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risk in a systems analysis and design project, and how does a project manager cope with risk during the stages of project management?
The major sources of risk in a systems analysis and design project at a strategic level include environmental, external and design risks and over t ime these can accelerate and change the entire nature of a given project plan and direction. These three strategic risks often lead engineering services, project management, organizational and legal risks as well (Fu, Li, Chen, 2012). The strategic elements of customer, technical and delivery risk also serve to further constrain and many times clarify the systems analysis and design foundation of a project (Fu, Li, Chen, 2012). Constraints force trade-offs which in turn lead a project to gain greater clarity of vision and greater acuity of focus on desired results (Fu, Li, Chen, 2012). A project manager will often cope with sources…
Fu, Y., Li, M., & Chen, F. (2012). Impact propagation and risk assessment of requirement changes for software development projects based on design structure matrix. International Journal of Project Management, 30(3), 363.
Mehrez, A., & Sniedovich, M. (1992). An analysis of a dynamic project cost problem. The Journal of the Operational Research Society, 43(6), 591-591.
Alcan IT Management Systems Analysis
Alcan's growth as a global conglomerate in the aluminum and metal fabrication industry follows a similar trajectory of many companies whose business models forced rapid, highly distributed business models at the expense Information Technologies (IT) management systems consistency and performance. Alcan's IT management systems and underlying infrastructure have become balkanized as the company has grown into four separately functioning and highly autonomous business units. In evaluating the key success factors of successful Enterprise esource Planning (EP) implementations in multisite locations, the most critical factor overall is creating a unified, well synchronized system of record across all EP instances (Hanafizadeh, Gholami, Dadbin, Standage, 2010). A second key success factor for multisite EP implementations is the ability to negotiate a very low level of maintenance pricing with EP vendors in the form of multisite or use-based pricing instead of the traditional per-seat model (Law, Chen, Wu, 2010).…
Dey, P.K., Clegg, B.T., & Bennett, D.J. (2010). Managing enterprise resource planning projects. Business Process Management Journal, 16(2), 282-296.
Dezdar, S. (2011). Examining ERP implementation success from a project environment perspective. Business Process Management Journal, 17(6), 919-939.
Hanafizadeh, P., Gholami, R., Dadbin, S., & Standage, N. (2010). The core critical success factors in implementation of enterprise resource planning systems. International Journal of Enterprise Information Systems, 6(2), 82.
Law, C.C.H., Chen, C.C., & Wu, B.J.P. (2010). Managing the full ERP life-cycle: Considerations of maintenance and support requirements and IT governance practice as integral elements of the formula for successful ERP adoption. Computers in Industry, 61(3), 297.
Business Systems Analysis
Business System Analysis
In the wake of technological advancements, there is a remarkable development and progression in all sectors of life. Education, political, social and business systems are among the latest inventions in the technological sector. An industry ripping immense benefits from the technological development is the business sector. It provides a vast market for the system developers who work tirelessly to develop systems that perform various activities. The business analyses systems create establish the environment of working and management that is simple and convenient to operate. These systems help in the management and analysis of data and information that concerns the business. The preliminary development of the ERD hopes to develop such system that will work for management of businesses.
The attributes of each of the six entities
The business system that relates to Petrie's Electronic case has six set of entities that govern the range…
Business Systems Analysis
What are the advantages and disadvantages of these system installation methods?
Q1.Direct installation "cold turkey"
Direct installation 'cold turkey' is when the old system is completely shut down before the new system is turned on (What is implementation, 2001). The main disadvantage of this approach is obvious -- any unexpected 'glitches' in the new system will mean that work will be at a standstill until the new system is fixed, and there is no other alternative. This should only be used when the old system is so problematic and complicated that it is not worth continuing to run it as the new system is implemented -- or if the new system is well-tested and its ability to operate is assured.
Q2.Parallel installation (old system runs with the new)
Parallel installation occurs when the old system is allowed to run while the new system is introduced…
What is implementation? (2001). Retrieved:
Cloud Computing Changes Systems Analysis and Design
Both information systems and information technology infrastructure have been incorporated into business procedures for at least two decades. In the initial development of information technology, organizations which greatly invested in information technology infrastructure achieved strong growth in market shares and returns. Given that IT is now the core of businesses, nearly all organizations own their own IT infrastructures to manage their daily business activities. In case of malfunctions in the information systems, the regular business proceedings shall be really interrupted. Though the majority of companies are not IT companies, they have to invest a great share in IT so as to run their business operations smoothly (Chou & Chou, 2011).
Information technology has turned into a necessary infrastructure which organizations need to have; however, it does not essentially offer strategic benefits for business. According to Carr (2003), the growth of the…
552 groupnine. (2011, September 7). Discuss how "Cloud Computing" can impact our concept of Systems Analysis and Design. Retrieved February 22, 2016, from 552 groupnine: https://m552group9.wordpress.com/2011/09/07/discuss-how-%E2%80%9Ccloud-computing%E2%80%9D-can-impact-our-concept-of-systems-analysis-and-design/
Armbrust, M., Fox, A., Griffith, R., Joseph, A., Katz, R., & Konwinski, A. (2010). A View of Cloud Computing. Communications of the ACM, 53(4), 50-58.
Bhattacharjee, R. (2009). An Analysis of the Cloud Computing Platform. Boston: Massachusetts Institute Of Technology.
Brynjolfsson, E., Hofmann, P., & Jordan, J. (Communications of the ACM). 2010. Cloud Computing and Electricity: Beyond the Utility Model, 53(5), 32-34.
NET development platform, further accelerating performance on the Windows 7 desktop and server operating systems (Wildstrom, 2009). This strategy worked as it gave Microsoft the opportunity to create a highly differentiated system level of performance wills also ensuring backward compatibility to previous generation applications and their respective API calls (Bradley, 2009). Microsoft also took the added step of ensuring the MinWin kernel could also manage a high level of transaction activity while also staying synchronized to the many processes, threads, memory management, control of I/O devices and also the detecting and responding to threats as well. The MinWin kernel was designed to support a series of components which would specifically allow for these Transaction Coordinator, Logging Service, Kernel Transaction Manager and Lightweight Transactions Web Services set, Microsoft is deliberately designing the ancillary kernel modules to make Windows 7 more of a development platform for Web Services than any previous generation…
Yardena Arar (2008, December). Microsoft Sets the Stage for Windows 7. PC World, 26(12), 16-18.
Bradley, S.. (2009). Windows 7: Is It Right for You? Journal of Accountancy, 208(5), 32-36,12.
Forgione, Dana, & Smith, L Murphy. (1993). Memory management in PCs: The eighteen most misunderstood acronyms. The CPA Journal, 63(9), 80.
Lamb, S.. (2006). Security features in Windows Vista and IE7 - Microsoft's view. Network Security, 2006(8), 3-7.
Family Systems Theory and Farewell to Manzanar
According to Bowen Family Systems Theory, all family members engage in role-playing beyond those of the conventional roles of 'daughter,' 'husband,' 'son,' and 'father' in relation to one another. Much like characters in a play, family members have other, unstated roles which they develop as the result of 'triangulation' or relationships with other family members. Frequently, these roles are dysfunctional. At the beginning of Farewell to Manzanar, the father of the Wakatsuki clan, Ko Wakatsuki, plays the role of a traditional, patriarchal authority. He attempts to recreate the dynamic that he regards as 'correct,' with the father's will dominating over that of his wife and children. His daughter Jeanne idolizes him.
However, after the bombing of Pearl Harbor, the family is relocated to a Japanese detention center where they must live in a collective environment with other Japanese-Americans who are being…
Family Systems Theory. (2007). Child Welfare Manual. Retrieved:
Houston, J. (2013). Farewell to Manzanar. Ember.
Activity diagrams and context level data flow are both key in identifying issues of organizations financial and operational management. Activity diagram is a representation of the organizations operational system. Yachts Australia is an organization that runs various operations including a large fleet of skippered sailing boats, catering services as well as franchised operations to include outlets in several pristine locations. To get a clear perspective of the complex network of operations and to aid in making it more efficient, activity diagram, helps the management identify the fast growing aspects of the system. The diagram is also important in construction of an executable system applying techniques of forward and backward technique. On the other hand, Structured Design Models show the interaction between the organizational system and other agent acting as information sources. Context diagram specifically represents the organization as a single unit. Therefore, Yachts Australia applies all necessary techniques in addressing…
Complete Solutions plc (CS) is a successful organization specializing in IT consultancy business with annual turnover of £40 millions. The company is located at North of England with branches in the U.S. And France. Established in 1980, the company was taken over by a larger company, and the take-over bid led to the rapid expansion of the company. Complete Solution has several sections with approximately 400 users in the UK divisions. The company internal services are based in Manchester with the Training Solutions (TS) consultancy section, Sales, and Marketing section. The overall services of Complete Solution consists of the IT consultancy service as well as selling of hardware and software, training and recruitment, software development and, outsourced services. The other services provided by the Complete Solution are consultancy services. With rapid expansion that the company is enjoying, the Complete Solution is planning to go public by…
CO3601 System Concepts (nd).Soft Systems Methodology Case Study: Complete Solutions
Checkland, P.(1985). Achieving 'Desirable and Feasible' Change: An Application of Soft Systems Methodology ST. The Journal of the Operational Research Society. 36(9): 821-831.
