For many infertile couples, the assistance of a surrogate mother represents one last hope for becoming a genetic parent. They thus turn to surrogate mothers, or women who bear children for couples who cannot become parents through normal pregnancy and childbirth (Gentry). ith careful preparation on both sides, surrogate parenting can be a viable option for couples to conceive a child and add to their family.
For many critics, the concept of a surrogate parent still retains the tinges of the 1986 Baby M. case, where the surrogate mother refused to give the baby to the intended parents. Others charge that this practice provides another opportunity for couples to exploit poor women.
However, statistics show that the practice of surrogacy is steadily growing. Figures from the Center for Disease Control (CDC) show that there were 1,210 attempts at surrogacies in the year 2000, doubling the figure from 1997…… [Read More]
Some surrogates know the couple, and volunteer their services. Others do it simply because they want to help a couple that is childless. Four authors continue, "One woman said, ' I wanted to do something that was out of the ordinary and that made me a little bit special'" (Dooley, McCarthy, Garanis-Papadatos, and Dalla-Yorgia 57). In other cases, the surrogate may be a friend or relative of the couple, and is helping them because they care for them and want to help. There are many motives for surrogacy, and if the motives are good and pure, there is little to argue with or dispute. A doctor who studied the motives of surrogate women notes, "The 'average' surrogate emerges as a white mother with a fair amount of education and income. As a group, they cannot be described as destitute or living in poverty, and do not need the fee being…… [Read More]
The Terri chiavo case was an unusual incident where a person who should have been removed from life support long ago was sustained due to federal and public intervention. The case instigates moral and ethical questions of decision to end life as well as the limits of autonomy in surrogate decision making. Torke et al. (2008) argue that guardian judgment is often used as decision-making when a patient lacks the cognitive abilities to decide treatment for herself. urrogate decision-making, however, has its own flaws and should be replaced by something more rational. Using the Terri chiavo case as base, the following essay argues that the decision whether or not to prolong a patient's life (or indeed any decision revolving on an incumbent or cognitively disabled patient) should focus on the patient's dignity and individuality rather than on his or her autonomy.
The Terri chiavo Case: background
The Terri chiavo…… [Read More]
For example, the 1984 British government committee report suggested that "it is inconsistent with human dignity that a woman should use her uterus for financial profit and treat it as an incubator for someone else's child," in part because this threatens to undermine the traditional belief in an inviolable mother-child bond.
Opponents who criticize commercial surrogacy from this perspective frequently attempt to differentiate between commercial surrogacy and "altruistic" surrogacy, in which a surrogate carries a child without a fee, but this distinction is merely nominal, because the lack of an explicit payment structure does not make the decision to become a surrogate any less transactional, and furthermore, the potential for exploitation exists in either case.
Before considering how the law actually treats surrogacy, then, it is becoming clear that a general prohibition on commercial surrogacy represents a kind of undue restriction on the personal and financial autonomy of women, because…… [Read More]
A also consider that a proper legislation should protect the surrogate mother, in order to avoid situations in which her rights would not be respected. Therefore, she should be paid her medical expenses and, as a sort of benefit for her act, she should be granted a free medical insurance and the right to free medical analyses. Moreover, the legislation should stipulate that the surrogate mother should be of the same nationality - American in this case - as the future parents, in order to avoid situations as those which occurred in the Indian women case, who have thought to have been abused, a thing they have accepted because of their poor material status.
All in all, it seems that gestational surrogacy is not among the best surrogacy practice, and this is because of the ethnic, legal and cultural misunderstandings it might generate. In addition, I consider it should be…… [Read More]
Chimpanzees and gorillas can be taught human sign language, and sign with one another even without humans present. (MMMC, 2002) They argue that to use intelligence and compassion as a sliding scale of the right to life would cause many humans to be justified out of existence.
However, even if one accepts that too many animals are experimented upon, and researchers should use other means, it is similarly hard to justify the elimination of all animal experimentation, altogether, as this would have meant the end of such recent drug developments in AIDS research, as well as more questionable animal tests, as for instance, the use of rabbits in cosmetic testing, for which there are acceptable substitutes that do not require animals.
Bayliss, Francoise. (2004) "Our Cells/Ourselves: The Ethics of Embryonic Stem Cell Research." Stem Cell Network. Retrieved 12 Jan 2004 at http://www.stemcellnetwork.ca/research/projects/project04.php
BBC News. (Feb 12, 2004)"Q &…… [Read More]
Studies have shown that the mean maternal age of motherhood has been increasing since 1980, which although may suit many modern careers and life styles, it puts women at a greater risk of declining fertility. The fundamental manifestation of ovarian aging is not just because of a decrease in the number of oocytes, but also because of a decline in its quality. Moreover, women of advanced maternal age are at a greater risk of developing aneuploidy in embryos. This contributes to their inability to bear a child by increasing both implantation loss and pregnancy failure. (Judy et al., 2012)
In Vitro Fertilization, IVF is one of the forms of assisted reproductive technology that enhances the chances of conception. In IVF, ovaries are stimulated to produce mature oocytes which are retrieved transvaginally under sonographic guidance. Oocyte retrieval is normally an outpatient procedure, performed with adequate analgesia. The sperm and…… [Read More]
ethical dilemmas surround surrogacy and the donation of egg and/or sperm? Because surrogates are paid, is this a practice that exploits the poor, such as surrogate mothers in ndia? Why or Why not?
Egg donation and surrogacy raises ethical dilemmas on all four basic principles of medical ethics: autonomy, justice, beneficence, and non-maleficence.
Autonomy -- .
