Symbolic Interactionist Perspective Essays (Examples)

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Identity the Symbolic Interactionist Goffman 1959 Views

Words: 678 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61469344

Identity

The symbolic interactionist Goffman (1959) views identity in much the same way as behavioral psychologists viewed personality: personal identity is dependent on: (1) the audience (environment), and (2) the basic motives of the "performer." Goffman uses a metaphor for how one presents himself in everyday life as a sort of an actor who can be "sincere" in that they believe in the impressions their performances elicit, or "cynical" in that they're not concerned with these impressions. So Goffman uses terms like the "setting," the "front," the "manner," etc. To describe how one's identity is more or less molded by one's surroundings and one's intent (to a lesser extent as this itself is molded by the surroundings). Thus, intentions can sometimes result in a difference between presentation and setting, self-presentations may not always appear fixed, and we learn to be actors at a young age.

For Marcuse (1964) autonomy of…… [Read More]

References

Goffman, E. (1959). The presentation of self in everyday life. New York: Doubleday

Anchor.

Hall, S. (1996). New ethnicities. In D. Morley & K.-H.Chen (eds.) Critical dialogues in cultural studies (pp. 441-449). London: Routledge.

Marcuse, H. (1964). One-dimensional man: Studies in the ideology of advanced industrial society. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd.
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Social Perspective

Words: 648 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96427937

Sociology

Symbolic interactionism is the theory suggesting human beings are best understood in "interactive relation to their environment," (University of Twente, 2014). The three core principles of symbolic interactionism including meaning, language, and thought. Meaning refers to the fact that people ascribe meaning to their relationships, institutions, and other social structures. This meaning is what guides human emotion and cognition. Language is the symbolic type of human communication. Like meaning, language also impacts human emotional and cognitive states. Thus, the third component of symbolic interactionism is thought. How a person perceives, judges, and interacts with the world is covered by symbolic interactionism. Symbolic interactionism also suggests that the self is a mirror for others, and vice-versa in what is known as the "looking glass self," ("The Symbolic Interactionist Perspective," n.d.). Symbolic interactionism is an ideal sociological lens through which to understand how social media has transformed the nature of human…… [Read More]

References

Fernback, J. (2007). Beyond the diluted community concept. New Media and Society 9(1), 49-69.

Satell, G. (2014). If you doubt that social media has changed the world, take a look at Ukraine. Forbes. Retrieved online: http://www.forbes.com/sites/gregsatell/2014/01/18/if-you-doubt-that-social-media-has-changed-the-world-take-a-look-at-ukraine/

"The Symbolic Interactionist Perspective," (n.d.). Retrieved online: https://www.boundless.com/sociology/textbooks/boundless-sociology-textbook/sociology-1/the-theoretical-perspectives-in-sociology-24/the-symbolic-interactionist-perspective-157-3185/

University of Twente (2014). Symbolic interactionism.
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Theoretical Paradigms Symbolic Interaction Approach Structural-Function Approach

Words: 1445 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56513344

theoretical paradigms: symbolic interaction approach, structural-function approach ( identifying manifest function, latent functions, social latent dysfunction) social-conflict approach analyzing euthanasia.

Euthanasia

There is presently much controversy regarding the topic of euthanasia as even though the process gathered many supporters, most of the general public continues to criticize it. It is difficult to determine the exact effect that euthanasia has on the patient, given that some might be unable to fully comprehend everything related to the medical procedure when they are the ones responsible for ordering it. Although some communities are likely to accept euthanasia as being moral, others are very probable to condemn it and relate to it as something that is particularly wrong. There are a series of factors influencing people's perspectives in regard to euthanasia, ranging from the cultural standards that they were accustomed with and until their social status. Examining euthanasia by using theoretical paradigms makes it…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Hammersley, Martyn. The Dilemma of Qualitative Method: Herbert Blumer and the Chicago Tradition (London: Routledge, 1990)

Tucker, Robert C. Philosophy and Myth in Karl Marx (Cambridge, England: University Press, 1961)

Merton, Robert K. Broom, Leonard and Cottrell, Leonard S. eds., Sociology Today; Problems and Prospects (New York: Basic Books, 1959)
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Rules America ' by G William Domhoff Does

Words: 745 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52565608

Rules America?' By G. illiam Domhoff

Does the book primarily rely on a structural, symbolic interactionist or conflict theoretical perspective to understand and explain the behavior or event it is studying.

Discuss what your book has to say about social inequality, whether social economic, gender, race, ethnicity or age.

If your book describes a social problem or an undesirable condition in society, discuss the a) discrepancy between the actual and the ideal, b) intended and unintended consequences, and c) "moral crusader."

Domhoff, G. illiam. ho Rules America? Power and Politics in the Year 2000.

illiam Domhoff's ho Rules America is an insightful look into the sociology of modern America. ritten from a conflict and structural functionalist perspective, the book largely feels that individual choices are determined by society. Dumhoff suggests that the root of most social inequalities comes from the existence of a power elite that control social and economic…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Domhoff, G. William. Who Rules America? Mayfield Pub. Co., 2000.
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Patients and Their Doctors Research

Words: 1747 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99275445

To wit, power is a huge influence in any social interaction, and in a study reported by the University of California Press (est, 2008, p. 87), men often interrupt women during conversations because men are generally viewed as the power in any male-female interaction. "Physicians interrupt patients disproportionately" in doctor-patient interactions, est writes, "except when the doctor is a 'lady'; then, "patients interrupt as much or more than physicians, and their interruptions seem to subvert physicians' authority" (est, p. 87). In other words, the stratification of male doctors having the power to interrupt is reversed when a woman is the doctor.

orks Cited

Blumer, Herbert. (1986). Symbolic Interactionism: Perspective and Method. Berkeley:

Breen, Catherine M., Abernethy, Amy P., Abbott, Katherine H., and Tulsky, James a. (2007).

