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culture and subculture (p. 6-8)
A culture is a "community or population sufficiently large enough to be self-sustaining," in that it can be self-perpetuating (p. 6). There are four main elements of culture, according to Hofstede: symbols, rituals, values, heroes, and myths (p. 6). These elements of culture are transmitted via formal institutions like schools and also informally via peers and family members. Identifying with culture helps to create a cultural identity; an individual identifies with the history, symbols, rituals, values, heroes, and myths of the culture.
A culture within a culture is a subculture. Subcultures usually exist in large and complex societies (p. 8). A subculture is usually more specific than a culture, in that it can be based on ethnicity or lifestyle. A person can also identify with both the culture and subculture at the same time.
Historical and varying perspectives on communication (p. 39; 44)
He noted that they include the following; naturalness, practicalness, thinness, accessibleness and immethodicalness. In conclusion, he noted that common sense is a by product, waste or what is left behind after art, science, law, ideology, religion, mathematics, technology and even epistemology and ethics have been exhausted by our minds.
Hebrige (1979) perspective of culture
Hebrige (1979) noted that our perception of style is actually a subculture in itself.
A summary and analysis of Hebrige's (1979) work on subculture
Hebrige (1979) began his work by saying that people communicate through their clothes. He noted that style is an intentional form of communication as earlier noted by Eco (1973).Subculture is also noted to be a cycle that leads from opposition to diffusion. Style is noted be a subculture that has its own codes of display. He noted that style is a subculture of conspicuous consumption. Style is also projected to be primitive…
Eco, U. (1973). Social life as a sign system. In Structuralism: An introduction, edited by David Robey, 57 -- 72. Oxford, UK: Clarendon.
Geertz, C. (2000).Common sense as a cultural system.In.Local Knowledge.Further Essay on the interpretation of Anthropology.New York:Basic Books
Hebdige, D.(1979). Subculture: The meaning of style. London: Methuen.
Herzog, a.,Mitchell, J and Soccio, L (1999).Interrogating Subcultures. An ELECTRONIC JOURNAL for VISUAL STUDIES. Available online at http://www.rochester.edu/in_visible_culture/issue2/introduction.htm
sub-culture that I can think of that had a different value system other than that demonstrated in mainstream America was the so-called hip hop culture. I refer to this culture and its value system in the past tense despite the fact that it is still existent today. However, its value system has become decidedly mainstream, and is the same version of capitalist conformity that is largely found throughout the corporate world. Yet, during the early part of the previous decade, this culture's regard for conformity was drastically different than it is now, and from contemporary, mainstream America's regard for it as well.
Individuality was celebrated in hip hop culture at the beginning of last decade. Conformity was looked down upon by many within this subculture. Hip hop culture is most eminently evinced in the music and visual representation of rappers, who create the music upon which this urban, New York…
Gangs as Culture and Subculture
Gangs are a global presence. There are gangs in nearly every culture. While they are variations in intentions and behaviors, there are general patterns and basic characteristics of all gangs. The paper will briefly explore the definition of gangs, the history of gangs, the effects of them both locally & globally, as well as the reactions from the communities in which they gangs reside and conduct their activities. Gangs exist firmly as a distinctive subculture. There are theories such as cultural deviance theory, strain theory, and social control theory that offer frameworks in which professionals and scholars may consider and/or explain the formation of gangs. The paper will attempt to reference and/or use these such theories as part of the examination and articulation of gangs as a subculture. Some communities reluctantly accept gangs within their communities because some gangs offer protect to the community…
Esbensen, F.A., Winfree, Jr., L.T., He, N., & Taylor, T.J. (2001). Youth Gangs and Definitional Issues: When is a Gang, and Why Does it Matter? Crime & Delinquency, 47(1), 105 -- 130.
Esperanza. (2010). Gangs 101 -- Understanding the Culture of Youth Violence. Esperanza: Philadelphia.
Hagedorn, J.M. (2005). The Global Impact of Gangs. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 21(2), 153 -- 169.
Lerman, P. (1967). Gangs, Networks, and Subcultural Delinquency. The American Journal of Sociology, 73(1), 63 -- 72.
Police Subculture- Add on Response
Nathan, I enjoyed reading your perspective and can relate to much of what you have expressed. Your explanation of the life cycle of a police career provided a clear and concise way of explaining this stressful aspects of law enforcement. I agree with your opinion on patience and its importance on keeping a balanced and clear mind while engaged in stressful policing activities. Your summary was informative and precise.
Your emphasis on education in your response aligns very much with my own philosophy on the matter, and is evidenced by this particular educational experience we are progressing through. By understanding life as one giant learning ground allows law enforcement officers to not place too much stress on themselves. Since this type of work is always mired in the unknown, being comfortable with ignorance is a good first step in becoming better educated and eventually a…
oth of the boys were good students called "brilliant" by their peers and referred to as "really nice." (Cullen, 1999; paraphrased)
III. MEDIA STUDY SPONSORED NATIONAL ONLINE TEEN OUTREACH
The Techtalk website reported in March 2000 that a "national outreach program to encourage conversations among teenagers and leading educators about popular culture and media convergence" took place. This program rose spurred by the Columbine High School event in 1999 and is an educational outreach "intended to solicit communication from a new generation of cultural participants." (Techtalk, 2000)
While no empirical findings may come of what is a very brief scope within this work as to precisely what element in today's world most contributed to the incident at Columbine school it can however, be readily discerned that something was missing in the lives of Eric Harris and his cohort. It appears that these two boys sought to fill that emptiness…
Cullen, Dave (1999) Outsiders even among the Outsiders: Littleton killers didn't quite fit in, even with the 'Trench Coat Mafia'" Salon News. 22 April 1999. Online available at http://www.salon.com/news/feature/1999/04/22/columbine/index.html .
Sweeny, a. (2004) "Mistaken Identity: These are dark days for Goths, who say it's wrong to tie them to school violence" published in the October 14, 2004 issue of the Boston Globe Online available at http://www.rickross.com/reference/goth/goth5.html
Media Studies Co-sponsors National Online Teen Outreach Program (2000) TechTalk March 29, 2000. Online available at http://web.mit.edu/newsoffice/tt/2000/mar29/teen.html .
Internet Sociology: A Study of Subculture and Today's Youth
Individuals usually discover their norms from numerous mingling agent such as teacher, parents, ministers, friends, family, co-workers, and including mass media. In brief, youths discover illegal conduct, like different actions, from their connections with other youths, chiefly in groups that are close.
The differential-association theory relates to numerous forms of actions that are different. For instance, gangs that are juvenile set an atmosphere in which youths discover a life of being a criminal offender. These gangs describe themselves as countercultural and worship aggression, vengeance, and corruption as a way to achieving social position. Those in gangs discover to be irregular as they try to hold on to their gang's customs and dangerous way of life.
Differential-association theory has donated to the area of criminology in its emphasis on the developing character of misbehavior. People get deviance from their peers and those that they socialize with. Critics of the differential-association theory,…
Urban violence and street gangs. (2003). Annual Review of Anthropology, 32(00846570), 225-225-242.
Alvarez, A., & Bachman, R. (1997). Predicting the fear of assault at school and while going to and from school in an adolescent population. Violence and Victims, 12(1), 69-69-86. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/208554672?accountid=34899
Barakett, J., & Leonard, J. (1999). Resisting youth subcultures: Classroom practice and critical pedagogy. Transformations, 10(2), 85-85.
Clark, C.M. (1992). Deviant adolescent subcultures: Assessment strategies and clinical interventions. Adolescence, 27(106), 283-283-93.