Gasson, S. (1995). The Role of Methodologies in IT-Related Organizational changes. Proceedings of BCS Specialist Group on IS Methodologies, 3rd Annual Conference.
Simonsen, J. (1994).Soft Systems Methodology. Computer Science/Roskilde University.
However, the company did feel it should develop its own Database infrastructure that would work with the new underlying database management system and would mesh with existing organizational skills and the selected enterprise software solution.
Because the company followed a standardized implementation process, they were able to successfully reengineer their existing business structure. The objective of the System Development Life Cycle is to help organizations define what an appropriate system development methodology should be in order for them to continue to meet the rapidly changing business environment. The specific research approach employed by International Lumberyards, Inc. was to follow the steps of the cycle and it helped them dramatically.
This report attempted to analyze a work-related project that used a systems analysis tool for a specific business system. The report focused on the use of the System Development Life Cycle to implement a business or information technology need as…
Grabski, Severin V. (2002). International Lumberyards, Inc.: An Information System Consulting Case. Journal of Information Systems, 9/22.
Knight, Ph.D., Linda V. (2001, November 1). System Development Methodologies for Web Enabled E-Business: A Customization Paradigm. Retrieved January 16, 2005, at http://www.kellen.net/SysDev.htm
Peacock, Eileen (2004). Accounting for the development costs of internal-use software. Journal of Information Systems, 3/22.
Wikopedia. (n.d.). System Development Life Cycle. Retrieved January 16, 2005, at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/System_Development_Life_Cycle
System Design: Oahu Base Area Network
The aim of this paper is to examine and discuss the Navy's decision to build the largest local area network (LAN) connecting the U.S. Pacific Fleet using information-gathering techniques and design methods. The system has the capacity to connect sailors and marines within the 102-million square miles of the Pacific Fleet's command coverage. Moreover it will provide the indispensable access for supplying and training the U.S. Navy. The Oahu Base Area Network (OBAN) will be the largest LAN in the world when all the phases are complete. It was started way back in 1998. It is the supporting network for the six naval commands in the Pearl Harbor, Hawaii area. Phase one has been completed. Other phases have begun in San Diego, the Pacific Northwest and the Pacific Far East, following the original business model (Kaylor, 2000). The uniqueness of this system is in…
System Implementation - Oahu ase Area Network
System Implementation: Oahu ase Area Network
The wireless local area network (WLAN) in the Oahu ase Area Network is made up of several different subsystems. The inputs to the system will be desktop computers, laptop computers, and embedded systems (fixed and mobile). Each client has a wireless network card that can communicate with an access point (AP). The AP manages WLAN traffic and physically connects the wireless system to the wired local area network (LAN). The wired LAN will then send the requested information back to the access points, which will relay it to the appropriate client (Conover, 2000).
The system has three modes of operation:
Op-Mode: This is the standard operating mode for system operation. The mode consists of interaction between clients and one or more server. The clients are wireless devices such as laptops, desktops and tele-robtics platforms. Servers are access…
Conover, J. (2000, July). "Wireless LANs Work Their Magic." Network Computing. Retrieved 16, January, 2004 from Internet site http://www.networkcomputing.com/1113/1113f2.html
Curtis, G., Hoffer, J. George, J., Valacich, J. (2002). Introduction to Business Systems Analysis
University of Phoenix Custom Edition). New Jersey, NJ: Pearson Custom Printing.
Galik, D. (1998, April). "Defense in Depth: Security for Network-Centric Warfare." Chips
However, in the most recent theory of evolution which discusses the living world appears as the result of chance and an output of different randomly selected natural mills. This kind of development came to present as a result of the need of more subjects or topics in areas such as cybernetic, general system theory, information theory, theories of games which is needed in most decision making process in line with real applications. In mathematics techniques however, there are a number of general assumption which are insufficient and most of the time very contradict themselves (Laszlo & Krippner, 1982).
Again, Laszlo (1982) outlined that von Bertalanffy considered the idea of organization to be involved at various stages in the expression of natural system. This could be highlighted from his first statement on the system which he made between the years 1925-1926, during the time when similar thinking of organism was being…
Bailey, K.D. (2004). Beyond System Internals: Expanding the Scope of Living Systems Theory. Los Angeles: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Bailey, K.D. (2006). Living systems theory and social entropy theory. Systems Research and Behavioral Science, 23, 291-300.
Bertalanffy, L. (1951). General system theory - a new approach to unity of science. (Symposium), Human Biology, 23, 303-361. Dec 1951.
Bertalanffy, L. (1972). General system theory: Foundations, development, applications. London: Allen Lane.
Its business alliances have succeeded because of the past encounter and uncompromising principles of Starbucks. When Starbucks created a licensing contract with Kraft Foods, Inc., it permitted Kraft Foods to begin to make Starbucks' items available in grocery markets, and now because of that attempt their items are available all over Northern U.S. And even the United Kingdom. If Starbucks did not have the primary features of what it is looking for in an alliance, it might not have been as effective in its collaboration with Kraft Foods or any other partner. Starbucks was willing to think about the good and bad in the possible collaboration and choose on whether or not the collaboration would benefit its organization (Davidson & Fielden, 2013). If Kraft Foods, Inc. did not have the same corporate perspective and objectives that Starbucks had, Starbucks would not have engaged in business with them. Starbucks has been…
Beer, S. (2014). Diagnosing the system for organizations. New York, NY: Wiley.
Harrison, M. (2004). Diagnosing Organizations: Methods, Models, and Processes (Applied Social Research Methods) (3rd ed.). Berlin: Sage Publications.
Davidson, M., & Fielden, S.L. (2013). Individual diversity and psychology in organizations. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley.
Smith-Acuna, S. (2010). Systems Theory in Action: Applications to Individual, Couple, and Family Therapy. John Wiley & Sons
Attacks on the system security include password theft, back doors and bugs, social engineering, protocol failures, authentication failures, Denial of Service attacks, active attacks, botnets, exponential attacks including worms and viruses, and information leakage. (Fortify Software Inc., 2008); (Fortify Software, n. d.)
Servers are targets of security attacks due to the fact that servers contain valuable data and services. For instance, if a server contains personal information about employees, it can become a target for stealing identities. All types of servers, which include file, database, web, email and infrastructure management servers are vulnerable to security attacks with the threat coming from both external as well as internal sources.
Some of the server problems that can jeopardize its security include: (i) Weakly encrypted or unencrypted information, especially of a sensitive nature, can be intercepted for malicious use while being transmitted from server to client. (ii) Software bugs present in the server…
Bace, Rebecca Gurley; Bace, Rebecca. (2000) "Intrusion Detection"
Fortify Software Inc. (2008) "Fortify Taxonomy: Software Security Errors" Retrieved 17 November, 2008 at http://www.fortify.com/vulncat/en/vulncat/index.html
Fortify Software. (n. d.) "Seven Pernicious Kingdoms: A Taxonomy of Software Security
The implementation stage of the iordan project may prove to be the most challenging yet, but one that is worth all the effort. It would take a team of experts in various fields to successfully see this stage successfully through to completion, it cannot be a one-man show. Several departments within the organization have to be given priority when it comes to rolling out the new human resource management system. Since this system is automated and rests on an Information Technology platform, the first two departments to consider would be the human resource management and Information Technology departments. All the teams of professionals within these departments would have to be part and parcel of the entire system design and development process. The other departments to consider would be those of finance and operations management as they too are a fundamental part of the organization's decision making framework.
 George, F.J., Valacich, B.J.S., & Hoffer, J.A. (2003). Object-Oriented Systems Analysis and Design. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
 Satzinger, J.W., Jackson, R.B., & Burd, S.D. (2008). Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World. London, UK: Cengage Learning EMEA.
 Marciniak, J.J. (2002). Encyclopedia of Software Engineering. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley.