Consent has to be given freely and with full volition of the surrogate mother. Yet, most times, intense pressure is involved aside from the fact that poor women in ndia may capitulate to the need for money and be taken in by the huge sums offered. The emotional and medical pressures are immense, but these women are often grossly misinformed about the situation that they are bound to undergo. Their poverty hampers them from making the clear, informed decisions that they would otherwise need to in order to undergo the procedure. Whilst most egg…… [Read More]
more tactically satisfactory mothers in the form of cloth giving no food. Other young monkeys were given a choice between wire mothers that did not provide food and cloth mothers who did give food. A second control group was given normal mothers. Unsurprisingly, the monkeys all preferred the cloth surrogates, whether they gave food or not, under most circumstances. They study concluded that if simulated adequately, surrogate motherhood was not harmful, provided it fulfilled the child's basic tactile and nutritional needs, and also that feeling and touching was crucial to early development in children.
Again, one wonders at the value of the study, given that institutionalized children could have been observed from the past, or case studies could be examined of abused children to prove this thesis. Also, given Harlow's generalizations about the value of nursery school and the ability of fathers to prove love from the experiment, one might…… [Read More]
Nwoye, however, is attracted by the external trappings of Christian rhetoric, that promise him peace and a way out of a society in which he cannot compete because of his physical, emotional, and spiritual weaknesses. For Okonkwo, of course, the religion of Christianity is completely antithetical to his principles.
Q8. The end of the novel did surprise me. I expected that there would be a final, bloody clash between the tribesmen and the British. However, the real conflict occurs within Okonkwo's soul, when he is frustrated that his people will not fight with him, as they know they cannot overcome the superior military technology of the British. Okonkwo's suicide, however, once it is clear that his tribesmen will not stand with him, is not surprising, given that it is consistent with his militaristic and inflexible character -- he would rather die than submit. However, the fact that suicide is considered…… [Read More]
The novel is more than a story about Gustad and his family. It is a story about India's coming of age, the politics and social unrest of the times, and how Indians reacted to it. Gustad is worried about the events surrounding them, while Dilnava is more concerned about her family than in current events. Again, this shows the difference between the characters and their concerns, and it also relates to the larger picture of the state, and who runs it. The women are largely left out of the operations, even though a woman runs the country, while the men are more concerned and involved.
In conclusion, the author uses the son and surrogate son to bring out the parents in depth. Both of these characters are central to the story, although they do not appear in all of it and they are not the protagonist. Tehmul is the "jester"…… [Read More]
ut if they can manage to terminate the temporary relationship, they will become more emotionally balanced and mature persons (Young).
Why Choose the Peplau Model
oth its interpersonal theory and nursing process have a concrete sequence of use and focus on the therapeutic relationship (Current Nursing, 2012). oth utilize appropriate problem-solving techniques, which aim in common at filling the client's needs. oth use observation and communication as well as recording as basic tools, which are already used in nursing care. The four phases inter-relate and inter-weave the varying components of each phase. The Theory or model is applicable to endeavors, which follow the concepts of client, health, environment and nursing. It proceeds in a logical and systematic manner in viewing and processing nursing situations. Its generalizability rests in its simplicity in the logical progression of the partnership. It has produced testable hypotheses. It can be used in psychiatric patients. It…… [Read More]
person within the Christian worldview. Specifically it will discuss technology, the environment, and the media as it relates to my personal Christian worldview. As noted in this course, understanding a worldview can help a person understand other people and all their roles in today's society. Today's culture is broad, and influenced by a variety of sources, from scientific to religious, and they combine to create a contemporary Christian worldview in others and myself. Personally, my worldview is one of balance between my Christian beliefs and scientific study and analysis, which may be fairly common for a modern Christian worldview.
First, it is necessary to define worldview and what it is. A worldview encompasses every aspect of life, so understanding it is crucial in decision-making and living life to the fullest. It is really a wide-ranging perception of the world around us, formed using a Christian viewpoint. In other words, it…… [Read More]
Principles of Management and Technology
Multiculturalism and Diversity
"Diversity is desirable for innovation, flexibility, and organizational success."
Diversity can be a valuable asset for any organization. Having people from different backgrounds and cultures offers a broader range of different perspectives and different opinions. Having this as an asset can spawn higher levels of innovation and flexibility because of the depth of perspective -- more people with different ideas can collaborate in a way that ultimately leads to organizational success. Today's most successful organizations embrace diversity however the results of diversity are not always successful. hile many organizations have sought to increase the diversity of their workforces, researchers have found both positive and negative effects of demographic diversity on organizational outcomes (Olsen & Martins, 2012).
New Business Ventures
Discuss the reasons why small businesses are so important to the U.S. economy.
Small business accounts for the bulk of the…… [Read More]
WESLEY J. SMITH'S
TRUTH BOUT SSISTNCE"
Wesley J. Smith's analysis of euthanasia and assisted suicide is logically flawed in several ways. First, rather than discussing the main arguments supporting the idea in principle, Smith attacks the most extreme scenarios imaginable, and presents unethical and completely unconscionable applications of assisted suicide to which even its staunchest proponents object as strongly as do those opposed to it.
Likewise, his concern that the concept of duly appointed surrogates of patients no longer capable of expressing their wishes will send ethicist down the "slippery slope" leading to euthanizing "lzheimer's patients, mentally retarded people and, perhaps, children" is reminiscent of Tom Swift's " Modest Proposal." The only difference is that Swift's ridiculous proposal was intentionally satirical, whereas
Smith's hysterical concern that "an HMO doctor [might recommend] suicide as the best 'treatment'... [because] the doctor could be fired or lose bonus income for providing...too much care…… [Read More]
Validation of Commercial Baking as an Effective Step to Control/Inactivate Salmonella in Baked Products
Major findings, analysis and conclusions
Description of the baking industry and baking emphasis in the United States.
