theory of Practice" demonstrated the development of the core of his theory as an effort to "understand the clash between enduring ways of life and larger systems of power and capital, the ways in which cultural and social structures are reproduced even amid dramatic change, and the ways in which action and structure are not simply opposed but depend on each other." (Calhoun, et al., 2012, p.325-26) In addition, ourdieu is reported to…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Calhoun, Craig, et al. (2012) Contemporary Sociological Theory. 3rd ed. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Marx, Karl (1867) Classes. Chapter 14.

Weber, Max (1914) The Distribution of Power within the Political Community: Class, Status, Party. Chapter 22.
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Principal-Agent Model in Economics and Political Science

Words: 12148 Length: 45 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52622125

Principal-Agent Model in Economics and Political Science

The international political perspectives of free trade

A Global Analysis

International Trade Impact on Tunisia

The Export of agricultural products

International trade and development of Tunisia

Balance in the Trade egime

Imports and exports of Tunisia

Exports

Imports

Coping With External and Internal Pressures

The Common External Tariff (CET)

Safeguard Measures

Anti-Dumping Duties (ADDs) and Countervailing Duties (CVDs)

ules of origin

The New Commercial Policy Instrument

Sector Based Aspects

GATT/WTO's Main Principles

Non-discriminatory trade

Multilateral negotiation and free trade

The Trading Policies of European Union

Critical Political Economy

Tunisia

The Gross Domestic Product of Tunisia

The eal Data Analysis of Import Export Companies in Tunisia

The Smith Co Company

The Softkim and Lovers Limited

The Impact of Free Trade on Tunisia Trading 43

Findings 44

Conclusion 44

eferences 46

Abbreviations

ACP

Africa, the Caribbean, and the Pacific

AMC

Alternative Mediterranean Conference

APEC

Asia-Pacific…… [Read More]

References

Bhagwati, J. (2002). Free Trade Today. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Retrieved August 15, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=99509776

Bhote, K.R. (2002). The Ultimate Six Sigma: Beyond Quality Excellence to Total Business Excellence. New York: AMACOM. Retrieved August 15, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=111931454

Campbell, B. (1993). 3 A Canadian Labor Perspective on a North American Free Trade Agreement. In The North American Free Trade Agreement Labor, Industry, and Government Perspectives, Bognanno, M.F. & Ready, K.J. (Eds.) (pp. 61-68). Westport, CT: Praeger. Retrieved August 15, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=24509387

Conti, D.B. (1998). Reconciling Free Trade, Fair Trade, and Interdependence: The Rhetoric of Presidential Economic Leadership. Westport, CT: Praeger. Retrieved August 15, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=15432294
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Philosophical Questions About Jean Jacque Rousseau John

Words: 2481 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81160393

philosophical questions about, Jean Jacque Rousseau, John Dewey, Michel Foucault and Marin Luther King, Jr. It has 4 sources.

Rousseau and Nature"

We are born weak, we need strength; helpless, we need aid; foolish, we need reason. All that we lack at birth, all that we need when we come to man's estate, is the gift of education. This education comes to us from nature, from men, or from things."[Rousseau 143].

According to Rousseau out of the three factors involved in a child's development, Nature, is totally uncontrollable. "Nature, we are told, is merely habit."[20] Habits are a product of positive or negative conditioning. As a child grows in reason he uses judgment to modify his natural tendencies but often this process becomes warped due to already embedded habits. Harmony within is affected when natural tendencies conflict with what a child learns at the hands of society and other men.…… [Read More]

Sources:

Rousseau, Jean Jacques. emile, Everyman's Library 1969.

Foucault, M. (1979). Discipline & Punish: The birth of the prison. New York: Vintage Books

Preston, Edward. Martin Luther King: Fighter for Freedom. New York: Doubleday and Company, 1986.

Dewey, John, 1859-1952. Democracy and Education: an Introduction to the Philosophy of Education at http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/toc/modeng/public/DewDemo.html
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When I Was Puerto Rican

Words: 1851 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67664678

Puerto Rican, by Esmeralda Santiago. Specifically, it will answer five questions about the book, based on the reading and sociological principles. Esmeralda Santiago's autobiography "hen I was Puerto Rican" is a compelling story about the culture, mores, and societal influences that all rained down on a young girl torn between two worlds. Negi, a young Esmeralda, searches for her identity in the book, and as she does she paints a graphic sociological picture of two cultures in two different places that eventually meld into one coherent and strong young woman.

hen I was Puerto Rican

Discuss how each theoretical perspective is reflected in this book. 1B. Discuss the theoretical perspective that you believe is predominant and support your answer. There are several theoretical perspectives in the book, including interactionism, feminism, post-structuralism and postmodernism, and rational choice theory. Interactionism plays a role in the novel in the relationships between the family,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Augenbraum, Harold, and Fernandez, Margarite Olmos, eds. U.S. Latino Literature: A Critical Guide for Students and Teachers. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2000.