The key constructs of systems thinking were constituted in the first half of the 20th century in fields such as psychology, ecology, organismal biology, and cybernetics (Capra 1997). They include: sub-systems/parts/wholes, environment/system/boundary, process/structure, emerging properties, hierarchy of organizations, negative and positive feedback, data and control, open systems, holism, and the observer. The practical application of these constructs in many fields was discovered by von Bertalanffy (1950). He referred to these concepts as general systems theory (GST). These concepts were adapted in Organizational research and Management science (O/MS) and were referred to as management cybernetics (Beer 1967), systems engineering (Hall 1962), system four dynamics (Forrester 1968), and finally, in what we might refer to as the systems approach (Churchman 1968; Klir 1969; Weinberg 1975) (Mingers & White, 2009).
The systems thinking/systems approach, has been closely linked to the growth of organizational research and management science. At the start it…
Beer, S., 1967. Cybernetics and Management, English Universities Press: London.
Beer S (1984). The Viable System Model: Its Provenance, Development, Methodology and Pathology. Journal of the Operational Research Society 35(7): 25.
Bezuidenhout, C. & Bodhanya, S., 2010. Identifying opportunities in South African sugarcane supply-chain-systems: A synopsis, limitations and recommendations. Report to the South African Sugarcane Research Institute, Mount Edgecombe: s.n.
Burnett SM and Durant-Law GA (2008). Applying the RAAAKERS framework in an analysis of the command and control arrangements of the ADF Garrison Health Support. Journal of Military and Veterans' Health 17: 19-26.
Third, subsystems engineers are more attuned to how their specific product and technology areas are driven by external market forces and market dynamics than system engineers typically are. The reason is that subsystem engineers, both hardware and software, seek to understand how customer and market needs impact their existing and future designs. As both of these classes of subsystem engineers are more focused on how to create valuable contributions to their specific area of expertise, monitoring market and customer trends tends to be a passion for many of them. It is not unusual for example to see an engineering team know more about market trends, research, unmet customer needs and competitors than a marketing department for the same product (Hoberman, 2009). This is precisely why subsystem engineers in high technology companies often end up running product management, product marketing and corporate marketing because they have a better grasp of the…
David Carrington, Paul Strooper, Sharron Newby, & Terry Stevenson. (2005). An industry/university collaboration to upgrade software engineering knowledge and skills in industry. The Journal of Systems and Software, 75(1-2), 29-39.
George T. Dasher. (2003). The interface between systems engineering and program management. Engineering Management Journal, 15(3), 11-14.
R. Harrison, a.W. Colombo, a.A. We-st, & S.M. Lee. (2006). Reconfigurable modular automation systems for automotive power-train manufacture. International Journal of Flexible Manufacturing Systems, 18(3), 175-190.
Steve Hoberman. (2009). How to Produce Adequate Definitions: Clear and complete attribute definitions improve data deliverables. Information Management, 19(5), 45.
system development life cycle (SDLC) approach to the development of Information Systems and/or software is provided. An explanation of SDLC is offered, with different models applied in implementing SDLC delineated. Advantages and disadvantages associated with each of the models will be identified.
System Development Life Cycle
According to Walsham (1993), system development life cycle (SDLC) is an approach to developing an information system or software product that is characterized by a linear sequence of steps that progress from start to finish without revisiting any previous step. The SDLC model is one of the oldest systems development models and is still probably the most commonly used (Walsham, 1993). The SDLC model is basically a project management tool that is used to plan, execute, and control systems development projects (Whitten & Bentley, 1998). System development life cycles are usually discussed in terms of the conventional development using the waterfall model or the…
References survey of system development methods (1998). Center for Technology in Government,
Albany, NY: University at Albany, CTG Publication, pp. 1-13.
Ahituv, Niv & Neumann, Seev (1982). Principles of information systems for management. Dubuque, Iowa: Wm. C. Brown Company Publishers.
Hughes, P. (2002). SDLC models and methodologies. Information Systems Branch,
Ministry of Transportation, Governement of British Columbia, Victoria, BC, Canada.
Systems Design Project
Change is integral to the survival of any commercial enterprise in today's globalized, technologically advanced business environment. This requires stakeholders to have personal and organizational transition skills to attain the desired change for future success (Hughes, 2006). Strategizing drives organizational change giving it direction through activities (Thornhill, Lewis, Millmore and Saunders, 2000). Internal and external environmental considerations are both relevant; along with change management required to align with strategic change. Singular change is integral to organizational modification; a concept that bears adopting as a precursor to internalizing change across the organization.
The change agent is responsible for comprehending the concept of strategic change which encompasses an understanding of change models, approaches and tools for proper implementation. Furthermore they must possess an aptness for analytical assessment of contexts, critical thinking adeptness - both of which will be applied along the change continuum within the organization through use of…
Balogun, J., and Hailey, V.H. (2008), Exploring Strategic Change, Pearson Education Limited, England
Burnes, B. (2004), 'Emergent change and planned change - competitors or allies?: The case of XYZ construction', International Journal of Operation & Production Management, Vol. 24 No. 9, pp. 886-902
Change Management Learning Center (2009), 'Five tips for: Succeeding in change management', Change Management Learning Center, available at: http://www.change-management.com/tutorial-5-tips-cm-success.htm (accessed 19 November 2009)
Chris, R. (2009), 'Working with Emergent Change in Organisations', available at: http://www.oikos-uk.com/docs_influences/Emergent%20Change%20print.pdf (accessed 20 November 2009)
Describe the company, the business problem the company was addressing with the system implementation, the system chosen to implement, and the company's rationale for selecting the system to solve the problem.
Wal-Mart, a company that enjoys a significant market share in the U.S. food industry, rolled out its multi-phased project. This marked the beginning of implementing the company's long ditched in-house IT systems, which favored their operations with vendors. However, implementation of the SAP system is already raising red flags. This is because the system comes with costly financial works, which have strained the company (Scheck, 2010). While the project was aimed at leading the firm to growth, Wal-Mart recorded a significant sales decline. This was one of the company's worst performance over three decades now, been beaten by new corporations from Germany and South Korea. As local competitors maintained the pace set by Wal-Mart, most…
Hellens, L, Nielsen, S., Beekhuyzen, J., & Ebrary, Inc. (2008). Qualitative case studies on implementation of enterprise wide systems. Hershey, PA: Idea Group Pub.
Jacobs, A.J. (2012). Information system implementations: Using a leadership quality matrix for success. S.l.: Authorhouse.
Ramachandran, S. (2007). Digital VLSI systems design: A design manual for implementation of projects on FPGAs and ASICs using Verilog. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer.
Scheck, D.E. (2010). Implementation project for traffic signal monitor/recorder and analysis system. Athens, Ohio: Dept. Of Industrial & Systems Engineering, Ohio University.
Systems of Power and Inequality
In early March of 2012, a 28-minute video on the plight of African children received more than 21 million YouTube views. The video vividly depicts how the guerilla warlord Joseph Kony, leader of the Lords esistance Army (LA), reportedly abducted over 60,000 children who were subsequently forced to become child soldiers or sex slaves over the course of the civil war. Captured children who did not cooperate as said to have been mutilated and murdered. Production and dissemination of the video was a result of the efforts of an American charity called Invisible Children. In interviews with the press following the viral reception of the video, Invisible Children campaigner Jason ussell stressed the importance of the video as an example of how social media allows people all over the world to actually see other people -- see, as in the struggles, challenges, plights, and victories…
Anderson, M.L. And Hill Collins, P. (2009). Race, Class & Gender: An Anthology (7th ed.). Wadsworth Publishing.
Christie, D.J., Wagner, R.V., and Winter, D.D. (2001). Peace, conflict, and violence: Peace psychology for the 21st century. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Thorton, B. (2006). Critical consciousness and liberal education, In Watson, B. (2006) Civic Education and Culture.
Wilkerson, M. (2012, March 8). Kony 2012 campaign: Oprah and bracelets won't solve problem. The Guardian.
Systems Media Table: Comparison
The main purpose of this program is to construct sentences of the perceived information and manipulate paragraphs to form a word document. The program uses a display format 'what-you-see-is-what-you-get' to enhance the quality of the expected hardcopy.
WordPerfect and Microsoft Word are mostly superseded by both organization and personal computers to perform functions such as word formatting, letter processing and some simple designing. Accordingly, it is the most frequently used program in day-to-day operation.
It is used to type the text, save, and format and print the text.
It is used to insert pictures into the text page.
It is used to spell check the text document.
It is used to prepare letters and other word documents.
This kind of database system is to display a structure that would relieve the presentation of information using parent to child relationship. The…
AJ, W., & al, e. (2007). The role of decision aids in promoting evidence-based patient choice in Edwards A and Elwyn E (eds) Evidence-based patient choice:. O'Connor A and Edwards A.
