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L. Bean and Lands' End, Victoria's Secret, Christie's and Sotheby's, as well as used books." (Duneier, 1991, p.30)
According to the first chapter of Sociology: the Core by Michael Hughes and Carolyn J. Kroehler, symbolic interactionists like Duneier contend that society is possible because human beings have the ability to communicate with one another by means of symbols. They say that we act toward people, objects, and events on the basis of the meanings we impart to them. Symbolically, the books confer more status on Hasan, while the magazines are less prestigious. The 'lowest' sellers are the men who sometimes panhandle and sell illegally 'lifted' items. And all of the vendors have those in their service, such as the table watchers, placeholders who save the vendor's spots overnight on the street, the movers who transport the books and the all important storage providers who can store the printed material in…
Duneier, Michael. Sidewalk. (1999) Farrar, Straus, Giroux.
Hughes, Michael & Carolyn J. Kroehler. (2001) Sociology: The Core. McGraw Hill.
Symbolic Interactions Perspective Media Analysis
Social inequality is different from economic inequality, though related to some extent. Economic inequality is typically caused by unequal accumulation of wealth, whereas social inequality has many different forms. Gender inequality, racial inequality, caste inequality, or age inequality are all types of social inequality that may exist in a society not merely due to differences in financial statuses of individuals. People from different social statuses often live in separate localities which may not be the case with people from different economic statuses. Classic example of such an issue is that of African-American class and the Jim Crow laws that were enacted in Northern United States between 1876 and 1965. The Jim Crow laws ordered racial segregation between the whites and blacks with many other laws like prohibition of intermarriages, separate public schools and many others. With United States' non-white president this issue seems…
Bertrand, Marianne, and Sendhil Mullianathan. (2004). Are Emily and Greg More Employable than Lakisha and Jamal. Http://scholar.harvard.edu . N.p., 20 June 2004. Web. 4 Aug. 2012.
Jim Crow Laws - Martin Luther King Jr. National Historic Site. (2012). " U.S. National Park Service - Experience Your America. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Aug. 2012.
Media Analysis - Symbolic Interactionist Perspective
The title of the program I will discuss in this document is All in the Family. This was a television situation comedy that aired throughout the 1970's. It presented an alternative to the typical family situation comedy in the fact that the father and patriarch of the house, Archie Bunker, was categorized as a bigot. Archie's bigotry extended to people of racial minorities, gays, and to a definite proclivity for male chauvinism. As such, the social theme that this document will address is women's liberation.
There are a number of scenes in All in the Family in which Archie's treatment of his wife, Edith, is chauvinistic and indicative of the sort of behavior that women's liberation was developed to end. On a number of different occasions Archie refers to Edith as a dingbat. He would do so for laughs, of course, yet the fact…
Archive of American Television. (2013). Jean Stapleton. www.emmytvlegends.org. Retrieved from http://www.emmytvlegends.org/interviews/people/jean-stapleton
Crowther, L. (2013). Jean Stapleton: no dingbat. www.legacy.com. Retrieved from http://www.legacy.com/news/legends-and-legacies/jean-stapleton-no-dingbat/1446/
Steinem, G. (1970). 'Women's liberation' aims too free men, too. The Washington Post. Retrieved from http://library.duke.edu/rubenstein/scriptorium/wlm/aims/
So that an adult who enjoys masturbating while watching a video of two other adults having sex and sees this activity as an acceptable and in fact healthy and joyous celebration of her or his sexuality will in most cases be horrified to see a video in which a child is being forced to have sex or anyone is being raped (Lauer & Lauer, 2007, p. 44).
Because an individual's reactions to pornography are directly and fundamentally related to that person's understanding of the meaning of sexuality, the symbolic interactionist approach seems to be the best fit of all of the major sociological perspectives. One of the additional strengths of this perspective is that it easily accommodates a range of different understanding of any phenomenon. It can explain why one individual sees pornography as one entirely acceptable aspect of sexuality while it can just as easily explain why others see…
Lauer, R. & Lauer, J. (2007). Social problems and the quality of life (11th ed.) New York: McGraw-Hill.
Symbolic interactionism is the theory suggesting human beings are best understood in "interactive relation to their environment," (University of Twente, 2014). The three core principles of symbolic interactionism including meaning, language, and thought. Meaning refers to the fact that people ascribe meaning to their relationships, institutions, and other social structures. This meaning is what guides human emotion and cognition. Language is the symbolic type of human communication. Like meaning, language also impacts human emotional and cognitive states. Thus, the third component of symbolic interactionism is thought. How a person perceives, judges, and interacts with the world is covered by symbolic interactionism. Symbolic interactionism also suggests that the self is a mirror for others, and vice-versa in what is known as the "looking glass self," ("The Symbolic Interactionist Perspective," n.d.). Symbolic interactionism is an ideal sociological lens through which to understand how social media has transformed the nature of human…
Fernback, J. (2007). Beyond the diluted community concept. New Media and Society 9(1), 49-69.