Santiago, Esmeralda. When I was Puerto Rican. New York: Vintage Books, 1994.
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Rhetorical Stance

Words: 917 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45038345

Wayne Booth is considered one of those principally responsible for the revival of the study of rhetoric, a skill that was valued by the Greeks in their debates and later re-visited by enlightenment-era neo-classicists. is concern for the matter couldn't have been more timely; the late 1950's and early 1960's saw the first televised debates (such as those between John F. Kennedy and Richard Nixon,) the popularity of shows such as 'Meet the Press, a substantial growth in the legal profession, and a new emphasis on the study of media by MacLuhan and others.

Because Booth is proposing a formula for the proper criticism of essays, we are tempted to approach his essay with an attitude of extreme scrutiny; we are thus able to discern the critical from the merely hypocritical.

Booth illustrates the necessary construction of a speech or essay as a trichotomy: the author must present facts, appeal…… [Read More]

He repeats a popular gimmick in academia; breaking a certain problem, such as the nature of public speaking, into a simplistic illustration with only three permutations. People have been doing this for centuries; even things as special and beautiful as love were broken down into easy-to-digest components by academics that possessed a desire to over-simplify for a broad-based target audience. The best example of such a breakdown proving to be wildly wrong was that of the elementals: Earth, Water, Wind and Fire. The litmus test of Booth's ability to illustrate a proper architecture for rhetorical speech is to be found in whether or not its conceptual employment is universally applicable.

The three stances Booth illustrates are in many respects three of six - one can be strong on two of the three points. Usually entertainers also please their audiences. It's hard to be entertaining without pleasing your audience and the opposite scenario; entertaining by saying the opposite of what your audience thinks, is extremely rare. It might be said that entertaining speech and advertising speech are more correlated than either of these with pedantic speech. Booth may have hesitated to develop a more comprehensive set of mandates for proper rhetorical speech because he didn't want to sound too pedantic.

Interestingly, it was also during the 1960's that semiotics was re-discovered by French philosophers such as Saussure and Levi-Strauss under the heading of structuralism. With some of the key elements of structuralism in mind (the idea of encoding messages, the sociological 'structure' of things that are said or advertisements) it is possible to develop arguments specifically designed to make a specific portion of the audience change their thoughts or opinions in a pre-calculated fashion; this methodology is used without exception in political campaigns. However, to Booth's credit it can be said that such methodologies and his are not mutually exclusive.
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psychology and behaviorism essay outline

Words: 503 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18055088

I. Introduction

Although behaviorism is now considered part of psychology, it was not always. Early behaviorists tried hard to set themselves apart from the psychology of their day, which many believed focused too much on the subconscious mind. Behaviorism was the first attempt to study human behavior using the scientific method. However, there were many different approaches to behaviorism.

II. The Early Foundations of Behaviorism

A. The structuralism versus functionalism debate

1. Structuralism: Wilhelm Wundt and Edward Tichener tried to show that they could use introspection as a scientific method with the goal of objectively understanding the structures of the human mind or consciousness.
2. Functionalism: William James and later behaviorists were more interested in how the mind works and why the mind reacts to stimuli as it does.

B. Functionalism was a direct extension of Darwinism.

C. John Watson, William James, and Chauncy Wright were proponents of functionalism, which…… [Read More]

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Edkins Campbel and Malkki All

Words: 1494 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39780750

(1996) This separation of individuals and groups from the wrongs that have been perpetrated against them in the rhetoric and reality dehumanizes them to a degree and allows discourse on redress and resolution to falter.

Having discussed the main premises of these three, for lack of a better word, philosophers one must now look to Nyers, who discusses the political nature of the status of "refugee" and how in the modern, post 9-11 atmosphere many states have opted to lay a veil of security across international border crossing and refugee status. In the post 9-11 atmosphere it has become common place to "detain" and "deport" those who are seeking political asylum when they come from places of security risk. In short the current situation, cumulative of the highly political and state sponsored international humanitarian body that seeks to divorce individuals and groups from the wrongs that have been done to…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Campbell, David. 1998. Why Fight: Humanitarianism, Principles, and Post-structuralism. Millennium 27. 497-521.

Edkins, Jenny. 2003. Humanitarianism, humanity, human.. Journal of Human Rights. ( June) 2(2). 253-258.

Malkki, Liisa H. (1996) Speechless Emissaries: Refugees, Humanitarianism, and Dehistoricization. (August) 11(3). 377- 404.

Nyers, Peter (2003) Abject Cosmopolitanism: The Politics of Protection in the Anti-Deportation Movement. Third World Quarterly. (December) 24(6). 1069-1093.
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Diversity of Psychology the Diverse

Words: 834 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48148803

" It is worth separating the two here, as the differences between the two highlight the diversity of the discipline. Behavioral learning is defined as "a change in behavior brought on by experience." (Psychological Approaches to Learning). Made famous through the Pavlov experiment, where dogs were shown to salivate at the sound of a bell once they had learned that food followed the noise, behavioral therapists seek to "re-condition" their clients. Thus, like their cognitive colleagues, behavioral therapists work with their clients to bring about conscious changes in their lives. epeated practice with different responses to troubling stimuli may allow a patient to adjust his/her behavior to be more productive.