European Commission DG Health and Consumer. (2012). Guidlines on the Qualification and Classification of Stand-alone Software used in Healthcare withing the Regulatory Framework of Medical Devices. Articles of Directive 93/42/EEC .
Eysenbach, G., Powell, J., Gunter, T.D., & Terry, N.P. (2005). The Emergence of National Electronic Health Record Architectures in the United States and Australia: Models, Costs, and Questions. Journal of Medical Internet Research: The Leading Peer-reviewed Internet Journal.
Fesenko, N. (2007). Compression Technologyes of Graphic Information. International Journal "Information Theories & Applications."
Discuss relationship systems theory healthcare deliver U.S. - What current concepts healthcare explained helped a system theory approach? - What system theory? - How researchers (Ludwig von Bertalanffy Everett M.
Systems theory and diffusion of innovation theory
Systems theory was not specifically designed to cope with the challenges of the U.S. healthcare system, although it has been frequently applied to some of its issues. Systems theory was originally coined by the scientist Ludwig von Bertalanffy to sum up his idea that the 'whole' of systems -- both biological and otherwise -- were larger than the sum of their parts. According to von Bertalanffy, "in the past, science tried to explain observable phenomena by reducing them to an interplay of elementary units investigable independently of each other, conceptions appear in contemporary science that are concerned with what is somewhat vaguely termed 'wholeness', i.e. problems of organization, phenomena…
Diffusion of innovation theory. (2013). University of Twente. Retrieved:
This website contains excerpts from E.M. Rogers' work on diffusion of innovation theory, along with a helpful graphical representation of how the information is disseminated.
Kaminski, J. (Spring 2011).Diffusion of innovation theory. Canadian Journal of Nursing.
The Case for ejecting Outsourcing the IT Department
The data and information within an organization is its life blood, it was what makes one company differentiated from another and valuable to customers. With IT being at the center of the information engine of any business, the idea of outsourcing it, allowing a third party company to manage this vital aspect of the company's health is like allowing a podiatrist to do heart surgery. It's not going to end well for either the doctor or the patient. The costs and benefits of IT outsourcing are presented in this analysis. Granted, IT outsourcing of menial, low-end tasks shows potential for streaming the operations of a business, allowing it to concentrate on its core business more effectively (Goo, Huang, Hart, 2008). Conversely outsourcing all aspects of IT can lead to a company abdicating its leadership in its main markets by sacrificing…
Cardella, T. (2003). Executive roundtable. Customer [email protected] Solutions, 22(3), 16-17.
Goo, J., Huang, C.D., & Hart, P. (2008). A path to successful IT outsourcing: Interaction between service-level agreements and commitment. Decision Sciences, 39(3), 469.
Jae-Nam, L., Miranda, S.M., & Yong-Mi, K. (2004). IT outsourcing strategies: Universalistic, contingency, and configurational explanations of success. Information Systems Research, 15(2), 110-131.
The second and third runs, therefore, were largely based on making adjustments to the first run strategy. In each instance, the adjustments made increased the total profit over the four years and it is believed that continuing along that same path of making slight adjustments would consistently increase the profits earned. It is for this reason that the strategy changed little -- there was no insight that was believed to lead to a better strategy and in lieu of such major insight there was no reason to pursue a radically different strategy.
The most useful concepts in this exercise were contribution margin (CVP analysis) and elasticity of demand. Understanding the cost structure of each product allowed for more intelligent pricing decisions. For example, the price cut in the X7 was significant at 25% from the base price in the base case run to 31.5% of that price in the later…
Richards, D. (2010). How to do a breakeven analysis. About.com. Retrieved June 5, 2010 from http://entrepreneurs.about.com/od/businessplan/a/breakeven.htm
QuickMBA.com. (2007). Price elasticity of demand. QuickMBA.com. Retrieved June 5, 2010 from http://www.quickmba.com/econ/micro/elas/ped.shtml
QuickMBA/Porter, M. (2007). Porter's generic strategies. QuickMBA.com. Retrieved June 5, 2010 from http://www.quickmba.com/strategy/generic.shtml
They must never become complacent and assume that they have considered all factors and can now relax, or they can slip into the "boiling frog" phenomenon: circumstances may turn so gradually negative that they do not notice the changes until they have large problems instead of small ones to solve (Beckford, 2002).
Just as the example of the soldiers at the bridge faced with a battle situation for which they had no previous experience, business leaders must expect the unexpected. If they create a culture of lifelong learning within their businesses, their staff and employees will always be open to looking at old facts in new ways, ready to find forward-thinking solutions. uch a company philosophy and structure can keep even the oldest company packed with fresh ideas and innovative solutions to the new problems they face.
Barker, Randolph T., and Camarata, Martin R. 1998. "The Role…
Swanson and Torrco discuss how the Human Resources Department must not only support but play an active part in a company's overall business strategy. Because of this they must be an integral part in any kind of systems thinking. The authors give multiple examples, such as the type of traning given to employees as well as their efforts to maintain the quality of employees' work. How such HR goals are achieved will have a profound effect on company culture and must be part of the company's overall plan.
Vogelsang-Coombs, Vera. 1997. "Governance Education: Helping City Councils Learn." Public Administration Review, Vol. 57.
This article tightly focuses on how one group can become dysfunctional -- city councils. The authors suggest ways city councils can learn to function more effectively. While it remains to be seen if city councils, as a group, would put in the time and effort to use systems thinking to improve their functioning, and whether dynamics within the group would or would not thwart such attempts, the article has a good discussion on "groupthink," a group phenomenon that blinds the group to lurking risks and dangers.
The decision making process of each decision maker must be supervised by his superior. Also, certain decisions and actions cannot be delegated to subordinates. In addition to this, the ethical role and ethical responsibilities of each employee, middle manager, and top manager must be identified before decision making.
Furthermore, this leads to identifying and analyzing objectives for each employee, in order to benefit from a well established and efficient decision making process. Although there are categories of employees that do not have a direct decisional role within the organization, they play a very important role in the decision making process.
This is because they can provide useful information to decision makers that should help them select the best alternative for the situation in case. Employees must be aware of the role they play in the decision making process and the importance of their activity in relation to that of the…
1. National Association of Child Care Professionals Code of Ethics (2009). The National Association of Child Care Professionals. Retrieved November 16, 2009.
2. Problem Solving Techniques (2009). Mind Tools. Retrieved November 16, 2009 from http://www.mindtools.com/pages/main/newMN_TMC.htm .
The model consists of five phases:
1. Perception of the ethical problem
2. Description the situation and objective definition of the ethical issue
3. Identification of alternatives
4. Selection of an alternative
5. esolution (Cooper, 2006).
This model has been implemented successfully in both the public and private sectors. The goals of the model are to create a management team consisting of responsible individuals that promote high standards, ethical decision-making practices on behalf of their code of ethics, transparency and accountability (Cooper, 2006). Ultimately, according to Cooper's model, ethical decision making is the process of identifying a problem, generating alternatives, and choosing among them so that the alternatives selected maximize the most important ethical values while also achieving the intended goal.
Most work-related decisions have an ethical component. With few exceptions, problems that involve people also involve ethical issues. Decisions that affect people's jobs and careers have an ethical…
Business Dictionary (2009) "Conflict of Interest" http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/conflict-of-interest.html
Cooper, T. (2006). The responsible administrator: An approach to ethics for the administrative role (5th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Jossey-Bass.
Olsen, a. (2009). Authoring a code of ethics: Observations on process and organization. Center for the study of ethics in the professions. Illinois Institute of Technology. http://ethics.iit.edu/index1.php/Programs/Codes%20of%20Ethics/Authoring%20a%20Code%20of%20Ethics.html
Schnebel, E., & Bienert, M.A. (2004). Implementing ethics in business organizations. Journal of Business Ethics, 53, 203-211.
The religious organization has other-worldly goals, but must adapt to the demands of this world in order to survive. There are generally two kinds of responses to this problem -- the church response and the sect response. The church response is to adapt at the expense of the goals and the sect response is value-rational-to maximize goal commitment at the expense of adaptation (Satow, 1975).
