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Finally, the SDLC Model also leads to greater alignment of software application features with customer requirements, which is also measurable. As the role of the systems analyst becomes more closely aligned with customer strategies over and above that of being merely the implementers of technology to business strategists, the role of the SDLC becomes a necessary framework for initiating and delivering lasting process change to an organization.
Systems' Analysts Most Critical Task: Finding the Voice of the Customer
Defining the systems and analysis objectives for the all system analysis and design efforts begins with finding the Voice of the Customer (Columbus 2005) which are critical for the development of SDLC-based development strategies which must reflect not only one-of- business objectives but also the specific wants and needs from system users the applications under development will be used by daily. Many IT staffs host User Advisory Councils to gain insights into…
Alstyne, Marshall van, Erik Brynjolfsson, and Stuart Madnick (1997). "The Matrix of Change: A Tool for Business Process Reengineering." MIT Sloan School Working Papers available on the Internet, accessed on December 17, 2006:
Alstyne, Marshall van, Erik Brynjolfsson, and Stuart Madnick (1995). "Why Not One Big Database? Principles for Data Ownership." Decision Support Systems 15.4 (1995): 267-284.
AMR Research (2005)
Business Systems Analyst Profession
As the world of computing to advance, all aspects of Information technology has continued to rapidly change with each efforts aimed at enhancing the functions related to Information Technology and producing better results at the same time (Armbrust et al., 2010). One of the areas of modification with respect thisfield include the practice of system analysis which can now be practically accomplished in a virtual environment. Better decision making in business environments is such an important aspect that the requirement of a business analysis in any organization, worth its salt cannot be undermined (O'loughlin, 2010).To make matters better, such undertakings can be accomplished within remote settings. In the Business System Analysis Profession, tasks can be managed and accomplished effectively in a virtual environment. Additional, there exists specific tools indispensable in facilitating proper functions in such a position virtually. There are also new tools which would make…
Armbrust, M et al. (2010) A View of Cloud Computing. Communications of the ACM, 53(4)
Chou, A.Y & Chou, D, Computing from the Perspectives of System Analysis, Chicago: Illinois State University
Ellis, K (2009, November 3) The Future of Business Analyst, Retrieved, http://www.batimes.com/keith-ellis/the-future-of-the-business-analyst.html
Business Systems Analysis Explained, Retrieved, http://www.systemsanalyst.com/business-system-analysis-explained/
Even more, the lack of loyalty can also be considered a disadvantage.
Furthermore, there are numerous strong advantages regarding the option of selecting a person for the position of system analyst from the already existing employees of the company.
The first advantage concerns the ability to have complete control over the action. It is not just the pressure of the control that will make the system analyst try to do his best, but also the fact that he is aware of the importance of his job. The efficiency with which he will complete his task will ultimately reflect on the efficiency with which the entire company functions. Therefore, it will affect him as well, since he is part of the company. The control will be exercised over the provided service, but also upon the equipment and the funds. Thus, the management team can decide how to allocate the funds for…
Advantages to Outsourcing, 24 September 2006, http://www.everlastingtec.com/a_advantages.php
Computer System Analysts, " Occupational Outlook Handbook," 24 September 2006, http://jobsearchtech.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?zi=1/XJ&sdn=jobsearchtech&zu=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.bls.gov%2Foco%2Focos287.htm
Computer Analyst Jobs, 24 September, http://jobsearchtech.about.com/od/computerjob13/a/systems_analyst.htm
Insourcing vs. Outsourcing, Providing service with the right mix, 24 September 2006 http://www.npf.org/pdfs/NPFPresentations/collegeanduniversity/insourcingvsoutsourcing.pdf#search=%22insourcing%20advantages%22
Project Manager and Systems Analyst: Contrast and Compare
In any organization, whether technically oriented or not, a project manager traditionally is responsible for the planning, coordinating, implementation and support of a specific project for organization. He or she delegates authority to other workers, and determines how the internal and external materials and finances allocated for the project will be deployed over the course of a project. Also, a manager of a project, once the project is split up into various groups will usually have to coordinate with the project's individual workers and/or teams, engage in constant trouble-shooting, and monitor the organization's budget.
A systems analyst often has the same 'soft' or personal skills as a project manager, such as the ability to analyze a situation, to delegate authority to different units, and to organize items so that they work to their maximum degree of efficacy. However, while a project manager…
Analyzing Professions elated to Information Systems
Information systems are any use of the modern technology to utilize current information to exercise business operations. It also involves the use of technological advancements to make the working of a manager successful. There are three main fields in the workplace that draws the use of this body of knowledge. The jobs are performed by Business Analysts, Systems Analysts, and Functional Analysts. In this study, I have provided various similarities among the three professions and some of the essential requirements for individuals practicing in these fields. This has enabled to choose my preferred profession of being a Systems Analyst.
The three areas above are similar in the sense that they are all geared to solving a known problem that is a part of the greater agenda in the job market. Specialists in the specific fields also perform them. In this case,…
Brandon, T. (2014). Business Analysis. Wokingham, Berkshire: Kaplan Pub.
Couger, J., & Knapp, R. (2012). System Analysis Techniques. New York: Wiley.
Yoshida, K. (2013). Functional Analysis (6th ed.). Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
ole in IT as a Systems Analyst
I am currently working toward the role of being a Systems Analyst in an enterprise IT department. Having expertise in a wide variety of information systems technologies and processes, in addition to understanding how systems integrate with one another to create useful information is essential for my role. The most critical aspect of my role as a Systems Analyst is to concentrate on understanding and defining system strategies that contribute to the accomplishment of line-of-business objectives. The intent of this analysis is to evaluate how information systems are critical to the role of a Systems Analyst.
How Knowledge of Information Systems Helps System Analysts
The most critical skill set of any Systems Analyst is to translate the many factors inherent business strategies and line-of-business objectives into analytics, dashboards and reports that can make an immediate impact on the performance of a business. Insights…
Kroenke, D.M. (2013). Using MIS (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Page 1-24.
" The job required a candidate with a BS in Technical Writing, Food Science, Food Engineering, Food Microbiology or Food Chemistry and competency in Microsoft Word. Salary was commensurate with experience.
A software system architect for the Interoperable Solutions Team at Motorola would be part of a development group within the company's Worldwide adio Solutions Group. The job required a BA and 5+ years in software or system engineering, along with experience with one of the following systems: C++, java, lte, wimax, tau g2, doors, udp, igmp, multicast ip, sdt, evdo. Salary was not specified. A systems analyst for eCommLink was to act as a liaison between eCommLink's engineering, quality assurance, business, and operations teams and create the technical requirements for the prepaid card system created by the company.
Associate product lifecycle management specialist. (2010). Con Agra. etrieved February 17,
2010 at http://jobview.monster.com/Assoc-Prod-Lifecycle-Mgmt-Spec-Job-Omaha-NE-U.S.-86306416.aspx
Manager, business development II, Air Force…
Associate product lifecycle management specialist. (2010). Con Agra. Retrieved February 17,
2010 at http://jobview.monster.com/Assoc-Prod-Lifecycle-Mgmt-Spec-Job-Omaha-NE-U.S.-86306416.aspx
Manager, business development II, Air Force systems and requirements. (2010). BAE Systems.
Retrieved February 17, 2010 at http://jobview.monster.com/Manager-Business-Development-II-Air-Force-Systems-Requirements-Job-Wright-Patterson-Afb-OH-U.S.-86304605.aspx
Complete Solutions plc (CS) is a successful organization specializing in IT consultancy business with annual turnover of £40 millions. The company is located at North of England with branches in the U.S. And France. Established in 1980, the company was taken over by a larger company, and the take-over bid led to the rapid expansion of the company. Complete Solution has several sections with approximately 400 users in the UK divisions. The company internal services are based in Manchester with the Training Solutions (TS) consultancy section, Sales, and Marketing section. The overall services of Complete Solution consists of the IT consultancy service as well as selling of hardware and software, training and recruitment, software development and, outsourced services. The other services provided by the Complete Solution are consultancy services. With rapid expansion that the company is enjoying, the Complete Solution is planning to go public by…
CO3601 System Concepts (nd).Soft Systems Methodology Case Study: Complete Solutions
Checkland, P.(1985). Achieving 'Desirable and Feasible' Change: An Application of Soft Systems Methodology ST. The Journal of the Operational Research Society. 36(9): 821-831.
Gasson, S. (1995). The Role of Methodologies in IT-Related Organizational changes. Proceedings of BCS Specialist Group on IS Methodologies, 3rd Annual Conference.