In addition to these sub-disciplines, the diversity of psychology is further deepened by Humanism, Structuralism, and Functionalism, just to name a few. So much diversity has made the science appealing to a great diversity of practitioners, from therapists to patients.…… [Read More]

References

Cherry, Kendra. 2010. Psychology Theories. Available at: http://psychology.about.com/od/psychology101/u/psychology-theories.htm

Psychological Approaches to Learning. Available at: http://www.wcupa.edu/_ACADEMICS/sch_cas.PSY/Career_Paths/Educational/subfield2

Types of Psychological Treatment: A Guide to Psychology and its Practice. Available at:  http://www.guidetopsychology.com/txtypes.htm
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Block in NYC I Have

Words: 1672 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93623331

(Absolute Astronomy).

[PHOTO HERE]

Here, we see the Mediascape landscape alongside many other of the success factors for design in real-world situations:

[MORE PHOTO HERE]

Compare that last to the landscape identified as Ethnoscapes here:

[APPLICABLE PHOTO HERE]

Here we find Ethnoscapes defined:

In the anthropology of globalization, the suffix "-scape" signifies transnational distributions of correlated elements whose display can be represented as landscapes. For example, transnational arrangements of technological, financial, media, and political resources can be seen, respectively, as technoscapes, financescapes, mediascapes, and ideoscapes (Appadurai 1996: 33). The prefix "ethno-" refers to "people" rather than stricly to "ethnicity."

Next up we have Financescapes. Through these next images the heart of this majestic capitalist nation: the financial market alongside the culture associated with financial markets:

[CAPITALIT PHOTO HERE]

Up next, of this Anthropology of Globalization, here we find Ethnoscapes, or the people (Greek, ethno-) + the transnational distribution of correlated…… [Read More]

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Sociological Theory in the 21st

Words: 2675 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4609524

In addition, the views presented by sociologists concerning idealistic tradition is based on the significance of the concerned group that is sort to motivate, influence to belief and the subject of interest. In this regard, sociologists will not disassociate from the scientific data but will involve the subject of interest to attempt to understand the environment in its own context, showing how sociologists have subjective explanations and not objective ones (Adams et al. 267).

ith regard to the above, there exists queries on whether the sociological theory is a micro or a macro understood occurrence. Apart from the philosophical aspects of knowledge, the micro and macro aspects of sociological theory are highly debated in there associations. It inquires on how these sociological theories on character, reactions, and interpersonal procedures can associate with other social influences. Just like in sciences where there exists micro-macro differences which even with the advanced technology…… [Read More]

Works cited

Adams, Bert, et al. Sociological theory. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press. 2001. Print.

Calhoun, Craig, et al. Contemporary sociological theory. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell, 2007.

Print.

Dunaway, Wilma. Emerging Issues in the 21st Century World-system: New theoretical directions for the 21st century world-system. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood
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Health Care Systems Management as

Words: 9550 Length: 35 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98461776

The infant mortality rate is of 8.97 deaths per 1,000 live births. This rate places Kuwait on the 160th position on the chart of the CIA. The adult prevalence rate of HIV / AIDS is of 0.1 per cent.

In terms of economy, Kuwait is a relatively open, small and wealthy economy. It relies extensively on oil exports -- petroleum exports for instance account for 95 per cent of the total export revenues as well as for 95 per cent of the federal income. The Kuwaiti representatives have recently set the goal of increasing the oil production per day. Currently, Kuwait is facing the pressures of the internationalized economic crisis -- which however, due to recent economic surpluses in Kuwait, affects the economy to a lower extent.

Simultaneously with the increase in oil production, the Kuwaiti authorities are also focusing on diversifying the economic activities in the sense of supporting…… [Read More]

References:

Agency, Kuwait News. "Blair's "Kuwait Vision." 15 March 2010. Zawya.com. .

Al-Ansari, H. And S. AL-Enezi. "Health Sciences Libraries in Kuwait." Bulletin of the Medical Library Association 89.3 (2001): 287-93.

Al-Awadhi, Olusi, Al-Saeid, Moussa, et.al. "Incidence of Musculoskeletal Pain in Adult Kuwaitis." Annals of Saudi Medicine 25.6 (2005): 459=62.

Al-Baho, A. "Resident's Guide to the Curriculum for Training in Family Medicine." December 2008. Kuwait Institute for Medical Specialization. .
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Ethics Table Q1 Brief Definitions of

Words: 870 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83412268

Consequence-based ethics

c. I believe people should be able to eat sand because it is the right thing to do. Duty-based ethics

d. I believe people should be able to eat sand because it is good for one's health. Virtue ethics

e. I believe people should be able to eat sand if they decide they want to, regardless of whether it is someone else's sand. Entitlement-based ethics

f. I believe people should be able to eat sand if they want to because they are free to make the decision themselves. ights-based ethics

g. I believe I will eat sand because it is the standard meal for my community. elativistic ethics

Q4. Duty-based ethics: It is my duty to follow through with instructions my boss gives me, even if I do not agree with the concept. It is my moral obligation to respect authority figures.