EXAMPLE NATUAL -- Management NEED in Business OGANIZATION
Theories and research concerned with individual performance, employee satisfaction, and reduction of tension between individual and organizational goals deal only with internal aspects of events, relationships, and structures that make up the total organizational system. However, if an organization is seen as an open-energy system, it is apparent that it is dependent for survival and growth upon a variety of energy transfers within the organization and also between the organization and its external environment. It is sure,…
Barnard, C. (1938). The Functions of the Executive. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University
Friedlander, F., and Pickle, H. (1968). Components of Effectiveness in Small Organizations. Administrative Science Quarterly13(2), 289-304
Kanigel, Robert (1997). The One Best Way: Frederick Winslow Taylor and the Enigma of Efficiency. New York: http://www.leaonline.com/entityImage/?code=200B
Kloos, B., McCoy, J., Stewart, E., Thomas R.E., Wiley, a., Good,- T.L., Hunt G.D., Moore, T. And Rappaport, J. (1997) Bridging the Gap: A Community-Based, Open Systems Approach to School and Neighborhood Consultation. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation 8(2), 175-196
System Operational Feasibility great deal of time and intellectual resources go into the conceptual design stage of a systems engineering process once a need is clearly defined by the end-user. However, this initial development step is a moot point if the product is not operationally feasible, which means, according to Benjamin Blanchard in his book Systems Engineering and Analysis, "that the system will perform as intended in an effective and efficient manner for as long as necessary."
In order for the systems engineer to determine operational feasibility, it is necessary to properly integrate the design-related specialties such as reliability, maintainability, human factors and supportability.
Reliability is one of the most important design elements, since it confirms or denies the long-term use of the product without major maintenance and repair. Unreliable systems do not meet the original project goals and lead to unnecessary expenditures of valuable resources. Simply stated, "reliability is…
Systems Engineering Documentation
When a scientist is developing a new pharmaceutical, an inventor is creating an alternative to an existing product, and a researcher is determining an easier method to develop a chemical process, they continually take notes or document each of their actions. This significantly reduces the amount of errors when others repeat the work to move ahead in the process and allows for the exact specifications to be copied when successful results are achieved.
Systems engineering follows this same pattern. In fact, documentation is an essential aspect, because of the creation of new designs and end products that meet the identified need of the customer. In Systems Engineering and Analysis, Benjamin Blanchard explains the importance of documentation as a design aid. Throughout the systems design process, which starts on a theoretical plane with an idea and evolves into a more specific set of steps and procedures, engineers often…
The feedback received by climbers upon reviewing the plan and completing the training
Customization of the plan based on team features, such as size, physical fitness of the climbers and so on
Initial control of the fitness, motivation and skills of each climber
Continuous controls of the state of each climber
Training of the team members
Physical checkups of all climbers
aising environmental responsibility awareness and support
Mental preparation: understanding the risks, such as the potential for hallucinations or frostbite
Insuring the climbers against any potential risks associated with climbing (de Garis and O'Connell, 2003 de Garis and O'Connell, 2003).
Personal commitments and desires of both climbers as well as T. Company staff
Long existent expertise of the staff at the T. Company
Financial investments. A trip to the Everest would generically commence at a minimum investment of $25,000…
Boukreev, a., DeWalt, G.W., the climb: tragic ambitions on Everest, St. Martin's Griffin, 1999, ISBN 0312206372
de Garis, K., O'Connell, D.., How to climb Everest, the Guardian, Edition of March 30, 2003
Everest, Alpine Ascents, 2011, http://www.alpineascents.com/everest.asp last accessed on February 23, 2011
How to climb Mount Everest, eHow, 2011, http://www.ehow.com/how_17485_climb-mount-everest.html last accessed on February 23, 2011
For example, somebody with no knowledge of military jargon and technology may struggle with understanding how the military works. Systems theory allows that person to examine the linkages and structures within the military, and then to understand how those linkages and structures work towards the desired outcomes. This understanding comes on a broad level, and does not require the observer to understand the nuances of military jargon and technology.
Systems thinking also allows the observer to understand similarities and differences between systems. Understanding the similarities between systems that on the surface level are entirely unrelated is difficult when the observer is focused on the superficialities, but an examination of the underlying systems allows for this understanding to take place. The university, for example, is more similar to a military unit than it is to a symphony. hile within the university there is a clear structure of command, there is a…
Federov, G. (2001). The military unit as part of the Armed Forces' economic system. Military Thought. Retrieved October 31, 2010 from http://dlib.eastview.com/browse/doc/400163
Roelofs, L. (no date). Organizational change: Open systems concepts applied. Symphony Orchestra Institute. Retrieved October 31, 2010 from http://www.soi.org/reading/change/concepts.shtml
To the extent the totality of circumstances suggest that possibility, even acceptance of the most nominal gratuities (i.e. A cup of coffee) is ethically inappropriate.
Similarly, even where the gratuity involved is of nominal value and there is no potential misunderstanding on the part of the individual proffering an otherwise appropriate gratuity, there is the issue of creating the appearance or inference of an improper relationship from the perspective of others observing the exchange. For example, while the proffer and acceptance of a single cup of coffee is excusable within the framework of ordinary positive community relations, the conspicuous regular transfer of even nominal gratuities in the presence of third parties can create an apparent inference of inappropriate influence regardless of whether or not that inference is necessarily accurate.
The SOI is intended to ensure that police officers do not misuse their duly authorized latitude to take different degrees…
Conlon E. (2004). Blue Blood. Riverhead, NY: Bantam.
Peak K. (2002). Policing America: Methods, Issues, Challenges. New Jersey: Prentice
Schmalleger F. (2008). Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st
One must "initiate corrective actions when deviations exceed some preset level" (Kurtyka 2005). Process improvement is essential. It is not enough to meet benchmarks; a leader must enable the entire organization to improve in a synergistic fashion. It is also not enough to 'strike it big' with one large project success: an organization must ensure that its 'system' is functional and that a single incident of success is not a fluke. This is one reason for the success of Toyota, an industry leader that has pushed itself to eliminate defects and engage in continual improvement of processes and products, even when things are going well.
Systems theory also enables a leader to locate his or her organization within the system of a larger social environment. Porter's Five Forces analysis underlies systems theory. Porter analyzes supplier power, buyer power, competitive rivalries, threat of substitutions for a product, and threats of new…
Continuous improvement. (2006). Process Quality Associates (PQA).
Retrieved November 7, 2009 at http://www.pqa.net/ProdServices/sixsigma/W06002004.html
Kurtyka, J. (2005, December). A systems theory of business intelligence. Information Management Magazine. Retrieved November 7, 2009 at http://www.information-management.com/issues/20051201/1042317-1.html
McNamara, Carter. (1997). A brief overview of systems theory. Management Help.
In most occasions however, the consent of the Congress is rather difficult to acquire and this often leads to frictions in the relations between the two parties. So tense are these relationships that the President perceives his meeting with the Congress as the most demanding and largest milestone in his path. "The President often sees Congress as an obstacle to be overcome, and always has to calculate how his proposals will play out with Congress. He cannot dictate to Congress what he wants, and faces a huge task in communicating with Congress because of its size and diversity" (Hamilton, 2004).
The frictions which occur between Congress and President have had a historical positive side in the meaning that they forced Presidents to forward flawless action plans, based on real facts, resource estimations and expected outcomes. Today however, the general perception is that these tensions are a means of stalling and…
Hamilton, L., 2004, Congress and the President, Center on Congress, http://www.centeroncongress.org/radio_commentaries/congress_president.php last accessed on August 12, 2009
2009, United States Government, MSN Encarta, http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_1741500781_3/united_states_government.html last accessed on August 10, 2009
The Constitution of the United States of America, Cornell University Law School, http://www.law.cornell.edu/constitution/constitution.overview.html last accessed on August 10, 2009
Systems Theory makes several assumptions that are useful for understanding the 14-year-old's behavior:
The state or condition of a system, at any one point in time, is a function of the interaction between it and the environment in which it operates." (Longres, 1999, p. 19)
Change and conflict are always evident in a system. Individuals both influence their environments and are influenced by them. Processes of mutual influence generate change and development." (Longres, 1990, p. 19)
Each person in a family is part of the whole system. The whole is greater than the sum of its parts." (Longres, 1990, p. 266)
These assumptions make us understand that the responsibility for the acts of the 14-year-old rest not with the child himself, but with the relationships and interactions in his family. More than anything else, the real issue is a family boundary problem where the hierarchical subsystem had not had a…
Brother Arrested in Slaying of Girl, 4." Washington Post 20. Sept., 2004: B-1
Longres, John F. Human Behavior in the Social Environment. Itasca, IL F.E. Peacock Publishers, Inc., 1990
Teen Appears in DC Court In Slaying of Sister, 4." Washington Post 21 Sept. 2004: B-3
As many of the components of our current computer system are more than five years old, there could be a significant cost savings produced by replacing and updating the system, in addition to the extra revenue generated by increased productivity (Meredith, 2010).
I have already begun preliminary investigations as to some of the specific components, processes, and features that might be desirable in this new system, and am awaiting your approval to conduct further research and feasibility analysis with this project, to eventually lead to the development and implementation of the system. I am very optimistic that this project could ultimately help to drive this company to new heights, capable of more fully capitalizing on emerging opportunities.