Communication between individuals on the force varies considerably. There is a strict hierarchy in the force, as most people are aware of, claims Officer Friendly. Thus, a person does not speak to their superiors the same way as to coworkers or subordinates. It is important to maintain this hierarchy because it helps the officers have a chain of command that includes respect for authority. Without authority, there would be too much dissention when making critical decisions. Decisions in the force are life/death decisions, notes the officer. There is no room or time for democratic discussions. Officers need a clear chain of command so that decisions are swift and authoritative. To carry out the functions of modern police work, all cops must work together and be on the same page. There is a great degree of collaboration, in spite of the hierarchy. "Officers need to work together, we're in this together,"…
Subcultures: The Gyaru Subculture
The Gyaru Subculture: Subcultures
The Gyaru Subculture
One of the widely recognized impacts of globalization is the fact that it causes changes and modifications to the values, norms and traditions of existing cultures, resulting in the formation of new subcultures, or the complete loss of cultural identity (Marshall & aymond, 2015). The Gyaru subculture in Japan offers a perfect example of a subculture formed in this manner. 'Gyaru' is the Japanese translation for the English word 'girl' -- it is a subculture of young girls and women who, just like most women in the rest of the world, are obsessed with trying to achieve the image of 'ideal' beauty imposed upon them by the media. Differently from other women, however, the Gyaru go to extreme lengths to achieve these unattainable standards of beauty -- they follow a certain style of dressing and do their hair and…
Hedy Magazine. (2015). Japanese Girls and the Gyaru Subculture. Hedy Magazine. Retrieved November 3, 2015 from http://hedymag.com/japanese-gals-and-the-gyaru-subculture/
Marshall, P. D. & Redmond, S. (2015). A Companion to Celebrity. West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons.
The set of beliefs, attitudes, and behaviour followed by the members of law enforcement constitutes what is referred to as police subculture. Owing to the nature of their job, most police officers tend to view members of the general public as potential suspects, untrustworthy and even potentially hostile. Police officers expect support from their colleagues. Consequently, the "us versus them" scenario is created; where "us" refers to the police force while the public constitutes "them". There are advantages and disadvantages to the scenario created. While embracing a sense of trust created between the members of the police is good for achieving team objectives, the police also hold a mantra that the line between chaos and order is quite thin. This means that the society needs the police if there is to be law and order. The mantra is responsible for the deeply embedded feeling of unity, teamwork and…
Campbell, M. (2007). Applying communities of practice to the learning police. Learning and Socio-cultural Theory: Exploring Modern Vygotskin Perspectives' Workshop, 1(1). Retrieved from http://ro.uow.edu.au/llrg
Conti, N. (2010). Weak links and warrior hearts: a framework for judging self and others in police training. Police Practice and Research, 12(5), 410 -- 423. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com.ezproxy.lib.le.ac.uk/doi/pdf/10.1080/15614263.2010.536726
Davis, M. (1996). Police, discretion, and professions. In J. Kleinig (Ed.), Handled with Discretion: Ethical Issues in Police Decision Making (pp. 1-35). Lanham, Maryland: Rowman and Littlefield.
Hunt, R. G., & Magenau, J. M. (1993). Power and the Police Chief. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.
Skinheads Movement in America
"Skinheads' is a group of whites who are responsible for creating racial discrimination and prejudice in the United States. They were a very prominent, deviant and often violent sub-culture existing in the country in 1980s. A sub-culture is different from a minority group because the latter is primarily based on ethnic background while the former is grounded in value system. A person who joins a sub-culture is expected to have same values and beliefs as other members of the group. Farley (1990) defines subculture "as a set of cultural characteristics shared among a group within a society that are distinct in some ways from the larger culture within which the group exists, but also have features in common with the larger culture. Usually, a group that forms a subculture has some sense of identity, some recognition that people in the group share something among themselves that…
John Leo, BEHAVIOR: A Chilling Wave of Racism From L.A. To Boston, the skinheads are on the march., Time, 01-25-1988, pp 57
2) Dr. William L. Pierce, Skinheads and the Law -- Free Speech, April 1995, Volume I, Number 4
3) Farley, John E. (1990). Sociology, Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.
individuals join the police academy, they undergo rigorous training. This training teaches these individuals about many subjects such as criminal law, defensive tactics, and verbal judo amongst many others that the individuals may be required to apply during the course of the job. However, regardless of these teachings the professional culture influences the behaviors of these individuals separately creating a bias in the learning techniques. The police subculture is not taught as a curriculum, but adopted by the individuals. The police subculture impacts the behavior of the individuals in a powerful way. This means that studying this subculture makes it easy to understand the behavior of the members of the police force.
This paper is the study of this subculture. It will briefly talk about the various characteristics of this subculture.
Communication is a very important dimension of this subculture. Officers rely heavily on communication as they…
Barry, Daniel Patrick. Handling Police Misconduct In an Ethical Way. December 1999. [Online] Available at http://www.unlv.edu/Colleges/Liberal_Arts/Ethics_and_Policy/barry.html
Thibault, Edward A. Lynch, Lawrence M.R. McBride, Bruce Lynch, Lawrence. Proactive Police Management. Prentice Hall. 11 August, 2000. Isbn: 0130225193
Metropolis, Fashion, Society
Metropolis, Fashion, and Society
In his portrayal of the flaneur, audelaire captured the essence of youth: the striving to be different, to be seen, and yet not be seen. In his words, the flaneur "enjoys the excitement and anonymity of, in particular, life on the city streets…to see the world, to be at the centre of the world, and yet to remain hidden from the world" audelaire, 1984, 9-10). The French poet could have taken these words directly from the mouth of a contemporary Y-Generation "haul girl."
Fig. 1. Haul Girl selfie.
This essay provides a brief exploration of the youth subculture attempts to answer the question as to whether the individuality of haul girls and their equivalents are expressed through the steady stream of purchases made -- clothing, fashionable jewelry, and accouterments such as music and decor -- and through the " that enables…
Adams, R. (2008) 'The Englishness of English Punk: Sex Pistols, subcultures, and nostalgia, in Popular Music & Society, 31(4), 469-488.
Beaudelaire, C. (1964). 'The Painter Of Modern Life,' in The Painter of Modern Life and Other Essays. London: Phaidon, pp.9-10
Bennett, A. & Kahn-Harris, K. (eds.), (2004). After Subculture: Critical Studies in Contemporary Youth Culture, London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Bourdieu, P. (1984) Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, p. 66.
There is no initiation, or rite of passage; one can enter the Goth culture without gaining anyone's approval since this particular culture does not have a particular leader. Goths tend to resist being controlled (Kilpatrick, 3) and needing to qualify to enter the movement would go against one of the main components of the culture.
It is clear that individuals associated with the Goth culture distinguish themselves through their eerie, dark and mysterious fashion (La Ferla), however another distinction can be observed through their ways of thinking and approaching life. In her book The Goth Bible, Nancy Kilpatrick interviewed several everyday Goths and one main characteristic seems to be recurrent -- being Goth is about finding romanticism in darkness. While many Goths will discover their affinity for this romanticism in their teens, or youth -- since these are the years where most of us feel misunderstood, like outsiders - it…
Bibby, Michael, and Lauren E. Goodlad. Goth: Undead Subculture. Duke University Press, 2007. Print.
Kilpatrick, Nancy. The Goth Bible: A Compendium for the Darkly Inclined. Macmillan, 2004. Print.
La Ferla, Ruth. "Embrace the Darkness." The New York Times, 30 October 2005.
Wilson, Cintra. "You Just Can't Kill It," The New York Times, 17 September 2008.
Peer recognition too plays into many hackers motivation as they work towards being accepted and gaining status within the culture. and, lastly, some hackers are motivated by the thought that their efforts serve a public service (O'Neill, 2006). "Hackers built the Internet, they made the Unix operating system what it is, and they make the World Wide Web work" (Castelluccio, 2003).
Forecast 4 states, "Some computer hacker groups, notably those characterized by the 'offender' and 'predator' categories, will evolve into networked criminal enterprises."
This likely will occur in some instances. Hacker culture's desire to gain power and notoriety, combined with the need to achieve that adrenaline fix, will lead some to ultimately progress from the loosely structured culture of hackers today, to a more formalized, networked criminal group. However, for the most part, the high turnover rate of the culture, along with the desire to maintain secrecy and…
Best, K. (Dec 2003). The hacker's challenge. Social Semiotics, 13(3). Retrieved March 20, 2008, from Academic Search Premier database.
Best, K. (Oct 2006). Visceral hacking or packet wanking? Culture, Theory & Critique, 47(2). Retrieved March 20, 2008, from Academic Search Premier database.