Consequence-based ethics: Even though some employees…… [Read More]

Reference

Trevino, L.K., & Nelson, K.A. (2007). Managing business ethics: Straight talk about how to do it right (4th Ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
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Female Identity in Photography Construction

Words: 3888 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14963605

When we look at Starkey's works we appear to be looking at moments captured from everyday life, in particular the everyday life of women. In fact Starkey's photographs are constructed, the people we are looking at are actors.

Her images of modern banality also suggest ennui, despair, depression and listlessness, which are conveyed as central facets of the reality of life for women in society. As one critic describes her images; "apathetic teenagers, usually girls, languish, slack-limbed and expressionless, in dimly lit cafes, nondescript interiors, and anonymous shopping malls."

Furthermore, the images also emphasize the sense of loneliness and isolation that she considers to be the existential situation of working women in the city.

In these images and others like them, individuals stand apart from the world, separated from it by a screen of indifference. It is not that they actively refuse to invest in their surroundings; they simply do…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Berger, P and Luckmann T. The social construction of reality: A

treatise in the sociology of knowledge, Garden City, NY; Doubleday. 1966.

Delamater, J.D., & Hyde, J.S. "Essentialism vs. Social Constructionism in the Study of Human Sexuality," The Journal of Sex Research, 35, no. 3(1998): 10.

Fuku Noriko. "A woman of parts." Art in America, June, 1997. November 30, 2009. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1248/is_n6_v85/ai_1948
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Movies and Methods Volume I

Words: 2080 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27696935



Not only does Nichols provide a good context for the many paradoxes that can confront film studies with his insightful and thoughtful introduction, but he also shows how sharing approaches and methods can help to stimulate a lot of the best writing regarding film. In addition he shows many of the common problems that are seen and deals with the contradictions that appear. Like the first volume of the anthology, this second volume also provides smaller introductions so that each essay and piece of information can be more easily understood. It also allows a reader to peruse the book and find the pertinent piece of information that he or she needs at that point in time, which can be very valuable, especially for a novice to the film industry trying to find information quickly. Having the smaller introductions before each piece also help to showcase each item within the context…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Nichols, Bill (1976) Movies and Methods: Vol. I. University of California Press.

Nichols, Bill (1985) Movies and Methods: Vol. II. University of California Press.
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Tales as We Have Come

Words: 2456 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39855915

This has been interpreted as overprotective behavior and is directly linked to being a parent. One cannot be overprotective of a child he or she does not have. It is only logical to conclude that the witch is to Rapunzel a sort of a stepmother; also, one could gather that the witch wanted Rapunzel not only to hurt and get back at the child's natural father, but for her own benefit. She has also been interpreted as a motherless child who steals someone else's offspring in order to fill the void in her own life. Consequently, the witch in Rapunzel cannot be seen as a purely evil character, a typical antagonist who seeks the destruction of the protagonist at all costs. Her refusal to accept the prince and to offer the young girl a chance to fall in love could be explained by maternal jealousy and overbearing parenting. Also, the…… [Read More]

Davidson, Hilda Ellis; Anna Chaudhri, eds. A Companion to the Fairy Tale. Rochester, NY: D.S. Brewer, 2003. Questia. 27 Sept. 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=106766030.

Propp, Vladimir. Morphology of the Folktale. 1928. 2nd ed. Trans. Lawrence Scott. Austin: U. Of Texas P, 1968.

Zipes, Jack, ed.. "Cross-Cultural Connections and the Contamination of the Classical Fairy Tale" in the Great Fairy Tale Tradition: From Straparola and Basile to the Brothers Grimm. New York: WW Norton & Co., 2001.
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Postmodern Philosophy Philosophers Over the

Words: 1980 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15396724



Jean-Francois Lyotard (the Postmodern condition: A Knowledge eport 1979) describes postmodernism in the context of nature of social bond. He argues that due to the advent of the technology and with the invention of computer, information has been more restricted in the form of procedures and program. According to him some one must have access to all the information to check whether the decisions are madder correctly. He discuss in this paper about the language games which are gaining importance day by day as the communication is becoming so prominent and efficient. We can see the connecting point between Lyotard and Kuhn as well as Popper which also agree that truth is language dependent and textual interpretation vary from person to person so whole truth of knowledge is not absolutely conveyed.