Conflict Associated with Decisions to Limit Life-Sustaining Treatment in Intensive Care

Units. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 16(5), 283-289.

Donovan, Jenny L., and Blake,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Blumer, Herbert. (1986). Symbolic Interactionism: Perspective and Method. Berkeley:

Breen, Catherine M., Abernethy, Amy P., Abbott, Katherine H., and Tulsky, James a. (2007).

Conflict Associated with Decisions to Limit Life-Sustaining Treatment in Intensive Care

Units. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 16(5), 283-289.
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Generations of Family TV Shows Many Believe

Words: 2268 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8144614

Generations of Family TV Shows

Many believe that scripted television shows provide a window into the culture, by portraying cultural norms and standards. Therefore, family television shows should highlight aspects of family life in American culture during the time period in which the shows were produced, not necessarily the time period portrayed in the show. This investigation will involve a single television episode from two family-focused television series that stopped airing new shows at least 20 years ago, and a single episode from two family-focused television series that are currently airing on modern television. The two older television shows chosen for this paper are Little House on the Prairie and Bewitched. The two currently-running television shows are Good Luck Charlie and Two and a Half Men.

Little House on the Prairie

Little House on the Prairie was a television series that aired in the mid-1970s through early 1980s. It was…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Big, Flappy Bastards." Two and a Half Men. Twohalfmenonline.com. 29 Sep. 2003. Web.

11 Dec. 2012.

"Charlie is 2!" Good Luck Charlie. YouTube. 10 Feb. 2011. Web. 11 Dec. 2012.

"Nobody's Perfect." Bewitched. YouTube. 15 Sep. 1966. Web. 11 Dec. 2012.
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Town in Turmoil a Town in Conflict

Words: 1516 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66974795

Town in Turmoil

A Town in Conflict

Every story can be told a number of different ways. Each person in a given narrative understands what went on from a particular perspective. Sometimes, if that person is especially perspicacious and especially curious, then she or he can see a particular event from the perspective or one or two other people. But the individual's perspective is always limited, and this is a good thing. If we cannot see the world from our own point-of-view then we have no hope of understanding our own virtues and vices, our own sense of cause and effect.

But it is also true that there is an important place in the world for understanding an event from a larger perspective. This is the role (or, at least, one of the roles) that scholarship plays in our lives. Scholarship provides that larger lens, that broader focus on the…… [Read More]

References

A town in turmoil. (2007). http://www.democraticunderground.com/discuss/duboard.php?az=view_all&address=389x1811248.

Holmwood, J. (2005) Functionalism and its Critics in A. Harrington, A., (Ed.) Modern social theory: An introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Macionis, J.J. (2011). Society. (7th ed.). Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall.
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Paternal Rights Versus Children's Welfare

Words: 833 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81873495

Parental Rights and Children's Welfare

Sociological Analysis on Parental Rights vs. Children's Welfare: Structural-Functionalist, Conflict, and Symbolic Interactionist Perspectives

Studying the structure and dynamics of society entails not only analyzing the elements that comprise it, but also the general or 'bigger picture' of what society is -- that is, analysis of social structure and dynamics must be at the macro and micro levels. Indeed, sociological phenomena are analyzed and studied by social scientists using various theoretical perspectives formulated in order to provide researchers, as well as their audience, a look into the various interpretations that people give to explain specific events or realities experienced by the society and the individual. In the field of sociology, among these theoretical perspectives are the structural-functionalist, conflict, and symbolic interactionist traditions.

A particular example illustrating the discussion above is the analysis of parental rights and children's welfare, considered as an essential sociological phenomenon affecting…… [Read More]

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Circle of Poverty Among the Disabled

Words: 4661 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35972874

Stigma and Disability

The self-sufficiency of any person or group largely depends on the capacity to maintain a certain level of financial stability. As a group, people with disabilities are among those with the highest poverty rates and lowest educational levels despite typically having some of the highest out-of-pocket expenses of all other groups. Educational level is strongly related to financial status and independence in most of the studies performed on these variables. Despite regulations to attempt to provide an equal and fair education to students identified as having disabilities, the research indicates that the majority of these individuals do not reach the educational levels and financial status of their non-disabled peers. The limitations of a failed system of assistance for these individuals that creates a double-edged sword in the form of stigmatizing these students has resulted in it being next to impossible for this group to obtain even an…… [Read More]

References

Artiles, A., Kozleski, E., Trent, S., Osher, D., & Ortiz, A. (2010). Justifying and explaining disproportionality, 1968-2008: A critique of underlying views of culture. Exceptional Children, 76, 279-299

Bjelland, M.J., Burkhauser, R.V., von Schrader, S., & Houtenville, A.J. (2011). 2010 progress report on the economic well-being of working-age people with disabilities. Retrieved on July 10, 2012 from http://digitalcommons.ilr.cornell.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1284&context=edicolle ct&seiredir=1&referer=http%3A%2F%2Fscholar.google.com%2Fscholar%3Fhl%3Den %26q%3Ddisabilities%2Band%2Bpoverty%26as_sdt%3D0%252C23%26as_ylo%3D20 10%26as_vis%3D1#search=%22disabilities%20poverty%22.