Simonsen, J. (1994).Soft Systems Methodology. Computer Science/Roskilde University.
This process places the user in a central position for both determining system requirements and ensuring they are met.
The benefits of these systems include not only improvements in user efficiency, but also others, such as reduced training costs, reduced user errors, reduced maintenance costs, and increased customer satisfaction. However, the chief requirements in these kinds of systems become to understand the users' information needs. As we argued earlier, the systems analysts cannot determine information needs scientifically, rather the system analysts are required to obtain this needs by projecting an extrovert interpersonal style that fits more closely to an art form.
Design evaluations and maintenance are carried out with users of the systems (Smith and Dunckley, 2002). Although we believe that most of maintenance is routine, but in critical cases how systems are made usable so that users do not suffer their work requires an understanding of working around the…
Nielsen, J. (1993). Usability Engineering. New York: Academic Press.
Smith a. And Dunckley (2002). Prototype Evaluation and Redesign: Structuring the Design Space through Contextual Techniques. Interacting with Computers 14, 821 -- 843
The religious organization has other-worldly goals, but must adapt to the demands of this world in order to survive. There are generally two kinds of responses to this problem -- the church response and the sect response. The church response is to adapt at the expense of the goals and the sect response is value-rational-to maximize goal commitment at the expense of adaptation (Satow, 1975).
EXAMPLE NATUAL -- Management NEED in Business OGANIZATION
Theories and research concerned with individual performance, employee satisfaction, and reduction of tension between individual and organizational goals deal only with internal aspects of events, relationships, and structures that make up the total organizational system. However, if an organization is seen as an open-energy system, it is apparent that it is dependent for survival and growth upon a variety of energy transfers within the organization and also between the organization and its external environment. It is sure,…
Barnard, C. (1938). The Functions of the Executive. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University
Friedlander, F., and Pickle, H. (1968). Components of Effectiveness in Small Organizations. Administrative Science Quarterly13(2), 289-304
Kanigel, Robert (1997). The One Best Way: Frederick Winslow Taylor and the Enigma of Efficiency. New York: http://www.leaonline.com/entityImage/?code=200B
Kloos, B., McCoy, J., Stewart, E., Thomas R.E., Wiley, a., Good,- T.L., Hunt G.D., Moore, T. And Rappaport, J. (1997) Bridging the Gap: A Community-Based, Open Systems Approach to School and Neighborhood Consultation. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation 8(2), 175-196
The key constructs of systems thinking were constituted in the first half of the 20th century in fields such as psychology, ecology, organismal biology, and cybernetics (Capra 1997). They include: sub-systems/parts/wholes, environment/system/boundary, process/structure, emerging properties, hierarchy of organizations, negative and positive feedback, data and control, open systems, holism, and the observer. The practical application of these constructs in many fields was discovered by von Bertalanffy (1950). He referred to these concepts as general systems theory (GST). These concepts were adapted in Organizational research and Management science (O/MS) and were referred to as management cybernetics (Beer 1967), systems engineering (Hall 1962), system four dynamics (Forrester 1968), and finally, in what we might refer to as the systems approach (Churchman 1968; Klir 1969; Weinberg 1975) (Mingers & White, 2009).
The systems thinking/systems approach, has been closely linked to the growth of organizational research and management science. At the start it…
Beer, S., 1967. Cybernetics and Management, English Universities Press: London.
Beer S (1984). The Viable System Model: Its Provenance, Development, Methodology and Pathology. Journal of the Operational Research Society 35(7): 25.
Bezuidenhout, C. & Bodhanya, S., 2010. Identifying opportunities in South African sugarcane supply-chain-systems: A synopsis, limitations and recommendations. Report to the South African Sugarcane Research Institute, Mount Edgecombe: s.n.
Burnett SM and Durant-Law GA (2008). Applying the RAAAKERS framework in an analysis of the command and control arrangements of the ADF Garrison Health Support. Journal of Military and Veterans' Health 17: 19-26.
Third, subsystems engineers are more attuned to how their specific product and technology areas are driven by external market forces and market dynamics than system engineers typically are. The reason is that subsystem engineers, both hardware and software, seek to understand how customer and market needs impact their existing and future designs. As both of these classes of subsystem engineers are more focused on how to create valuable contributions to their specific area of expertise, monitoring market and customer trends tends to be a passion for many of them. It is not unusual for example to see an engineering team know more about market trends, research, unmet customer needs and competitors than a marketing department for the same product (Hoberman, 2009). This is precisely why subsystem engineers in high technology companies often end up running product management, product marketing and corporate marketing because they have a better grasp of the…
David Carrington, Paul Strooper, Sharron Newby, & Terry Stevenson. (2005). An industry/university collaboration to upgrade software engineering knowledge and skills in industry. The Journal of Systems and Software, 75(1-2), 29-39.
George T. Dasher. (2003). The interface between systems engineering and program management. Engineering Management Journal, 15(3), 11-14.
R. Harrison, a.W. Colombo, a.A. We-st, & S.M. Lee. (2006). Reconfigurable modular automation systems for automotive power-train manufacture. International Journal of Flexible Manufacturing Systems, 18(3), 175-190.
Steve Hoberman. (2009). How to Produce Adequate Definitions: Clear and complete attribute definitions improve data deliverables. Information Management, 19(5), 45.
There are a myriad of challenges to successfully implementing new systems with the largest being how to manage resistance to change. The intent of this analysis is to evaluate the five major challenges to system development. What unifies all of these factors is the need for a successful change management program that can provide those users most affected by new systems with greater insight into why the change is happening (Kroenke, 2013).
Analysis Of The Five Major Challenges To Systems Development
In addition to change management challenges, a lack of having clear objectives and lead to a systems development project failing. The first challenge to systems development is managing the difficulty of determining requirements (Kroenke, 2013). This is particularly difficult when there is resistance to the new system going in or when system analysts are attempting to design enhanced and more effective workflows.
The second major challenge is…
Kroenke, D.M. (2013). Using MIS (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. (Pg. 368-371).
To manage and control the development activities for Visa's new system, Visa Commerce, the management system that would perhaps be best applicable is to focus the management and control on the development team that must consist of "just enough" number of members. This includes the team that chiefly handles all the requirements for the new system and the system's IT development team. Since Visa Commerce is a system for global use, it is essential that all development activities for the system must be firmly monitored and controlled. Communication to a team that is not large in number of members, yet enough to complete the system, facilitates this process.
To manage and control the activities for Visa Commerce, an open communication should be available between each member of the development team. If possible, the development team must work as a group in one location. This is important specifically to…
Douglass, B.P. (2000). Organizing Models the Right Way.
Retrieved on February 12, 2004, from SD Magazine.
Web site: http://www.sdmagazine.com/documents/s=825/sdm0008j/
Solarski, M. (1998). Dynamic Updating of Software Components in TINA-based Systems.
system development life cycle (SDLC) approach to the development of Information Systems and/or software is provided. An explanation of SDLC is offered, with different models applied in implementing SDLC delineated. Advantages and disadvantages associated with each of the models will be identified.
System Development Life Cycle
According to Walsham (1993), system development life cycle (SDLC) is an approach to developing an information system or software product that is characterized by a linear sequence of steps that progress from start to finish without revisiting any previous step. The SDLC model is one of the oldest systems development models and is still probably the most commonly used (Walsham, 1993). The SDLC model is basically a project management tool that is used to plan, execute, and control systems development projects (Whitten & Bentley, 1998). System development life cycles are usually discussed in terms of the conventional development using the waterfall model or the…
References survey of system development methods (1998). Center for Technology in Government,
Albany, NY: University at Albany, CTG Publication, pp. 1-13.
Ahituv, Niv & Neumann, Seev (1982). Principles of information systems for management. Dubuque, Iowa: Wm. C. Brown Company Publishers.
Hughes, P. (2002). SDLC models and methodologies. Information Systems Branch,
Ministry of Transportation, Governement of British Columbia, Victoria, BC, Canada.
However, in the most recent theory of evolution which discusses the living world appears as the result of chance and an output of different randomly selected natural mills. This kind of development came to present as a result of the need of more subjects or topics in areas such as cybernetic, general system theory, information theory, theories of games which is needed in most decision making process in line with real applications. In mathematics techniques however, there are a number of general assumption which are insufficient and most of the time very contradict themselves (Laszlo & Krippner, 1982).