PESONAL EACTION and CITIQUE:

Postmodernism seems to be overwhelmingly push everything into vagueness. The only thing according to postmodernism…… [Read More]

REFERENCE:

1-Dr. Dave Teague: Introduction to postmodern philosophy: Postmodern preaching

http://www.postmodernpreaching.net/philosophy.htm

2-Geoff Haselhurst (May, 2005): Philosophy Karl Popper: Discussion Popper's Problem of Induction.  http://www.spaceandmotion.com/Philosophy-Karl-Popper.htm 

3- Gary Aylesworth First published Fri 30 Sep, 2005: Postmodernism:Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.   http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/postmodernism/ #8
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Individuality Individual Identity Is Almost

Words: 1738 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98260647

Social conformity inhibits the individuals' referentiality that was an intrinsic governance of the self. Although neither Durkheim nor Giddens arguments are without merit, it would seem, therefore, as Elias argued, neither society nor the individual can exist in total isolation from the other. In many ways they are defined by each other and the actions of the collective. Society can serve as the barometer by which individual identity is measured, and the converse is true. Interdependencies exist between individuals and society.

eferences

Bourdieu, P 1977, Outline of a Theory of practice, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Cleaver, F 2007, 'Understanding Agency in Collection Action' Journal of Human Development, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 223.

Cuff, E, Sharrock, W, & Francis, D 1984, Perspectives in Sociology, 3rd edition, London,

outledge.

Elias, N 1995, 'Introduction: Figuration and Process Sociology' Culture

and Economics, vol. 34.

Elias, N 1996, 'Problems of Involvement and Detachment', British…… [Read More]

References

Bourdieu, P 1977, Outline of a Theory of practice, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Cleaver, F 2007, 'Understanding Agency in Collection Action' Journal of Human Development, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 223.

Cuff, E, Sharrock, W, & Francis, D 1984, Perspectives in Sociology, 3rd edition, London,

Routledge.
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International Relations Theory Due to Their Background

Words: 921 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57489440

international relations theory due to their background in agriculture related research and study, including a BSc. degree in agriculture, a master's degree was in agricultural development and a master's degree in sustainable development in agriculture. ith regard to sustainable development this applicant was struck by the number of issues that were purely related to an understanding of the nation state and the crisis that it now faces in the era of neoliberal globalization due to the growth in power and influence of non-state corporate entities that have become more powerful than traditional nation states.

hat is happening to date in globalization challenges all of the areas of international relations theory, whether using the approaches of realism, constructivism, or Marxism and critical theory, feminism, foundationalism, the "English school," functionalism, post-structuralism or post-colonialism. The overall topic of this author's research is ambitious. It will be to fuse the elements of all of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

George, A.L., & Smoke, R. (1974). Deterrence in american foreign policy. New York,

NY: Columbia University Press.

Claude, I.L.Y (1984). Swords into plowshares. New York, NY: Random House.

Allison, G. (1999). Essence of decision. New York, NY:
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Cultural Anthropology Otherwise Known as the Socio-Cultural

Words: 1245 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57777976

Cultural anthropology otherwise known as the socio-cultural anthropology or social anthropology is basically the study of culture and is mainly founded on ethnography. Ethnography is based on the methodology of collection of primary data and is purely a product of research where inductive method is used as well as a heavy reliance on the participant observers.

It is considered as the holistic and scientific study of humanity and majorly the branch that focuses on the study of human cultures, myths, practices, beliefs, values, economies, cognitive organizations and even technologies in the contemporary environment.

The significance of the participatory research is to help the individual place the rules of moral conduct, the cognitive structures and the social life patterns in their own socio-cultural context hence becoming very relevant and meaningful despite how 'strange' or 'bizarre' it might look to the persons from other cultures. The concept of cultural relativism goes against…… [Read More]

References

International Society for Quality in Health Care, (2011). Culture and quality: an anthropological perspective. Retrieved September 14, 2011 from  http://intqhc.oxfordjournals.org/content/16/5/345.full 

Stephen T. Bogg, (2011). Culture Change and the Personality of Ojibwa Children. National Institute of Mental Health. Retrieved September 14, 2011 from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1525/aa.1958.60.1.02a00060/pdf

University of Alabama, (2009). Symbolic and Interpretive Anthropologies. Retrieved September

14, 2011 from  http://anthropology.ua.edu/cultures/cultures.php?culture=Symbolic%20and%20Interpretive%20Anthropologies
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Nagel's Account of Intertheoretic Reduction

Words: 2376 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14284528

Nagel's Model of Inter-Theoretic Reduction

Nagel's Model of Inter-Theoretical Reduction

Reductionism has to do with the classification of knowledge, particularly the classification of scientific knowledge. Many philosophers, such as Nagel, believe that the all current scientific knowledge can be broken down into discrete theories. Accordingly, progress in science is measured by the development of new theories.

These theories are used to explore and control the phenomena in their domains and to systematise, organise and summarise our knowledge about them. In fact, mastering any field of science requires an understanding of its fundamental theories.

Examples of scientific theories are the quantum theory in physics, the evolutionary theory in biology, and the general equilibrium theory in economics.