Purpose and structure of importance
Description of the problem being addressed and its importance to the practice of applied food safety
Process of Consultation
Outline how the client (ABA) will be engaged and carefully define the problem
Identification of key stakeholders
Overview and feedback of findings and results
ecommended actions and dissemination of these recommendations
Plans for implementation and measurement
Major findings. The U.S. had approximately 167,600 baker positions available in 2012 and around 6% of these were self-employed (Bakery business, 2016). Although industry analysts project sustained growth in the U.S. baking industry, this growth will not be on par with other industries (Bakery business, 2016). Currently, the U.S. baking industry is a nearly $310 billion industry that has…… [Read More]
The server encrypts each file before staging it on the surrogate. To handle a cache miss at the remote site, the client fetches the data from the surrogate, decrypts it, verifies its fingerprint and then uses the data. The volume of cached keys can be reduced by using a single private encryption key for all files, at the price of total exposure if that key is broken. (p.2)."
The author concludes the article with mention of the Aura Project at Carnegie Mellon, an initiative which is aimed at defined distraction-free, ubiquitous computing and support for nomadic access using the Coda File System, which has recently been updated to support efficient update propagation over low-bandwidth networks . Aura is a commonly referenced concept in much of the cyber foraging literature, and supports the concept of increasingly complex content taxonomies being synchronized with applications and data sources through the use of data…… [Read More]
yes, I do see a parallel between being paid to be a surrogate and the prohibition against being paid to donate one's organs. The prohibition is clearly designed at least in part to prevent people who are financially desperate being exploited by wealthier individuals. We cannot have a caste system in our nation where the bodies of the poor can be bought by the wealthy. Yet surrogacy does that very same thing, in effect paying less financially well-off women to carry the babies of wealthier women. A not atypical scenario for a surrogacy is a poorer young women being paid by an older, more educated dual income couple that has postponed childbirth so they have time to develop their careers. In almost all instances, the couple is more educated and financially well-off than the surrogate, effectively create a power relationship that is highly asymmetrical.
Pregnancy, like organ donation, is not…… [Read More]
The majority of women can return to their normal routine the next day ("In Vitro Fertilization"). In most cases total bed rest is not required unless there is some risk associated with the development of OHSS ("In Vitro Fertilization").
The NIH further explains that women who utilize IVF must take the hormone progesterone for at least two months following the embryo transfer ("In Vitro Fertilization"). The hormone is taken through daily shots or pills. Progesterone is a naturaly produced hormone produced that assists in thickenign the lining of the uterus ("In Vitro Fertilization"). This thickening makes it easier for the embryo to implant to the wall of the uterus. If there is ot enough progesterone the woman will miscarry ("In Vitro Fertilization").
In additon to the risks associated with this type of reproductive technology, IVF is very expensive ("In Vitro Fertilization"). The NIH explains that many states require that insurance…… [Read More]
Long Term Care Administration
What are some of the ethical issues in this case?
Mrs. Beaudoin appears to be in a real ethical dilemma given the fact that she does not have formal power of attorney and her husband also lives in the same facility with her with moderate dementia and is very frail. The ethical issue involved in this case is that Mrs. Beaudoin’s health is failing steadily. She is known to have cancer throughout her body, a failing heart, moderate dementia and diabetes type II. Due to the cardiac arrest she suffered after a short stay in the intensive care unit she subsequently suffered a severe brain injury occasioned by lack of sufficient oxygen. Since she cannot make healthcare decisions on her own and her husband is in a state that is just as bad, the ethical issue here is; who will make healthcare decisions and end of…… [Read More]
Newborn pain is an example of an everyday occurrence where achieving neonates' interests are through making them comfortable and pain-free. As the neonatal intensive care nursery gives rise to many potentially painful procedures, a dilemma exists for caregivers in assessing if sick and/or premature infants are in pain (Nagy 1998). Although newborn pain affects the short-term interests there are possibilities that the lasting effects may also be harmful (Spence, 2000).
For a long time, the medical profession has given its members with the knowledge and skills that are required to treat disease and deformity. Physicians have often been the front line of technological mastery, increasingly emotional with the onerous responsibility of determining when intervention is suitable. Underlying this responsibility is a foundation of core principles, including beneficence, non-malfeasance, and compassion. Conscious use of these principles is not often supportive when the best interests of patients are diverse and apply to…… [Read More]
Treatment to Patients
The main objective of providing treatment to patients is to relieve symptoms along with decreasing the progression of the disease as well as the mortality or morbidity. However, in some cases, this objective is not fully achieved, especially in the case of the patients who are admitted to the ICU with some serious and almost always a terminal stage of the disease. For example, when old patients are admitted in the ICU, their immunity is extremely low and this is the perfect time for the opportunistic infections to make matters worse for these patients. There are many infections that are specifically associated with patients admitted in the hospitals. Pseudomonas Aurigeonosa is a micro-organism that is well documented to cause bacterial pneumonia and bacteremia in the patients who are terminally ill and are receiving treatment in the hospital setting. Since most of the patients in the ICU are…… [Read More]
Aibileen." She say, "Aib-ee." I say, "Love." She say, "Love" I say, "Mae Mobley," (Stockett). Raising other people's children is a strange profession, as Kathryn Stockett points out in The Help. Even if race were not a prevailing motif in the novel, domestic servitude raises poignant questions about the nature of labor and class relations in American society. However, The Help is about race, and therefore, the love that develops between nanny and child in Stockett's book becomes meaningful and multifaceted. The message of love is a conflicted one. Clearly, Aibileen loves Mae Mobley as if Mae were her child. For Aibileen, Mae Mobley is a surrogate child who can fill the gaping hole in Aibileen's heart after the death of Treelore. The love of Aibileen for Treelore is qualitatively different, though. Aibileen knows that as Mae Mobley grows up, she is bound to be socialized into the white dominant…… [Read More]
'Lost Lullaby' is a book about a mother who prayed for a child. The prayed that that child die. It is a narrative that involves the ethical dilemma of whether or not to retain a child (or individual's) life when the life is critically impaired.