Again, Laszlo (1982) outlined that von Bertalanffy considered the idea of organization to be involved at various stages in the expression of natural system. This could be highlighted from his first statement on the system which he made between the years 1925-1926, during the time when similar thinking of organism was being…
Bailey, K.D. (2004). Beyond System Internals: Expanding the Scope of Living Systems Theory. Los Angeles: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Bailey, K.D. (2006). Living systems theory and social entropy theory. Systems Research and Behavioral Science, 23, 291-300.
Bertalanffy, L. (1951). General system theory - a new approach to unity of science. (Symposium), Human Biology, 23, 303-361. Dec 1951.
Bertalanffy, L. (1972). General system theory: Foundations, development, applications. London: Allen Lane.
The project will be initialized by system analysts who explore the implication of their current system and the constraints provided by the new MP solution. Project managers monitor the communication between the executive committee specifications and system analysts, while the it support division provides ongoing support, maintenance and training for the system. There are several constraints for this project, primarily, the MP solution must be developed in parallel in the current system so that no downtime is experienced during implementation. Which means that a flawless transition between systems must take place, taxing all agents involved. Implementation time will be significant because the longer the implementation period, more costs will accrue for double usage of the ongoing MP solution. However, careful implementation and training will allow for a smoother transition between systems, which will be crucial for operations. The training procedure will be two steps, first the it support staff then…
Resources software system analyst
Career in Business Systems Development
A specialist in business systems development has the responsibility of working with organizations to provide technical advice in relation to information technology. "They typically reside in the Information Technology department. Using their knowledge of the organization's technology infrastructure and specific software applications (e.g. Human esources/People Soft, or Finance modules in SAP or other industry applications) they help the business to address changes through technology" (McVey 2016). The skills needed to succeed include "technology, data, networks, the internet, mobile devices and how technology supports the achievement of business goals" (McVey 2016).
Because technology is always changing, it is particularly critical that Business Systems Analysts keep their skills current and sharp. Sustaining membership in organizations which offer continuing education classes and other forms of instruction is critical. This includes organizations such as the International Institute of Business Analysts which provides classes in software development, risk assessment, and…
5 reasons to join. (2016). ABPMP. Retrieved from:
Computer systems analyst. (2016). U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved from:
In developing an integrated system, it is often considered better to divide the system into subsystems. Because of the complexity of the integrated system, often development work has become enormously difficult. At the same time, however, organizations are demanding new and integrated systems more quickly to compete in the marketplace.
Seeing that the cost of an integrated system can run into millions of dollars and several years, the organizations usually work with the divide-and-conquer-strategy. This strategy is useful in the development of the complex and integrated system because it allows the division of the complex integrated systems into manageable sets of subsystems that can be allocated to different groups of developers, who can work concurrently.
By dividing an integrated system into several subsystems, the systems analysts get the advantages of focus and attention, as they can assign subsystems to those groups that possess the adequate and the relevant…
Blanchard, B.S. And Fabrycky, W.J.. Systems Engineering and Analysis. Third Edition. Prentice-Hall. Upper Saddle River, NJ. 1998
Second, the assumption of a phased roll-out in each of the global geographies of Cincom makes the most sense, concentrating on localization of languages and variation in key human resources processes by region prior to the formal introduction of the system. This is critical, in our experience, to ensure there is a higher probability of adoption of the system. Third, the assumption that the system will be integrated with payroll and accounting systems has been made in this initial business case. From our previous conversations it is clear you would like to manage human resources to a tighter budget given these difficult economic times, and the system we've chosen is flexible enough to allow for costing and integration. Fourth, the assumption that the outsourcing businesses of Cincom, now in its formative stages, will grow. Our criteria in the evaluation of the recommended system take the potential growth of this exciting…
Resources Management System. Our thorough review of potential systems have shown this to be the most cost-effective and best aligned with your company's needs. At your request our team can provide you with further analysis and potential cost and time savings to Cincom for adopting this potential strategy. Thank you and we look forward to hearing from you soon.
(1958: 191) (Scott, 2003, p.50) Simon states that a hierarchy of goals is established in which each level is "...considered as an end relative to the levels below it and as a means relative to the levels above it. Through the hierarchical structure of ends, behavior attains integration and consistency, for each member of a set of behavior alternatives is then weighted in terms of a comprehensive scale of values -- the "ultimate" ends. (Simon, 1997: 74) "In addition to simplifying decisions for participants in all these ways, organizations also support participants in the decisions they are expected to make.
WEER'S THEORY of UREAUCRACY
DESCRIPTION of THEORY
Scott (2003) notes that it was observed by Collins (1986) that there is nothing "...known in the field of organizations, perhaps in all sociology, than Weber's model of bureaucracy. It also happens that there is no more complete misunderstanding of a major sociological…
Scott, W. Richard (2003) Organizations; Rational, Natural and Open Systems. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.
Warehousing Management Systems
When it comes to warehousing, times are definitely changing. The past meant a lot of paperwork for the warehouse, and it was still possible for things to get lost in the shuffle. That brought about the realization that state-of-the-art warehouse management systems are critical to the operate of a modern warehouse, for a number of reasons (Atkinson, 2002). Those reasons will be explored here, along with how warehouse management systems have changed the landscape and what they have provided to people in that industry. It is now much easier for items to travel to and from the warehouse on schedule, and more likely that items leaving the warehouse will arrive at the right destination (Atkinson, 2002). But warehouse management systems do much more than that. They also ensure that everything is handled correctly within the warehouse. They are vitally important in the modern warehouse because of the…
Anonymous. (2002). WMS drives efficient parts distribution. Modern Materials Handling, Boston, 57(12).
Atkinson, W. (2002). Value-added services from 3 PLs and public warehouses: What to look for. Logistics Management, 41(10): W8-11.
McKnight, D. (1999). A practical guide to evaluating the functional utility of warehouses. The Appraisal Journal, 67(1): 29-37.
SAS contains an excellent graphics package for producing graphics and visuals to enhance the display and reporting of statistical information. The focus of this study is to examine the graphics uses of the SAS system and to provide a description for each use of graphics with the SAS system and then to compare the SAS system with other graphics packages available in today's market. Toward this end, this work will conduct a review of literature in this area of study.
(1) What are the various types of graphics that can be performed using the SAS system?
(2) What are the applications of SAS graphics?
(3) How does SAS graphics differ from other graphics packages?
The work of Phil Spector reports that the SAS system was developed in the early 1970s decade at North Caroline State University and was intended originally for use by management and analysis of agricultural…
Friendly, Michael (nd) A SIMULATION PROJECT FOR EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN. SUGI. York University. Friendly, Michael (nd) Visualizing Categorical Data: Data, Stories, and Pictures. Retrieved from: http://www.datavis.ca/papers/sugi/vcdstory/vcdstory.pdf
Introduction to SAS®/Graph Philip Mason, Wood Street Consulting, Wallingford, Oxfordshire, England (nd) Retrieved from: http://www.ats.ucla.edu/stat/sas/library/Intro%20to%20SAS%20Graph.pdf
Muenchen, RA (nd) Comparison of SAS and SPSS Products with R. Packages and Function. Retrieved from: http://www.unt.edu/rss/class/mike/5030/Rrelated/RforSAS&SPSSproducts.pdf
Patel, H. And Caira, D. (nd) Using SAS/GRAPH® Software to Create Graphs on the Web. Paper 189. Revised by David Caira, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, Retrieved from: http://www.ats.ucla.edu/stat/sas/library/sas_graphs_on_web.pdf
Although the research tools provided by the ISO 14001 framework are both qualitative and quantitative, this approach is consistent with the guidance provided by Neuman (2003) who points out that, "Both qualitative and quantitative research use several specific research techniques (e.g., survey, interview, and historical analysis), yet there is much overlap between the type of data and the style of research. Most qualitative-style researchers examine qualitative data and vice versa" (p. 16). Indeed, researchers have used qualitative and quantitative surveys to assess consumer reactions to proposed environmental initiatives at the local level (Neuman, 2003).
In fact, quantitative and qualitative research methods are characterized by a number of similarities that lend themselves to environmental systems analyses and development (as well as some differences) (Neuman, 2003). The distinct differences in the qualitative and quantitative research suggest that the use of quantitative data for environmental system development is highly appropriate, but that such…
Bonlac Foods. (2012). Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved from http://investing.business week.com/research/stocks/private/snapshot.asp?privcapId=883342.
McComb, S. (2010). Green building & green business informatics tool. Elusor. Retrieved from http://www.environmentalaccountingtools.com/magazine/tag/building.
Recardo, R. & Jolly, J. (1999). Organizational culture and teams. SAM Advanced Management
Journal, 62(2), 4-5.