Brown v. Board of Education, 347 U.S. 483 (1954)"

Burkhauser, R.V. & Houtenville, A.J. (2006). A guide to disability statistics from the current population survey - annual social and economic supplement (March CPS). In Rehabilitation research and training center on disability demographics and statistics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY. Retrieved on July 10, 2012 from  http://digitalcommons.ilr.cornell.edu/edicollect/1233/
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Restructuring Within a Large Organization or Any

Words: 628 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53941401

Restructuring within a large organization, or any organization, can be a very sensitive and often ambiguous process. One of the most important and vital aspects of restructuring is communication and how information throughout the entire process is relayed. It is also important for management or Human Resources to address all of the components pertaining to the restructuring and how it is going to affect all of the employees. Some of these components to be addressed may include a timeline of the restructuring; who it is going to effect and to what degree; are there going to be layoffs or demotions involved; changes in job descriptions; changes in higher management and direct reports; changes in benefits. If the basic aspects regarding the restructuring are not properly and accurately communicated, a sense of mistrust and disloyalty may develop.

In order to maintain this trust and loyalty to an organization, restructuring should be…… [Read More]

As a manager of change, I would take the time and extra caution in developing a proper strategy to inform my fellow colleagues of the restructuring and changes to come. I would evaluate the time-sensitivity of the information and how quickly it is expected to not only inform other employees but to also implement the changes, the size of the company and the number of people whom need to be informed. Based on that information, I would develop a strategy to both inform the employees and implement the strategies with the best source of media and highest level of richness possible. For example, if face-to-face communication was achievable due to several varying circumstances I would look at the next richest level, a telephone or conference call, and so on until an appropriate option was found.

Daft, R.L., Lengel, R.H., & Trevino, L.K. (1987). Message equivocality, media selection, and manager performance: Implications for information systems. MIS Quarterly, 11(3), 355-366. Retrieved March 23, 2011, from the JSTOR database

Daft, R.L., Lenger, R.H., & Trevino, L.K. (1987). Media Symbolism, Media Richness, and Media Choice in Organizations: A Symbolic Interactionist Perspective . Communication Research, 14, 553-574. Retrieved March 23, 2011, from  http://crx.sagepub.com/content/14/5/553.full.pdf+html
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Psychological Perspective

Words: 958 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53465545

Socio-Cultural Perspective

"The sociocultural perspective suggests that human behavior is influenced by social context, environmental cues, social pressures, and cultural influences." (Major Perspectives in Psychology) Things that happen in our life, the environment we grow up in, the type of people we live around, and the ideas and beliefs we grow up with all shape and influence our ideals and how we think and behave. For example, living in America is different than living in China or Africa, which involve different cultures and beliefs. eing raised in poor, working class, or wealthy families affects the way we learn to live. The religious beliefs we grow up with shape what we believe is right or wrong. Whether we grow up with strict parents or parents that are lazier faire, help shape the morals we learn.

Memory is the persistence to learning. Overtime, our memory encodes environmental information, stores it by retention,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Major Perspectives in Psychology. n.d. Web. 8 May 2012.

Social Learning & Social Cognitive Perspectives on Personality. 23 Dec 2003. Web. 9 May 2012.

Social-Cultural perspective. n.d. Web. 8 May 2012.
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Sociological Theory Sociology There Were Several Theories

Words: 1215 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68955335

Sociological Theory

Sociology

There were several theories that I found interesting as a part of the course, yet the theory that I connected with most personally was Symbolic Interaction. This theory was established first by George Herbert Mead, who coined the phrase "symbolic interactionism" first. The theory has been present in the field of sociology for several decades, and after the death of Mead, other sociologists took on the theory in their own works, studies, and theories. This theory is one of my favorites for a few reasons, one of which is because I believe I have seen it at work in my own life and in the interactions of others in their lives.

I also agree with the validity of this theory because I feel that it coincides with other theories in other fields, such as psychology. There are psychologists, such as Freudian psychologists and Lacanian psychologists that have…… [Read More]

References:

Sage Publishing. (nd). Chapter 16: Symbolic Interactionist Theories of Identity. Web, Available from: http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/50436_ch_16.pdf. 2013 July 08.

Shott, S. (1979). Emotion and Social Life: A Symbolic Interactionist Analysis. The American Journal of Sociology, 84(6), 1317 -- 1334. 2013 July 08.

Smith, Ronald W. And Bugni, Valerie, "Symbolic interaction theory and architecture" (2006). Faculty Publications (S). Paper 5. Available from: http://digitalscholarship.unlv.edu/sociology_pubs/5. 2013 July 08.
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Cohabitation the Practice of Cohabitation

Words: 906 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35972368

Manning (1993) undertook one of the early researches on the question of whether cohabitating and non-cohabitating single women have equal tendencies towards marriage prior to childbirth. In addition, Manning also looks for differences between black and white women, as well as socioeconomic status. Her research finds that for Caucasian women in their twenties, those who cohabitate with their mates are more likely to get married prior to childbirth. This statistical relationship was not observed among African-American women in the same age group.

This research therefore suggests that cohabitation carries different meanings for the two groups, an issue which may be of interest to symbolic interactionists. For African-Americans, cohabitation and childrearing were deemed more acceptable. In contrast, Caucasian women were more likely to consider cohabitation a stage in the marriage process.

esearch is still being conducted regarding the effects of cohabitation unions on children, especially since statistics show that at least…… [Read More]

References

Amato, P., D. Johnson, a. Booth, S. Rogers. 2003. "Continuity and change in marital quality between 1980 and 2000." Journal of Marriage and Family. Vol.65, Iss. 1

Bumpass, LL and H. Lu. 1999. Trends in cohabitation and implications for children's family contexts in the U.S. CDE Work Paper No. 98-15. Center for Demography Ecology, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Caspar, LM and PN Cohen. 2000. "How does POSSLQ measure up? Historical estimates of cohabitation." Demography. 2000.

Eggebeen, D. 2005. "Cohabitation and Exchanges of Support." Social Forces. Vol.83, Iss. 3
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The Changing Meaning of the Family

Words: 759 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60853954

sociological perspectives (e.g., social functionalism, social conflict, and symbolic interaction) be used to conceptually understand the family?