Castellucio, M. (Oct 2003). Co-opting the hacker culture. Strategic Finance, 85(4). Retrieved March 20, 2008, from Business Source Complete database.
Holt, T. (Mar/Apr 2007). Subcultural evolution? Deviant Behavior, 28(2). Retrieved March 20, 2008, from socINDEX database.
According to Schaefer, "each culture has a unique character," but this character is the result of the variety of "subcultures" found within a culture. (Schaefer, 2009, p. 69) The term "subculture" may have come into the common vernacular in the 1950's, but for more than sixty years it has had an ever evolving definition. As scientists perform more research into subcultures, they have constantly updated their definition to match their research data. However, in general "subcultures" are groups of people who share certain characteristic ways of thinking and acting while existing within a larger culture. (Jenks, 2005, p.7) In modern society there are numerous subcultures filled with individuals who share a variety of common characteristics, from stamp collecting to sports. However, one particular subculture that has developed a somewhat unwarranted bad reputation is the community of bikers. While some bikers follow the stereotypical "rough-rider" character, involving themselves in outrageous,…
Jenks, Chris. (2005). Subculture: The Fragmentation of the Social. Thousand Oaks,
CA: Sage Publications. Print.
Schaefer, J.T. (2009). Sociology: A Brief Introduction. New York: McGraw-Hill
Finally, one can understand the motivation of these students, as the pressures (both good and bad) put on by their families influence their choices and their work ethic.
Methods Used Google Scholar (a subset of Google which finds refereed journal articles), using "Japanese-American immigration" and "Vietnamese immigration U.S." As primary search terms. I looked for books or articles which fit the topics. I felt it important to understand the time and type of immigration, even if it occurred 100 years ago, in order to understand current motivations.
There was no lack of good information, but the most important was that related to the immigration movements, the reasons behind them, and how the two cultures responded.
Importance as a Teacher
It is important to understand the background and motivations of my students and their families. If I understand, for example, that a Vietnamese child's parents are likely to clear the dining…
Daniels, R. (1977). The Politics of Prejudice: The Anti-Japanese Movement in California and the Struggle for Japanese Exclusion. Berkeley: U. Of Cal Press.
Do, H. (1999). The Vietnamese Americans. Westport: Homewood Press.
Kao, G. (1995). Asian-Americans as Model Minorities? A Look at Their Academic Performance. Am J. Of Education, 121-159.
Kitano, H. (1969). Japanese-Americans: The Evolution of a Subculture. Ethnic Groups in American Life Series. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.
This also has major implications for military operations, both within a military unit and in the interaction between the military unit and another culture. Essentially, the problem of ethnocentrism can be seen at the root of the other cultural problems discussed in this context; it implies both a lack of understanding about the impacts of the unit's culture on the people of a foreign culture, as well as a lack of appreciation and understanding for that culture (Hoskins 2007).
Culture is strange, in that it is both constant and always changing. The only static culture is a dead one; as the various elements and generations of a culture interact, change is bound to happen. When there is no longer any interaction within a culture or between a given culture and other cultures, there is no longer any point to that culture, and indeed that culture could not realistically exist…
DiMarco, L. (2003). Traditions, changes, and challenges: Military operations and the Middle Eastern city. Diane Publsihing.
Harrison, D.; Light, L. & Rothschild-Boros, M. (2008). Cultural anthropology: Our diverse world. New York: Wadsworth.
Hoskins, B. (2007). "Religion and other cultural variable in modern operational environments." Accessed 16 October 2009. http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA470675&Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc.pdf
O'Neil, D. (2007). "Characteristics of Culture." Accessed 16 October 2009. http://anthro.palomar.edu/culture/culture_2.htm
The major concern is the effect of violence, due once again, to studies that show a connection between watching violence and participating in it. For example, Bushman and Anderson (2002) conducted as study in which they determined that playing violent video games can "engender hostile expectations, leading one to expect that others will respond aggressively" (p. 1679).
The Grand Theft Auto series of video games has undoubtedly been a major instigator in the backlash against the gaming industry. Not surprisingly, most parents are not too thrilled about the idea of their children taking on the persona of a character who commits crimes to earn rewards, and runs over prostitutes so he doesn't have to pay them. There was also a major parental backlash against the PS2 game Bully before it was released, because parents assumed that it would glorify bullying. The frenzy turned out to be unfounded as the game…
Bushman, B.J., & Anderson, C.A. (2002). Violent video games and hostile expectations: A test of the general aggression model. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 1679 -- 1686.
Gunter, B., Harrison, J. & Wykes, M. (2003) Violence on television: Distribution, form, context, and themes, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates
Rekulak, J. & Spangler, B. (2006) Let's Paint the '90s, Quirk Books
Silence too is an important part of communication in Singapore. It is customary to pause before answering a question, to indicate that the person has given the question the appropriate thought and consideration that is needed. Westerners habit of responding quickly to a question, to Singaporeans, often indicates thoughtlessness and rude behavior. Their demeanor is typically calm, and Westerners more aggressive style is often seen as off putting ("Singapore: Language," 2009). Authority is to be respected for both employees of an organization, in Singapore, and when dealing with other organizations (Tse, 2008), and communication content and tone should represent this respect. Business etiquette is also different in Singapore than in many Western countries.
Cultural Business Etiquette in Singapore:
Business is more formal in Singapore than non-Asian organizations are often used to. There are strict rules of protocol, with a clear chain of command, which is expected to be kept on…
Choy, W. 1 Jul 2007, "Globalisation and workforce diversity: HRM implications for multinational corporations in Singapore," Singapore Management Review, http://www.allbusiness.com/public-administration/national-security-international/4509815-1.html .
Edewor, P. & Aluko, P. May 2007, "Diversity management, challenges and opportunities in multicultural organizations," International Journal of Diversity in Organisation, Communities & Nations vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 189-195.
Hofstede, G. Feb 1993, "Cultural constraints in management theories," Executive, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 81-94.
Ismail, R. & Shaw, B. Feb 2006, "Singapore's Malay-Muslim minority: Social identification in a post 9/11 world," Asian Ethnicity vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 37-51.
culture workplace. (This include, necessarily limited, fellow employees,
Culture plays a vital role in the workplace in contemporary times. Most organizations have their own respective cultures, as well as do individual industries, countries, parts of countries, and even different parts of the world. All of these varying cultures and sub-cultures come together in the workplace environment, and make for some interesting interactions -- not all of which are beneficent. I have had a number of different interactions with individuals who were part of cultures that are not innately my own, and have always come away with them by gaining a degree of didactic knowledge that sheds insight into future situations of intercultural activity.
Industry specific culture is one that is difficult to assess -- or even to necessarily prepare for -- without fully emerging oneself into it. For instance, when I attended my first data governance conference last winter, I…
Your PowerPoint Slide, Chapter 3 Slide 9. I don't have the rest of the reference.
In histoy, in most of the Indian families, the inheitance of the estates of the family is left to the lineage of males in the family. Though since the yea 1956, the law in India has always teated females and males as equals in mattes of inheitance whee thee is no legal will witten. Cuently, Indians have become wise and ae using legal wills fo the inheitance and succession of popety. The usage of legal wills at of the yea 2004 stands at about 20%.
The ate of divoce in India is extemely low. It stands at 1% as compaed to 40% which is expeienced in the U.S. These statistics of divoce do not, howeve, give a complete pictue of the divoce situation in India. This is because many maiages that end up being split do so without a fomal divoce. Thee is a eseach gap in the scientific studies…
references. [Article]. Journal of Food Science, 69(4), SNQ191-SNQ192. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2621.2004.tb06362.x
Johnson, H. (2007). 'Happy Diwali!' Performance, Multicultural Soundscapes and Intervention in Aotearoa/New Zealand. [Article]. Ethnomusicology Forum, 16(1), 71-94. doi: 10.1080/17411910701276526
Kurien, P.A. (2006). Multiculturalism and "American" Religion: The Case of Hindu Indian-Americans. Social Forces, 85(2), 723-741.