46). To date, though, these reforms have not materialized and the air traffic control system remains mired in the FAA bureaucracy (McDougall & oberts, 2008). In this regard, Poole (2008) emphasizes that, "[the air traffic control system] is managed by an unwieldy government bureaucracy, micromanaged by Congress, and subjected to the ups and downs of the federal budget process. And as air travel continues to grow, the air traffic control system is less and less able to keep pace" (p. 11).
Based on the importance of sound air traffic control systems, there have been a number of studies conducted to determine the primary causes of existing air traffic control system deficiencies. The research to date has identified five main causes as follows:
1. Procurement: cumbersome federal procurement processes end up taking five to seven years to acquire new radar and computer systems -- at a time when a new generation…
Deitz, S.R. & Thoms, W.E. (1999). Pilots, personality, and performance:
Human behavior and stress in the skies. New York: Quorum Books Jacko, J.A. & Sears, a. (2003). The human-computer interaction handbook:
Fundamentals, evolving technologies, and emerging applications.
Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
information systems and its effects on business processes. Moreover, I have explained the several business components and their effectiveness as information systems. In addition, I have provided information regarding the effects of information systems on various business careers.
Information systems have brought revolutions and innovations in today's business' setups and also have developed a close relationship with globalization. The responsibility of these information systems in an organization is not to support the tasks of the individuals but to support business functions as a whole. Nowadays, business operations are conducted by using e-mail, online conferences (video/audio) and cell phones which have turned out to be the most fundamental tools in business execution. Information systems, if truth be told, are the basis of accelerating supply chains. The businesses today have the advantage of using internet for purchasing, selling, advertising and imploring the feedbacks from consumers/customers online. It is now the purpose of…
Alter, S. (2002). Information Systems: Foundation of E-Business, 4/e (4th ed.). New Delhi, India: Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd. Retrieved February 15, 2013, from http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=ElXnQdPTEQ4C&printsec=frontcover&dq=Information+Systems:+Foundation+of+E-Business&hl=en&sa=X&ei=8OkdUZaKN6XJ0AXE7oCADQ&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Information%20Systems%3A%20Foundation%20of%20E-Business&f=false
Chatterjee, I. (2010). Management Information Systems. Delhi, India: PHI Learning Private Limited. Retrieved February 15, 2013, from http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=DOi2meoOKWsC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Management+Information+Systems&hl=en&sa=X&ei=998dUej2DIqL0AWQp4CgCA&ved=0CFsQ6AEwBw#v=onepage&q=Management%20Information%20Systems&f=false
Laudon, K., Laudon, J., & Dass, R. (2010). Management Information Systems: Managing the Digital Firm (11th ed.). Chennai: Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd. Retrieved February 15, 2013, from http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=gx-LOQmKou8C&printsec=frontcover&dq=Management+Information+Systems:+Managing+The+Digital+Firm,+11/E&hl=en&sa=X&ei=KM0dUcjxNOW00QXAtIH4Bg&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA
Lucey, T. (2005). Management Information System (9th ed.). Croatia: Thomson Learning. Retrieved February 15, 2013, from http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=A0bu30rNgJsC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Management+Information+System&hl=en&sa=X&ei=svMdUcLkNoi10QXfmoHYBw&ved=0CDkQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=Management%20Information%20System&f=false
As each of the principles is predicated on each person involved in the implementation taking a personal role in their success, transformational leadership is crucial for its success. As the transformational leader has the ability to get people to move beyond their own boundaries of the status quo and move forward despite fear, for the 10 principles as defined by obertson to be successful, there will need to be a continual focus on transformational leadership and a continual reinforcing of the value of the change as well. All of these factors will need to be unified in a very thorough communications plan that gets beyond the generalities to the specific very quickly. Only by having a strong project director with these skills with any project succeed and attain the 10 principles as defined (Vital, Bernier, 2006).
Another dimension of implementing these factors throughout a network is the long-term motivation of…
Minard, B. (1987). Growth and change through information management. Journal of Healthcare Management, 32(3), 307-307.
Murdick, R.G., & Ross, J.E. (1972). Future management-information-systems. Journal of Systems Management, 23(5), 32-32.
Nasir, S. (2005). The development, change, and transformation of management informaton systems (MIS): A content analysis of articles published in business and marketing journals. International Journal of Information Management, 25(5), 442-457.
Robertson, J. (2005) 10 principles of effective information management. KM Column. 1 November 2005. Retrieved on March 12, 2012 from http://www.steptwo.com.au/papers/kmc_effectiveim/
This skill will help am in all areas of his life.
The counseling protocol
I will introduce am to these ideas by using a mixture of Rogerain non-directive counseling with behavioral and cognitive techniques, as well as Gestalt by placing am in the other's shoes.
It seems to me that although am's confidence needs working on, the best route to rectify his self-esteem is by focusing on the problem and having am address it in a practical incremental way.
Discussion with team
My plan of action will be open-ended listening where I will encourage them to share their reactions about am. I will involve am in these meetings so am can discuss his concerns with his colleagues resulting in each gaining a perspective and understanding of the other's situation and feelings. I will encourage all participants to be as concrete and as open as possible so that all concerns get…
Callister, RR & Wall, JA Jr. (1995). Conflict and its management Journal of Management. 21.3 p515.
Chesler, M.A., Crowfoot, J.E. & Bryant, B.I. (1978). Power training: An alternative path to conflict management. California Management Review, 21(2): 84-90.
Derr, C.B. (1978). Managing organizational conflict: Collaboration, bargaining, power approaches. California Management Review, 21: 76-83.
Goleman, D.(1995) Emotional Intelligence, Bantam, USA
HIT System Planning
This study examines the four phases of HIT systems, the key members of the steering committee and why they are important, and the importance of needs assessment. HIT is the abbreviation for Health Information Technology, which is stated to have four steps to adoption including; (1) planning; (2) selection; (3) implementation; and (4) maintenance. (American Medical Association, nd) This work examines specifically a long-term care facility adoption of Health Information Technology (HIT).
Preparation includes daily operators that are changed by Health IT including provider workflow, nursing workflow, billing process, front desk process, scope/complexity of IT infrastructure and revenue/expense mix. The changes begin by defining the organization's needs in terms of what is needed by the HIT. Secondly, it is important to determine the organizational readiness and to gain the information concerning other individual's "experience and lessons learned while implementing and using health IT. Current processes should…
A Roadmap for Health IT in Long-Term and Post Acute Care (LTPAC)(2010-2012) A Roadmap for Health IT in Long-Term and Post Acute Care. Retrieved from: http://www.ahcancal.org/facility_operations/hit/Documents/RoadMap20102012.pdf
Electronic Medical Records System and Health Information Exchanges for Long-Term Care (2006) NYAHSA Spring Institute & Exhibition Presented on May 23, 2006. Retrieved from: http://www.sigmacare.com/pdf/NYAHSA_Presentation_052306.pdf
Health information technology: System selection and planning (nd) PWC. Retrieved from: http://www.pwc.com/us/en/health-industries/providers/services-solutions/health-information-technology-system-selection-and-planning.jhtml
Health IT Quick Reference (nd) American Medical Association. Retrieved from: http://www.ama-assn.org/ama1/pub/upload/mm/472/hit-quick-reference.pdf
Clearly the ability to transform critical new product development, supply chain, sourcing and material yield and optimization strategies has paid off, as indicated by the exceptionally strong inventory turns a year in the latest fiscal period (29.78). This was also achieved in FY 2008 and due to several acquisitions during FY 2007 BAE Systems posted 52.31 inventory turns due to the consolidation of financial statements and operations with companies acquired during that time. Finally the metrics illustrate how well BAE is re-architecting key processes to gain high levels of cost efficiencies. This is seen in the trending of Return on Assets (ROA), which in 2005 was 3.03, increasing to 8.52 in 2006 and then dropping to 4.69 in 2007. The FY 2008 timeframe showed exceptional growth with the company reporting 7.58 ROA. On ROE the transition from 20.22 in 2005, to 47.16 in 2006, 17.78 in 2007, and 26.19 in…
Although former soldiers might assert that they are being objective because they are using their past experiences to support their assessments, viewers have the right to know what might influence former soldiers' perception of military evidence. This is particularly important in dealing with military speakers, because often a military title and a uniform, even of a retired officer, can cause a viewer to stand a little taller, and feel unpatriotic discounting the officer's testimony. A casual television viewer might assume the officer is reporting directly about what he or she has seen of troops in the field -- not balance sheets in a contractor's office. While Gates, as Secretary of Defense, clearly respects the men and women who have served the nation, he notes: "when they [former officers] are referred to by their title, the public doesn't know whether they are active duty or retired officers because those distinctions tend…
Gates urges greater clarity by military media analysts. (2008, April 21). Space Daily.