Satell, G. (2014). If you doubt that social media has changed the world, take a look at Ukraine. Forbes. Retrieved online: http://www.forbes.com/sites/gregsatell/2014/01/18/if-you-doubt-that-social-media-has-changed-the-world-take-a-look-at-ukraine/
"The Symbolic Interactionist Perspective," (n.d.). Retrieved online: https://www.boundless.com/sociology/textbooks/boundless-sociology-textbook/sociology-1/the-theoretical-perspectives-in-sociology-24/the-symbolic-interactionist-perspective-157-3185/
University of Twente (2014). Symbolic interactionism.
theoretical paradigms: symbolic interaction approach, structural-function approach ( identifying manifest function, latent functions, social latent dysfunction) social-conflict approach analyzing euthanasia.
There is presently much controversy regarding the topic of euthanasia as even though the process gathered many supporters, most of the general public continues to criticize it. It is difficult to determine the exact effect that euthanasia has on the patient, given that some might be unable to fully comprehend everything related to the medical procedure when they are the ones responsible for ordering it. Although some communities are likely to accept euthanasia as being moral, others are very probable to condemn it and relate to it as something that is particularly wrong. There are a series of factors influencing people's perspectives in regard to euthanasia, ranging from the cultural standards that they were accustomed with and until their social status. Examining euthanasia by using theoretical paradigms makes it…
Hammersley, Martyn. The Dilemma of Qualitative Method: Herbert Blumer and the Chicago Tradition (London: Routledge, 1990)
Tucker, Robert C. Philosophy and Myth in Karl Marx (Cambridge, England: University Press, 1961)
Merton, Robert K. Broom, Leonard and Cottrell, Leonard S. eds., Sociology Today; Problems and Prospects (New York: Basic Books, 1959)
Rules America?' By G. illiam Domhoff
Does the book primarily rely on a structural, symbolic interactionist or conflict theoretical perspective to understand and explain the behavior or event it is studying.
Discuss what your book has to say about social inequality, whether social economic, gender, race, ethnicity or age.
If your book describes a social problem or an undesirable condition in society, discuss the a) discrepancy between the actual and the ideal, b) intended and unintended consequences, and c) "moral crusader."
Domhoff, G. illiam. ho Rules America? Power and Politics in the Year 2000.
illiam Domhoff's ho Rules America is an insightful look into the sociology of modern America. ritten from a conflict and structural functionalist perspective, the book largely feels that individual choices are determined by society. Dumhoff suggests that the root of most social inequalities comes from the existence of a power elite that control social and economic…
Domhoff, G. William. Who Rules America? Mayfield Pub. Co., 2000.
To wit, power is a huge influence in any social interaction, and in a study reported by the University of California Press (est, 2008, p. 87), men often interrupt women during conversations because men are generally viewed as the power in any male-female interaction. "Physicians interrupt patients disproportionately" in doctor-patient interactions, est writes, "except when the doctor is a 'lady'; then, "patients interrupt as much or more than physicians, and their interruptions seem to subvert physicians' authority" (est, p. 87). In other words, the stratification of male doctors having the power to interrupt is reversed when a woman is the doctor.
Blumer, Herbert. (1986). Symbolic Interactionism: Perspective and Method. Berkeley:
Breen, Catherine M., Abernethy, Amy P., Abbott, Katherine H., and Tulsky, James a. (2007).
Conflict Associated with Decisions to Limit Life-Sustaining Treatment in Intensive Care
Units. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 16(5), 283-289.
Donovan, Jenny L., and Blake,…
Blumer, Herbert. (1986). Symbolic Interactionism: Perspective and Method. Berkeley:
Breen, Catherine M., Abernethy, Amy P., Abbott, Katherine H., and Tulsky, James a. (2007).
Conflict Associated with Decisions to Limit Life-Sustaining Treatment in Intensive Care
Units. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 16(5), 283-289.
Town in Turmoil
A Town in Conflict
Every story can be told a number of different ways. Each person in a given narrative understands what went on from a particular perspective. Sometimes, if that person is especially perspicacious and especially curious, then she or he can see a particular event from the perspective or one or two other people. But the individual's perspective is always limited, and this is a good thing. If we cannot see the world from our own point-of-view then we have no hope of understanding our own virtues and vices, our own sense of cause and effect.
But it is also true that there is an important place in the world for understanding an event from a larger perspective. This is the role (or, at least, one of the roles) that scholarship plays in our lives. Scholarship provides that larger lens, that broader focus on the…
A town in turmoil. (2007). http://www.democraticunderground.com/discuss/duboard.php?az=view_all&address=389x1811248 .
Holmwood, J. (2005) Functionalism and its Critics in A. Harrington, A., (Ed.) Modern social theory: An introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Macionis, J.J. (2011). Society. (7th ed.). Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall.
South Park and Communication Theory: Symbolic Interactionism
In the first episode (“Stunning and Brave”) of the 19th season of South Park, a new principal has come to the town of South Park named PC Principal. PC Principal’s primary objective is to clean up the town of its bigotry, sexism and hateful speech. Halfway through the episode, other PC characters show up in a bar where the tired residents of South Park are attempting to relax away from all the stress of having to be PC all the time. PC Principal realizes there are others like him and they decide to “hang out” and start a PC frat house. The scene in the bar in which the PC characters come to meet one another is full of gestures and words that can be analyzed using the theory of Symbolic Interactionism.