Mandair, a. (2007). Interdictions: Language, Religion & the (dis)Orders of Indian Identity. [Article]. Social Identities, 13(3), 337-361. doi: 10.1080/13504630701363978
Mintz, S.W., & Bois, C.M.D. (2002). The Anthropology of Food and Eating. Annual Review of Anthropology, 31(ArticleType: research-article / Full publication date: 2002 / Copyright © 2002 Annual Reviews), 99-119.
For example, the sexual revolution in Iran was part of a larger cultural movement that encouraged the challenge of a large number of social changes. "This social movement encompasses behaviours such as pushing the envelope on Islamic dress, sexual behaviours, heterosocializing, driving around in cars playing loud illegal music, partying, drinking, dancing and so on -- to include basically, young people doing what they were not supposed to do under Islamic law" (Mahdavi, 2012, p.35).
In fact, the link between how a society approaches sex and that society's overall approaches towards human rights is interesting to note. Generally, the more liberal a society and the more protective of individual freedoms, the more permissive that society's approach will be towards sexuality, particularly female sexuality. In fact, when a totalitarian regime has been challenged, there seems to be a swing in the other direction, with an embrace of human rights, including rights…
Elliston, D. (2005). Erotic anthropology: "Ritualized homosexuality" in Melanesia and beyond.
In J. Robertson (Ed.), Same sex cultures and sexualities: An anthropological reader (pp.91-115). Malden: Blackwell.
Hunter, M. (2012). Rights amidst wrongs: The paradoxes of gender rights-based approaches towards AIDS in South Africa. In P. Aggleton, P. Boyce, H.L. Moore, & P. Parker (Eds.), Understanding global sexualities: New frontiers (pp.66-74). London: Routledge.
Mahdavi, P. (2012). 'The personal is political and the political is personal': Sexuality, politics, and social movements in modern Iran. In P. Aggleton, P. Boyce, H.L. Moore, & P. Parker (Eds.), Understanding global sexualities: New frontiers (pp.34-48). London: Routledge.
This research focuses on the public housing neighborhood of Bezirganbahce. Like the first, this article shows how Turkish society "marks the areas populated by the urban poor as dangerous, a breeding ground for illegal activities, and areas of social decay or social ill," (Candan & Kolluoglu 2008 p 38). Those lower ranking social classes and ethnic subgroups are often excluded from the daily existence of mainstream Turkish culture and forced to life a marginalized life in a segregated area that isolates lower socioeconomic classes from the rest of society. The urban poor that reside in the neighborhood are excluded from an external source, and thus left to fend for themselves. In this marginalized space, the residents of this neighborhood have actually created a culture that is all their own outside of the boundaries of typical Turkish life. Like as shown in Yilmaz (2008), this neighborhood is seen as having to…
Candan, Ayfur Bartu & Kolluoglu, Biray. (2008). Emerging spaces of neoliberalism: A gated town and a public housing project in Istanbul. New Perspectives on Turkey, 39(2008), 4-46.
Yilmaz, Bediz. (2008). Entrapped in multidimensional exclusion: The perpetuation of poverty among conflict-induced migrants in an Istanbul neighborhood. New Perspectives on Turkey, 38(2008), 205-234.
Gender in Post-Communist Society
Consider the differences between gendered behavior in the Czech Republic and the U.S.A.… which socio-historical factors affect the Czechs' present-day gender identity and gender issues?
Men are respected as the stronger sex and this determines the way they relate women. A Czech has a striking mixture of firm attachment to the labor market and strong family values, considerable independence and personal efficiency. The women are homemakers and breadwinners. They are also able to command attention. Another interesting part of the Czech gender roles is that love outweighs work. For example, more women devote their time to care for their children at home unlike before and make considerable efforts in finding husbands (Delphy & Leonard, 175).
I noticed that Czech women are nicely dressed in order for them to find husbands while the men act chivalrously in order for them to find wives. Many women abandon their…
Nanette Funk and Magda Mueller, "Feminism East and West," Gender Politics and Post-Communism. Reflections from Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union,(1993) New York and London, Routledge, pp. 318-330.
Berger, John. "Ways of Seeing. London": BBC Penguin Books. pp. 129-154. 1977
Beauvoir, Simone de, "The Psychoanalytical Point-of-View," pp. 49-61. (2010). In the second sex New. York: Vintage Books
Delphy, Ch. And Leonard, D. "The Variety of Work Done by Wives," in (eds.) Jackson, S. And Scott, S. G Gender: A Sociological Reader. New York: Routledge. pp. 170-179.2002
Culture and Marketing Strategy
About the print ad from http://theinspirationroom.com/daily/2013/johnnie-walker-from-the-future/
The print ad is about a certain brand of alcoholic drink that is endorsed by a professional athlete. The athlete takes a sip from a glass of whisky and begins walking. This in a way appears to suggest that consumers of this particular brand of whisky can cover long distances after taking this whiskey. Information pertaining to alcoholic content and how the brand is matured are not clearly visible on the ad. The only visible thing is the image of the person who has endorsed the brand making some strides.
Assumptions made by the authors of the ad
The authors of the ad try to make the ad to be more appealing to the motives and desires of the consumers. They give form to people's deep-lying desires. They assume that they will best arrest the consumer's attention by tugging consumer's…
Altstiel, T & Grow, J. (2006). Advertising Strategy: Creative Tactics From the Outside/In. CA:
Petracca, M. & Sorapure, M. (1998). Common Culture: Reading and Writing about American
Popular Culture. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall.
They wanted to know the best places to go after work, and expected him to help them in that regard.
Hanes finally told his Japanese trainers "he preferred not to mix business with pleasure." ithin a couple days, the group requested another instructor. The critical issue here, one can quickly discern, is that Hanes did not do his homework on the Japanese business culture; if he had, he would know the Japanese are intensely committed to their work, on duty and off duty.
The "Miscue No. 2" involves Ray Lopez, top salesperson for his company who was fluent in Spanish; he was sent to Buenos Aires to make a marketing pitch to a distribution firm there. He arrived and was picked up at the airport and surprised to learn that the meeting had been postponed for two days "...so that Ray could rest after the long trip" and also have…
Hult, G. Tomas M.; Cavusgil, S. Tamer; Deligonul, Seyda; Kiyak, Tunga; & Lagerstrom,
Katarina. (2007) What Drives Performance in Globally Focused Marketing Organizations? A Three-Country Study. Journal of International Marketing, 15(2), 58-85.
Keeley, Timothy Dean. 2001, International Human Resource Management in Japanese Firms: Their Greatest Challenge, New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Kim, Youngok, Gray, Sidney J. 2005, 'Strategic factors influencing international human resource management practices: an empirical study of Australian multinational corporations', International Journal of Human Resource Management, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 809-830.
hen Europeans colonized Brazil, for example, the indigenous peoples intermarried or otherwise bonded intimately with those Europeans and the result was a hybrid identity, "mestizaje," which Noh refers to as a native Brazilian combining his or her identity with a Portuguese identity.
Hence, in the twentieth century hybridity has been transformed into a "…cultural phenomenon" which is now explored by anthropologists and other social scientists -- and it means that growing volumes of people are moving "…from one place to another" and as they move they create "…new cultural and sociodemographic spaces and are themselves reshaped in the process" (Luke, 2003, p. 379). The point of Noh's article -- boiled down to a safe overview -- is that cultural borders between countries and regions "…have been blurred" and in their place is an "intercultural mixture" because "…all cultures are involved in one another" (p. 7). In fact some scholars insist…
Bruno, D.C., Scott, J., and Hinton, C. (2012). Educational Research and Innovation Languages
in a Global World Learning for Better Cultural Understanding: Learning for Better
Cultural Understanding. Paris, France: OECD Publishing.
Fleras, a. (2011). "From Mosaic to Multiversality": Repriming Multicultural Governance
Managing Organisational Culture
The values and behaviors that contribute to the unique social and psychological environment of an organization make up the organizations culture. Organizational culture is the summation total of an organization's past and current suppositions, incidents, viewpoint, and values that hold it together, and is articulated in its self-image, inner workings, connections with the outside world, and future prospects.