What fundamental changes to the family have been made over the last 40 years?

What is the "family"? Use the 3 sociological perspectives to explain.

Social functionalism views institutions like the family as necessary to preserve society. This perspective views the integrative components that make up society as greater than the sum of their individual parts and holds the family to be one of the fundamental building blocks that provide stability and coherence to people's lives. Preserving the family as a social institution is thus vital to reduce crime and to improve society as a whole. "Through kinship networks, people cooperate so that they can acquire the basic necessities of life, including food and shelter. Kinship systems can also serve as a means by which property is transferred, goods are produced and distributed,…… [Read More]

Reference

Kendall, D. (2015). Sociology in our times. (10th ed). Cengage.
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Sociologic Paradigms

Words: 964 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55807002

Sociology -- Theoretical Paradigms

The Structural-Functionality of the Poor and Poverty

In the study of sociology, three classical paradigms dominate the process of sociological analysis: structural-functionalist, conflict, and symbolic interactionist theories. The structural-functionalist paradigm posits that individuals and groups in the society play specific roles in society that creates equilibrium to society's dysfunctions. The conflict theory, meanwhile, states that there exists, inevitably, oppression in the society, which results to a struggle by the oppressed group and social revolution that shall create reforms or changes in the society. Lastly, symbolic interactionism theorizes that symbols are the basis of life, and it is through interaction of these symbols that people reach an understanding of what s/he is and how society perceives him/her.

Given this set of paradigms in the study of sociology, this paper utilizes the structural-functionalist paradigm to discuss and analyze the role that the poor and poverty play in societies…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Gans, H. (1971). "The uses of poverty: the poor pay all." Available at: http://www.soc.duke.edu/~jcook/gans.html.

Lambert, B. "Free care for the poor varies widely in Nassau." The New York Times. Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2004/10/26/nyregion/26charity.html.

Maharaj, D. "When the push for survival is a full-time job." Los Angeles Times. Available at: http://www.latimes.com/news/specials/world/la-fg-work11jul11,0,7153984.story.

Zoroya, G. "Rise of drug trade threat to Afghanistan's security." USA Today. Available at: http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/2004-10-26-opium-afghanistan_x.htm.
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Sociology of Deviant Behavior Violence

Words: 896 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9416842



In this example, it becomes evident that Anderson's underlying theory in conducting his analysis is the labeling theory. A product of the symbolic interactionist paradigm, labeling theory posits that "a response to an act and not the behavior that determines deviance...(it) is the recognition that some people or groups have the power to define labels and apply them to others" (Schaefer, 1998:165). From this definition, Anderson's categorization of street people corresponds to the people's behavior and actions as they live a life of poverty. For the "criminal elements" of the society, deviance is a form of legitimacy for them to conduct more deviant acts, and thus, the continuous conduct of deviant actions reinforces the label "criminal element(s)." Similarly, there exist labels that determine people who lead double identities of being able to assimilate to both the normative and deviant groups. y resorting to "decent ways" of living, Anderson considers some…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Anderson, E. (1999). Code of the Street: Decency, violence, and the moral life of inner city. NY W.W. Norton.

Schaefer, R. (1998). Sociology: a brief introduction. NY: McGraw-Hill Co.
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Four Intro Sociology Questions

Words: 1573 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74859794

Sociology

There are four different levels of sociological analysis, including meso. The micro level focuses on "the social dynamics of intimate, face-to-face interactions" (Little et al., p. 4), the macro level focuses on "large-scale, society-wide social interactions" (Little et al., 4) and the global level is higher still, looking at more universal sociological themes. The same event can be viewed through these different lenses, because many sociological interactions will occur at both micro and macro levels, and there are often global elements to such interactions as well.

For instance, the book discusses the 2011 Stanley Cup riots in Vancouver. On an individual level, the event can be studied in terms of what drove any individual person to join the riot, in particular what factors might contribute to somebody who would not normally break the law to join the riot. A more macro-level analysis might wish to examine what in the…… [Read More]

References

Little, W., McGiven, R., Keirns, N., Strayer, E., Griffiths, H., Cody, S., Scaramuzzo, G., Vyain, S. (2013). Introduction to Sociology, 1st Canadian Edition. In possession of the author.
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Sociology Which Is More Important in Shaping

Words: 1882 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92322529

Sociology

Which is more important in shaping individual identity: social structure or social interaction?

George Herbert Mead's fundamental work had been classified as symbolic interactionism. This was done by Herbert Blumer, who took control of Mead's well-known social psychology program following Mead's demise and also who had been a prolonged supporter of symbolic interactionism for over five decades. I don't know if Mead might have accepted this tag, however more to the point, symbolic interactionism, since it has changed during the last 60 years, has seemed to pay attention to the characteristics of self a lot more than possibly symbols or even interaction-as Blumer had recommended. Individual's behaviors in conversation with other people within social settings tend to be controlled by their perception involved with themselves. Self works as a type of gyroscope to keep behaviors steady as well as in line; moreover, as has progressively been stressed in symbolic…… [Read More]

References

Back, L., Woodward, I., Jacobs, R., Inglis, D., Gibson, M., Edles, L.D. & Bennett, A. (2012). Cultural sociology: an introduction, Hoboken, Wiley.

Macionis, J.J. And Plummer, K. (2012) Sociology: A Global Introduction, 5th Edition, Pearson Education Limited England;

Mead, G.H. (1934). Mind, Self, and Society. Chicago: Univ. Of Chicago Press as cited in Burke, P.J. And Stets, J.E. (2009). Identity Theory, New York: Oxford University Press.