Retrieved January 31, 2010 at http://www.spacewar.com/reports/Gates_urges_greater_clarity_by_military_media_analysts_999.html
The capacity of interpreting and using information to create scenarios and, even more important, access to all the latest information in the financial sector (currency exchange rates, declarations by key players on the different markets, announcements made by world leaders etc.) is an important benefit of the job. Imagine that instead of having to go out on the market and obtain relevant information, you find it all on your computer, at a touch, and the only thing you need to do is filter through it, pick out the important things and be able to interpret these correctly.
Further more, despite the fact that there is an incredible responsibility, one of the great advantages is that this responsibility can be interpretable. You make analysis, not decisions and, from this perspective, the responsibility refers only to the correct interpretation of the data and information that has been provided rather than to making…
Information System holds in Accounting Industry's future?
Looking through the glass and estimating what the future holds for any individual or profession is always a difficult exercise as the trends in any business or profession may change and so the path of development. It is better to look at the experience of some companies whose systems have changed over the past few years and thus try to estimate what is likely to happen.
There are many changes that have come to the world through the development of Information Technology and Computers. All the changes have come over a relatively short period of twenty years, and in many cases both industry and concerned humans are yet to adjust to the changes. There are many changes which have come in the accounting industry also, and those changes give an idea of what is likely to happen in the future.
The organization where…
Anders, Susan B. (February, 2005) "Website of the Month: Legalbitstream" The CPA Journal.
Retrieved from http://www.nysscpa.org/cpajournal/2005/205/essentials/p70.htm Accessed on 12 July, 2005
Anders, Susan B. (July, 2005) "Website of the Month: Kaplan CPA Review" The CPA Journal.
Retrieved from http://www.nysscpa.org/cpajournal/2005/705/essentials/p70.htm Accessed on 12 July, 2005
ules and Institutions of the Bretton Woods System
The increasing popularity of the importance of monetary unions has gained much focus in the recent past. Most states consider forming monetary unions a solution to most of their financial problems. However, they fail to realize the challenges associated with its establishment and sustainability. Therefore, this research paper analyzes two different monetary unions, their policies, failures and successes and lessons learnt from their experiences for future success of the monetary unions.
The key design features of the System
The system was designed with the fundamental aim of establishing an international financial system to overcome the real and perceived financial problems. Among the problems included the competitive devaluation, subordination of the monetary policy in relation to the external bane and the need for the establishment of a system that facilitated exchange rates for different foreign transactions (Eichengreen, 2004). The design of the system…
Ardy, B., 2000. Economic and monetary union: A review article. JCMS: Journal of Common
Market Studies, 38 (7), p.667.
Avgouleas, E. 2010. The governance of global financial markets and international financial regulation: Legal framework and policy directions. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.
Bernstein, E.M., and Kirshner, O. 1996. The Bretton Woods GATT system: Retrospect and prospect after fifty years. Armonk, NY [u.a.: Sharpe.
Health Care Finance
Financial analyst Eric Feigenbaum (2009) notes that while we like to think of hospitals in terms of compassion, patient care and dedication to altruistic aims, they are businesses concerned with revenues and expenses like any other business (Feigenbaum 2009, p.2). In today's hectic world of economic downturn and financial struggles felt from individuals of every demographic and social status, revenue and expense accounting are issues that must be addressed carefully by nearly every business in every market. The same holds true for the health care industry and health care providers. With financial uncertainty come threats for health care providers in managing revenue and expenses during the upcoming years. However, with these threats remain certain opportunities for health care providers to take on in order to combat the uncertainty that comes with managing revenue and expenses when the amount of each is not ideal.
With the appropriate management…
Bristow, W. (2009). How to thrive during a recession. Doctor's Digest. 81(1): p.16.
Retrieved from: LexisNexis Database.
Feigenbaum, E. (2009). Categories of expenses and revenues in the hospital business setting. Demand Media, 2(1), pp. 2-5. Retrieved from: ProQuest Database.
Johnson, N., McNichol, E. And Oliff, P. (2011). Feeling the recession's impact on health care. Handbook of Health Economics 3(2), pp. 54. Retrieved from: ProQuest Database.
The merits of the two-party system all stem from its perceived (and probably justifiably so) stability. That stability is offered by many as reason enough to avoid rocking the boat. But, as presented here, the arguments against the two-party system and, indeed, maybe against stability itself, are more persuasive. The U.S. can handle electoral dynamics associated with more than two parties, and it seems that the governing body can only benefit from the injection of new, perhaps radical, ideas. hile the two-party system is unlikely to change in the near future, it seems possible that a charismatic and visionary leader from a third party could tap into broad public dissatisfaction and create a whole new chapter for America.
Alesina, Alberto. (1988). Credibility and Policy Convergence in a Two-Party System
with Rational Voters. The American Economic Review, 78 (4): 796-805
Arjmand, Marzieh. (2010). Two-Party System in the United States.…
Alesina, Alberto. (1988). Credibility and Policy Convergence in a Two-Party System
with Rational Voters. The American Economic Review, 78 (4): 796-805
Arjmand, Marzieh. (2010). Two-Party System in the United States. Available at:
This modularity of their applications will allow them to be more aggressive on pricing, and also tackle the second strategic weakness they have today, which is the gulf between what they say customer satisfaction is and what it actually is (Elgin, Sager, 2003). edefining the implementation methodologies is critical for Siebel not only from a customer satisfaction perspective but also from a customer referenceability one as well. Third, Siebel needs to look at SaaS as the new platform of choice for integration platform solutions including UAN (Jones, Schwartz, 2003) and the delivery of highly specific vertical market applications that will resonate with customers in the midst of the recession that was occurring at that time (Schwartz, 2003). Finally Siebel must become more transparent and genuine in their dealings with the analyst community as they are clearly seen as out of touch by AM esearch (Kerstetter, 2003) and Gartner. The bottom…
Larry Barbetta, VP and General Manager, Analytics Siebel Systems. (2004). DM Review, 14(7), 30.
Barbara Darrow, Rochelle Garner. (2003, October). Siebel, IBM launch OnDemand hosted CRM but competitors say they are unfazed. CRN,(1066), 35.
Darrell Dunn. (2003, October). Siebel's makeover. InformationWeek,(959), 49-59.
Ben Elgin, Ira Sager. (2003, May). CONDITION RED AT SIEBEL. Business Week,(3832), 10.
Future Development Trends
The pervasiveness of the Internet and the increasing availability of development tools for creating analytics applications are together serving as the catalyst for the development of an entirely new set of predictive analytic and modeling applications where the performance of specific strategies can be simulated and planned for (Gounaris, Panigyrakis, Chatzipanagiotou, pp. 615, 616). Second, the development of collaborative platforms based on the Internet is also making the data collection function of Marketing Information Systems much more streamlined that has been the case in the past.
Marketing Information Systems are transforming the accuracy and speed that companies' marketing, sales and senior management can react to market conditions effectively. The growth of these systems is in direct proportion to the increasing speed and uncertainty new markets and market conditions influence company's plans and results.
Kristof Coussement, Dirk Van den Poel. "Integrating the voice of customers through…
Kristof Coussement, Dirk Van den Poel. "Integrating the voice of customers through call center emails into a decision support system for churn prediction. " Information & Management 45.3 (2008) 164. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest. 29 Apr. 2008. www.proquest.com
Elizabeth Daniel, Hugh Wilson, Malcolm McDonald. "Towards a map of marketing information systems: An inductive study. " European Journal of Marketing 37.5/6 (2003): 821-847. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest. 29 Apr. 2008 www.proquest.com.
Spiros P. Gounaris, George G. Panigyrakis, Kalliopi C. Chatzipanagiotou. "Measuring the effectiveness of marketing information systems:an empirically validated instrument. " Marketing Intelligence & Planning 25.6 (2007): 612-631. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest. 29 Apr. 2008. www.proquest.com
Ronald L. Hess, Ronald S. Rubin, Lawrence a West Jr. "Geographic information systems as a marketing information system technology. " Decision Support Systems 38.2 (2004): 197-212. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest. 27 Apr. 2008. www.proquest.com
The company's board believed they could not find a replacement for Chaney by the date of his intended departure, and so the directors put the company up for sale. In March 1996, the New York-based investment banking firm Merrill Lynch was hired to generate interest in the company, and a suitable buyer was found, a New York-based private investment firm named Forstmann Little & Co. This company was headed by Theodore Forstmann, a leveraged buyout specialist. Forstmann's firm had more than $20 billion invested in 20 companies and made its living by acquiring companies and selling them for a profit. Forstmann Little acquired Community Health in 1996, and this was the firm's first purchase of a healthcare company. The firm paid $1 billion for Community Health, which at the time operated 38 hospitals in 18 states, and this change in ownership made Community Health a privately held company. In January…
Adams, D. (1996, March 20). Buy materials management systems, or pray you can swim. Health Management Technology, 63-65.