In dealing with the management of organisational culture, it is firstly essential to recognize as fully as possible the characteristics of the existing or new target culture to include the myths, symbols, rituals, values and assumptions that strengthen the culture. Organisational culture is not something that can be viewed very easily it is consequently quite hard to replace it. Usually when certain leaders form a company, their values are converted into the actions of the members of that organisation. When other leaders take over, it may not…
Background To Business in China. n.d. [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.worldbusinessculture.com/Chinese-Business-Style.html [Accessed 18 August 2012].
Campbell, B. 2010. [ONLINE]. How To Improve Your Corporate Culture. Available at: http://www.bcbusinessonline.ca/bcb/business-sense/2010/05/28/how-improve-your-corporate-culture [Accessed 15 August 2012].
Differences in Culture. n.d. [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.analytictech.com/mb021/cultural.htm [Accessed 24 August 2012].
Edgar H. Schein's Model of Organizational Culture. 2010. [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.businessmate.org/Article.php?ArtikelId=36 [Accessed 18 August 2012].
Socially-constructed Societies and Cultures Among Transmigrants and Transnationals: The Case of United States Migration History
Migration, as a social activity, is a vital element considered not only for its importance in determining specific aspects of a country's socio-demographic characteristics, but in determining the psycho-demographic characteristics of societies and cultures within that country. Indeed, it is evident that apart from serving as a catalyst in changing the social structure of societies, migration also helps change and bring dynamism to a the norms, traditions, and values held important by a society and culture. Take as an example the history of migration in the United States. Historical events such as the first and second World Wars have triggered the sudden increase in migration of people from different countries in the world. Furthermore, migration also increased as an effect of the economic and political stability of the U.S., as compared to other countries in…
Castles, S. And M. Miller. (1993). The Age of Migration: International Population Movements in the Modern World. London: Macmillan Press Ltd.
Kennedy, P. And V. Roudometof. Transnationalism in a global age. In Communities across Borders: New immigrants and transnational cultures. (2002). P. Kennedy and V. Roudometof (Eds.). NY: Routledge.
Massey, D. Why does immigration occur? A Theoretical Synthesis. In The Handbook of International Migration: The American Experience. (1999). C. Hirschmann, P. Kasinitz and J. DeWind (Eds.). NY: Russell Sage Foundation.
Matthews, K. Boundaries of diaspora identity: The case of Central and East African-Asians in Canada. In Communities across Borders: New immigrants and transnational cultures. (2002). P. Kennedy and V. Roudometof (Eds.). NY: Routledge.
Health, Culture & Globalization
Health, Culture and Globalization
Culture plays an integral role in the lives of societies and individuals all over the world. Across countries and societies, different kinds of culture exist and govern the daily lives of people. Defined technically, culture is the system of beliefs, norms, values, and traditions that a specific group of people perceives and considers as their worldview. Countries have different cultures, and within each culture exists sub-cultures, created because of the diversity/differences existing from even the same group of people with the same nationality, race, or ethnic membership.
Culture inadvertently affects every aspect of an individual's life. Its influence could be as mundane as deciding what to wear and eat for the day, or as critical and important not only to the individual but also to the society, such as deciding who to vote for depending on the candidate's similarities in beliefs and…
Eckersley, R. (2007). "Culture, spirituality, religion and health: looking at the big picture." The Medical Journal of Australia, (186)10 Suppl.
The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, TB and Malaria. Available at: http://www.theglobalfund.org/en/
Huynen, M., P. Martens and H. Hilderink. (2005). "The health impacts of globalization: a conceptual framework." Globalization and Health, (1)14.
An example of this virtual culture is the fan culture, wherein individuals having a similar belief or likeness for an idea or another individual (also identified as "cult hero") come together and form a community wherein they talk about their beliefs, and create a culture uniquely identified only to them. Examples of these fan cultures are Star Wars, Lord of the Rings, and Harry Potter fan groups/bases.
In the following years, despite Macionis' expressed fear for these virtual cultures, this form of culture will develop to give way to new, hybrid cultures that will potentially develop as a result of the continuous innovation and creation of computer- and Internet-mediated technologies. Moreover, these cultures will become important in that it will reflect the kind of groups and individuals extant in the society. These virtual cultures will mirror peoples' values, beliefs, and traditions. And most importantly, virtual cultures will become the 'culture…
IKEA Organizational Culture
Strong and Weak Sides of Organizational Culture
Impact of Internal and External Factors
Leadership and Organizational Culture
Employees and Organizational Structure
IKEA Organizational Culture
Every organization has a unique culture that dictates how things are done -- it defines the organization's social and psychological behavior. Though there is no universally agreed definition, organizational culture essentially refers to the values, beliefs, attitudes, assumptions, principles, habits, and customs shared by members of a given organization (Schein, 2010). These behavioral aspects constitute the distinctiveness of the organization (Jain, 2005). Indeed, organizational culture can be an important source of competitive advantage for an organization as it determines its strategic orientation, personnel management approaches, and other aspects of organizational behavior (Schein, 2010; Mullins & Christy, 2010). One organization that has built a distinctive organizational culture is IKEA, a Swedish multinational firm involved in the designing and marketing…
Browaeys, M., & Price, R. (2008). Understanding Cross-cultural Management. Harlow: Prentice Hall.
Clarke, L. (n.d.). Corporate culture of the heart. Retrieved from: https://inside.6q.io/ikea - corporate-culture-of-the-heart/
Geert-hofstede.com (n.d.). Country comparison. Retrieved from: https://geert- hofstede.com/sweden.html
Grol, P., & Schoch, C. (2010). IKEA: Culture as competitive advantage. CPA, Paris Chamber of Commerce. Retrieved from: http://www.efbl.org/upload/7730963-Strategijski- menadzment-Studija-slucaja-IKEA-2010-12-16.pdf
An Analysis Based on Morgan's Cultural Metaphor
When one thinks about the word "culture," one tends to think about some far-away, exotic place where people in elaborate costumes perform mysterious rituals. While it is certainly true that people on the other side of the world from wherever one lives certainly have their own culture, it is vital to remember that all people have their lives deeply influenced by culture. We each live in a number of different cultures: The culture of our family, of our neighborhood, of the place where we work, sometimes of a religious and ethnic community. Culture is simply an agreement among the members of a group about how they will behave, what their values are, and how they will communicate with each other. Culture determines how we each interact with each other on a daily basis.
The paper examines the organizational culture of a…
Grisham, T. (2006). Metaphor, poetry, storytelling and cross-cultural leadership. Management Decision, 44(4), 486-503.
Harris, J. & Barnes, K.B. (2006). Leadership storytelling. Industrial and commercial training, 38(7), 350-353.
Jensen, D.F.N. (2006). Metaphors as a bridge to understanding educational and social contexts. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 5(1), Article 4, 1-17.
Leder, G. (2007). The power of metaphors: Use of clever analogies to simplify complex subjects and you might just get clients to take your perspective. On Wall Street 17 (5), 88.
Law enforcement has a distinct professional culture that is comprised of both formal and informal elements. Formal elements are ensconced in rules and regulations. For example, training, hours of work, how to fill out paperwork, and wearing a uniform according to an individual’s status in the organization are formal elements of the culture. Informal elements are unspoken, including norms of behavior and the jargon used between officers. For example, informal cultural norms are what have a direct bearing on “how to go about their tasks, how hard to work, what kinds of relationships to have with their fellow officers and other categories of people with whom they interact, and how they should feel about police administrators,” (“The Police Culture,” p. 98). Both formal and informal culture impacts productivity, identity, and performance.
Language and Behaviors
One of the defining features of a culture is language. In the professional sectors, jargon…
Sociology of Popular Culture
A popular culture is a complex term defined by a number of already existing definitions which explore the different spectrums associated with the term. The initial understanding of this culture was based on the lifestyle adopted by the masses; the subordinate, lower class, which made them separate from the elite class. However, today, it is considered to be a lifestyle which includes different cultural practices, artifacts and other cultural commodities, that is widely accepted by the population. Therefore, in order to study a popular culture, it is important to focus on the varying aspects such as identity, representation, regulation, production and consumption where the latter two have an interdependent relationship. For this reason, this paper would look into the underlying fact of the contemporary popular culture where the producers are also the consumers.