The scene contains relevance as PC culture and social justice…
Parental Rights and Children's Welfare
Sociological Analysis on Parental Rights vs. Children's Welfare: Structural-Functionalist, Conflict, and Symbolic Interactionist Perspectives
Studying the structure and dynamics of society entails not only analyzing the elements that comprise it, but also the general or 'bigger picture' of what society is -- that is, analysis of social structure and dynamics must be at the macro and micro levels. Indeed, sociological phenomena are analyzed and studied by social scientists using various theoretical perspectives formulated in order to provide researchers, as well as their audience, a look into the various interpretations that people give to explain specific events or realities experienced by the society and the individual. In the field of sociology, among these theoretical perspectives are the structural-functionalist, conflict, and symbolic interactionist traditions.
A particular example illustrating the discussion above is the analysis of parental rights and children's welfare, considered as an essential sociological phenomenon affecting…
Stigma and Disability
The self-sufficiency of any person or group largely depends on the capacity to maintain a certain level of financial stability. As a group, people with disabilities are among those with the highest poverty rates and lowest educational levels despite typically having some of the highest out-of-pocket expenses of all other groups. Educational level is strongly related to financial status and independence in most of the studies performed on these variables. Despite regulations to attempt to provide an equal and fair education to students identified as having disabilities, the research indicates that the majority of these individuals do not reach the educational levels and financial status of their non-disabled peers. The limitations of a failed system of assistance for these individuals that creates a double-edged sword in the form of stigmatizing these students has resulted in it being next to impossible for this group to obtain even an…
Artiles, A., Kozleski, E., Trent, S., Osher, D., & Ortiz, A. (2010). Justifying and explaining disproportionality, 1968-2008: A critique of underlying views of culture. Exceptional Children, 76, 279-299
Bjelland, M.J., Burkhauser, R.V., von Schrader, S., & Houtenville, A.J. (2011). 2010 progress report on the economic well-being of working-age people with disabilities. Retrieved on July 10, 2012 from http://digitalcommons.ilr.cornell.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1284&context=edicolle ct&seiredir=1&referer=http%3A%2F%2Fscholar.google.com%2Fscholar%3Fhl%3Den %26q%3Ddisabilities%2Band%2Bpoverty%26as_sdt%3D0%252C23%26as_ylo%3D20 10%26as_vis%3D1#search=%22disabilities%20poverty%22.
Brown v. Board of Education, 347 U.S. 483 (1954)"
Burkhauser, R.V. & Houtenville, A.J. (2006). A guide to disability statistics from the current population survey - annual social and economic supplement (March CPS). In Rehabilitation research and training center on disability demographics and statistics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY. Retrieved on July 10, 2012 from http://digitalcommons.ilr.cornell.edu/edicollect/1233/
Restructuring within a large organization, or any organization, can be a very sensitive and often ambiguous process. One of the most important and vital aspects of restructuring is communication and how information throughout the entire process is relayed. It is also important for management or Human Resources to address all of the components pertaining to the restructuring and how it is going to affect all of the employees. Some of these components to be addressed may include a timeline of the restructuring; who it is going to effect and to what degree; are there going to be layoffs or demotions involved; changes in job descriptions; changes in higher management and direct reports; changes in benefits. If the basic aspects regarding the restructuring are not properly and accurately communicated, a sense of mistrust and disloyalty may develop.
In order to maintain this trust and loyalty to an organization, restructuring should be…
As a manager of change, I would take the time and extra caution in developing a proper strategy to inform my fellow colleagues of the restructuring and changes to come. I would evaluate the time-sensitivity of the information and how quickly it is expected to not only inform other employees but to also implement the changes, the size of the company and the number of people whom need to be informed. Based on that information, I would develop a strategy to both inform the employees and implement the strategies with the best source of media and highest level of richness possible. For example, if face-to-face communication was achievable due to several varying circumstances I would look at the next richest level, a telephone or conference call, and so on until an appropriate option was found.
Daft, R.L., Lengel, R.H., & Trevino, L.K. (1987). Message equivocality, media selection, and manager performance: Implications for information systems. MIS Quarterly, 11(3), 355-366. Retrieved March 23, 2011, from the JSTOR database
Daft, R.L., Lenger, R.H., & Trevino, L.K. (1987). Media Symbolism, Media Richness, and Media Choice in Organizations: A Symbolic Interactionist Perspective . Communication Research, 14, 553-574. Retrieved March 23, 2011, from http://crx.sagepub.com/content/14/5/553.full.pdf+html
"The sociocultural perspective suggests that human behavior is influenced by social context, environmental cues, social pressures, and cultural influences." (Major Perspectives in Psychology) Things that happen in our life, the environment we grow up in, the type of people we live around, and the ideas and beliefs we grow up with all shape and influence our ideals and how we think and behave. For example, living in America is different than living in China or Africa, which involve different cultures and beliefs. eing raised in poor, working class, or wealthy families affects the way we learn to live. The religious beliefs we grow up with shape what we believe is right or wrong. Whether we grow up with strict parents or parents that are lazier faire, help shape the morals we learn.