'Lost Lullaby' is the story of parents who demonstrate courage in placing the needs of the individual above their own. The key consideration in caring for a patient should not be selfish, religious, ideological or political interests, but rather should devolve around the dignity and the quality of the patient's life.
Summary of Book
'Lost Lullaby' is the story of parents who finally gave birth -- to a child, Andrea, who suffered extensive and irreversible brain damage. The book leads us through the agony of the mother, her endeavors to find answers to her questions, her attempts to have the child survive, and then…… [Read More]
Influences on Social Cognition in Children and Adolescents
Influences on Social Cognition in Children and Adolescents
Child development is influenced by many factors. Some of the most important factors that affect the development of a child include heredity, nutrition, parental affection, and culture. Cognition refers to a general processes regarding the principles of thinking in humans, whereas social cognition refers to the study of how people process and use social information, particularly how social information is encoded, stored, retrieved, and then applied by the person in social situations (Striano & eid, 2006). Social cognition and social cognitive development are often studied by cognitive psychologist and social psychologists. The parallel between cognitive development and the development of social cognition certainly cannot be ignored. Cognition in children develops within the social context, but also most likely conforms to certain developmental patterns (Piaget, 1954). The primary influences of the…… [Read More]
The same can also be said of corporate organisation that has in their possession accumulated research capacity which enables it to deliver unique products and services from its competitors.
1.2.7 To increase market share.
Advertising can also be used to increase the market share of an organisation resulting from the acceptance of the products but the consumer and subsequent recognition of the brand.
1.3 FUNCTIONS OF ADVERTISEMENT
Advertising as a promotional mix element is expected to play some functions. Organisations usually employ advertisement to play the following functions.
1.3.1 To distinguish products from their competitors
Advertising has been found to be a useful promotional tool when it comes to distinguishing between the products of an organisation from their competitors. There are so many products in the market. Sometime the same types of products are competing in one market. It is even the case that other manufacture may imitate the products…… [Read More]
That is simply because individual in the same family are much more likely than unrelated individuals to share similar foundational experiences by virtue of their exposure to similar parenting and resources in their immediate environment throughout their early lives (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2007; utter, 2006). Just as hesus monkeys tend to adopt maternal behaviors and elements of personalities of their mothers irrespective of their genetic inclinations, so do human infants and growing children and adolescents internalize and adopt various aspects of the behaviors and reactions exhibited by their parents and other significant adult behavioral role models in their lives (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2007).
The quality of resources available to siblings (such as food, medicine, educational opportunities, etc.) is generally very similar within biological families (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2007; utter, 2006). To the extent these factors contribute to the development of behavior, it is extremely difficult if not impossible…… [Read More]
After receiving such pressure, a huge scandal broke within the ranks of the LAPD based on charges of corruption and misconduct. Although the LAPD still maintains a heavy presence within these streets, they are not as vehement as seen in the case of the HAMME era.
Many of those affected by L.A. street life are actually not gang members themselves. The aftermath of gang violence has proven to be too much for many Los Angeles residents, including former gang members, to handle. Many former members are left questioning the idea that the gang life is truly a family atmosphere. Former gang members all over the United States have begun to take action as to prevent future generations from making the same mistakes, (andle, 2003). Many of these former criminals also believe that being open with children about gang violence will help open up dialogue about the negative aspects of gang…… [Read More]
But there will also be situations where clinicians are asked to discuss with a patient whether they want to or should have resuscitation if they have had a cardiac arrest or life-threatening arrhythmia. The potential likelihood for clinical benefit in accordance with the patient's preferences for intervention and its likely outcome, involves careful consideration, as with many other medical decisions, in deciding whether or not to resuscitate a patient who suffers a cardiopulmonary arrest. Therefore, decisions to forego cardiac resuscitation are often difficult.
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CP) is a set of specific medical procedures designed to establish circulation and breathing in a patient who's suffered an arrest of both. CP is a supportive therapy, designed to maintain perfusion to vital organs while attempts are made to restore spontaneous breathing and cardiac rhythm (Braddock 2).
The standard of care is to perform CP in the absence of a valid physician's order to…… [Read More]
The next objection of IVF separating the procreation and marital aspects of marriage and in the end damaging the marital relationship was totally untrue in this case. This couple had a very strong relationship and going through the process of gestational surrogacy strengthen their martial relationship as opposed to damaging it. The last objection of adoption is a better answer to the trouble of childlessness may very well be true for a lot of people. One cannot argue the fact that there are a lot of children out there that need to have good homes and there are many couples that could benefit tremendously from this avenue. But in the case of the couple in this article the idea of having a biological child was something that was very strong from them, thus making the path that they took the best one for them.