Nagel, J. (1995). American Indian ethnic renewal: Politics and the resurgence of identity. American Sociological Review, 60, 947-965.
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Identity Class Has Been an

Words: 2473 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26782061

This construction gave credence to the concept of class consciousness. Class consciousness is really class identity; it is the way entire groups of people conceive themselves as belonging to a whole. This understanding permeates the corpus and unites the initiated into a common group think. This group or class view is reinforced through the economic determinants that are at the foundation of the group's position. These determinants reinforce inequalities and class identities.

The challenge to class as a locus of identity formation; results from the assertion that contemporary society is too layered and complex for class identity to be relevant. The discussion centers not on the existence of inequalities but the explanation of those inequalities. In the postmodern context the inequalities that exist are not anchored in an a priori formulation of class structure. This formulation considers the development of a classless society. This is not to be interpreted as…… [Read More]

References

Becker H.S. (2003).The Politics of Presentation: Goffman and Total Institutions Symbolic

Interaction, 26 (4):659-669.

Bottero, W. (2004). Class Identities and the Identity of Class. Sociology 38 (5): 985-1003.

Burnhill, P., Garner, C., McPherson, a. (1990). Parental Education, Social Class and Entry to Higher Education 1976-86. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series a (Statistics
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Grounded Theory Examining a Specific

Words: 2659 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25228765

Still, they published their theory in a coauthored work and there were not large differences in the overall theory at this point (Hart & Gregor 2005).

As the two scholars' careers diverged, however, they continued to develop their thinking on grounded theory independently from each other. What has become known as the Glaserian approach (developed, of course, by Barney Glaser) stresses the non-prescriptive nature of inquiries that occur utilizing grounded theory, with much broader categories of conceptualizations inherent to this version of the theory (Hart & Gregor 2005). Glaser also asserted that rigorous verification methods, such as might be more typical in the traditional scientific method, were suitably applied only to a very few of the central theoretical hypotheses that developed in the course of a grounded theory inquiry, which was another aspect of the Glaserian grounded theory that makes it more open to adjustment from the observations themselves and…… [Read More]

References

Borgatti, S. (2010). "Introduction to grounded theory." Accessed 6 November 2010.  http://www.analytictech.com/mb870/introtoGT.htm 

Charmaz, K. (2006). Constructing grounded theory: a practical guide. London: Sage.

Dick, B. (2005). "Grounded theory: a thumbnail sketch." Accessed 6 November 2010. http://www.scu.edu.au/schools/gcm/ar/arp/grounded.html

Hart, D. & Gregor, S. (2005). Information systems foundations constructing and criticizing. Accessed 6 November 2010. http://epress.anu.edu.au/info_systems/mobile_devices/index.html
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CPR Analysis of Sudden Death

Words: 635 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12725371

The techniques spin a tale of heroism, medical magic to overcome the adversity of death..." (5).

Indeed, the author intends his readers to understand that what results from the belief of the myth of CPR is the continuing norm of tolerating people's belief that CPR can save lives and the last hours of the patient on earth are spent with the hospital staff rather than his/her family and/or relatives. hat happens is that death is "celebrated" impersonally. The process of commemorating death in a meaningful manner is replaced by the hope that CPR and other medical procedures can prevent sudden deaths. As explicated in "Sudden death," CPR is "an example of an excessively technology-driven medicine...advanced medical technology has corrupted the dying experience, making it somehow less 'natural'" (7). Apart from the absence of the meaningful celebration of death, the pressure to rely on the 'power' of CPR to revive a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Timmermans, S. (1999). Sudden death and the myth of CPR. Temple University Press.
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War of the Roses Theoretical

Words: 1049 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33045753



Later that night as the couple is preparing to go to bed, they rehash the events of the dinner, and we can see that they have grown apart. Barbara comments on Oliver's phony laugh, and Oliver defends his laugh and his behavior in interrupting Barbara's Baccarat story, by explaining that he has his eyes on the prize of becoming law partner, and if that means he has to force a laugh on occasion, then he is willing to do that for his family. Even at this point in the movie, however, the Roses do not recognize that they are in trouble as a couple and as a family. It is also clear that the love is fading, at the beginning or early days of their marriage, Barbara would never have criticized Oliver, but would have acquiesced without comment. It is perhaps that acquiescence that is at the root of their…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bus, David and Malamuth, Neil (1996). Sex, Power, Conflict: Evolutionary and Feminist

Perspectives, Oxford University Press, New York, NY. Print.

DeVito, Danny (1989). War of the Roses, Motion Picture Film, Gracie Films, USA,

English.
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Abortion Is a Social Issue

Words: 2941 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64144626



In this context the argument is made from a moral and religious point-of-view that the unborn child is alive and that abortion is tantamount to murder. As Bohan (1999) states in the House of Atreus: Abortion as a Human ights Issue, "No society that truly believes in human rights can fail to recognize the right to life of the unborn. Human rights are, by definition, rights, which inhere in one simply by virtue of being a human "(Bohan, 1999, p. 64).

From the religious perspective the main argument against abortion revolves around the view of the religious and spiritual value of human life. In Christianity this refers to the Commandant, "Thou shall not Kill." The sanctity of life applies as well to the unborn child and in many religions life begins at the moment of conception. Form this normative perspective the murder of a human being is seen to be…… [Read More]

References

Abortion is every woman's right. Retrieved March 16, 2009 at http://www.socialistworker.org/2004-1/496/496_06_Abortion.shtml

Abortion Laws Worldwide. Retrieved March 16, 2009 at http://www.womenonwaves.org/set-1020.245-en.html

Baer, J.A. (Ed.). (2002). Historical and Multicultural Encyclopedia of Women's Reproductive Rights in the United States. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Bohan, J.F. (1999). The House of Atreus: Abortion as a Human Rights Issue. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
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Duneier Is a Sociologist Who

Words: 693 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66859435

However, many as he notes, are trying "to live 'better' lives within the framework of their own and society's weaknesses" (Duneier 158). Thus, just like other viable members of any society, these people are doing what they can to make ends meet and still live decent and fulfilled lives. They fill the definition of many growing and changing societies; they are just doing it in the microcosm of Greenwich Village, instead of in the boardrooms of high-powered firms. It is unmistakable that some of these vendors could certainly fit into that environment, but simply choose not to.