Memory is the persistence to learning. Overtime, our memory encodes environmental information, stores it by retention,…
Major Perspectives in Psychology. n.d. Web. 8 May 2012.
Social Learning & Social Cognitive Perspectives on Personality. 23 Dec 2003. Web. 9 May 2012.
Social-Cultural perspective. n.d. Web. 8 May 2012.
There were several theories that I found interesting as a part of the course, yet the theory that I connected with most personally was Symbolic Interaction. This theory was established first by George Herbert Mead, who coined the phrase "symbolic interactionism" first. The theory has been present in the field of sociology for several decades, and after the death of Mead, other sociologists took on the theory in their own works, studies, and theories. This theory is one of my favorites for a few reasons, one of which is because I believe I have seen it at work in my own life and in the interactions of others in their lives.
I also agree with the validity of this theory because I feel that it coincides with other theories in other fields, such as psychology. There are psychologists, such as Freudian psychologists and Lacanian psychologists that have…
Sage Publishing. (nd). Chapter 16: Symbolic Interactionist Theories of Identity. Web, Available from: http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/50436_ch_16.pdf . 2013 July 08.
Shott, S. (1979). Emotion and Social Life: A Symbolic Interactionist Analysis. The American Journal of Sociology, 84(6), 1317 -- 1334. 2013 July 08.
Smith, Ronald W. And Bugni, Valerie, "Symbolic interaction theory and architecture" (2006). Faculty Publications (S). Paper 5. Available from: http://digitalscholarship.unlv.edu/sociology_pubs/5 . 2013 July 08.
Manning (1993) undertook one of the early researches on the question of whether cohabitating and non-cohabitating single women have equal tendencies towards marriage prior to childbirth. In addition, Manning also looks for differences between black and white women, as well as socioeconomic status. Her research finds that for Caucasian women in their twenties, those who cohabitate with their mates are more likely to get married prior to childbirth. This statistical relationship was not observed among African-American women in the same age group.
This research therefore suggests that cohabitation carries different meanings for the two groups, an issue which may be of interest to symbolic interactionists. For African-Americans, cohabitation and childrearing were deemed more acceptable. In contrast, Caucasian women were more likely to consider cohabitation a stage in the marriage process.
esearch is still being conducted regarding the effects of cohabitation unions on children, especially since statistics show that at least…
Amato, P., D. Johnson, a. Booth, S. Rogers. 2003. "Continuity and change in marital quality between 1980 and 2000." Journal of Marriage and Family. Vol.65, Iss. 1
Bumpass, LL and H. Lu. 1999. Trends in cohabitation and implications for children's family contexts in the U.S. CDE Work Paper No. 98-15. Center for Demography Ecology, University of Wisconsin-Madison.
Caspar, LM and PN Cohen. 2000. "How does POSSLQ measure up? Historical estimates of cohabitation." Demography. 2000.
Eggebeen, D. 2005. "Cohabitation and Exchanges of Support." Social Forces. Vol.83, Iss. 3
sociological perspectives (e.g., social functionalism, social conflict, and symbolic interaction) be used to conceptually understand the family?
What fundamental changes to the family have been made over the last 40 years?
What is the "family"? Use the 3 sociological perspectives to explain.
Social functionalism views institutions like the family as necessary to preserve society. This perspective views the integrative components that make up society as greater than the sum of their individual parts and holds the family to be one of the fundamental building blocks that provide stability and coherence to people's lives. Preserving the family as a social institution is thus vital to reduce crime and to improve society as a whole. "Through kinship networks, people cooperate so that they can acquire the basic necessities of life, including food and shelter. Kinship systems can also serve as a means by which property is transferred, goods are produced and distributed,…
Kendall, D. (2015). Sociology in our times. (10th ed). Cengage.
Sociology -- Theoretical Paradigms
The Structural-Functionality of the Poor and Poverty
In the study of sociology, three classical paradigms dominate the process of sociological analysis: structural-functionalist, conflict, and symbolic interactionist theories. The structural-functionalist paradigm posits that individuals and groups in the society play specific roles in society that creates equilibrium to society's dysfunctions. The conflict theory, meanwhile, states that there exists, inevitably, oppression in the society, which results to a struggle by the oppressed group and social revolution that shall create reforms or changes in the society. Lastly, symbolic interactionism theorizes that symbols are the basis of life, and it is through interaction of these symbols that people reach an understanding of what s/he is and how society perceives him/her.
Given this set of paradigms in the study of sociology, this paper utilizes the structural-functionalist paradigm to discuss and analyze the role that the poor and poverty play in societies…
Gans, H. (1971). "The uses of poverty: the poor pay all." Available at: http://www.soc.duke.edu/~jcook/gans.html.
Lambert, B. "Free care for the poor varies widely in Nassau." The New York Times. Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2004/10/26/nyregion/26charity.html .
Maharaj, D. "When the push for survival is a full-time job." Los Angeles Times. Available at: http://www.latimes.com/news/specials/world/la-fg-work11jul11,0,7153984.story .
Zoroya, G. "Rise of drug trade threat to Afghanistan's security." USA Today. Available at: http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/2004-10-26-opium-afghanistan_x.htm .