IVF, just like many other things…… [Read More]
But if you want a baby badly enough, you will do it" (The Women's Health Council). Women are subjected to a wide range of drugs which have harmful side effects. Some drugs induced to facilitate ovulation have also caused infertility in the male child. When women are put through the consumption of such drugs, the chances of multiple births increases, thus the woman gives birth to twins, triplets or even more.
In 2000, 53% of infants born through AT were multiple births, compared to 3% of births in the general population. The twin rate was 22 times higher than the general population; the triplet and higher multiples rate was 50 times higher. Their higher risk for birth defects and low birth weight add to already over-burdened health care costs." (Marie Anderson and John Bruchalski)
Many couples cannot afford to bring up more than one child at a time and hence…… [Read More]
For instance, the Independent Commission on Assisted Dying recommends that doctors "be allowed to prescribe drugs to end the lives of terminally ill patients who have fewer than 12 months to live" (Beckford, n.p.) However, the commission according to Bedford further points out that such individuals must be "judged to have the mental capacity and clear desire to die." In such a case, physician-assisted suicide will be available to only a select few. ith the right mechanisms in place, fears over 'death on demand' or concerns regarding the 'commercialization of death' will be put to rest. In their own words, Kopelman and De Ville point out that "one very important factor affecting the potential for abuse of any practice is what safeguards are erected to guard against the abuses most feared and likely" (64). ith that in mind, the relevance of proper safeguards when it comes to physician-assisted suicide cannot…… [Read More]
James Bond's penis" author Toby Miller writes that after the 1960s: "masculinity is no longer the exclusive prominence of men, either as spectators, consumers or agents of power. And Bond was an unlikely harbinger of this trend" (Miller 233). Bond, rather than being a 'sexist dinosaur' and relic of the Cold War era (as he was once called by Judi Dench's M) actually an innovator in terms of the way he legitimized male sexuality on film. Miller sees Bond as questioning the male-centered gaze of desire presumed by the camera. It is Bond who leaves his women in a state of desire, never fully fulfilling their fantasies, even though he was viewed as exemplifying 'imperial decline' in the way he ruthlessly purses his self-interest in an amoral fashion as an agent in Her Majesty's Secret Service.
In the books, Bond is often shown burning with desire and having to put…… [Read More]
transference and transference love, as it is manifest in the psychoanalytic environment. Different therapists have recommended different methods of dealing with this love, which range from simple, knowing transference to idealized transference, and erotic transference. These range from exploring such issues verbally, to the use of surrogates for sex therapy, to sexual involvement with patients. Certain factions within the therapeutic community advocate some or none of these methodologies.
Answering his own question, "What are transferences?" he wrote: "A whole series of psychological experiences are revived, not as belonging to the past, but as belonging to the person of the physician at the present moment.... Psychoanalytic treatment does not create transferences, it merely brings them to light.... Transference, which seems ordained to be the greatest obstacle to psychoanalysis, becomes its most powerful ally if its presence can be detected each time and explained to the person" (1895:116-120). Freud went on to…… [Read More]
Shop on the Main Street
Continental European film producers were slow to focus on political and social injustices as the dominant themes after World War II. Heroism in America and Soviet World War II movies was not a significant theme, primarily because, with the exclusion of Switzerland and Sweden, other countries' dwellers either were part of the Nazi regime or collaborated with the rule. Therefore, the filmmakers, when making films, focused on the societies' immersion in the totalitarian ruling systems. Similar to other countries of Europe, excluding Switzerland and Sweden, all other countries in central Europe lived under Authoritarian and totalitarian regimes in the period between the Second World War. However, after the war, the continent split, and this influenced how the filmmakers made films. Germans, Slovaks, Czechs and Hungary embraced the Nazi regime, whereas Austria and three quarters of Germany embraced democracy. This is partly a contributing factor as…… [Read More]
Physician Assisted Suicide in Patients With Unbearable Suffering or the Terminally Ill
One of the most hotly debated issues today is physician-assisted suicide. ecently, California became the fifth state to legalize physician-assisted suicide, and there is an increasing likelihood that other states will follow suit in the foreseeable future. The purpose of this study is to determine if the factors chosen have any bearing on those who choose to end their life with physician assisted suicide. In support of this purpose, the objectives of this study were as follows: (a) to research scholarly articles regarding physician-assisted suicide and gather pertinent information into a comprehensive profile; (b) to research whether unbearable suffering is the dominant motive to request physician-assisted suicide; (c) to research whether the race and level of education of the patient are contributing factors when physician-assisted suicide is requested; and, (d) to research whether the type of terminal illness…… [Read More]
The heart-rending autobiographical, Antwone Fisher, portrays Fisher’s (who is the movie’s scriptwriter) obsession for a family life, and spells of extreme melancholy and loneliness. The character of Antwone Fisher, an African-American sailor, is portrayed as volatile and uncontrollable. This nature makes way for compulsory psychiatric sessions with Dr. Davenport, after Fisher has a violent spell, leaving a peer bearing the brunt of his temper. Initially, Fisher doesn’t cooperate and remains silent for several weeks; the two clash. According to naval rules, three therapeutic sessions are imperative, beginning from when the client starts speaking. However, ultimately, the real reasons underlying Fisher’s anger issues surface: childhood abuse and the constant fear of abandonment. (Skomormj, 2003). The conversation initiated between client and therapist sheds light on the heart of Fisher’s problems. The tale commences with an ordinary day in navy workers’ life but ends leaving spectators heartbroken. The client’s tale may be counterpointed…… [Read More]
The results of this effort needs to be shared electronically online to ensure everyone is kept informed about its progress.
With the data warehouse project entering the requirements definition phase, it's important to start setting the foundation for users across the network of retail stores to begin having ownership of the new system. Getting them interested in the new data warehouse, and to take ownership of it will require getting their inputs early on during the requirements definition phase.