Definition of a Theory

The first issue which all must face is defining a theory and its constituents. The second issue, often resolved in the definition of the theory, is the relation of a theory…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Nagel, E. (1961). The structure of science: Problems in the logic of scientific explanation. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World.

Nagel, E. (?). Issues in the Logic of Reductive Explanations, p. 905-921.

Ladyman, J., Ross, D., Spurrett, D., & Collier, J. (2007). 2. "Scientific Realism, Constructive Empiricism, and Structuralism."

Sklar, L. (1967). Types of inter-theoretic reduction. British Journal for the Philosophy
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Culture on Learning Styles Multiculturalism

Words: 5049 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 583446

Following are Hofstede's four categories and what they measure:

Power Distance (PD) is the "extent to which the less powerful members of institutions and organizations within a country expect and accept that power is distributed unequally" (Hofstede 1998) with a small PD meaning more equality in the society, and a large PD meaning less.

Individualism (ID) defines whether the society expects people to look after themselves or not. Its opposite is Collectivism, which Hofstede (1998) defines as "the extent to which people in a society from birth onwards are integrated into strong, cohesive in-groups, which throughout people's lifetime continue to protect them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty."

Masculinity (MA) defines the degree of distinction of gender roles. High MA means men are supposed to be "assertive, tough, and focused on material success; women are supposed to be more modest, tender, and concerned with the quality of life" (Hofstede 1998). Its…… [Read More]

References

Al-Mekhalfi, A.G. (2001). Instructional media for teachers' preparation. International Journal of Instructional Media, 28(2), 191. Retrieved January 31, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com.

Arab World (2005). Geert Hofstede Cultural Dimensions. Retrieved January 29, 2005 at http://www.geert-hofstede.com/hofstede_arab_world.shtml

Australia. (2005) Geert Hofstede Cultural Dimensions. Retrieved January 29, 2005 at http://www.geert-hofstede.com/hofstede_australia.shtml

Bilimoria, P. (1995). Introduction to the Special Issue: Comparative and Asian philosophy in Australia and New Zealand. Philosophy East & West, 45(3), 151-169.
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Who's Controlling Our Emotions Emotional Literacy as a Mechanism for Social Control

Words: 8437 Length: 28 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90031219

CONTROLLING OUR EMOTIONS?

EMOTIONAL LITERACY:

MECHANISM FOR SOCIAL CONTROL?

At the core of becoming an activist educator

Is identifying the regimes of truth that govern us the ideas that govern how we think, act and feel as educators because it is within regimes of truth that inequity is produced and reproduced. (MacNaughton 2005, 20)

Disorder, addictions, vulnerability and dysfunction...."

Disorder, addictions, vulnerability and dysfunction...." These terns, according to Nolan (1998; Furedi 2003; cited by Ecclestone N.d., 135), denote a therapeutic ethos prevalent in American culture that some consider to be seeping into ritish media, popular culture and politics. Currently, in England, "Personalised learning," according to Ecclestone (2005, 456), includes an increasing number of initiatives, which constitute a powerful discourse to respond to varied, frequently contradictory public, political and professional concerns relating to a person's emotional needs. Her article debates critical policy research and evaluates the subtle ways policy initiatives strive…… [Read More]

Bibliography www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5014543540

Benninga, Jacques S., Marvin W. Berkowitz, Phyllis Kuehn, and Karen Smith. "Character andAcademics: What Good Schools Do Though There Has Been Increasing Interest in Character Education among Policy Makers and Education Professionals, Many Schools Hesitate to Do Anything That Might Detract from Their Focus on Increasing Academic Performance. The Authors Present Evidence Indicating That This May Be Misguided." Phi Delta Kappan 87.6 (2006): 448. Questia. 24 June 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5014543540.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5022190711

Buckingham, David, and Andrew Burn. "Game Literacy in Theory and Practice." Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia 16.3 (2007): 323+. Questia. 24 June 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5022190711.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5010848471
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Pessoa the Philosophies Embodied in

Words: 6419 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41477784

" (Gibbs 226) Alvardo de Campos is a naval engineer by profession and while his earlier writings are positive, his work develops characteristics of existential angst. Furthermore, what is intriguing is that all of these fictive authors created by Pessoa interact with one another and even translate each other's works. (Gibbs 226)

One critic notes that "Fernando Pessoa invented at least 72 fictive identities. "His jostling aliases...expressed his belief that the individual subject -- the core of European thought -- is an illusion." (Gray 52) This view goes to the heart of the matter, as will be discussed in the following sections of this paper; namely that the creation of these fictive identities emphasizes and highlights the modern crisis of identity and the existential and postmodern view that the self as a coherent and continuous entity is an illusion. The following extract emphasizes this central point and also allows for…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Cravens, Gwyneth. "Past Present." The Nation 13 Nov. 1989: 574+. Questia. Web. 22 July 2012.

Cullenberg, Stephen, Jack Amariglio, and David F. Ruccio. Postmodernism, Economics and Knowledge. London: Routledge, 2001.