The theorists of the cultural studies started studying popular culture when…
Bielby D, 2001, Popular culture: production and consumption, Wiley-Blackwell, United States.
Douglas, S, 1994, Where the girls are: Growing up female with the mass media. New York: Random House
Kellner, D, 1995, Media culture: Cultural studies, identity, and politics between the modern and the postmodern. New York: Routledge
Leadbeater, 1996, Urban Girls: Resisting Stereotypes, Creating Identities. New York: New York University Press
Schien (1999) the Corporate Culture Survival Guide
Culture content and surviving in the external environment
Mission, Strategy and Goals
Development of assumptions
Sense of mission and identity
Cultural moral of story: Acquisition strategy has to fit existing culture
Over organizational history learning by organization of effective
Complexity of Cultural Analysis due to shared mission and strategic intent
F. Variations in unit organization to achieve mission and strategy
G. Error-detection systems in the organization
F. Actions when discovering important goals are not being met
G. Variation among organizational parts in measure and actions to take on results
New Leaders in the Organization
Destroy existing culture by ridding organization of key culture carriers;
B. Fight existing culture by forcing their own beliefs, values and assumption on the members of the organization.
C. Cave in to the existing culture abandoning their own beliefs, values and assumptions.
D. Evoke the culture by…
Car Culture: How and Why "Ricers" Came into The Scene
Since the advent of cars, people have always wanted to play around with them and make modifications of their own preferences. Car modification has been taking place ever since we started manufacturing vehicles and the reason has been varied. There are some who did it for prowess or just for some mischief. For example, NASCAR evolved from the building of super-fast cars that were mostly a result of bootlegging. The initial modifications that people would perform on their vehicles were mainly conducted due to criminal activities. In the old cars, there was no matching of cars to engine numbers, transmission, or body frame. This made it possible for thieves to change engines and repaint a vehicle, which in turn meant they have a new car. This car modification was referred to as hot rodding. However, all this changed when the…
Underground cultures of all types are frequently co-optated in order to bring them into the mainstream. When an underground culture begins as something unique, that uniqueness is attractive to those who crave unique things and experience. These are the early adopters, and the influencers of others. These influencers then make that culture more attractive to the mainstream. Typically, co-optation occurs when business interests see the potential in something and then market a co-optated version of that to a mainstream audience. The essay on popular culture highlights hip hop music, which grew from an integrated street culture in the Bronx, was first co-optated by African-American urban youth in other cities, leaving out many of the culture's elements in favor of a focus on the fashion and music, and co-optation became even more pronounced when the music's underground popularity with white suburban audiences was noticed. This actually mirrored quite closely the…
Jackson, R. (2013). Billabong's downfall may signal the death of the entire surfwear industry. Business Insider. Retrieved April 22, 2014 from http://www.businessinsider.com/billabong-demise-surfwear-2013-11
Woody, T. (2012). Surfing's toxic secret. Forbes. Retrieved April 22, 2014 from http://www.forbes.com/sites/toddwoody/2012/04/19/surfings-toxic-secret/
Vietnamese American Culture
Cultural Phenomena of Vietnamese American Culture
The assessment of a patient can be critical to the nursing process. The culture phenomena that a nurse may face can be critical to a proper diagnosis in many cases as well as the overall quality of care. One of the most fundamental phenomena is communication, which includes language, but also includes social organizations, time, environmental control, and biological variation. These factors represent distinct phenomena that can be identified and various cultural barriers can be mitigated through training. Although each individual may be different, culture is a powerful force in one's life and can predict many individualistic tendencies.
The social organization in the Vietnamese American culture is different from the mainstream culture in several ways. One is example is that Asian-American patients in mainstream mental health systems have greater premature dropout rates, shorter duration of treatment, fewer positive outcomes,…
Fancher, T., Ton, H., Le Meyer, O., Ho, T., & Paternti, D. (2010). Discussing Depression with Vietnamese American Patients. Journal of Immigrant Minority Health, 263-266.
Hongyun, F., & Laudingham, M. (2012). Mental Health Consequences of International Migration for Vietnamese Americans and the Mediating Effects of Physical Health and Social Networks: Results From a Natural Experiment Approach. Demography, 393-424.
Smith, E., & Pham, C. (1996). Doing business in Vietnam: A cultural guide. Business Horizons', 1-47.
Hip Hop and American Youth Culture
Everyone enters a stage of growth when a strong urge to break out of parental dependence, when he recognizes his own person and desires to assert himself. This sense of individuality is an inherent in the American character, especially the youth. Aligned with this restlessness is the restlessness endured for centuries by the Blacks. Their elders may have learned to live with the malignity, although without yielding to it, or have less energy to fight. But African-American youth found a way to vent their revulsion towards the discrimination and abuses to which they are subjected as a race. That discovery happened in the 70s when the hip-hop spirit evolved into a concept and then into music, dance, poetry and many other creative forms of letting the sea of anguish flow out of their soul.
The voice of the young American who seeks individual freedom…
Aponte, Christian Andres. 2013. "When Hip Hop and Education Converge: a Look into Hip Hop-based Education Programs in the United States and Brazil." Carnegie Mellon
Blanchard, Becky. 1999. "The Impact of Rap and Hip-Hop Music on American Youth." Ethics
Of Development in a Global Environment.
Pop Art on Society
During the fifties, America experienced tremendous growth in many aspects of society. As a result, technological advancements led to sophisticated aspects of American life. Media and advertising became mass media and the invention of the television paved the way to a new generation of communication. This was also an era of exploration among generations. Traditional forms of art began to experience growth and "culture" expanded into many sub-cultures.
Some of the trends that surfaced were New York City turning into an "international center for painting and architecture" (Davidson 1147), mass circulation of paperback books, network television suddenly becoming the world's most powerful form of mass communication, and rock and roll becoming the language of youth (Davidson 1147).
The explosion of such artistic expression was greeted with optimism, but mostly with pessimism, "warning against moral decadence and spiritual decline" (1147). On one had, the "highbrow intellectuals" argued…
Davidson, Gienapp, Heyman, Lytle, and Stoff. Nation of Nations. New York: McGraw-Hill Publishing Company, 1990. 17 December 2002.
Metrailler, Edouard. High in Saccharine, Low in (Moral) Fiber. The Harvard Salient. 7 October 1996. http://www.digitas.harvard.edu/~salient/issues/961007/mediocrity.html17 December 2002.
Morse, Margaret. Pop Art. Biddingtons. 17 December 2002. http://www.biddingtons.com/content/pedigreepop.html17 December 2002.
Myers, Ken. What Distinguishes "popular" Cultures From Other Varieties of Culture? Modern Reformation. http://www.modernreformation.org/mr97/janteb/mr9/01distinguishes.html17 December 2002.
The trans-Atlantic slave trade shackled together persons from disparate cultural and linguistic backgrounds. Forced contact and communion, pervasive physical and psychological abuse, and systematic disenfranchisement became the soil in which a unique subculture would be born. Slave subcultures in the United States were also diverse, depending on geography, the nature of the plantation work, the prevailing political and social landscape of the slave owner culture, and factors like gender and ethnic backgrounds of the slaves. Presence and type of religion in the community also impacted the evolution of slave culture. Common factors that link disparate slave subcultures include religion, music, crafts, food, social norms, and political philosophies. In spite of the tremendous variations in theme and tone of slave cultures, such as those in Maryland, Virginia, Georgia, or the Carolinas, there did emerge some consistencies that draw attention to commonalities. The forced bondage of slavery created the means…
"African Diaspora," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www2.coloradocollege.edu/Dept/HY/HY243Ruiz/Research/diaspora.html
Chen, A. & Kermeliotis, T. (2012). African slave traditions live on in U.S. CNN World. Dec 10, 2012. Retrieved online: http://www.cnn.com/2012/12/07/world/africa/gullah-geechee-africa-slavery-america/
Sambol-Tosco, K. (2004). Education, arts, and culture. Slavery and the Making of America: Historical Overview. PBS. Retrieved online: http://www.pbs.org/wnet/slavery/experience/education/history.html
"Slave Culture," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/disp_textbook.cfm?smtid=2&psid=3043
Couse / subject= Drugs Across Cultures. ANT110. Writing Anthropology Essay. Essay question = "Is addiction a cultural category a biological reality?' Needs point view, provide backup resource readings. Also -text citation.