I'd like to suggest the following steps be taken to ensure their needs are captured as part of the requirements definition phase:
1. Create an online, protected portal and have a series of questions and applications on it to give each store user a chance to contribute to not only the content of the new data warehouse, but its usability as well. Use this data as a means to create…… [Read More]
2. Challenging state legitimacy -- Transnational maras are a significant threat to the authority of legitimate governments. This is especially true in areas where the legitimate authorities are weak or plagued by corruption. It can result in the decreased ability of the government to maintain necessary functions, services, and goods to the public.
3. Acting as surrogate governments -- Transnational maras can completely supplant the legitimate authorities in some regions. In those situations, they establish their own local rules and extort taxes and protection money from the local population.
4. Dominating black market business -- Transnational maras can take over the economic sector by establishing their own businesses, in which case they compete unfairly with legitimate businesses by intimidating them and because they do not have to pay taxes or comply with any of the other restrictions and legal requirements that legitimate businesses must respect.
5. Infiltrating public sector and…… [Read More]
Human development and evolution across all cultures mean that there will be a gap between older generations, who tend to cling to outdated ideals and paradigms, and younger generations, who tend away from the traditional and towards new developments. While there are merits in both positions, subscribers to each respective position seldom see the value in the viewpoint of the other. Hence, the conflicts that arise are often difficult to manage and impossible to overcome.
Such conflict is clearly portrayed in Nash Candelaria's "El Patron," and also to a degree in Oscar Hijuelos's "Visitors, 1965. n the former, the traditional viewpoint is represented by Lola's father, Senor Martinez, while the more progressive viewpoint is represented by the other three major characters in the story; Lola, her brother Tito, and her husband, the narrator of the story. The difference in viewpoints can be seen on a variety of platforms, including…… [Read More]
Beatie did not accept biological determinism as the means by which to do gender. On the other hand, Beatie transcends gender altogether. By rejecting and then changing his genitalia and physique, Thomas Beatie passed through his life as a male and was legally and socially identified as such. He married a woman and most of the people he interacted with treated Beatie like they would any other man. When Beatie chose to become pregnant, he further stretched the boundaries between male and female. Beatie both subverts and ascribes to traditional gender roles and norms. Pregnancy is a female domain; had Beatie been born with male reproductive organs he would not have been able to experience childbirth. He and his wife would have been forced to adopt a child or choose a surrogate mother. Yet the fact that Beatie states, "I see myself as my own surrogate" shows that a male…… [Read More]
The actual court proceedings in a juvenile court consist of the arrest procedure, search and seizure, and custodial interrogation (Calderon 2006). The concept has been that the delinquent is a child rather than a criminal. Hence, rehabilitation rather than punishment is the court and the system's goal. ut the major aspects of the juvenile justice system continue to hound its supporters. One is the cause of serious juvenile crime. Another is that young offenders need to be rehabilitated under a surrogate entity of the parens patriae concept. Another is a recent redefinition of young violent offenders as adults and their transfer to adult courts and the criminal or adult justice system. There has been increasing belief that they pose a serious and genuine threat to the safety of other young people and the community as a whole. An increase in serious juvenile crimes warrants more severe punishment. ut moving them…… [Read More]
Interestingly, doggie day care has become so common in some areas, that it has become "socially unacceptable" for people to leave their dogs home alone all day ("Pet Statistics"). This is true in large urban centers such as New York City and Los Angeles, which has led to a proliferation of doggie day care centers in these areas. As more pet owners become involved in every aspect of their pets' lives, it seems clear that services such as doggie day care will continue to grow and thrive. However, just about any business concerning pets seems to be on the rise today, and getting involved in the pet industry seems to be a good investment for an entrepreneur in the future, because the industry is still growing, rather than leveling out. Many other business opportunities exist.
OTHE PET BusinessES
Doggy day care may be one of the fastest growing pet businesses…… [Read More]
Malone dies just as he finally does away with the alternate identities of his storytelling, such that he can be seen as 'becoming Malone' at the same moment of Malone's death, so that his death forces the reader to recall the beginning of the story and the Malone already in existence there, restarting the narrative loop.
In effect, Malone's storytelling creates an infinitely looping continuity that diminishes the finality of his death, because 'although the physical body will eventually die, we cannot be sure that consciousness discontinues,' and in fact, the novel seems to suggest that Malone's consciousness never ultimately discontinues, but rather briefly goes dark before being reactivated once again at the beginning of the novel (hite, 2009, 45). The tragedy, of course, is that Malone is entirely unequipped to deal with this kind of torturous immortality, so his mind is frayed and confused, with different characters and moments…… [Read More]
Half the Sky from a Feminist Perspective
In the last sixty years, women in estern countries and to a lesser extent the rest of the world have become outspoken about women's rights, demanding equal rights in political, economic, cultural, social, and domestic spheres. Their struggles and activism, generally known as feminist movements, helped to elevate the status of women in many countries. Yet, as Nicholas D. Kristoff and Sheryl udunn document in their book Half the Sky: Turning Oppression into Opportunity for omen orldwide, the struggle for gender equality is far from over. Kristoff and udunn demonstrate the deeply troubling picture of gender relations around the world where women and girls are systematically subjected to brutality, mistreatment, and discrimination. In their attempt to expose gender inequality in the world, Kristoff and udunn are largely successful, but their analysis is not well-grounded in feminist scholarship, which weakens their argumentation.