This process places the user in a central position for both determining system requirements and ensuring they are met.
The benefits of these systems include not only improvements in user efficiency, but also others, such as reduced training costs, reduced user errors, reduced maintenance costs, and increased customer satisfaction. However, the chief requirements in these kinds of systems become to understand the users' information needs. As we argued earlier, the systems analysts cannot determine information needs scientifically, rather the system analysts are required to obtain this needs by projecting an extrovert interpersonal style that fits more closely to an art form.
Design evaluations and maintenance are carried out with users of the systems (Smith and Dunckley, 2002). Although we believe that most of maintenance is routine, but in critical cases how systems are made usable so that users do not suffer their work requires an understanding of working around the…
Nielsen, J. (1993). Usability Engineering. New York: Academic Press.
Smith a. And Dunckley (2002). Prototype Evaluation and Redesign: Structuring the Design Space through Contextual Techniques. Interacting with Computers 14, 821 -- 843
Systems Structures Presentation
Electronic health records are common in the modern era of globalization and high technology. Electronic health records can be defined as a collection of health information, in digitized form, of individuals as well as populations. The objective of having health records in digital form is to make them accessible across different health care settings. This enables the patients as well as physicians to obtain health information from their relevant health care facility by simply requesting it to be sent over from the electronic health records that were held at the previous health care facility where the patient had been checked up. The health care facilities today are connected through a variety of network-connected enterprise-wide information systems. These can easily transfer information regarding any patient from one health care facility to another, given that they are connected via the network.
Electronic health records consist of not only technology…
In the United States of America, as a ruling in the form of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, the implementation of electronic health records in clinical settings was made compulsory with around $27 billion were allocated to the cause. This was a part of new health care reforms whose aim was that by 2015, there would be "meaningful use" of the technology made available to improve the quality of patient care available. The federal incentives being offered to hospitals and clinics in order to update to the electronic health record structures have all the physicians and nurses on their toes.
Nurses, as a result, are closely monitoring the effects and consequences of the use of the electronic health record structure systems on their ability to improve patient care. There have been admittedly some benefits. The availability of extensive up-to-date information on the patient and his medical condition and history, allows for measureable improvements from the treatment and care given to patients with chronic diseases as well as those patients which are on preventative medicine. It has been proved via a study conducted by the University of Pennsylvania that nurses that work in hospitals and other clinical set-ups with the electronic health care structures in place tend to report a greater deal of improvement in their patients than the nurses working in hospitals that are devoid of such technology. However, there is the task of the nurses learning to use and manage the electronic health record structures. Unless the nurses have had training or been provided transition time from the implementation of the electronic health record structure, they cannot get any meaningful use out of it. For the electronic health record structure to be effective, the user of the technology should be aware of how to mine for the data, the treatment plan to be followed and how to retrieve the meaningful data from the abundance of information available on the individual. Currently, there are also problems with the present infrastructure at hospitals for the proper implementation of the electronic health record structure.
In the future, if the administrators as well as the implementers of the health reforms seek to extract meaningful use from the electronic health record structures technology, they need to gear up and tackle a few issues beforehand. Step must be taken to ensure that the structure works according to the purpose it is meant for. The clinical integration across clinic-settings and hospitals should be made tighter and stronger. The nursing administration must prepare their staff for the upcoming implementation of electronic health record structures in terms of training, and also be prepared for the resistance that would come from the nursing staff during the implementation of new technology. There should also be preparation for the slowing down of the productivity when the system is first implemented. The main goal here is to measure the impact on the patient care and whether improvements in the quality of patient care is present or not.
Replicating the performance of a complex system through the use of systems simulation provides invaluable insight into the constraints, workflows and processes that determine its optimal level of performance. The use of systems simulation in oil refineries, process manufacturing, discrete and complex manufacturing including constraint-based modeling of customized equipment all provide valuable insights into how to continually improve process performance. The use of systems simulation is becoming commonplace in determining the optimal performance of individual and groups of machines combined to complete complex manufacturing and process tasks .
Analysis of Systems Simulation Scenarios
From process-centric systems that are involved in oil refining and process-related goods to the reliance on systems simulation to continually improve lean manufacturing processes across a discrete manufacturer's production floor, all share a series of common attributes. These common attributes include the modeling of specific constraints that are often dynamic and in turn…
 Andradottir S., Optimization of transient and steady-state behavior of discrete event systems, Management Science, 42, 717-737, 1996.
 R.P. Schulz. "Synchronous Machine Modeling. Symposium on Adequency and Philosophy of Modeling System Dynamic Performance." In IEEE Pub. 75 CH
Systems Management Problem:
Cincom Company operates in a flexible business environment that allows participating business enterprises and customers to be flexible. This flexibility translates into the ability of these businesses to choose the best software option from available options like Software-as-a-Service (SaaS), cloud option, and one or on-premise enterprise software. Generally, the availability of this software options and the flexibility of the business environment implies that Cincom Company can choose the type of software to implement based on its specific needs. However, the company is faced with numerous challenges including difficulty in implementing change, customer lock-in strategy, and lack of flexibility due to its particular organizational structure and culture. Actually, the major challenge for Cincom is the difficulty to adapt to and implement change that will reflect the new business environment it is operating in. This challenge is characterized with the CEO's approval of all products, pricing, sales, and services…
Andreson, D. & Anderson, L.A. (2010). Beyond change management: how to achieve breakthrough results through conscious change leadership (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons.
Burman, R. & Evans, A.J. (2008). Target Zero: A Culture of safety. Defence Aviation Safety
Centre Journal, 22 -- 27.
Cameron, Kim S. & Quinn, Robert E. (1999). Diagnosing and changing organizational culture:
Computer forensic is a scientific method of analyzing the digital information which is used as evidence for the criminal, administrative and civil cases. In the contemporary legal environment, computer forensic has become a vital part in solving the complex crimes. Since computer forensic experts use data to solve high level cases, effective data storage and retrieval is critical aspect of forensic investigation and effective data storage is very essential to assist in achieving the data integrity. ISO9660 file system has become an effective method that forensic experts employ to store and retrieve data. (Dixon, 2005). Preserving and storing the critical data and information without alteration of the original state of data is the most important aspect of Computer Forensics. Some of the techniques employed are by using the ISO9660 file system to store data. It is essential to realize an employee might inadvertently overwrite valuable data. Otherwise,…
Carrier, B. (2005). File System Analysis. Addison Wesley Professional .USA.
Carrier, B.D. (2010).Different interpretations of ISO9660 file systems. Digital Investigation. 7:S 1-2 9-S 1-3 4
Coward, J. (2009). Computer Forensics: Breaking down the 1's and 0's of cyber activity for potential evidence. Information Security Writers.
Dixon, P.D. (2005). An overview of computer forensics. IEEE Potentials (IEEE) 24 (5): 128-136.
Although the research tools provided by the ISO 14001 framework are both qualitative and quantitative, this approach is consistent with the guidance provided by Neuman (2003) who points out that, "Both qualitative and quantitative research use several specific research techniques (e.g., survey, interview, and historical analysis), yet there is much overlap between the type of data and the style of research. Most qualitative-style researchers examine qualitative data and vice versa" (p. 16). Indeed, researchers have used qualitative and quantitative surveys to assess consumer reactions to proposed environmental initiatives at the local level (Neuman, 2003).
In fact, quantitative and qualitative research methods are characterized by a number of similarities that lend themselves to environmental systems analyses and development (as well as some differences) (Neuman, 2003). The distinct differences in the qualitative and quantitative research suggest that the use of quantitative data for environmental system development is highly appropriate, but that such…
Bonlac Foods. (2012). Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved from http://investing.business week.com/research/stocks/private/snapshot.asp?privcapId=883342.
McComb, S. (2010). Green building & green business informatics tool. Elusor. Retrieved from http://www.environmentalaccountingtools.com/magazine/tag/building.
Recardo, R. & Jolly, J. (1999). Organizational culture and teams. SAM Advanced Management
Journal, 62(2), 4-5.
This stage is also a synthesis of various other stages. In the last, the system is described as a collection of modules or subsystems. In this stage, modular and subsystems programming code will take effect, and then the individual modules will be tested before they are integrated in the next level.
The code is tested and retested at various levels; system, unit, and user acceptance testing are often performed depending on the consultant's judgment and this is something that is repeatedly discussed with organization and stakeholders. The amount of testing, therefore, depends on the particular organization. The consultant has to know when to cease analysis.
The final stage -- instillation, implementation or deployment is when the software is put into production and actually used by the organization.
