NGO Is A Non-Governmental Organization, While An Term Paper


¶ … NGO is a non-governmental organization, while an IGO is an intergovernmental organization. The latter is typically created between states. Trade agreements often create IGOs as enforcement mechanisms, for example. Thus, IGOs exist as intermediary between the constituent nations. There are often three or more nations party to the agreement, as per the UIA (2014) definition of an IGO. The body will typically have specific set tasks for which it has been created, and any authority that the IGO has will be related to the performance of those tasks. An NGO is also an international organization, but exists outside of state influence. The UIA defines an NGO as being transnational in nature but not bound or run by any nation. An NGO may theoretically receive some funding from a nation-state, but in many cases will raise funds privately. NGOs therefore operate independent of state influence, and perform tasks on this basis. The UIA still precludes bilateral bodies in its definition of NGO. An NGO is distinguished from an IGO on the basis of not being part of any government, nor created by government. The distinct, independent, non-state nature of the NGO makes it a counterpart to an IGO. It is also worth noting that an NGO is not a multinational corporation. A corporation is defined by its profit motive, where an NGO will typically be a non-for-profit entity (UIA, 2014).


The tragedy of the commons is a term coined by Hardin (1968). This concept reflects the theory that the pursuit of individual outcomes will necessarily lead to negative consequences for society as a whole. The underlying theory is that humans are motivated by individual outcomes -- we are essentially rational actors who will pursue that which is better for us. When an action has a negative consequence, we might avoid it. But in many situations on a...


Each of us pursues economic betterment. I will avoid actions that lead to direct negative consequences to me. But where there are negative consequences to a more generalized entity -- the commons -- I will pursue that activity. So it is that we as a human society have built our society and economy around the internal combustion engine. Yet, burning fossil fuels to power our world creates pollution. It was a tragedy of the commons when we talk about smog, but climate change is a bigger tragedy. The costs of this will be wrought on all humanity, not just on those who burned the carbon -- indeed, many of those people will already be dead.
So this is the tragedy of the commons. It is essentially a rhetorical adaptation of the economic concept of negative externalities. Any indirect outcome is an externality. A negative externality is Hardin's tragedy, because of its negative nature and the fact that it affects everybody. Hardin of course goes a bit further, pointing out that the world is finite. Increased consumption would not be a tragedy if there did not come at some point a constraint on increasing consumption. It begins with diminishing marginal returns and then finally the constraint becomes very real and people are forced to deal with the tragedy head on.


Human rights are defined by the United Nations as "right inherent to all human beings, to which we are entitle equally without discrimination" (, 2014). These rights are considered by the UN to be inalienable. Rights are not…

Sources Used in Documents:


Hardin, G. (1968). The tragedy of the commons. Science. Vol. 162 (3859) 1243-1248.

UIA. (2014). Types of international organization. Union of International Associations. Retrieved December 12, 2014 from (2014). What are human rights? United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. Retrieved December 12, 2014 from

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