Third, this microcosm of society has formed its own hierarchy, which stretches from Hasan, who functions as a sort of unofficial leader, down through the ranks of magazine and book vendors and "support" people who help move, store, and place merchandise, and even hold desirable spots on the sidewalks for some of the…… [Read More]

References

Duneier, Mitchell. Sidewalk. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2001.

O'Hehir, Andrew. "Sidewalk." Salon.com. 16 Dec. 1999. 1 Dec. 2004. http://www.salon.com/books/review/1999/12/16/duneier/
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Sociological Views on Marriage Argument

Words: 546 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32969727

In fact, the cohabitation option serves a valuable function for many couples, especially where living together allows them to discover possible problem areas in their relationship that would have made marriage a bad idea. If anything, that is preferable to the traditional situation where couples really only begin learning about one another after making the lifelong commitment to a marriage. Finally, Congressman McDonald's point about childbirth out of wedlock ignores the tremendous advantages to children born in stable marriages and suggests that high rates of unwanted pregnancies among unmarried couples somehow negates the benefits of planned pregnancies within marriage.

The Functionalist Perspective Applied to Marriage:

In some respects, there are valid criticisms that justify reevaluating certain aspects of modern marriage, including the unfairness of child custody decisions that favor mothers and financial settlements that obligate married partners who supported the marriage financially to share more of what they earned than…… [Read More]

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Sociological Theories Understanding Society Also

Words: 315 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83805486

From a functionalist perspective, colleges are crucial parts or systems in the society because it promotes and makes possible education for the society. However, from a conflict theory standpoint, colleges can be considered structures or systems through which only those with access to education continue to perpetuate the 'oppression' of the "have-nots" -- people who cannot afford a college education. Symbolic interactionism, meanwhile, looks at colleges as an important tradition and process in the American society, wherein people are expected to be educated and go through the process of entering and having a college education, towards the goal of becoming a productive and/or learned member of the society. Primarily, symbolic interactionism focuses on the tradition of continuing education, and education as a critical part of every person's being and identity in his/her society.

eference

enzetti, C. And D. Curran. (2000). Living Sociology. MA: Allyn and…… [Read More]

Reference

Renzetti, C. And D. Curran. (2000). Living Sociology. MA: Allyn and Bacon.
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Saints and the Roughnecks An

Words: 910 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86405115

In his concluding questions, Chambliss notes these reactions, questioning how the meanings that were assigned to both groups by the townspeople, school officials, and police affected their futures. For this reason, Symbolic Interaction theory can be applied to the case of the Saints and the Roughnecks. In assigning values to both groups, members outside of these groups most likely impacted the groups' futures, according to Chambliss.

The decisions of the Saints and the Roughnecks to engage in delinquent behavior can also be explained in part by Symbolic Interaction Theory. In her book Violent Criminal Acts and Actors Revisited, author Lonnie Athens describes a situation in which a troubled, young man is riding in a taxi, listening to the taxi driver describe how much trouble has come his way. The young man begins to consider his own troubles, which he believes are worse than the driver's, and threatens the driver with…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Athens, Lonnie. Violent Criminal Acts and Actors Revisited. Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1997.

Chambliss, William J. "The Roughnecks and the Saints." Society. (1973): 24-31.

Zafirovski, Milan. "Some Amendments to Social Exchange Theory: A Sociological

Perspective." Theory and Science, 4.2 (2003): (n.p.).
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Counseling Master Questionnaire Counseling Questionnaire Define Research

Words: 4305 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85640226

Counseling Master Questionnaire

Counseling Questionnaire

Define research

A counseling session with an individual may qualify research as, putting together of information and understandings, followed by determination of validity of the conclusions and activities central on the shared knowledge (McLeod, 2003 p.4). A working definition of research is; an organized course of decisive investigation resulting to legitimate suggestions and conclusions, which are conveyed to other interested people. Based on this definition, there are several concepts that need evaluation. Critical inquiry is the drive whereby human beings are curious to know, learn and offer solutions to problems. As a process, research includes steps or stages, which further relies on observation, reflection and experimentation.

In the case of systematic, this means that research takes place within a theoretical system, and research includes application of principles aiming at achieving valid information. esults of research are propositions meaning that, after a research, there is a…… [Read More]

References

McLeod. J. (2003). Doing counseling research (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Crotty, M. (2005). The foundations of social research: Meaning and perspectives in the research process. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Houser. R. (2009). Counseling and educational research: Evaluation and application. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
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Sociological Theories Sociology of Gender

Words: 1087 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29285085

Sociology and Feminist Theories on Gender Studies

Postmodern Feminism in "Cherrie Moraga and Chicana Lesbianism"

In the article entitled, "Cherrie Moraga and Chicana Lesbianism," author Tomas Almaguer analyzes and studies the dynamics behind Moraga's feminist reading of the Chicano culture and society that she originated from. In the article, Almaguer focuses on three elements that influenced Moraga's social reality as she was growing up: the powerful effect of the Chicano culture, patriarchal orientation, and homosexuality that she experienced within the context of her nationality.