Maintenance will take place on a regular level. This is particularly so since changes of personnel in the organization (new ones entering, certain…
MKS Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) / System Development
SaaSSDLC.com -- Systems Engineering and Software Development Life Cycle Framework
Why is it important to use systems analysis and design methodologies when building a system? Why not just build the system in whatever way seems to be "quick and easy?" What value is provided by using an "engineering" approach?
Using a consistent and sound systems analysis and design methodology when building any system ensures that the foundational structure of the software or entire computing platform meets the specific goals and objectives of the users it is being designed for. Second, using sound systems analysis and design methodologies ensure that the overarching roadmap for the system stays consistent and does not deviate from the original design goals. Third, using a consistent and sound systems analysis and design methodology ensures that as the system user's needs change, the system can change to reflect their requirements. Fifth, having a sound systems analysis and design methodology ensures that the ongoing systems maintenance…
AE alanced Scorecard Performance Management Implementation
Facing the daunting challenge of staying competitive in rapidly consolidating industry segments of aerospace, defense and commercial aircraft components and assembly manufacturing and service, senior management at AE Systems chose to completely re-architect the company. The comprehensive change programme included dismantling the global conglomerate and replacing its structure with a series of interlocking businesses that would strengthen and support each other, generating greater competitive advantage than the current structure allowed for (Murby, Gould, 2005). As ritish Aerospace had been privatized in 1979, and with the acquisition of Marconi Electronic Systems in 1999 the company changed its name to AE Systems and become Europe's largest defense contractor and the second leading defense contractor in the world (Murby, Gould, 2005). Through both acquisitions and organic growth, the company had grown to over 100,000 employees in nine global markets including the UK, USA, Sweden, Saudi…
Murby, L., Gould, S., (2005). Effective Performance Management with the Balanced Scorecard: Technical Report. Chartered Institute of Management Accountants. Retrieved from: http://www.cimaglobal.com/Documents/ImportedDocuments/Tech_rept_Effective_Performance_Mgt_with_Balanced_Scd_July_2005.pdf
Purvanova, R.K., & Bono, J.E. (2009). Transformational leadership in context: Face-to-face and virtual teams. Leadership Quarterly, 20(3), 343.
Sim, K.L., & Koh, H.C. (2001). Balanced scorecard: A rising trend in strategic performance measurement. Measuring Business Excellence, 5(2), 18-26.
Open Systems ISA, Inc.
Due to the delay of my understanding, I was able to complete the writing but haven't inserted the APA footnotes yet. I'm doing that now but I opted to upload the text first. I will use the message system and provide you with another version with the footnotes shortly. Sorry, but I wanted to show you it would be ready pretty close to the due date and time! You should have the second version with the footnotes in less than an hour.
Whether one goes to a large medical facility or to a free community clinic, step one is generally the same: Someone in the organization initiates both a financial and a physical assessment of your condition. It's as if the doctor needs to know your symptoms and what resources are at hand before he or she can even consider how to plot out their response.…
Burke-Litwin Model of Organizational Performance & Change (1992) -- The end result of the experiences of the past, this approach is seen as introducing a broad-based assessment of the best of the above. It introduces new or more refined constructs and anticipates the differences between an operational climate (which may be time or location specific) and culture in similar ways to how transactional and transformative considerations come into play. Invested with a strong theoretical foundation, this approach is deemed measurable and is nearly fully encircled with feedback loops that are now thought to be measurable because of their inclusion in the theories that support the complexity.
MAKING THE ISA CASE
As previously noted, ISA is well appreciated because it deems itself responsive to both the patient and the circumstances (including costs) for prescribing and implementing a cure to what ails the many communities/clients that have waste disposal issues. It has learned how to maximize and resell what it reclaims and has survived into a market where the repurposing of recycled materials is now as cost-effective as finding the raw resources themselves. The company has experienced some quarterly profit fluxuations, but overall is has continued to grow in response to the needs and expectations of its mission, or perhaps more importantly, the varying levels and spectrums of its many missions that are thought to be highly responsive to the needs of its many clients. It is this variability in the company that has allowed it to be successful in the emerging environmental market and thus enable reviewers to diagnose its organizational functionality. However, because the conditions for environmental understanding and complexity are somewhat decentralized and tied to the needs of particular locations, it is best diagnosed using not the final, most interactive of models (Burke-Litwin), but instead the DIGB model. In diagnosing individual and group behavior that is specific to its various clients' conditions, it is possible to get a greater understanding of the dynamics of what is brought to each condition and enables them to adapt as needed to local requirements and expectations. The feedback they receive in being able to provide everything from basic transportation to appropriate uses of "each pound" of their reclamations allows for the kind of responsiveness that is tied to the actions and reactions of particular players. While it might generally be said that any environmental entity of this sort must be conceived of as being effectively without boundaries -- because of the diversity of expectations of their clients -- in reality, they appear to be operating within measurable expectations that exist at the time of their activity. In so doing, however, they appear to allow for growth and change that comes as communities or political forces bring about new expectations and as governing laws evolve.
Sociotechnical Systems Work Approaches
The objective of this study is to examine and assess sociotechnical approaches from two perspectives and specifically the historical perspective in regards to evolution of management styles that support and enable a sociotechnical approach and stages of innovation explaining how Rogers' diffusion of innovation informs the implementation of, or lack thereof, sociotechnical system
It is reported that socio-technical systems is a work that sprung from the Tavistock Institute of Human Relations in England and involved the exploration of methods for productivity improvement while raising morale in organization via use of 'action research'. (abson Education, nd, p.1) The primary assumption of socio-technical systems is that organizations 'consist of the relation between a nonhuman system and human system." (abson Education, nd, p.1) The socio-technical view holds that both of the systems must be given consideration "when jointly optimizing the two." (abson Education, nd, p.1) It was additionally explored…
Checkland, P (1981). Systems thinking, systems practice. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons
Nathanael, D. (2002) Socio-technical Systems Analysis: Which approach should be followed? In Cognition, Culture & Design, S. Bagniara, S. Pozzi, A. Rizzo & P. Wright (Eds.), Sienna: Instututo di Sienze et Tecnologie dela Cognizione, 2002, pp. 137-142. Retrieved from: http://ergou.simor.ntua.gr/Docs/Nathanael&Marmaras&Papantoniou&Zarboutis_ECCE11.pdf
Schatz, S. And King, FB (nd) Implementation of Innovation: Evolving Models for Soci-Technical Diffusion of Innovation and Changing Practice. University of Hartford Retrieved from: http://uhaweb.hartford.edu/schatz/paper/implementinnovation.pdf
Simon, H.A. (1976). Administrative behavior. NY: The Free press, 3rd edition.
Open Systems Models
The company that I am going to study is Google. Their primary business is online advertising, where they are the industry leader. Google owns many of the world's top websites, and uses its immense database of information about user preferences to give it competitive advantage in this business. The company has also proven to be one of the most collaborative and innovative companies. Two of its other products -- the Android mobile operating system and the Chrome browser, are also market leaders, even though they do not generate significant revenue for the company. This paper will focus on open systems as Google, to illustrate how the principles of open systems work.
Open Systems Elements
There are several elements to systems, including inputs (resources), organization culture, organization structure, behavior, processes and technologies. All of this lead to outputs. When these elements work well together -- when they are…
Harrison, M. (2004). Diagnosing Organizations: Methods, Models, and Processes (Applied Social Research Methods) (3rd ed.) Sage Publications.
Tapscott, D. (Artist), & TEDTalks, (Producer) (2012).Don Tapscott: Four principles for the open world [Web]. Retrieved from http://www.ted.com/talks/don_tapscott_four_principles_for_the_open_world_1
Innocentive. (2014). Google's 9 principles of innovation -- open innovation through culture. Innocentive. Retrieved March 31, 2014 from http://www.innocentive.com/blog/2014/01/29/googles-9-principles-of-innovation-open-innovation-through-culture/
Google. (2014). Ten things we know to be true. Google. Retrieved March 31, 2014 from http://www.google.ca/about/company/philosophy/
Monitoring an Aircraft's eliability System:
In the civil aircraft industry, one of the most critical areas is the operational or dispatch reliability of an aircraft. For any airline, the reliability system of an aircraft is very important since its effectiveness lessens flights delays and cancellations. The effective working of this system to achieve its functions also results in greater operational efficiency, customer satisfaction and flexibility. Dispatch or operational reliability is defined as the percentage of scheduled flights that depart without any technical delay that exceeds 15 minutes or a flight cancellation. It's important for any airline to ensure that the reliability systems of its aircrafts are effective since this result in less costs and greater revenues for the airline. The reliability system of an aircraft is largely affected by both technical and non-technical factors with the technical ones resulting from the decisions made by designers. On the other hand, the…
Airworthiness Advisory Circular (2007), Maintenance Control By Reliability Methods, Barbados
Civil Aviation Department, viewed 16 April 2011,
The project will be initialized by system analysts who explore the implication of their current system and the constraints provided by the new MP solution. Project managers monitor the communication between the executive committee specifications and system analysts, while the it support division provides ongoing support, maintenance and training for the system. There are several constraints for this project, primarily, the MP solution must be developed in parallel in the current system so that no downtime is experienced during implementation. Which means that a flawless transition between systems must take place, taxing all agents involved. Implementation time will be significant because the longer the implementation period, more costs will accrue for double usage of the ongoing MP solution. However, careful implementation and training will allow for a smoother transition between systems, which will be crucial for operations. The training procedure will be two steps, first the it support staff then…
Resources software system analyst
This particular report is an evaluation on AIS through case analysis and presentation involving AIS failure, possible alternatives the firm may have had and just how the management should have strategized to avert the failure. In the end, the paper reveals best practices for migration from another system to AIS.