In this example, it becomes evident that Anderson's underlying theory in conducting his analysis is the labeling theory. A product of the symbolic interactionist paradigm, labeling theory posits that "a response to an act and not the behavior that determines deviance...(it) is the recognition that some people or groups have the power to define labels and apply them to others" (Schaefer, 1998:165). From this definition, Anderson's categorization of street people corresponds to the people's behavior and actions as they live a life of poverty. For the "criminal elements" of the society, deviance is a form of legitimacy for them to conduct more deviant acts, and thus, the continuous conduct of deviant actions reinforces the label "criminal element(s)." Similarly, there exist labels that determine people who lead double identities of being able to assimilate to both the normative and deviant groups. y resorting to "decent ways" of living, Anderson considers some…
Anderson, E. (1999). Code of the Street: Decency, violence, and the moral life of inner city. NY W.W. Norton.
Schaefer, R. (1998). Sociology: a brief introduction. NY: McGraw-Hill Co.
There are four different levels of sociological analysis, including meso. The micro level focuses on "the social dynamics of intimate, face-to-face interactions" (Little et al., p. 4), the macro level focuses on "large-scale, society-wide social interactions" (Little et al., 4) and the global level is higher still, looking at more universal sociological themes. The same event can be viewed through these different lenses, because many sociological interactions will occur at both micro and macro levels, and there are often global elements to such interactions as well.
For instance, the book discusses the 2011 Stanley Cup riots in Vancouver. On an individual level, the event can be studied in terms of what drove any individual person to join the riot, in particular what factors might contribute to somebody who would not normally break the law to join the riot. A more macro-level analysis might wish to examine what in the…
Little, W., McGiven, R., Keirns, N., Strayer, E., Griffiths, H., Cody, S., Scaramuzzo, G., Vyain, S. (2013). Introduction to Sociology, 1st Canadian Edition. In possession of the author.
Which is more important in shaping individual identity: social structure or social interaction?
George Herbert Mead's fundamental work had been classified as symbolic interactionism. This was done by Herbert Blumer, who took control of Mead's well-known social psychology program following Mead's demise and also who had been a prolonged supporter of symbolic interactionism for over five decades. I don't know if Mead might have accepted this tag, however more to the point, symbolic interactionism, since it has changed during the last 60 years, has seemed to pay attention to the characteristics of self a lot more than possibly symbols or even interaction-as Blumer had recommended. Individual's behaviors in conversation with other people within social settings tend to be controlled by their perception involved with themselves. Self works as a type of gyroscope to keep behaviors steady as well as in line; moreover, as has progressively been stressed in symbolic…
Back, L., Woodward, I., Jacobs, R., Inglis, D., Gibson, M., Edles, L.D. & Bennett, A. (2012). Cultural sociology: an introduction, Hoboken, Wiley.
Macionis, J.J. And Plummer, K. (2012) Sociology: A Global Introduction, 5th Edition, Pearson Education Limited England;
Mead, G.H. (1934). Mind, Self, and Society. Chicago: Univ. Of Chicago Press as cited in Burke, P.J. And Stets, J.E. (2009). Identity Theory, New York: Oxford University Press.
Nagel, J. (1995). American Indian ethnic renewal: Politics and the resurgence of identity. American Sociological Review, 60, 947-965.
This construction gave credence to the concept of class consciousness. Class consciousness is really class identity; it is the way entire groups of people conceive themselves as belonging to a whole. This understanding permeates the corpus and unites the initiated into a common group think. This group or class view is reinforced through the economic determinants that are at the foundation of the group's position. These determinants reinforce inequalities and class identities.
The challenge to class as a locus of identity formation; results from the assertion that contemporary society is too layered and complex for class identity to be relevant. The discussion centers not on the existence of inequalities but the explanation of those inequalities. In the postmodern context the inequalities that exist are not anchored in an a priori formulation of class structure. This formulation considers the development of a classless society. This is not to be interpreted as…
Becker H.S. (2003).The Politics of Presentation: Goffman and Total Institutions Symbolic
Interaction, 26 (4):659-669.
Bottero, W. (2004). Class Identities and the Identity of Class. Sociology 38 (5): 985-1003.
Burnhill, P., Garner, C., McPherson, a. (1990). Parental Education, Social Class and Entry to Higher Education 1976-86. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series a (Statistics
The techniques spin a tale of heroism, medical magic to overcome the adversity of death..." (5).
Indeed, the author intends his readers to understand that what results from the belief of the myth of CPR is the continuing norm of tolerating people's belief that CPR can save lives and the last hours of the patient on earth are spent with the hospital staff rather than his/her family and/or relatives. hat happens is that death is "celebrated" impersonally. The process of commemorating death in a meaningful manner is replaced by the hope that CPR and other medical procedures can prevent sudden deaths. As explicated in "Sudden death," CPR is "an example of an excessively technology-driven medicine...advanced medical technology has corrupted the dying experience, making it somehow less 'natural'" (7). Apart from the absence of the meaningful celebration of death, the pressure to rely on the 'power' of CPR to revive a…
Timmermans, S. (1999). Sudden death and the myth of CPR. Temple University Press.