Kristoff and…… [Read More]
True Power: An Examination of Abrahamic Faith
There are several aspects of Abrahamic faith that are admirable and are worthy of commendation. Author Soren Kierkegaard details many of these notions in his manuscript Fear and Trembling, which is a fairly exhaustive analysis of Abraham's actions, hypothetical possibilities of courses of actions he could have taken, and interpretations of both. In fact, one of the principle characteristics of Abrahamic faith that render it so virtuous to the point of almost being ineffable is the incomprehensible nature of it -- particularly when compared to the zeitgeist in which Kierkegaard originally composed this text, as well as when it is compared to the thoughts and sentiments of the contemporary age we currently exist in now. However, when one considers that one of the defining traits of faith is the fact that it primarily is illogical, unreasonable, and in many cases inexplicable,…… [Read More]
The withdrawal was supposed to aid the Communists in controlling the areas vacated by the Japanese, who had succeeded in controlling vast portions of Manchuria.
Stalin's efforts were aimed at forcing "the GMD [Guomindang or Chinese Nationalist Party] to make economic concessions, to prevent a united China from allying with the United States, and to placate Washington on the international arena by giving in to American demands for withdrawal," but in actuality he not only laid the groundwork for the Communists' eventual victory, but also opened up a window for the possibility of a U.S.-Communist alliance that would have destabilized the Soviet Union's power; as will be seen, the United States failed to capitalize on this opportunity, but the fact remains that Stalin's withdrawal seems to have backfired.
Stalin's withdrawal was not directly aimed at ensuring a Communist victory, but rather was an attempt to destabilize the country so…… [Read More]
Veer Zaara is a story about the love that develops between an Indian man, Veer Pratap Singh, and a Pakistani woman, Zaara Hayaat Khan. The two destined-to-be lovers meet in India when Zaara comes there to submerge the ashes of her surrogate grandmother, a Sikh by birth and faith. Faced with religious and political barriers that have historically separated their two countries, both Veer and Zaara initially try and resist their mutual attraction. To complicate matters, Zaara's family has already pledged her in a matrimonial alliance, designed to achieve the union of two political parties in Pakistan. Ultimately, however, the power of love proves to be stronger than any commitment to family, religion, or nation. Zaara is unable to forget Veer's declaration of love even as she valiantly struggles to honor her parents' wishes. On seeing Zaara's misery, her close confidante, Shabbo, calls up Veer in India and tells…… [Read More]
He argues that if society were to allow the terminally ill to commit suicide, then it would be a small step to allow other members of society -- like the handicapped -- to do so as well. This is not a completely trivial argument for two reasons: first, it is the point-of-view held by the majority of the Christian right -- a powerful political force in the Untied States; and second, if we accept his principle that life is intrinsically valuable, regardless of individual's rights over their own bodies, then we should be inclined to believe that active euthanasia is always wrong. Yet, Otremba is willing to concede that passive euthanasia may, sometimes, be permissible; this, however, only under the conditions of extreme suffering and impending death.
Fundamentally, it is a precarious moral position to contend that each and every human life demands society's active preservation. Otremba, and many others,…… [Read More]
They however fail to see the strategic linkage in the U.S. foreign policy. Israel is the most trusted ally of United States in the region. It has the same strategic interest as the United States and has a firm foundation of democratic support.
The Arab governments on the other hand are unpopular, non-democratic and are in power due to the western interest in maintaining the status quo. Overthrow of the Shah of Iran, a most trusted ally of United States shows that the governments maintained in power by western support without the popular support could not be relied upon for maintaining U.S. strategic interests in the region.
Saddam Hussein of Iraq is another example of a government following pro-U.S. policy and then working against its strategic interests in the region. Dictator Saddam Hussein was a virtual proxy in the Iran-Iraq war (1980-1988) and protector of the pro-American dynastic regimes. His…… [Read More]
The corporation or seller could benefit by developing marketing strategies prior to consumer reviews being available online.
Seller Response to Novice and Expert Consumers
efore allowing consumers to post product reviews on a corporations or sellers website, the seller should consider the size of the segments of expert consumers and novice consumers. For example, the seller may benefit from selling certain products if a significant number of expert consumers exist, especially for technology driven products. On the other hand, the seller may damage sales if the expert consumers' segment overshadows that of the novice consumers.
Unknown or Less Popular Stores Online Seller Response
Relatively unknown corporations should be overly cautious when allowing consumers to post comments on their websites. If brand marketers fail to attract enough consumers to post reviews, the corporation may damage its reputation. these corporations might consider hiring a well-known, popular third-party source to handle consumer reviews.…… [Read More]
) the author's claim that the women are not heroes because they act in their own self-interests ignores the fact that cinematic narration is predicated around a central hero who invariably acts toward the fulfillments of their goals. When someone watches a Hollywood film, the protagonist is not deprived of hero status when they realize their dreams, so the women in Moolade should not be examined differently. Moreover, the author contradicts herself by first stating that the women act in their individual best interests and then that they work collectively to improve the plight of future generations. To be sure, the women do transition from conflict to cooperation (Colle and Amasatou clash most strongly); however, their initial dissention does not represent legitimate grounds for denigration. It is also confusing that she reads the radios as an embodiment of male power ("a symbol of technology the men have") when the film…… [Read More]
Supertoys Last All Summer Long Analysis
Perceptions of Reality in "Super-Toys Last All Summer Long"
"Super-Toys Last All Summer Long" is a short science fiction story by Brian Aldriss in which machines have been created to make life for humans easier. In the story, David finds it difficult to connect to his mother, Monica Swinton, and cannot bring himself to tell her that he loves her. While Monica appears distraught at her inability to connect to David, it is ultimately revealed that David was never meant to be a permanent addition to the Swinton family, despite the relationship that has been formed. In the story, the issue of what is real and what is not becomes a central focus as humanity attempts to create machines that are as human as possible, without being human. Teddy's, one of David's toys, assertion, "No one knows what 'real' really means," demonstrates how technology…… [Read More]
In any case, patients can set out defined clause in the Power of Attorney telling operators how they might like them to act with respect to deathbed issues (Edge & Krieger, 2008).