Gabriel, Markus. "The Art of Skepticism and the Skepticism of Art." Philosophy Today 53.1 (2009): 58+. Questia. Web. 22 July 2012.

Gibbs, Raymond W. Intentions in the Experience of Meaning. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1999.
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Theory Help You to Make Sense of

Words: 3357 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34639519

Theory Help You to Make Sense of Your Own Organization and the Management Practices in Your Organization?

Too often, individuals get an idea stuck in their heads and they cannot dislodge it no matter how hard they try. In actuality though, most people who can only contrive a particular system for working, whether that be managing or running an organization, and there is no interest in change. I realize that falling back to a secure position is comforting, but it is also damaging from a growth standpoint. And, growth is the object in business; that is, aside from the fact that making money is probably the primary concern.

But making money has led to some troubling consequences in the world as businesses have grown greedy and managers have become overly authoritarian and sure of their stagnant methods. The reality is that "managing and organizing are not isolatable objects of study…… [Read More]

References

Akella, D., (2008). A reflection on critical management studies. Journal of Management and Organization, 14(1), 100-109.

Bourn, D. (2011). Global skills: From economic competitiveness to cultural understanding and critical pedagogy. Critical Literacy: Theory & Practice, 6(1), 3- 20.

Das, H., & Long, B.S., (2010). What makes management research interesting?: An exploratory study. Journal of Managerial Issues, 22(1), 127-140.

Delbecq, A.L., (1999). Rethinking management education. Administrative Science Quarterly, 44(2), 439-442.
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Emotional Labor Implications on a Call Centre

Words: 3259 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72146890

Emotional Labor

Implications on a Call Centre

During the last two decades Contact or call centers have emerged as the answer to cost effectiveness for all sort of businesses that require back end customer services (Boreham et al., 2007). These call centers hailing from different countries are very similar with respect to markets, offered services, structure of the organization and type of workforce. This industry has flourished very quickly but usually these call centers are about ten to twelve years old hence still in infancy. Despite the similarities that exist across the globe in standards, processes and customers; are these call centers actually catering to the emotional side of this work.

Being a repetitive task with only a set of responses most of the time with no creativity and innovation in the services process added with long hours and no formal education on the subject, do these call centers affect…… [Read More]

References:

Ashforth, B.E., & Humphery, R.H. (1993). Emotional Labor in Service Roles: The influence of Identity. The Academy of Management Review, 18(1), 88-115.

Blau, P. (1989) Exchange and Power in Social Life, New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers.

Chu, K.H. -L. (2002) The Effects on Emotional Labor on Employee Work Outcomes. Unpublished Dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia.

Hochschild, A.R. (1983) The Managed Heart: Commercialization of Human Feeling. Los Angeles, California, United States of America; University of California Press.
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Measuring Gang-Related Crime Is an

Words: 5110 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6186798

The authors do not state that public perceptions of severity should be discounted, but merely that these should not be over-emphasized, as was the case in previous literature.

Another existing mode of measuring crime severity is that of economic models. Economic measures of costs may seem more objective, but given that they also involve speculative losses (such as lost productivity), they are not universally agreed upon. One widely-used model to estimate crime severity is the Bradley-Terry continuum which posits that stealing something less than $5 is less severe than stealing "something worth $5 -- $50, which itself is less severe than trying to steal something worth more than $50. Additionally, stealing or trying to steal a car is ranked more severe than the other theft items. Selling marijuana is also ranked less severe than selling harder drugs such as heroin, cocaine, or LSD" (amchand et al. 2009: 143). The authors…… [Read More]

References

Perry, B. (2003). Where do we go from here? Researching hate crimes. Internet Journal of Criminology. Retrieved:  http://www.internetjournalofcriminology.com/Where%20Do%20We%20Go%20From%20Here.%20Researching%20Hate%20Crime.pdf 

Merl, J. (2013). Victims of 1999 hate-crime shooting endorse Mike Feuer. LA Times. Retrieved:

 http://articles.latimes.com/2013/apr/18/local/la-me-ln-feuer-guns-20130418
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Compare and Contrast the Way Each Author Approaches and Understands Identity

Words: 1199 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62118685

Hall vs. Goffman

Goffman (1959) defines identity in a metaphoric manner as a type of theatrical performance that is shaped by the motives of the actor and the audience. Thus, person's identity is dependent on the social and relational aspects of the situation. There is degree as to how much someone actually believes that the performance one is giving represents reality. At one extreme, a person/performer believes whatever they are doing represents reality and at the other extreme the performer has no belief at all that their actions stand for anything sincere or real. Goffman's analogy is an attempt to relay the notion that identity is social in nature and a social construction.

A central concept in Goffman's analogy is the concept of front, the standardized expressive equipment that people use to define situations in a fixed way. There are several components of a front: The setting represents the environmental…… [Read More]

References

Goffman, E. (1959). The presentation of self in everyday life. New York: Doubleday

Anchor.