Community Health Systems Inc. scales back on risk (2004, November 23). Ioma.com, retrieved May 30, 2007 at http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/BCRC?vrsn=157&locID=longbeach&ste=5&n=25&docNum=A131272544 .
Community Health may seek other deals (2001, February 2). Philadelphia Business Journal, v19 i51, 10.
Career opportunities (2007), retrieved May 29, 2007 at http://www.chs.net/career_openings/corporate.html .
home control system using mobile commerce -- or, how your cell phone can connect you to your home when you are away from home
For better or for worse, the cell phone technology has changed modern communication and modern life. Mobile communication systems have undoubtedly made modern human beings more 'connected' to one another, or at least more able to talk to, or to reach one another, at any point in time. Now, an individual with a 'switched on' cell phone can always be accessed through the use of mobile cell phone technology -- barring any interference from poor connections or poor service, of course! However, besides simply being able to talk to others more easily, mobile phones can also make it easier to access other aspects of one's daily existence, from one's calendar, list of frequently called numbers, and yes, one's home.
The ability of mobile commerce to connect…
Forbes.com Staff. "Nortel Networks." (February 19, 2004). Forbes.com Retrieved on February 19, 2004 at http://www.investorguide.com/cgi-bin/browse1.cgi?tick=NT& site= http://biz.yahoo.com/n/N/NT.html
"Home Control Systems." (2004). Electronic House Magazine. Retrieved on February 4, 2004 at http://www.electronichouse.com/default.asp?NodeId=1200
'Motorola." (February 18, 2004). Business.com. Retrieved on February 4, 2004 at http://www.business.com/directory/telecommunications/motorola,_inc/profile / 'Motorola: and Leading Developers Add Multimedia and Connectivity to Feature Phone Reference Design. (2004). CNBC.com. Retrieved on February 4, 2004 at http://www.investorguide.com/cgi-bin/browse1.cgi?tick=MOT& site= http://news.moneycentral.msn.com/ticker/rcnews.asp?Symbol=MOT
'Market Report -- In Play." (February 19, 2004). Briefing.com. Retrieved on February 4, 2004 at http://www.investorguide.com/cgi-bin/browse1.cgi?tick=MOT& site=
Enterprise-Level Business Systems: Assessment
One of the most criticized aspects of modern business life has been the role of the chief executive. In the public's mind, the CEO is often an over-paid, over-privileged individual, feted with perks rather than required to perform to his or her maximum capacity as an employee. The watchword of corruption and ethics has caused the media and investors to view this individual in the corporate hierarchy with suspicion. In contrast, the CIO, or chief information officer often has the opposite problem -- he, or, increasingly she is viewed as someone of a specialty occupation, rather than a critical part of the developing business management infrastructure. (Surmacz, 2004)
The CIO has often viewed as a technocrat, rather than someone whom can contribute holistically to the overreaching vision of the business. This is not simply the company's fault, however. ather, too many CIOs often judge implementations "by…
Low, Lafe. (February 15, 2004) "They Got it Together." (CIO Online. http://www.cio.com/archive/021504/integration.html
Mesoy, Tor and Jonas Arleback. (February 15, 2004) "For High Performance Opportunities for CIOs." CIO Online. http://www2.cio.com/consultant/report2226.html
Schrage, Michael. (February 15, 2004). "The Metrics Trap." CIO Online. http://www.cio.com/archive/021504/work.html
Surmacz, Jon. (February 15, 2004). "Closing the Gap. CIO Online.
As the pace of communication affects the pace of business and the degree to which a society can "keep up" with the rest of the world, public funding for private telecommunications growth has been justified; in addition, several landmark court rulings have required telecommunications infrastructure to be usable in ways that are not harmful to the public by entities that do not own them, through licensing requirements and other arrangements (von Alven 1998). Growth has thus been spurred by both public and private interests.
epair and Maintenance Procedures
The repair of the actual wire portions of wired telecommunications systems is relatively straightforward. Downed lines -- a common occurrence in storms due to high winds, fallen trees, etc. -- must be replaced by new segments of wire connecting existing (or replaced) nodes along the wire route. Wires can often be reused following being downed after inspection and refurbishing, though long-term maintenance…
Hoovers. (2011).Fixed-line voice service providers. Accessed 11 April 2011. http://www.hoovers.com/industry/fixed-line-voice-services-providers/1590-1-0-1njg0x.html
IBIS. (2011). Wired telecommunications carriers. Accessed 11 April 2011. http://www.ibisworld.com/industry/default.aspx?indid=1268
Von Alven, W. (1998). Bill's 200-Year Condensed History of Telecommunications. Accessed 11 April 2011. http://www.cclab.com/billhist.htm
On the one hand, it can increase the uncertainty he accumulated during the time in which he was subject to abusive treatment. On the other hand, he can limit the level of trust he offers to any superior with authority. Therefore, the punishment-based system of motivation can cause serious long-term effects.
Another reason for which punishment-based motivation systems is not useful for the construction of a stable and reliable motivation is the fact that it is not built or it does not appeal to a system of values based on mutual respect. More precisely, the element of fear present in the relationship between the professor and the student is not able to have a consistent contribution to the establishment of a respectful relationship and once the fear is gone, an offensive attitude replaces any submissive behavior from the part of the student. Moreover, he comes to reject any future authority.…
Cameron, J., Pierce, W. (2002). Rewards and Intrinsic Motivation: Resolving the Controversy. Westport: Bergin & Garvey.
Chan, E. (Maech 2004) Student Motivation/Teacher Motivation. Motivation for Mandatory Courses. Vol. 7, No. 3. Faculty of Human and Social Development, University of Victoria, Canada.
Cook, J. (October-November 2003) Motivational Strategies: The Outcome Starts Here Motivating through Extrinsic and Intrinsic Rewards. American Music Teacher. Vol. 53, issue 2..
Hurlbert, W. (2006). Employee motivation: Build trust and respect. Big Business World. 2006. Retrieved 14 January 2008, at http://blogbusinessworld.blogspot.com/2006/07/employee-motivation-build-trust-and.html
International Monetary System
In world trade, varied national currencies are swapped for each other by means of rules and procedures set by a system called the international monetary system. To delineate a general standard of value for the world's currencies, such a system is believed to be necessary.
The global monetary structure has always adhered to the organizational framework of the international discipline. In each stage of the financial capitalism there exists a corresponding monetary approach. The monetary structure during the postwar periods catered to the dominance of the United States. This was applied as a tool during the period to enforce the U.S. dominance over all its allies and the developing countries, irrespective of the socialist countries isolated themselves being unconnected from the influence of the financial and monetary disciplines of the global capitalism.
Gold standard was the first contemporary international monetary system. The gold standard contributed for the…
Amin, Samir. Replacing the International Monetary System? - Current Failures of Global Economic Policy. Monthly Review. Volume: 8; No: 1; October, 1993. pp: 93-98
Holloway, Thomas. M. The International Monetary System: Essays in World Economics. - Book Reviews. Monthly Labor Review. Volume: 12; No: 1; January, 1998. pp: 158-164
International Monetary System. The Columbia Encyclopedia. Sixth Edition. 2001. Retrieved from http://www.bartleby.com/65/in/intlmone.html Accessed on 12 November, 2004.
Little, Jane Sneddon; Oliveri, Giovanni. P. Rethinking the International Monetary System: An Overview. New England Economic Review. Volume: 16; No: 1; November, 1999. pp: 24-29
Expert Systems and Neural Networks
The Development and Limitations of Expert Systems and Neural Networks
The human experience demands a constant series of decisions to survive in a hostile environment. The question of "fight or flight" and similar decisions has been translated into computer-based models by using the now-famous "if-then" programming command that has evolved into the promising field of artificial intelligence. In fact, in their groundbreaking work, Newell and Simon (1972) showed that much human problem solving could be expressed in terms of such "if-then" types of production rules. This discovery helped to launch the field of intelligent computer systems (Coovert & Doorsey 2003). Since that time, a number of expert and other intelligent systems have been used to model, capture, and support human decision making in an increasingly diverse range of disciplines; however, traditional rule-based systems are limited by several fundamental constraints, including the fact that human experts…
Bainbridge, William Sims, Edward E. Brent, Kathleen M. Carley et al. (1994). Artificial Social
Intelligence. Annual Review of Sociology, 20, 407.