In this context the argument is made from a moral and religious point-of-view that the unborn child is alive and that abortion is tantamount to murder. As Bohan (1999) states in the House of Atreus: Abortion as a Human ights Issue, "No society that truly believes in human rights can fail to recognize the right to life of the unborn. Human rights are, by definition, rights, which inhere in one simply by virtue of being a human "(Bohan, 1999, p. 64).
From the religious perspective the main argument against abortion revolves around the view of the religious and spiritual value of human life. In Christianity this refers to the Commandant, "Thou shall not Kill." The sanctity of life applies as well to the unborn child and in many religions life begins at the moment of conception. Form this normative perspective the murder of a human being is seen to be…
Abortion is every woman's right. Retrieved March 16, 2009 at http://www.socialistworker.org/2004-1/496/496_06_Abortion.shtml
Abortion Laws Worldwide. Retrieved March 16, 2009 at http://www.womenonwaves.org/set-1020.245-en.html
Baer, J.A. (Ed.). (2002). Historical and Multicultural Encyclopedia of Women's Reproductive Rights in the United States. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Bohan, J.F. (1999). The House of Atreus: Abortion as a Human Rights Issue. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
Later that night as the couple is preparing to go to bed, they rehash the events of the dinner, and we can see that they have grown apart. Barbara comments on Oliver's phony laugh, and Oliver defends his laugh and his behavior in interrupting Barbara's Baccarat story, by explaining that he has his eyes on the prize of becoming law partner, and if that means he has to force a laugh on occasion, then he is willing to do that for his family. Even at this point in the movie, however, the Roses do not recognize that they are in trouble as a couple and as a family. It is also clear that the love is fading, at the beginning or early days of their marriage, Barbara would never have criticized Oliver, but would have acquiesced without comment. It is perhaps that acquiescence that is at the root of their…
Bus, David and Malamuth, Neil (1996). Sex, Power, Conflict: Evolutionary and Feminist
Perspectives, Oxford University Press, New York, NY. Print.
DeVito, Danny (1989). War of the Roses, Motion Picture Film, Gracie Films, USA,
In fact, the cohabitation option serves a valuable function for many couples, especially where living together allows them to discover possible problem areas in their relationship that would have made marriage a bad idea. If anything, that is preferable to the traditional situation where couples really only begin learning about one another after making the lifelong commitment to a marriage. Finally, Congressman McDonald's point about childbirth out of wedlock ignores the tremendous advantages to children born in stable marriages and suggests that high rates of unwanted pregnancies among unmarried couples somehow negates the benefits of planned pregnancies within marriage.
The Functionalist Perspective Applied to Marriage:
In some respects, there are valid criticisms that justify reevaluating certain aspects of modern marriage, including the unfairness of child custody decisions that favor mothers and financial settlements that obligate married partners who supported the marriage financially to share more of what they earned than…
From a functionalist perspective, colleges are crucial parts or systems in the society because it promotes and makes possible education for the society. However, from a conflict theory standpoint, colleges can be considered structures or systems through which only those with access to education continue to perpetuate the 'oppression' of the "have-nots" -- people who cannot afford a college education. Symbolic interactionism, meanwhile, looks at colleges as an important tradition and process in the American society, wherein people are expected to be educated and go through the process of entering and having a college education, towards the goal of becoming a productive and/or learned member of the society. Primarily, symbolic interactionism focuses on the tradition of continuing education, and education as a critical part of every person's being and identity in his/her society.
enzetti, C. And D. Curran. (2000). Living Sociology. MA: Allyn and…
Renzetti, C. And D. Curran. (2000). Living Sociology. MA: Allyn and Bacon.
In his concluding questions, Chambliss notes these reactions, questioning how the meanings that were assigned to both groups by the townspeople, school officials, and police affected their futures. For this reason, Symbolic Interaction theory can be applied to the case of the Saints and the Roughnecks. In assigning values to both groups, members outside of these groups most likely impacted the groups' futures, according to Chambliss.
The decisions of the Saints and the Roughnecks to engage in delinquent behavior can also be explained in part by Symbolic Interaction Theory. In her book Violent Criminal Acts and Actors Revisited, author Lonnie Athens describes a situation in which a troubled, young man is riding in a taxi, listening to the taxi driver describe how much trouble has come his way. The young man begins to consider his own troubles, which he believes are worse than the driver's, and threatens the driver with…
Athens, Lonnie. Violent Criminal Acts and Actors Revisited. Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1997.
Chambliss, William J. "The Roughnecks and the Saints." Society. (1973): 24-31.
Zafirovski, Milan. "Some Amendments to Social Exchange Theory: A Sociological
Perspective." Theory and Science, 4.2 (2003): (n.p.).
Counseling Master Questionnaire
A counseling session with an individual may qualify research as, putting together of information and understandings, followed by determination of validity of the conclusions and activities central on the shared knowledge (McLeod, 2003 p.4). A working definition of research is; an organized course of decisive investigation resulting to legitimate suggestions and conclusions, which are conveyed to other interested people. Based on this definition, there are several concepts that need evaluation. Critical inquiry is the drive whereby human beings are curious to know, learn and offer solutions to problems. As a process, research includes steps or stages, which further relies on observation, reflection and experimentation.