Chicano culture centers on race as an indicator of one's cultural orientation, while patriarchy serves as the ideology that is prevalent in Moraga's social reality. Homosexuality, particularly, lesbianism, is Moraga's release from the somewhat repressing role that she perceives women receive in her culture. Thus, lesbianism becomes Moraga's alternative sexual orientation to a heterosexually conservative Chicano culture. Using the following factors concerning the cultural, social, and…… [Read More]

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Charles Horton Cooley

Words: 1360 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95707938

Charles Horton Cooley is a great sociologist who has contributed significantly to the field of sociology. He was born in Michigan State where he studied and work. He was a professor in the University of Michigan and lived near the university with his wife and three children. Looking glass self was one of his greatest works. The paper evaluates some of the sociologist major papers in the field of sociology and economics. The contributions to the conflicts theory and functionalism theory will also be evaluated in the paper. Charles Horton Cooley died in 1929 in the same state he was born of cancer.

Charles Horton Cooley born in 1864 was the forth born in a family of six siblings. His mother was Mary Elizabeth and his father was Thomas Cooley. The family lived in Ann Arbor in Michigan State. He attended the University of Michigan in 1887 where after graduating…… [Read More]

References

Ju, Biung-ghi. 2010. "Individual Powers and Social Consent: An Axiomatic Approach." Social Choice and Welfare 34(4):571-596

Landon, Charles E. 1960. "Technological Progress in Transportation on the Mississippi River System." The Journal of Business (Pre-1986) 33(1):43-43

Westley, Bruce. 1976. "Setting the Political Agenda what Makes it Change?" Journal of Communication (Pre-1986) 26(2):43
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Crime and Deviance Crimes and Increasing Criminal

Words: 3462 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10446452

Crime and Deviance

Crimes and increasing criminal activities have become a major concern for the security enforcement agencies. They seek help from technology as well as social and psychological theories to prevent crimes and deal with them. The first priority of security agencies is to prevent crimes and the second priority is to control them by punishing the criminals so that they become an example for the society. This paper offers an insight to how the crime prevention activities can be implemented. This includes understanding few biological, psychological and sociological theories pertaining to crimes and criminology. Human being's generally and criminals specifically act under the influence of some physical, environmental, cultural and individual factors that will be discussed in this paper.

Theories of Crime and Deviance

Crimes as well as deviance are behaviors that show violation from the settled and accepted norms of a society. Crime is something that is…… [Read More]

References

Cohen, P 2011, Genetic basis for crime: A new look, viewed 26 November, 2013, Retrieved

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/06/20/arts/genetics-and-crime-at-institute-of-justice-conference.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0

Community Crime Prevention Guide, n. d., viewed 26 November, 2013, Retrieved from:http://www.criminaljusticereform.gov.bc.ca/en/what_you_can_do/crime_prevention/

Crime Control: A Short Note, n.d., viewed 26 November, 2013, Retrieved from:  http://ncthakur.itgo.com/chand3c.htm
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Conflict Paradigm That Is Demonstrated

Words: 1602 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70801181

As such, Yunus' business model for Grameen Bank directly contradicts Social Darwinism, since the former is giving collateral free loans to individuals who are not fiscally fit -- and who are oftentimes exceedingly destitute -- and enabling them to get the financial means to survive.

Additionally, it is critical to examine the role that women play in both Social Darwinism and in Yunus' enterprise with Grameeen. Women are the bearers of children, and regardless of what Social Darwin advances about the fittest of a species, no species can survive without the means of replicating itself. For humans, of course, such a conception prioritizes women over men. Therefore, it is highly significant that the bulk of the individuals receiving loans form Grameen are women. From a Social Darwinism perspective this fact is extremely noteworthy, since women can produce a more direct effect on the livelihoods of their children.

Still, it is…… [Read More]

References

"PBS New Heroes Ep1 01 Kailash Satyarthi Child Slavery India." (2011). Youtube.

Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zmHyARnDxI0

"PBS New Heroes Ep2 03 Fabio Rosa Low Voltage Electricity Brazil." (2011). Youtube.

Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LfmFEBRmgLU
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Tom Shulich Coltishhum a Comparative Study on

Words: 9196 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33144233

Tom Shulich ("ColtishHum")

A comparative study on the theme of fascination with and repulsion from Otherness in Song of Kali by Dan Simmons and in the City of Joy by Dominique Lapierre

ABSACT

In this chapter, I examine similarities and differences between The City of Joy by Dominique Lapierre (1985) and Song of Kali by Dan Simmons (1985) with regard to the themes of the Western journalistic observer of the Oriental Other, and the fascination-repulsion that inspires the Occidental spatial imaginary of Calcutta. By comparing and contrasting these two popular novels, both describing white men's journey into the space of the Other, the chapter seeks to achieve a two-fold objective: (a) to provide insight into the authors with respect to alterity (otherness), and (b) to examine the discursive practices of these novels in terms of contrasting spatial metaphors of Calcutta as "The City of Dreadful Night" or "The City of…… [Read More]

References

Barbiani, E. (2005). Kalighat, the home of goddess Kali: The place where Calcutta is imagined twice: A visual investigation into the dark metropolis. Sociological Research Online, 10 (1). Retrieved from  http://www.socresonline.org.uk/10/1/barbiani.html 

Barbiani, E. (2002). Kali e Calcutta: immagini della dea, immagini della metropoli. Urbino: University of Urbino.

Cameron, J. (1987). An Indian summer. New York, NY: Penguin Travel Library.