To change the Accounting Information System (AIS) best practices
Accounting info systems (AIS) has transformed business processes on a worldwide scale. When financial data is entered into the AIS, financial statements and reports are created at several business levels to make profitability certain. Steinbart and romney (2012) revealed that the accounting systems process information to offer data to users so that they can not only plan, but also manage and operate respective businesses. Given this situation, accounting info system are viewed as a method which helps management in their planning and balance processes by offering data that is both…
Identify and explain the four-step process used by cultivation analysis researchers.
The cultivation analysis as a theory is a four step process. Cultivation researchers use these four steps to demonstrate their belief that watching of television has an effect on the culture of people. The first step is the system analysis. This is a comprehensive analysis of the programs that run in the television. Ninety eight percent of all households in America own a television (Morgan, 2012). This indicates that the programs in television have a wide audience. Thus, an analysis of the content of the program is critical to the cultivation theorist.
The message analysis demonstrates that a repetitive pattern in the themes, values and images in televisions. The message system analysis focuses violence in television programs. It is evident that there are high doses of violence in programs and television broadcasts. The image of the real world that…
Morgan, M. (2012). George Gerbner: A critical introduction to media and communication theory. New York: Peter Lang.
Job Task Analysis -- Customer Service
Job Task Analysis Customer Service
Location: Corporate Office
shifts, 8-5, 4-12
Sat/Sun -- 9am-6pm
Hourly (Entry 10.00/hour, range to $14.80/hour)
Call Center Agent
Preparation / Prerequisites
High School Diploma or Equivalent
Excellent Interpersonal Skills
Working Knowledge of Basic Computer Operations and MS Word and Excel
Must pass a background and drug screen
Ability to Multi-Task effectively
Clear speaking voice and good command of English
Typing skills of 25-30 wpm or greater
One year experience in Customer Service or Sales
Ability to problem solve and find win-win solutions
Pleasant "can-do" attitude
Excellent listening and empathy skills
Work in a call center environment
Maintain customer service targets
Sales and Sales support
Consistently meets established guidelines
Effectively communicates with customers, coworkers and managers
Demonstrates accuracy and thoroughness to Quality Programs
Ability to service…
secondary research business information systems- * history business information systems impact mobile technology *
Business information systems
The modern day society evolves at the fastest rate known so far to humanity. And the trend setter for this rapid change is represented by technology. Innovations are present in all aspects of the daily operations, from the preparation of meals and the spending of the leisure time to the completion of the professional tasks.
Within the business community, technology has been adopted as a source of operational efficiencies. Technology allows economic agents to conduct research at superior levels, to process and store data, but also to provide support for manufacturing, marketing or managerial operations.
The technologies used by economic agents can generically be divided into two categories -- hardware and software. The hardware components include the computers, the machines, the peripheics or any other tangible devices. The software components include the applications…
Curtis, G., Cobham, D., 2008, Business information systems: analysis, design and practice, 6th edition, Pearson Education, ISBN 0273713825
Hon, A., 2011, New technology: one day, everyone will have a magic tablet, The Telegraph, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/technology-topics/8799481/New-technology-One-day-everyone-will-have-a-magic-tablet.html last accessed on October 28, 2011
Mohelska, H., Mobile technologies and their use in a company, WSEAS, http://www.wseas.us/e-library/conferences/2010/Tunisia/AEBD/AEBD-23.pdf last accessed on October 28, 2011
2011, Information system, PC Magazine, http://www.pcmag.com/encyclopedia_term/0,2542,t=business+information+system&i=44963,00.asp#fbid=aEvSu1daRi_ last accessed on October 28, 2011
Service equest S-M-
Designing and Implementation of new H System at iordan Manufacturing
Before starting to design and implement the new H system at its organizational setup, iordan Manufacturing will have to keep in view certain factors which can impact the successful completion of these important steps (osenblatt, 2013). First of all, it must decide on the steps which it must undergo during the whole designing and implementation process. It will help in managing and prioritizing different tasks of the process and allocating organizational resources in an effective and efficient way (Beatty & Williams, 2006). In general, the designing and implementation of a new H system undergoes six major steps, including: coding, testing, installation, documentation, training, and support. These steps are now discussed in the following sections in detail:
Step 1: Coding
Coding is the initial step in design phase of system implementation. It includes writing different codes…
Beatty, R.C. & Williams, C.D. (2006). "ERP II: Best Practices for Successfully Implementing an ERP Upgrade," Communications of the ACM, 49 (3): 105-109.
Cruz-Cunha, M.M. & Varajao, J. (2011). Enterprise Information Systems Design, Implementation and Management: Organizational Applications, 1st Edition. Hershey, PA: Business Science Reference.
Ehie, I.C. & Madsen, M. (2005). "Identifying Critical Issues in Enterprise Resource Planning (Erp) Implementation," Computers in Industry, 56 (6): 545-557.
Gunasekaran, A. (2008). Techniques and Tools for the Design and Implementation of Enterprise Information, 1st Edition. Advances in enterprise information systems (AEIS) series, Vol. 2. Hershey: IGI Pub.
Intrusion Detection Systems: etail-Based Cybercrime and the Importance of Security Point of Sales Endpoints Systems
etail-based cybercrime and the importance of security Point of Sales Endpoints Systems
The recent technological advances have resulted in increased dependability of network-based technology for everyday usage. Points of sales systems have also evolved, and they are now linked to the company's network, which makes them vulnerable to attacks. The number of attacks leveled against POS endpoints has increased steadily in recent times . This is because they are mostly stand-alone and they are used to capture credit card information. The attackers are mostly interested in customer information for fraud or identity theft purposes. In order for POS systems to verify customer information and process credit cards, they need network connection. The network connection provided is dependent on the store. Large stores connect their POS systems to the internal network in order to simplify administration…
 B. Qawami, B.Z. Talaich, and M.J. Farrell, "Enabling a Merchant's Storefront POS (Point of Sale) System to Accept a Payment Transaction Verified by SMS Messaging with Buyer's Mobile Phone," ed: Google Patents, 2012.
 P. Kabiri and A.A. Ghorbani, "Research on Intrusion Detection and Response: A Survey," IJ Network Security, vol. 1, pp. 84-102, 2005.
 S.R. Snapp, J. Brentano, G.V. Dias, T.L. Goan, T. Grance, L.T. Heberlein, C.-L. Ho, K.N. Levitt, B. Mukherjee, and D.L. Mansur, "A system for distributed intrusion detection," COMPCOM Spring, vol. 91, pp. 170-176, 1991.
 N.B.W. Mlitwa and D. Birch, "The role of intrusion detection systems in electronic information security: From the activity theory perspective," Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, vol. 9, pp. 296-312, 2011.
The Congruence Model for Organizational Analysis appears thorough in terms of both the internal and external environment. The model operates on the basis of inputs, throughputs and outputs, with the external environment providing feedback on inputs and outputs. The organization is regarded as a dynamic system, which is influenced by means of a number of variables. Of all the models, this one appears to be the most applicable to Walgreens.
Tichy's TPC Framework and Diagnosing Group and Individual ehavior are also regarded as particularly applicable to Walgreens, as a result of the significant influence of the environment. Tichy's model increases the complexity of the internal environment by recognizing that some relationships among variables are stronger than others. Environmental influence is recognized through inputs, outputs and the feedback loop. Diagnosing Individual and Group ehavior focuses mainly upon human relationships within the internal environment. It is also assumed that there are minimal…
Falletta, S.V. (2005)
Organizational Diagnostic Models: A Review and Synthesis. Retrieved at http://www.leadersphere.com/img/Orgmodels.pdf
Walgreens Health Services. (2009).