Berry, Frances Stokes, William D. Berry and Stephen K. Foster. (1998). The Determinants of Success in Implementing an Expert System in State Government. Public Administration
The Keller/PSI approach to academic and professional training has been documented to improve student performance as measured by course completion rates and subject matter retention among students. On the other hand, there are considerable practical and technical problems implementing the Keller/PSI approach within traditional educational institutions. Meanwhile, there is little if any empirical evidence suggesting precisely how the Keller/PSI model benefits learning outside of the focus on the reduced deadline orientation that is the hallmark of that teaching methodology.
Substantial evidence exists to suggest that the success of the Keller/PSI approach is actually attributable to other changes typically attributable to Keller/PSI, such as the broadening of the range of media of instruction, despite the fact that those changes are natural consequences of the Keller/PSI design rather than deliberately conceived components of the approach. The empirical evidence of the increased success of CAPSI programs further bolsters that argument.
Abdulwahed, M. And Nagy, Z.K. "Applying Kolb's Experiential Learning Cycle for Laboratory Education." Journal of Engineering Education. American Society for Engineering Education. 2009. Retrieved January 19, 2010 from HighBeam
Burton, J.K., Moore, D.M., and Magliaro, S.G. (2004). Behaviorism and instructional technology. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, NJ.
Dunne, J.D. (1997). Behavior Analysis: No Defense Required. Wright University.
Communication Systems Put Wheels on Projects
Facilitation participation. Development Support Communication (DSC) is a system that facilitates the sharing of information about development agenda and associated actions (Adesida, 2001). The purpose of development support communication is the effective linking of the stakeholders in a development process (Adesida, 2001). The range of stakeholders who benefit from a development support communication system is broad, including the planners, the implementers, the donor community, and the beneficiaries of the development (Adesida, 2001). Good communication is critical to effective development planning and implementation (Adesida, 2001). By adhering to development communication system, planners and implementers can greatly enhance the quality of their communication, providing explicit and interpretable data (Adesida, 2001). The objective is provide clarity about the goals and objectives, to articulate the development roles, including the opportunities afforded beneficiaries to help shape the eventual development outcomes (Adesida, 2001). Beyond its impact on the quality and…
Adesida, O. (2001). Health Futures, WHO Africa region, Harare. Retrieved http://www.fao.org/docrep/005/y4338e/y4338e07.htm
Communication Planning for Development: An Operational Framework. Paris, France: UNESCO.
Hancock, A. (1981). Retrieved http://cpj.org/2012/02/attacks-on-the-press-in-2011-in-africa-a-return-of.php
Hancock, A. (1992). Communication Planning Revisited, A. Hancock. Paris, France: UNESCO.
New payment system for parking near MBTA
The benefits of the new proposal for a pre-paid monthly scanned parking pass are twofold: it will make commuting to the city easier for regular commuters and also result in revenue increases for the city. Because of increased the ease of parking cars, more commuters will be willing to use public transportation, and there will be less congestion and pollution overall, indirectly improving the situation for all residents and pedestrians in the city.
Commuters will like the plan because it will better ensure them of a regular parking spot. It will save time in the morning, since presumably many people must rise early, just to ensure that they have time to pay for parking. In today's cashless society, the use of prepaid parking spots via a monthly pass ensures that commuters do not need to fumble with cash and coins to pay a…
This study focuses on the rise and significance STEP-NC as the most efficient model to transfer knowledge and communication on different CAD and CAM structures to improve the product design and overall project management. The paper will be divided into six chapters: 1) ntroduction chapter which will include the statement of the problem, significance of the problem, purpose and scope of the study, the relevant definitions, the assumptions of the study as well as its limitations; 2) Literature Review chapter which will present an analysis of all the prior studies done on similar topics; 3) chapter variables and hypothesis creation where all the variables (dependent and independent) will be listed; 4) methodology chapter which will include data collection processes and the qualitative procedures used; 5) results and presentation of data chapter which will include all statistical calculations and the regression analysis; 6) conclusion chapter which will includes discussion…
In this study, while both can be very useful, we will use the deductive approach and form hypothesis/research questions. The deductive approach will prove to be more useful as it will help us determine all the necessary technological changes that are occurring and support our decision of why choosing Step NC was the right form of technology. Furthermore, it will also help us solidify and strengthen our hypothesis as the study and data collection process moves into the latter stages. This will perhaps be most advantageous for this study as in reality, it is probably not very challenging to arrange the necessary grounds of reasoning and incorporate it into a single minded approach or aim of the study that consistently works its way from general ideas to specific observations. The fact of the matter is that even if this approach presents a lot of limitations and constraints, we might still be able to conclude some definite trends and patterns in the information that can be eventually helpful in developing up newer theories (Trochim, 2006) and help us form better recommendations for future research on the given topic.
Research Horizon and timeline
When it comes to the design of any research, time typically plays the part of
PC's, Central-System Computing, and Government Functionality
In this article, the authors use correlational methods to prove their point-of-view. The way that this is accomplished is through a survey. They used percentages comparing two sets of subjects as well as a statistical analysis based on Cramer V scoring. The importance of the correlation was based upon whether or not the values in the study were greater than.20 on the Cramer V scale. If the score was under.20 it showed a weak relationship, while scores greater than.20 on the Cramer V scale showed a moderate relationship.
The authors address the computing problem quickly. The problem being the widespread belief that PC's can easily and cheaply replace mainframe computers in governmental operations (page 1, paragraph 3, lines 1-4). The problem itself was deduced from research studies completed over the last decade and is answered by the study conducted by the authors. The objective…
Healthcare Delivery Systems Annotated
Parnaby, J., & Towill, D.R. (2008). Seamless healthcare delivery systems. International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, 21(3), 249-73.
Towill, D.R., & Christopher, M. (2005). An evolutionary approach to the architecture of effective healthcare delivery systems. Journal of Health Organization and Management, 19(2), 130-47.
For this particular case study review, we will be analysing the Freeman-Brown Private School (FBPS) Case. The paper will answer questions related to different aspects and decisions made through the school's operational time. To be more precise, the paper will analyse FBPS and its organizational decisions/processes during its closure process.
Usually when an organization has a direct and interactive relationship with its external environment, it is termed as an open system. This entails the organization being co-dependent on the surroundings which could include culture, market, corporate world, industries as well as the end consumers amongst other external structures. Hence feedback and open communication to and from the organization is imperative for its success, in an open system (Griffin, n.d.). The opposite stands true for a closed system however, which is primarily an isolated structure that is not in any way dependent upon the skeleton of its external…
An unforeseen benefit of this online strategy Dell used to increase brand awareness and remove some of the tarnish from their brand image was Word-of-Mouth (WOM) of the brand began to grow significantly as a result (Jarvis, 2008). Dell had not experienced WOM success of its brand awareness strategies in nearly a decade prior, and what the marketing managers attributed this to was the commitment to listen and respond to customers and talk openly about the strengths and weaknesses of products. In short Dell was able to redefine their brand through the use of augmented branding strategies based on listening to customers. They showed they cared when they listened and this engenders trust, which was critical for their brand to be seen as credible again. Information technologies were tertiary to this effort. Web-based portal applications made it possible for Dell to get their website DellIdeaStorm.com up and running within weeks.…
Bernoff, J., & Li, C.. (2008). Harnessing the Power of the Oh-So-Social Web. MIT Sloan Management Review, 49(3), 36-42.
Bughin, J., Shenkan, A., & Singer, M.. (2009). How poor metrics undermine digital marketing. The McKinsey Quarterly,(1), 106.
Dan Coffey. (2005). Matching strategies in car assembly: the BMW-Rover-Toyota complex. International Journal of Automotive Technology and Management, 5(3), 320-335.
Duray, Rebecca. (2004). Mass Customizers' Use Of Inventory, Planning Techniques And Channel Management. Production Planning & Control, 15(4), 412-421. (125 mass merchandisers)
A survey will be developed as a part of implementation of the BSC system in this hospital to track customer satisfaction with the services that they receive here.