Douglas, M. (1966). Purity and danger: An analysis of concepts of pollution and taboo. New York, NY: Routledge & K. Paul.
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Theoretical Approach to Generational Poverty

Words: 3947 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70625438

Theoretical Approach to Generational Poverty

Poverty is one of the most pressing social problems and the generational nature of poverty remains one of the reasons it is so difficult to eradicate poverty. While there are several different theories suggesting why poverty is transmitted from generation to generation and theorists sometimes strongly disagree on those reasons, there is almost universal acceptance of the idea that poverty is transmitted from one generation to another. In fact, there has been a significant amount of study directed at chronic poverty in the developed and developing countries. This research suggests that while poverty may be simplistically defined as a lack of money, the problem of poverty actually addresses the "absence of transfer of different forms of capital: human, social-cultural, social-political, financial/material and environmental/natural" (Moore, 2001). This more complex definition of poverty helps explain why simply providing financial resources to a family does not generally fix…… [Read More]

References

Andrisani, P. (1977). Internal-external attitudes, personal initiative, and the labor market experience of black and white men. The Journal of Human Resources, 12(3), 308-328.

Bartos, O. & Wehr, P. (2002). Using conflict theory. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Buck, M. & Austrin, H. (1971). Factors related to school achievement in an economically disadvantaged group. Child Development, 42(6), 1813-1826.

Duckitt, J. & Mphuthing, T. (1998). Political power and race relations in South Africa: African attitudes before and after the transition. Political Psychology, 19(4), 809-832.
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Sociology of Poverty and Welfare

Words: 3817 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79188435

Interpretive sociology does not agree with the thought that behavior is related to society as effect is related to cause since this entire idea is dysfunctional with that which composes social life in reality. Interpretive sociology holds that understanding of our fellow man should be the pursuit of each day as sense is made of their individual societal existence. Seeking to understand is the concept held in interpretive sociology instead of the seeking of an explanation. Therefore it is understood that "structural" or that of Marxism and Functionalism (i.e. The interpretive/interactionist/social action sociologies) as well as Weber's interactionism, ethnomethodology and the Structural arguments in sociology that a "science of society" is likely. Therefore, there exists an agreement even among the interpretive sociologies. The natural science argument is based on "cause and effect" principles. That claim that the behavior of humans is the effect of some cause in society or class…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Townsend, Peter (1970) the Concept of Poverty. Heinemann Weber, Max (1958) the Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.

Gilbert (1999) Social Research Update No. 27 University of Surrey Department of Sociology

Marx, Karl (1970) first published 1870 capital Vol.1 Penguin.

Sanjeev Prakash is Director of the Environment, Technology and Institutional
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Stonewall Riots Collective Behavior Collective Action

Words: 2172 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86359385

Collective behavior" and the tonewall Riots

The term "collective behavior" refers to behavior that militates against social norms and conventions regarding the way that individuals should behave in society and differing to the way that they normally behave when not in a crowd environment. A crowd environment causes certain spontaneity to actions and a certain animal emotion that is lacking in regular 'separate existence'. cholars have devoted considerable attention to assessing why such is the case, and have generated various theories that may explain the phenomena.

Examples of instances of collective behavior include religious revivalist meetings where individuals behave in unusual ways, oftentimes totally contradictory to their private persona; panic in a burning location; or the spectacle of Black Friday where frenzy climbs and swirls around bargain hunting. The phenomenon of collective behavior too was clearly evident in the debacle of the "The tonewall Riots" and we will, therefore, take…… [Read More]

Sources

Armstrong, Elizabeth A., & Crage, SM. (2006) Movements and Memory: The making of the Stonewall Myth American Sociological Review 71. 724-751. SocINDEX with Full Text. Web. 14 Nov. 2011.

Baird, Robert M. (1995. ) Homosexuality: debating the issues. Amherst, N.Y.: Prometheus Books, Print. Notes on Stonewall (PGS 23-30)

Berk, Richard. (1974.). Collective Behavior W.C. Brown Co

Blumer, H. "Collective Behavior," in A.M. Lee, ed., Principles of Sociology, New York, Barnes & Noble, 1951
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Ethnic Cultures' Experience of Art

Words: 2675 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56733059



For example, the ethnic client who paints a huge red heart with an arrow piercing its center is communicating a universally understood message: I have been affected by love/passion/emotion.

Natalie Rogers, founder of the Person Centered Expressive Therapy Institute is a strong proponent of expressive art. In this form of art therapy, the ethnic client is encouraged to "express inner thoughts by creating outer forms."

When treating a client with art therapy, Ms. Rogers uses many techniques of expressive art: drawing, coloring, dancing, musical demonstrations, and the like.

Once these exercises are completed, the participants are encouraged to explore the nuances involved in the interaction: did communication occur? Was it a pleasant experience? Were boundaries an issue? Who led? Who followed?

Despite the fact that this work is not done solely with ethnically displaced clients, the premise remains the same; through expressive creativity, one's self may be realized, recognized, and…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Art Therapy, a Guide for Mental Health Professionals. New York: Brunner/Mazel,

Inc.

Burt, H. (1993). Issues in art therapy with the culturally displaced American Indian youth. Arts in Psychotherapy. 20: 143-151.

Cohen, B., Barnes, M., & Rankin, a. (1995). Managing Traumatic Stress Through Art. Maryland: Sidran Press.
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Seasons of Life That Are Characteristic of

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42354102

seasons of life" that are characteristic of Western societies. Name the rites of passage that mark the transitions from one period of life to the next.

Seasons of life: Childhood, Adolescence, Adulthood, Old Age, and Dying.

Rites of Passage: Puberty and struggling to gain independence and learn their own identies in the transition from Child to Adult (some religions have Bar and Bat Mitzvahs or Communion); marriage, maintaining a family, and participating in all aspects of society in Maturity; Status as matriarch or patriarch and declining health mark the passage of Elder to Death.

Over half of all women over 65 are widows, whereas only 13.6% of men over age 65 are widowed. What factors account for these statistics?

Answer: As socialization takes over men become more aggressive, and more individualistic which results in higher rates of accidents, violence, suicide, and hazardous behaviors like smoking and drinking in excess leading…… [Read More]