Living wills and other development directives depict a patient's inclination with respect to medicine if the patient is confronted with a genuine mishap or disease. These authoritative reports represent the patient when he/she is not ready to represent himself/herself. Unforeseen end-of-life scenarios can happen at any age, so it is imperative for all grown-ups to have progress directives. Durable power of attorney for health care (POA) is an authoritative record that designates a single person to settle on restorative choices for a patient in case he/she is unable to do so (Kerridge, Lowe & Stewart, 2013).
A patient's advance directives incorporate the living will and durable power of attorney for health care. They may be the…… [Read More]
The Royal Tenenbaums is a 2001 film directed by Wes Anderson that explores the factors that drove the Tenenbaum family apart and the factors that lead to a reconciliation between the family members. As The Royal Tenenbaums centers on the issues of the Tenenbaum family, it is important to understand the relationship that each member has with each other and how their individual personalities affect their relationships. In The Royal Tenenbaums, these characters, the film's structure, and various turning points contribute to the film's narrative construction and development.
The Royal Tenenbaums revolves around the Tenenbaum family. At the head of the family is Royal Tenenbaum.[footnoteRef:1] Royal is a former attorney whose disbarment was influenced by his son Chas. Throughout much of the film, Royal demonstrates that he has been less than an ideal father and husband. For instance, not only did Royal steal bonds from Chas's safety deposit…… [Read More]
in "Piaf," Pam Gems provides a view into the life of the great French singer and arguably the greatest singer of her generation -- Edith Piaf. (Fildier and Primack, 1981), the slices that the playwright provides, more than adequately trace her life. Edith was born a waif on the streets of Paris (literally under a lamp-post). Abandoned by her parents -- a drunken street singer for a mother and a circus acrobat father -- Edith learns to fend for herself from the very beginning. As a natural consequence of her surroundings, she makes the acquaintance of several ne'er do wells. She rises above the lifestyles of the girls she grows up with who prostitute themselves for a living in the hope that they will eventually meet a benefactor with whom they can settle. Edith has a talent for singing and she indulges this interest by singing loudly in the streets.…… [Read More]
Theory -- Approach Linkage
Human trafficking in Vietnam: Article critique
Although no region of the world is immune to the problem of human trafficking, in certain areas the crime is particularly acute. In Asia, the ratio of trafficked persons relative to the rest of the population is even higher than it is worldwide, with 3 victims per every 1,000 inhabitants, and that is only of the persons who are known to be trafficked (uong 2012: 48). There are also a likely very high percentage of trafficked persons who are not detected by any legal agencies at all. "The exact number of victims of human trafficking, therefore, is likely to be much higher" (uong 2012: 49). The majority are likely thought to be women, specifically women in the sex trade. With this in mind, uong (2012) offers a gender-based analysis of trafficking, with a focus upon Vietnam. Vietnam is often called…… [Read More]
products or service of your chosen organization, and two (2) key factors in the organization's external environment that can affect its success. Provide explanation to support the rationale.
De Beers is the world's famous diamond company, established in 1888, with proficiency in exploration, mining and marketing of diamonds. More than 20,000 employees make contribution to the communities in which we work. De Beers carries out profitable business which helps the government reach their aims of turning natural resources into natural wealth and is working to provide good long-term development for Africa. Anglo American and the Government of the epublic of Botswana are the two shareholders of De Beers, 85% and 15% respectively. This company is made up of fully owned partnerships, investments and subsidiaries. It is involved in most of the diamond chain value such as exploration in four continents, mining in Namibia, Canada, South Africa and Botswana; valuation, arrangement,…… [Read More]
Ethics and Morality: The ight to Live and Die
The Ethics of Human Cloning
The topic of human cloning came into the limelight in 1996, when Dolly the lamb was cloned by embryologist Ian Wilmut of oslin Institute, Scotland. The American Medical Association (AMA) defines cloning as the "production of genetically-identical organisms via somatic cell nuclear transfer" (Fornsworth, 2001). Essentially, it is the production of a baby with the same genes as its monozygotic parent, and which basically involves inserting the parent's DNA into a nucleated egg and then chemically stimulating the egg to undergo cell division and become an embryo that is a complete genetic copy of its parent / DNA donor (Fornsworth, 2001).
Despite its inherent benefits, which include helping sterile couples get an offspring complete with either the father's or the mother's genetic make-up, and creating humans who can readily be organ donors for each other; cloning…… [Read More]
Gen was 25 when she became pregnant, and it was her first pregnancy. She was in a committed relationship but not married, and felt a jumble of emotions including fear. Gen knew that she would want children one day, and longed for the "boundless happiness" that she believed would accompany parenthood (edrappa, 2015). At the same time, Gen was still in graduate school. Her debts were piling up and she and her boyfriend occasionally argued about finances. At first, Gen refrained from telling ob the news. She was worried that the pregnancy would create conflict in their relationship, and then Gen realized that it was only a matter of time before she had to tell him. She was utterly unwilling to have an abortion, partly because she knew that eventually she did want to be a mother but also because she felt the "spark of life," as she put it,…… [Read More]