The concept of addiction is one of the most debated topics in the present and many individuals have expressed particular interest in discovering the factors that are probable to make certain groups exposed to substances. Addiction is one of society's most pressing problems and it is essential for individuals to focus on combating it through any means available. In order for society to be able to determine whether addiction is more related to biological factors than it is to cultural factors, one would need to follow patterns and learn more regarding what leads to addiction. The fact that the masses over generalize makes it difficult for researchers to get a better understanding of what addiction is. While addiction can…
Ahmad, Diana L. "The Opium Debate And Chinese Exclusion Laws In The Nineteenth-Century American West," (University of Nevada Press, 2007)
Choudhury, Suparna and Slaby, Jan, "Critical Neuroscience: A Handbook of the Social and Cultural Contexts of Neuroscience," (John Wiley & Sons, 2011)
Conrad, Peter and Schneider, Joseph, "Deviance and Medicalization: From Badness to Sickness," (Temple University Press, 1992)
Farrell Brodie, Janet and Redfield, Marc, "High Anxieties: Cultural Studies in Addiction," (University of California Press, 2002)
How do information and information sharing impact the digital culture of today’s world?
This question can best be answered by understanding the ways in which today’s digital culture uses information. Grassegger and Krogerus note that Big Data is the big elephant in the digital room: this is the collection of information on every Internet user on the planet, stored and provided so that today’s advertisers can market their organization’s products exclusively to Internet browsers. Those ads that pop up everywhere you go, no matter what type of site you’re on, that seem to know exactly what type of product you’re currently interested in? They know what you’re interested in because your personal browsing habits are being watched are recorded: that’s what Big Data is. And it’s also more than that—because today even your Amazon Fire is watching and listening: your phone is taking note of where you…
Economic, Political, and Social History
African American culture arose out of the turmoil and despair of the trans-Atlantic slave trade. From West African port towns to plantations, African American culture is unique in that it was forged under the pressure of bondage. People with different cultures and languages formed new identities relative to their subordinate social, economic, and political status—their culture therefore being in part defined by the experience of oppression and the determination to overcome it. Bereft of social, political, or economic independence for centuries, African American culture nevertheless emerged as organically as any other, but flourished especially after emancipation.
Yet the economic history of African American culture cannot be divorced from the human capital model of slavery. The Emancipation Proclamation laid the first foundation stones for African American economic, political, and social empowerment but Reconstruction failed to fulfill the objective of genuine liberation (DuBois, 1994). African Americans in…
Being a stranger in a strange land: the feeling of culture shock is both exciting but also unnerving. Even knowing the English language or being familiar with American culture through film and television does not mean we will not encounter culture shock in other ways. The subtle mannerisms and gestures, facial expressions, and other types of nonverbal communication prove complicating even when we know the spoken language. The food and clothing styles will be different, as will the customs, rituals, and realities of daily life. As a Russian studying abroad in the United States, I have experienced many different levels of culture shock. These experiences have made me a stronger person, contributing to the value of my international education. While Russians and Americans share in common a strong sense of individuality and national pride, I have experienced culture shock in terms of communication, lifestyle, and customs.
One of the most…
According to Stuart Hall, culture is about shared meanings; language is the medium through which meaning is produced and exchanged (Hall, 2003, p. 1). In linking language to identity and culture, Hall uses the word "culture" in an anthropological sense, meaning to distinguish groups of people, whether they belong to a community, nation or social group, by their shared values. The shared values are manifest in literature, art, music and philosophy of the culture. The shared values shape customs and the very fabric of human life, ultimately influencing everything people do. Some shared values are seen in different cultures, while there are a few groups, often in relatively isolated regions of the globe, that have unique values unto themselves, producing customs, practices and beliefs that seem strange to the rest of the world. As Hall puts it, saying that two people belong to the same culture is to…
Benmoktar, A 2009, 'More than Words: Arab Body Language', Love Habibi, [blog] July 2, 2009,
Available at: http://www.lovehabibi.com/blog/2009/07/02/more-than-words-arab-body-language / [Accessed: March 17, 2012]
Hall, S, ed. 2003. Representation: Cultural representations and signifying practices.
Sage Publications, London.
The issue of Third Culture Kids (TCK) is one that can no longer be wished away. It is a phenomenon that has been in existence for decades now and generations are embroiled in the TCK issue as their preceding generation. The TCK are often referred to as people who have been raised in a culture other than that of their parents or the culture of the country mentioned in their passports.
The growing number of TCKs is occasioned by a myriad of reasons in the different parts of the world where these individuals live. The most common cause of TCK is the occupational commitment, where the type of jobs that most people do keep them away from their own homes and culture and situate them for years in different cultures. Some could be having business abroad, be in long term government appointments and other jobs that keep them away from…
Their main arguments are based on historical assumptions and on facts which have represented turning points for the evolution of the African-American society throughout the decades, and especially during the evolutionary War and the Civil War. In this regard, the Old Negro, and the one considered to be the traditional presence in the Harlem, is the result of history, and not of recent or contemporary events.
From the point-of-view of historical preconceptions and stereotypes, it would unwise to consider Harlem as being indeed a cancer in the heart of a city, taking into account the fact that there is no objective comparison being made. Locke points out the fact that the Negro of today be seen through other than the dusty spectacles of past controversy. The day of "aunties," "uncles" and "mammies" is equally gone. Uncle Tom and Sambo have passed on, and even the "Colonel" and "George" play barnstorm…
Anderson, Karen Tucker. "Last Hired, First Fired: Black Women Workers during World War II" in the Journal of American History, Vol. 69, No. 1. (Jun., 1982), pp. 82-97.
Barnes, Albert C. Negro Art and America. (accessed 2 December 2007) http://etext.virginia.edu/harlem/BarNegrF.html
Brown, Claude. Manchild in the Promised Land. New York: Touchstone, 1999.
Charles S. Johnson. Black Workers and the City. (accessed 2 December 2007) http://etext.virginia.edu/harlem/JohWorkF.html
S. today are called African-Americans or Afro-Americans. As Africans had been brought into the U.S. they had been deprived by their traditions, being forced to integrate in the larger, more complex community. In spite of the slave owners and traders' efforts to break them completely from their culture, during their first years on American land, the blacks managed to keep most of their traditions. However, as time passed, black traditions changed into American traditions and African people became Americans.
Black people in Texas have a very rich history and as they've managed to become independent as a minority, their culture has also been revived. Moreover, the black community in Texas has contributed to the Texan history as it has also contributed to the birth of several important Texans.
A large part of the Hispanics residents of the U.S. inhabit the state of Texas and their number has visibly grown during…
Clutter, a.W., Nieto, R.D. Understanding the Hispanic Culture. Retrieved February 4, 2009 from the Ohio State University Web site: http://ohioline.osu.edu/hyg-fact/5000/5237.html
Glasrud, a. B, & Smallwood, J. (2007). The African-American Experience in Texas: An Anthology. Texas Tech University Press.
1994-1995). Black-Texans. Retrieved February 4, 2009 from Texas Almanac Web site: http://www.texasalmanac.com/culture/groups/black.html
2000). The Spanish, Mexicans, Tejano. Retrieved February 4, 2009 from UTSA's Institute of Texan cultures Web site: http://www.texancultures.utsa.edu/publications/texansoneandall/tejano.htm
Culture & Marketing in Turkey
Turkey & Culture
Author's note with contact information and more details on collegiate affiliation, etc.