In the case of systematic, this means that research takes place within a theoretical system, and research includes application of principles aiming at achieving valid information. esults of research are propositions meaning that, after a research, there is a…
McLeod. J. (2003). Doing counseling research (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Crotty, M. (2005). The foundations of social research: Meaning and perspectives in the research process. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Houser. R. (2009). Counseling and educational research: Evaluation and application. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Sociology and Feminist Theories on Gender Studies
Postmodern Feminism in "Cherrie Moraga and Chicana Lesbianism"
In the article entitled, "Cherrie Moraga and Chicana Lesbianism," author Tomas Almaguer analyzes and studies the dynamics behind Moraga's feminist reading of the Chicano culture and society that she originated from. In the article, Almaguer focuses on three elements that influenced Moraga's social reality as she was growing up: the powerful effect of the Chicano culture, patriarchal orientation, and homosexuality that she experienced within the context of her nationality.
Chicano culture centers on race as an indicator of one's cultural orientation, while patriarchy serves as the ideology that is prevalent in Moraga's social reality. Homosexuality, particularly, lesbianism, is Moraga's release from the somewhat repressing role that she perceives women receive in her culture. Thus, lesbianism becomes Moraga's alternative sexual orientation to a heterosexually conservative Chicano culture. Using the following factors concerning the cultural, social, and…
Charles Horton Cooley is a great sociologist who has contributed significantly to the field of sociology. He was born in Michigan State where he studied and work. He was a professor in the University of Michigan and lived near the university with his wife and three children. Looking glass self was one of his greatest works. The paper evaluates some of the sociologist major papers in the field of sociology and economics. The contributions to the conflicts theory and functionalism theory will also be evaluated in the paper. Charles Horton Cooley died in 1929 in the same state he was born of cancer.
Charles Horton Cooley born in 1864 was the forth born in a family of six siblings. His mother was Mary Elizabeth and his father was Thomas Cooley. The family lived in Ann Arbor in Michigan State. He attended the University of Michigan in 1887 where after graduating…
Ju, Biung-ghi. 2010. "Individual Powers and Social Consent: An Axiomatic Approach." Social Choice and Welfare 34(4):571-596
Landon, Charles E. 1960. "Technological Progress in Transportation on the Mississippi River System." The Journal of Business (Pre-1986) 33(1):43-43
Westley, Bruce. 1976. "Setting the Political Agenda what Makes it Change?" Journal of Communication (Pre-1986) 26(2):43
Crime and Deviance
Crimes and increasing criminal activities have become a major concern for the security enforcement agencies. They seek help from technology as well as social and psychological theories to prevent crimes and deal with them. The first priority of security agencies is to prevent crimes and the second priority is to control them by punishing the criminals so that they become an example for the society. This paper offers an insight to how the crime prevention activities can be implemented. This includes understanding few biological, psychological and sociological theories pertaining to crimes and criminology. Human being's generally and criminals specifically act under the influence of some physical, environmental, cultural and individual factors that will be discussed in this paper.
Theories of Crime and Deviance
Crimes as well as deviance are behaviors that show violation from the settled and accepted norms of a society. Crime is something that is…
Cohen, P 2011, Genetic basis for crime: A new look, viewed 26 November, 2013, Retrieved
Community Crime Prevention Guide, n. d., viewed 26 November, 2013, Retrieved from: http://www.criminaljusticereform.gov.bc.ca/en/what_you_can_do/crime_prevention/
Crime Control: A Short Note, n.d., viewed 26 November, 2013, Retrieved from: http://ncthakur.itgo.com/chand3c.htm
As such, Yunus' business model for Grameen Bank directly contradicts Social Darwinism, since the former is giving collateral free loans to individuals who are not fiscally fit -- and who are oftentimes exceedingly destitute -- and enabling them to get the financial means to survive.
Additionally, it is critical to examine the role that women play in both Social Darwinism and in Yunus' enterprise with Grameeen. Women are the bearers of children, and regardless of what Social Darwin advances about the fittest of a species, no species can survive without the means of replicating itself. For humans, of course, such a conception prioritizes women over men. Therefore, it is highly significant that the bulk of the individuals receiving loans form Grameen are women. From a Social Darwinism perspective this fact is extremely noteworthy, since women can produce a more direct effect on the livelihoods of their children.
Still, it is…
"PBS New Heroes Ep1 01 Kailash Satyarthi Child Slavery India." (2011). Youtube.
Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zmHyARnDxI0
"PBS New Heroes Ep2 03 Fabio Rosa Low Voltage Electricity Brazil." (2011). Youtube.
Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LfmFEBRmgLU
Tom Shulich ("ColtishHum")
A comparative study on the theme of fascination with and repulsion from Otherness in Song of Kali by Dan Simmons and in the City of Joy by Dominique Lapierre
In this chapter, I examine similarities and differences between The City of Joy by Dominique Lapierre (1985) and Song of Kali by Dan Simmons (1985) with regard to the themes of the Western journalistic observer of the Oriental Other, and the fascination-repulsion that inspires the Occidental spatial imaginary of Calcutta. By comparing and contrasting these two popular novels, both describing white men's journey into the space of the Other, the chapter seeks to achieve a two-fold objective: (a) to provide insight into the authors with respect to alterity (otherness), and (b) to examine the discursive practices of these novels in terms of contrasting spatial metaphors of Calcutta as "The City of Dreadful Night" or "The City of…
Barbiani, E. (2005). Kalighat, the home of goddess Kali: The place where Calcutta is imagined twice: A visual investigation into the dark metropolis. Sociological Research Online, 10 (1). Retrieved from http://www.socresonline.org.uk/10/1/barbiani.html
Barbiani, E. (2002). Kali e Calcutta: immagini della dea, immagini della metropoli. Urbino: University of Urbino.