Hall, S. (1996). New ethnicities. In D. Morley & K.-H.Chen (eds.) Critical dialogues in cultural studies (pp. 441-449). London: Routledge.
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Challenging the Beijing Consensus China Foreign Policy in the 21st Century

Words: 24240 Length: 60 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17194104

Foreign Policy of China (Beijing consensus)

Structure of Chinese Foreign Policy

The "Chinese Model" of Investment

The "Beijing Consensus" as a Competing Framework

Operational Views

The U.S.-China (Beijing consensus) Trade Agreement and Beijing Consensus

Trading with the Enemy Act

Export Control Act.

Mutual Defense Assistance Control Act

Category B

Category C

The 1974 Trade Act.

The Operational Consequences of Chinese Foreign Policy

The World Views and China (Beijing consensus)

Expatriates

The Managerial Practices

Self Sufficiency of China (Beijing consensus)

China and western world: A comparison

The China (Beijing consensus)'s Policy of Trading Specialized Goods

Chapter 5

The versions of China (Beijing consensus)'s trade development

The China (Beijing consensus) Theory of Power Transition

eferences

Foreign Policy of China (Beijing consensus)

Chapter 1

Abbreviations

ACD arms control and disarmament

ACDA Arms Control and Disarmament Agency

ADB Asian Development Bank

ADF Asian Development Fund

APEC Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation

AF ASEAN [Association of Southeast…… [Read More]

References

Barnett, A.D. (1977). China (Beijing consensus) and the Major Powers in East Asia. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution. Retrieved September 10, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=34158088

Boorman, H.L., Eckstein, A., Mosely, P.E., & Schwartz, B. (1957). Moscow-Peking Axis: Strengths and Strains (1st ed.). New York: Harper & Brothers Publishers. Retrieved September 10, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=53424557

Sardesai, D.R. (1974). Chapter 6 India: A Balancer Power?. In Southeast Asia under the New Balance of Power, Chawla, S., Gurtov, M., & Marsot, A. (Eds.) (pp. 94-104). New York: Praeger. Retrieved September 10, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=14691923

Chawla, S., Gurtov, M., & Marsot, A. (Eds.). (1974). Southeast Asia under the New Balance of Power. New York: Praeger. Retrieved September 10, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=14691822
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Eb Titchener

Words: 506 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 551186

E.B. Titchener answers some criticisms of his approach to his views of experimental psychology (mostly from Professor W. Caldwell) in the classic rebuttal, Structural and Functional Psychology (Titchener, 1899). Titchener was dedicated to the formation of a systematic scientific psychology that was constantly structural in form and dealt entirely with the contents of human experience or consciousness. In the rebuttal to his critics Titchener makes several points:

He agrees that the structural view of the mind is difficult to comprehend because we tend to view mental processes in terms of their functional value. The scientific or structural type of introspection, which he champions as an empirical study of immediate experience or consciousness, is a study of psychological processes (Is), whereas unschooled introspection is one that places certain values or is subjective (Is-for). He agrees that it is difficult to fully avoid functional introspection.

Titchener makes a case to accept functional…… [Read More]

References

Titchener, E.B. (1899). Structural and functional psychology. Psychological Review, 8, 290-299.
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Feeling Overwhelmed The Required Reading Felt Daunting

Words: 2199 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86436275

feeling overwhelmed. The required reading felt daunting and it seemed like the expectations put upon students were rather high. I remember having the impression that a lot of my learning would entail simply memorizing and regurgitating facts and ideas. I had concerns about the amount of writing expected of us. As I explained in my "Guided Self-Placement" essay, I started this course without having had a great deal of reading and writing experience.

I feel that this course has enabled me to write and think more critically and formally. Previously, I was not aware of the necessary tone that academic essays had to take and that it's appropriate to omit colloquial phrases and words such as "like." In fact, I would still say that I sometimes have a tendency to write in too much of a conversational tone, and have to be particularly watchful of that in my writing.

I…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bordo, Susan. The male body: a new look at men in public and in private. "Beauty

(Re)Discovers the Male Body." New York: Farrar, Straus and Girror, 1999.

Foucault, Michel. Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. New York: Pantheon, 1977.

Tompkins, Jane. "Indians": Textualism, Morality, and the Problem of History." Styles of cultural activism: from theory and pedagogy to women, Indians. Ed. Philip Goldstein. Boston: Associated University Presses, 1994
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Jamaican Music a Cultural Evolution

Words: 4850 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47790806

Jamaican Music

It is never just about the music.

No matter how great the musician, music is always the expression of an entire culture, of a moment in history, of a particular place in time. The genius of a particular musician, the synergy of a particular group - these are both essential to the success or failure of a particular group. But that success or failure is never intrinsic to a single song, to a single album. Music that succeeds - both in its own time and later - does so because it has the ability to express something important about that moment in time. eggae has been able to provide just such an expression of the beliefs of a particular people at a moment in history for the last two years - and it has been able to do so because of its ability to change with larger political…… [Read More]