Culture & Marketing in Turkey
Culture is a critical aspect of successful marketing strategies. Marketing firms must perform diligent and thorough research on their prospective consumers for several reasons. Culture is a key factor in determining tastes, aesthetic preferences, behavior, values, and perspectives on other cultures, among other things. As such, it is the responsibility of any marketing department to know the culture to which they intend to market products for consumption. This holds true in any location, though the focus of this paper will be upon the country of Turkey. Turkey is a country that is part of both Europe and Asia, and this trait alone can provide some insight as to the complexity and richness of the culture. This paper will examine the impact of culture on multinational…
Cavusgil, S Tamer, Civi, E., Tutek, H.H., Dalgic, T. (2003) "Doing Business in Turkey." Thunderbird International Business Review, 45(4), 467 -- 479.
Hollis, N. (2009) "Culture Clash: Globalization Does Not Imply Homogenization." Millard Brown: POV, 1 -- 4.
The children also rent decorated bikes to ride around town on for the holiday. It is a time for families to get together and celebrate with food and music and fellowship.
For a lot of families from working neighborhoods, Eid celebration also includes picnics in green areas including parks, zoos, botanical gardens and even green islands on major roads (Osama, 2004)."
Most of Egypt is Islam. Like Christians, the Islam followers trace their roots to Abraham and believe in one God who is universal. In Islam God is referred to as ALLAH which means One Universal God.
The Quran is the final revealed Word of God and provides the complete guide for human behavior. Its text was revealed directly to the prophet Muhammad between 610 and 632 C.E. Muhammad is revered by Muslims as the last of God's prophets but is not worshipped (Ahmad, 2005)."
Men and women are…
The cultural practices are evolved and based on the financial, social and moral understanding and capabilities of the local population, and it has been observed that Americans, Asians and Africans share extremely different perspectives and understanding on these issues, therefore the cultural adoption has been intense in countries where the technological revolution has been of the same intensity as in North America (Zelli, 1993). In some of the cases, the Americans companies has attempted to nullify the concerns and shortcomings of the American culture, by incorporating the cultural values of the local region, and has therefore evolve a different taste for the customers to avail, this has further delighted and fascinated the local population of different regions towards the American culture, for example the American culture has major differences with the Islamic culture adopted in Arab countries, therefore to compensate for such difference the American companies introduced the concept of…
David W. Noble. Death of a Nation: American Culture and the End of Exceptional-ism. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. 2002
Tafarodi R., Swann W. Individualism-collectivism and global self-esteem: Evidence for a cultural trade-off. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology. 1996
Trubisky P, Ting Toomey S, Lin S. The influence of individualism collectivism and self-monitoring on conflict styles. International Journal of Intercultural Relations. 1991
Huesmann, Zelli, Fraczek, Upmeyer. Normative attitudes about aggression in American, German and Polish college students. Presented at Third European Congress of Psychology. Tampere, Finland. 1993
Minority Culture in South Dakota
Lifestyles, Values and the Economy of Hispanic-Americans and Indian-Americans in South Dakota
The history of the minority groups in the U.S.A. dates back to historical times in the 1800 and their growth has been somehow stable in USA. It is undisputable that the treatment of the minority groups and the Native Americans and the African-Americans ran out of the borders of the tolerance and freedom. It is however notable that the U.S.A. has all through welcomed huge numbers of diverse immigrants and accommodated them as any other born American. It is no longer viable to ignore the issue of the minority groups in each state since even at the national grid, as U.S. Department of State (2006) indicates, the minority groups have played a significant part in all sectors. For instance Hispanics accounted for nearly half of the U.S.A. population increase between July 1, 2004…
Ann W.C. & Ruben D.N., (2011). Understanding the Hispanic Culture. Retrieved May 22,
2011 from http://ohioline.osu.edu/hyg-fact/5000/5237.html
Bloomberg L.P., (2011). South Dakota Grows as Minority Population Surges, Census Finds.
Retrieved May 22, 2011 from http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-02-17/south-dakota-grows-as-minority-population-surges-census-finds.html
Behrman holds that it was weak political institutionalization rather than a weak civil society that shackled Weimar Germany.
Unfortunately, many scholars of democracy theory and proponents of democratic culture have approached the Weimar Republic already holding the assumption that a democratic culture is necessary for a functioning democracy. With this assumption in place, they then debate whether Weimar Germany really possessed a "democratic culture." A democratic culture is often taken to entail Toqueville's "associationism," a vibrant public sphere, formal outlets for political dissent, and informed political debate. Such inquiries have provided little insight into the nature of healthy democracies because they are based on a faulty assumption, that culture is a condition or even a determinant in the formation of a society's political structure.
As Berman observed, passionate civic engagement among a nation's citizens, without an adequate institutional foundation to channel such passion, can actually be averse to functional democracy.…
The culture and environment of any workplace is extremely important. We are indeed products of our surroundings and we should expect to reflect this nature. The purpose of this essay is to explore the organizational structure and cultural of the King's Daughter Health System. The essay will examine how the organizational structure contributes to the quality of care within the system and also identify how culture, and specifically generational differences also impact the inner workings of this area.
There are essentially three types of general organizational structure that almost all work place systems are based upon. These include the functional structure, the divisional structure and the matrix structure. A functional structure is designed so that each are of the organization is organized according to its specific objectives and goals. A divisional structure is used in large companies that have their resources spread out over a large…
Kings Daughter Health System Organizational Chart.
Ponte, P. et al. (2003). Making Patient-centered Care Come Alive. JONA, 33(2), 2003:82-90. Retrieved from http://www.dana-farber.org/uploadedFiles/Library/adult-care/new - patient-guide/patient-safety-and-advocacy/advisory-council/patient-and-family- care/making-patient-centered-care-come-alive.pdf
North America into Sub-Regions
By total area, the United States is the world's third largest country, with landscape that varies from temperate forestland and rolling hills on the East coast, mangrove in Florida, the Great Plains in the center of the country, the Mississippi and Missouri river system, the Great Lakes which are shared with Canada, the Rocky Mountains west of the plains, the deserts and temperate coastal zones west of the Rocky Mountains, the temperate rain forests in the Pacific Northwest, and the tundra of Alaska (United). Canada, the second largest country in the world, occupies the northern half of the North American continent, and is divided into six regions, the Pacific Coast, the Interior Plains, the Canadian Shield, the St. Lawrence Lowlands, the Appalachian Region, and the Arctic Lowlands (Geographic). The majority of the regions of both countries tend to correspond with one another. Aside from the South…
Canadian Shield. Retrieved November 05, 2005 from:
Exterior Form of North America. Retrieved November 05, 2005 from:
For fundamentalists, law and authority come from God.
This is true not only in formally theocratic societies, like Iran, but can also be seen expressed in the views of fundamentalist U.S. Christians, who have an obsession with having the Ten Commandments displayed outside of secular buildings, advocate school prayer and the need for laws to be justified by Judeo-Christian values.
Female sexuality must be contained; boundaries must be established between men and women.
The female body is an obsession: hence the obsession with women staying home and not working in fundamentalist Christian circles, as well as the extreme control of women by the Taliban in Afghanistan.
Sexual behavior is a major concern of all fundamentalists
Opposing gay marriage, abortion rights, sexual education unite almost all fundamentalist groups.
Fundamentalism and nationalism converge.
"The moral life according to the will of God can only be fully lived in a society of fellow-practitioners…
Business Culture Decision Making
Every research is centered on the need to make a decision and the need to make a decision in any organization sprouts from a dilemma that the particular organization may be in. Some of these dilemmas may be in the form of complains within the organization, controversy over pay, competitors introduction of a new form of operation or technology, some looming major commitment of resources and more of such issues can effectively prompt a research in an organization.
The bottom line is that research draws its origins from decision making. There must be a dilemma that dominates the course of the research in pursuit of specific information to enable a manager to set objectives, define the tasks, and obtain the best strategy for completion of some tasks. It is at this time that it can be concluded that the research always comes 'just- in -- time'…
Martin Shutleworth, (2008). Research Variables. Retrieved May 26, 2011 from http://www.experiment-resources.com/research-variables.html
University of Wisconsin Eau Claire, (2011). Generating A Research Hypothesis. Retrieved May
26, 2011 from http://people.uwec.edu/piercech/researchmethods/generating%20a%20research%20hypothesis/generating%20a%20research%20hypothesis%20index.htm