A positive image of the organization translates into repeat business and a more positive reputation in the neighborhood, Patient satisfaction translates into increased future revenues. It also has some positive impact on risk assessment as well. The more satisfied the customer is, the less likely they will file an adverse lawsuit against the hospital. Patient satisfaction has a direct impact on the profitability of the organization. The number of complains that the facility receives can also be an important measure of the overall customer satisfaction. However, this number alone may not tell the entire story. A customer survey is the best method for addressing overall satisfaction with the facility.
Patient involvement was another important indicator of BSC technologies. Patient involvement means providing…
National Health Foundation of California. 2004. Survey of Hospital Performance Measurement Activities in California. National Health Foundation of California. Available at http://www.nhfca.org/reports/PMSCAExecutiveSummary.pdf [Accessed 30 April 2008].
Walker, K. & Dunn, L. 2006. Improving hospital performance and productivity with the balanced scorecard. Academy of Health Care Management Journal. Annual. Available at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1TOQ/is_2/ai_n25009491 [Accessed 30 April 2008].
This model could then be customized for the needs of the different companies.
Sankaran and AlHashim (2006) make a compelling case regarding the need for harmonized accounting standards and practices. In addition to the globalized economy, they also rightly point to the benefits of such harmonization for corporations - including a greater ability to keep track of expenses and a better way of reconciling different accounting practices in its branches worldwide. Furthermore, Sankaran and AlHashim (2006) also allay fears that harmonization is equivalent to imposing only one accounting system around the world. Instead, they highlight the need for commonality, for a web-based accounting system that lends itself to different accounting practices.
The paper makes a strong argument, and the data regarding the need for a harmonized accounting system is compelling. hile this article may present a challenge for readers unfamiliar with basic programming language, the inclusion of a generic algorithm…
Sankaran, Siva and Dhia D. AlHashim. 2006. "An Accounting Information System for Harmonization."
Journal of American Academy of Business, Cambridge. 9(2): September.
relationships and distinctions between the information systems concepts of data warehousing and data mining, which combined with online analytical processing (OLAP) form the backbone of decision support capability in the database industry. Decision support applications impose different demands for OLAP database technology than the online transaction processing (OLTP) model that preceded it. Data mining with OLAP differs from OLTP queries in the use of multidimensional data models, different data query and analysis tools at both the user-facing front end and the database back end, and different mechanisms for data extraction and preparation before loading into a data warehouse can take place. The construction of data warehouses entails the operations of data cleaning and data integration, which are key pre-processing steps for enabling data mining. Furthermore, the concept of metadata (data about data) is essential to the functioning of a data warehouse, and must be managed appropriately for an effective and…
Berson, A., & Smith, S.J. (1997). Data Warehousing, Data Mining, and Olap (1st ed.). McGraw-Hill. Retrieved from http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=549950
Chaudhuri, S., & Dayal, Umeshwar. (1997). An overview of data warehousing and OLAP technology. ACM Digital Library, 26(1). doi:10.1145/248603.248616
Douq, Q. (2009, November 24). Comparison of Oracle to IBM DB2 UDB and NCR Teradata for Data Warehousing. X-Space. Retrieved November 14, 2011, from http://space.itpub.net/673608/viewspace-620367
Gartner Newsroom. (2008). Gartner Reveals Five Business Intelligence Predictions for 2009 and Beyond. Retrieved November 14, 2011, from http://www.gartner.com/it/page.jsp?id=856714
Infomation Technology System Pojects Fail
Infomation system pojects mostly end up in a failue. Along with inheent factos such as technical issues delaying implementation and indefinable expectations of customes, inappopiate budgeting and opposition to business pocess eengineeing also makes the poject go up in smoke. (Scott and Vessey, 2002) The fist step towads a poject's success is its objectives which should be specific, measuable and ealistic. Reseaches have peviously emphasized on the impotance of defined objectives and highlighted that appoximately 50-70% of pojects fail due to objectives being vague and uncetain. Shotly theeafte, the significance of budgeting was also highlighted in a 1998 fotune aticle which stated that aound 90% of ERP pojects ae delayed as costs go beyond the amount estimated, and even afte all these hudles, only one-thid of ERP pojects pove to be successful. This is a notable calamity which affects the entie wold; one of the…
references for Charasmatic Leadership: The Influence of Follower Values and Personality," Leadership Quartely (12), 2001, 153-179
House, R.J., Hanges P.J., Javidan, M., Dorfman P.W., and Gupta V. Culture, Leadership, and Organizations: The GLOBE Study of 62 Societies, Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, California, 2004
Lu, H.P. "Managerial Behaviors over MIS Growth Stages," Management Decision (33:7), 1995, 40-46.
Oz, E. Management Information Systems (2 nd Ed.). New York: Course Technology, 2000.
Oz, E; Sosik, J.J. (2000). Why information systems projects are abandoned: A leadership and communication theory and exploratory study. The Journal of Computer Information Systems 41. 1: 66.
PAY SYSEM plays a crucial role when managers are looking for ways to retain and motivate employees. Higher employee turnover rate can have a demoralizing impact on company's performance and is usually connected with an unfair pay system whereby some employees' feel that their hard work is not being rewarded adequately and thus choose to leave the firm for better opportunities.
Management literature and some actual examples reveal that the best pay system is the one that is based on employee performance. When pay system is tied to performance, we call it 'paying for performance'. his system ensures that effort, dedication and commitment of each and every employee is properly rewarded and that hard work doesn't go unnoticed. For this reason, it is important to develop a proper system of performance measurement, which helps in designing a better and performance-based pay system.
Measurement of performance and paying for the same…
That is why "analysts are predicting that performance-based deals will become increasingly prevalent, with some estimates showing pay-for-performance rising to 30% of all online ad revenues by 2006" (Riolo, 2002)
However, another research-based analytical article by some of the best experts in the related field, read the following thereby highlighting both the negative and the positive recent development in the thought process regarding the pay for performance process:
REAL PAY FOR PERFORMANCE IS THE BIGGEST trend coming down the tracks, and it's going to hit the workforce like a freight train. In today's tight labor market, employers are paying what potential employees demand. But at the same time, they're finding that they've already realized the easy productivity gains from
Apple: Supply Chain Management System
Today, Apple is regarded not only one of the most successful, but also one of the most innovative companies in the world. The company has in the past raked in significantly higher returns than its peers, thanks to its unique approach to doing business. As a matter of fact, when it comes to supply chain management, Apple is regarded a market leader by most analysts.
Apple's Logistics and Supply Chain Management System
The company's supply chain management system could be broken into four general parts. These include, sourcing, manufacturing, warehousing, distribution and finally, return. It is important to note, from the onset, that Apple sources most of its raw materials from diverse locations -- particularly Europe, China, and the United States. The most critical raw materials for the manufacture of the company's numerous electronic devices include integrated circuits, the appropriate optical drives, microprocessors, and LCDs…
Crandall, R.E., Crandall, W.R. & Chen, C.C. (2014). Principles of Supply Chain Management (2nd ed.). CRC Press.
Farr, C. (2014). Apple Tries to Lift Online Sales by Cutting Refund Times in Half. Retrieved from http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/05/12/us-apple-returns-idUSBREA4B07P20140512
Samson, A. (2013). Apple Lifts Veil on Far-Flung Supply Chain, Exposes Flaws. Retrieved from http://www.foxbusiness.com/technology/2013/01/25/apple-lifts-veil-on-far-flung-supply-chain-exposes-flaws/
Criminal Justice System
Challenges of Mara Salvatrucha (MS-13) to law enforcement
Law enforcement agencies view the Mara Salvatrucha (MS-13) the most harmful street gang in the U.S. The aggressive nature of MS-13 members have led to a variety of killings and terrible beatings. Various trials held in New York and Maryland have led to significant jail terms even extending to life imprisonment for MS-13 members. The FBI was first attracted by violence, but proof of the gang's escalating level of organization has drawn public attention. Organization is an indicator of a future where MS-13 is will be a transnational network of criminals extending from the United States to suburban communities in a multitude of U.S. towns (Mandel, 2013).
Despite functions of violence, it is worrying to note that MS-13 movement is improving its structure and organization. Many major security experts are comparing it to the illegal groups of the 50s…
Erbschloe, M. (2001). Information Warfare How To Survive Cyber Attacks. New York: Osborne/McGraw-Hill.
Mandel, R. (2013). Global Security Upheaval Armed Nonstate Groups Usurping State Stability Functions. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Scheck, B. (2010). 250 Exonerated, Too Many Wrongfully Convicted: An Innocence Project Report On The First 250 DNA Exonerations In The U.S. New York: Benjamin N. Cardozo School of Law, Yeshiva University.
Siegel, L., & Senna, J. (2009). Essentials of Criminal Justice (6th Ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.