Cameron, J. (1987). An Indian summer. New York, NY: Penguin Travel Library.
Douglas, M. (1966). Purity and danger: An analysis of concepts of pollution and taboo. New York, NY: Routledge & K. Paul.
Interpretive sociology does not agree with the thought that behavior is related to society as effect is related to cause since this entire idea is dysfunctional with that which composes social life in reality. Interpretive sociology holds that understanding of our fellow man should be the pursuit of each day as sense is made of their individual societal existence. Seeking to understand is the concept held in interpretive sociology instead of the seeking of an explanation. Therefore it is understood that "structural" or that of Marxism and Functionalism (i.e. The interpretive/interactionist/social action sociologies) as well as Weber's interactionism, ethnomethodology and the Structural arguments in sociology that a "science of society" is likely. Therefore, there exists an agreement even among the interpretive sociologies. The natural science argument is based on "cause and effect" principles. That claim that the behavior of humans is the effect of some cause in society or class…
Townsend, Peter (1970) the Concept of Poverty. Heinemann Weber, Max (1958) the Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.
Gilbert (1999) Social Research Update No. 27 University of Surrey Department of Sociology
Marx, Karl (1970) first published 1870 capital Vol.1 Penguin.
Sanjeev Prakash is Director of the Environment, Technology and Institutional
Collective behavior" and the tonewall Riots
The term "collective behavior" refers to behavior that militates against social norms and conventions regarding the way that individuals should behave in society and differing to the way that they normally behave when not in a crowd environment. A crowd environment causes certain spontaneity to actions and a certain animal emotion that is lacking in regular 'separate existence'. cholars have devoted considerable attention to assessing why such is the case, and have generated various theories that may explain the phenomena.
Examples of instances of collective behavior include religious revivalist meetings where individuals behave in unusual ways, oftentimes totally contradictory to their private persona; panic in a burning location; or the spectacle of Black Friday where frenzy climbs and swirls around bargain hunting. The phenomenon of collective behavior too was clearly evident in the debacle of the "The tonewall Riots" and we will, therefore, take…
Armstrong, Elizabeth A., & Crage, SM. (2006) Movements and Memory: The making of the Stonewall Myth American Sociological Review 71. 724-751. SocINDEX with Full Text. Web. 14 Nov. 2011.
Baird, Robert M. (1995. ) Homosexuality: debating the issues. Amherst, N.Y.: Prometheus Books, Print. Notes on Stonewall (PGS 23-30)
Berk, Richard. (1974.). Collective Behavior W.C. Brown Co
Blumer, H. "Collective Behavior," in A.M. Lee, ed., Principles of Sociology, New York, Barnes & Noble, 1951
For example, the ethnic client who paints a huge red heart with an arrow piercing its center is communicating a universally understood message: I have been affected by love/passion/emotion.
Natalie Rogers, founder of the Person Centered Expressive Therapy Institute is a strong proponent of expressive art. In this form of art therapy, the ethnic client is encouraged to "express inner thoughts by creating outer forms."
When treating a client with art therapy, Ms. Rogers uses many techniques of expressive art: drawing, coloring, dancing, musical demonstrations, and the like.
Once these exercises are completed, the participants are encouraged to explore the nuances involved in the interaction: did communication occur? Was it a pleasant experience? Were boundaries an issue? Who led? Who followed?
Despite the fact that this work is not done solely with ethnically displaced clients, the premise remains the same; through expressive creativity, one's self may be realized, recognized, and…
Art Therapy, a Guide for Mental Health Professionals. New York: Brunner/Mazel,
Burt, H. (1993). Issues in art therapy with the culturally displaced American Indian youth. Arts in Psychotherapy. 20: 143-151.
Cohen, B., Barnes, M., & Rankin, a. (1995). Managing Traumatic Stress Through Art. Maryland: Sidran Press.
seasons of life" that are characteristic of Western societies. Name the rites of passage that mark the transitions from one period of life to the next.
Seasons of life: Childhood, Adolescence, Adulthood, Old Age, and Dying.
Rites of Passage: Puberty and struggling to gain independence and learn their own identies in the transition from Child to Adult (some religions have Bar and Bat Mitzvahs or Communion); marriage, maintaining a family, and participating in all aspects of society in Maturity; Status as matriarch or patriarch and declining health mark the passage of Elder to Death.
Over half of all women over 65 are widows, whereas only 13.6% of men over age 65 are widowed. What factors account for these statistics?
Answer: As socialization takes over men become more aggressive, and more individualistic which results in higher rates of accidents, violence, suicide, and hazardous behaviors like smoking and drinking in excess leading…